BHO

Mary: October 1558

Pages 396-405

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1861.

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October 1558

Oct. 1. 831. Queen Mary to the Earl of Arundel, Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton. Gives them additional instructions, in case of concluding peace with France, for the comprehending therein the cities of the Hanse, of ancient time confederators with England. [Minute. Copy. One page.]
Oct. 1.
Rome.
832. Sir Edward Carne to Queen Mary. Had written to her Majesty on the 28th ult. by an extraordinary passing to the King from Naples. Recently a Bishop arrived as Ambassador from the King of Poland to thank his Holiness for his intention to send a Legate to that country, and to solicit that this intention may be carried into effect; but although he has been here for 15 days he cannot speak with the Pope, and now shortly, as it is said, a Diet or Parliament of the whole realm of Poland will be kept. Wherefore the said Legate is solicited the more, and yet there is no word of the preparation for setting forth of any, nor can the Bishop have access to declare his ambassade. The report is, that his Holiness kinsmen will have him to be at no such charges as are necessary for such legacy. Vargas has also arrived and has solicited audience; he has been with Cardinal Caraffa, who willed him to work with him. His business is to request performance of the agreement between the Pope and his Majesty, and at Caraffa's hands, so far as can be perceived, is very slow resolution. The cause of Gropper's coming here is that he durst not abide in Germany, having written against the admission of the new Emperor by the Electors of the Empire without the Pope's admission of the resignation; wherefore his Holiness keeps him in the palace and makes much of him. News have been received this morning that the Duke of Florence's army besieges Montalcino, the town of which was invested suddenly before it was known they were about it. It is reported that they have taken Chiusi, a place of importance which the French had in Tuscany, but the rumour is not believed to be so certain as the siege. With a great army men think that it cannot hold out long, as the town is said to lack victuals, money, and soldiers. In Piedmont the Duke of Sessa is reported to go forward valiantly, taking towns and castles, and destroying the country, besides razing such as cannot be kept or are thought to be superfluous. Otherwise all is quiet hereabouts. [Two pages.]
Oct. 1. 833. Instructions given to Thomas Gresham, Esq., sent into Flanders as the factor of Queen Mary, Oct. 1, 1558.
1. He is to repair to the King, first taking such information as shall be given him by the Council; after delivering such letters as he shall receive from hence, he is to sue the King in her Majesty's name for licence to provide and carry from Flanders into England such sums of money as follow.
2. The King's answer known, he shall repair to Antwerp again, and travail to borrow to her Majesty's use 100,000l. for one year at an interest not exceeding 14 per cent. besides brokerage.
3. He is give the usual bonds under the seals of the Queen and the City of London. He is to have 20s. a day out of the money which comes into his hands, to commence Oct. 1, 1558.
4. He is to be allowed four clerks at 16d. a day from the same date.
5. He is to retain the prices of the Queen's provisions, or the charge of posting for himself and his servants, &c.
6. He is to be allowed the rent of the houses for keeping the Queen's powder and other munitions, and the carriage thereof.
7. If the money now permitted to go into Flanders as valued money be called down, he is to have allowance according to the rate of such treasure as shall then be in his hand. [Copy. Two pages.]
Oct. 6.
Canterbury.
834. The Earl of Arundel and Bishop of Ely to Sir John Boxall. Inclose Malyn's letter, whereby he will perceive that haste from London makes no haste here, for as the tide tarrieth for no man, so no man can go before the tide. Inform him that he may know there shall be no slackness in them to pass at the first occasion. [Half a page.] Inclose,
834. I. Letter from John Malyns. Dover, 6th October, 11 p.m. On receipt of their letter of yesterday had learnt from the Mayor of Dover that there is no plague there, but the people that daily die are those that come out of the ships, and such poor people as come out of Calais of the new sickness. As for the shipping of them and their horses, there will be no water to go into Dunkirk haven before Saturday at the nearest, if the weather were fair, which is as yet inconstant. [One page.]
Oct. 10.
Dunkirk.
835. The Earl of Arundel and Bishop of Ely to Sir John Boxall. After being detained four days at Canterbury and Dover for want of water to enter this haven without peril, they arrived safely to-day about noon, and immediately notified their arrival to his Majesty, desiring to know his further pleasure. To-morrow they intend to go to Bethune, where Wotton was. Will perceive by Wotton's letter inclosed what he says for want of full copies of such treaties as are needful for this matter. The Bishop of Ely has a book of his own of divers treaties, but none of those made with France in the latter day of King Henry, or in the time of King Edward, for he was no meddler in them, neither of the treaties with Scotland during the latter's reign, for then he would not plus sapere quam oporteat. The clerk who made the dispatch will inform him what treaties it contained, so that he will know what ones it were requisite for him to send to them. Wotton's man told them that his master has made two dispatches into England since his coming hither, but no passage has passed hence these 20 days. Various English merchants have tarried here for lack of passage, and some have fallen into sundry diseases, the town being very filthy and sore infected with the plague. Here there is no tarrying for them longer than need drives; but when their letters shall come to him, Malyns, the Vice-Admiral, can tell him better than they. [One page.] Incloses,
835. I. Dr. Wotton to the Earl of Arundel and Bishop of Ely. On Saturday the 1st inst. received at Arras her Majesty's letter, with commissions, instructions, and relative documents, and notice of their appointment to come hither. Had forwarded a letter from the Council to his Majesty with one from himself, but had no reply until yesterday, when he was summoned to go to Hesdin. Sleeps here and to-morrow proceeds thither, where he is like to be much worse than in the camp. His Majesty had not noticed his letter announcing their coming, but Secretary Gonzales Perez, who lies sick at Arras, informs him that his Majesty is aware of it. Suggests that after apprizing the King of their arrival they should come as far as Bethune. The Constable arrived here to-day and likewise goes to Hesdin to-morrow, and it is thought thence to France upon his faith. His going, it is supposed, will do no hurt to the conclusion of the peace, of which there is great hope here. Some think Sunday or Monday next is appointed for treating thereof, but he has not heard of it. Hopes they have brought with them copies of former treaties; in the papers which he has received is only one whole treaty, which is not very large, and the rest are extracts from others imperfect of certain points now to be spoken of If they have not such copies it were most expedient they sent for them. Of such the Bishop of Ely must have good store; for himself, had he suspected any such thing at his coming hither, he should not have been unprovided. [One page and a quarter.]
Oct. 14.
Cercamp.
836. Dr. Wotton to Sir John Boxall. Having no copies of perfect treaties, would fain have seen the last two made with France since the taking of Boulogne, and specially in the last treaty, the reservation of the King of England's right to demand the debts and pensions. There is the more need of these precedents, because formerly the treaties were ready drawn and devised to the Commissioners, except in some special articles which could only be settled by communication with the other part, but now they shall have to devise the whole themselves. As for Scotland, they have no former treaty among them. Points out the difficulties attending the removal of the ordnance to and fro, as well as the fixing of the limits. Had written twice previously, but understands that on Monday last his letters remained still at Dunkirk. [One page and a quarter.]
Oct. 15.
Rome.
837. Sir Edward Carne to Queen Mary. As yet cannot learn any resolution in the suit for reformation of appeal. The Duke of Sessa goes forward prosperously in Piedmont. He has taken Monte Calvo, and all the French in it were slain; great provision and riches with store of large ordnance were found there. The Duke is now battering Valenza, which it is thought cannot hold out long. On Thursday his Holiness was nearly two hours in the Congregation of the Inquisition, where it is said he will not come henceforth in person, but will let it be kept by Cardinal Carpi, who is Dean of that Congregation, and the rest of the members. His Holiness has given orders that no man on any Saturday or Sunday hereafter shall move him of any matter, neither of his kinsman nor of his chamber, being accompanied only with the Cardinal of Naples and Consiliarii. These two days will be solitary in prayer and in good works. [One page and a half. Much defaced by damp.]
Oct. 17.
Rome.
838. Same to same. Takes opportunity of an extraordinary passing towards Flanders to inform her Majesty that he wrote to her on the 15th by the ordinary viâ Venice. Reports the whole of the information therein contained. Has since heard that when Vargas was with the Pope, his Holiness gave him good words in general concerning the matter of the Emperor's admission, which was the object of his suit, but it was not to the satisfaction of Vargas. Yesterday the Pope sent to Vargas a great learned man here, called Restoro, to inform him in law concerning that matter, to whom Vargas replied that his coming hither was not to dispute in the matter, because if his Holiness will have it disputed, the Germans will, in the next Diet to be held shortly, provide that such a number of Germans shall come hither as shall dispute the matter with him with harness and weapons, and that none of the Italian states will stand against them, wherefore his Holiness had need to come to some better way than to the disputation thereof. Hears that the Pope says he will have a general Council held in St. John's Lateran, but cannot perceiye that his Holiness will come to any other resolution than he made to Sign. Guzman last summer. Also that the Abbot St. Salutis left Venice in post on the 9th to go to his Majesty, being sent for by some of the Council in reference to the peace. So the Abbot's nephew, who brought his commendations to Carne, informed him to-day. His Holiness is well amended, and has his speech and remembrance very well, and walks abroad to Belvidere when the weather serves: "and yet some reliques of his late sickness do somewhat extenuate him, as men say." The Duke of Sessa besieges Casale. [Two pages.]
Oct. 17.
Dunkirk.
839. Thomas Gresham to the Council. On the 15th inst. delivered their letters to the King, who was encamped upon the French King's ground near the castle and town of Owssie [Auxyle-Chateau], which belongs to the Count Egmont, about nine miles from the King's town of Hesdin. His Majesty's sent answer by the Count de Feria that Gresham was to tarry no longer, for he would write to his Chancellor Scheff for his dispatch in all things he should ask in the Queen's behalf. The Commissioners of the King and of the French King are at an Abbey called Sercant [Cercamp], where the Queen's Commissioners are also, treating of peace. If it come about, the King will shortly after come to England. Returned hither to write his letters to the Queen and Council, and found Sir William Pickering very sore sick of this new burning ague. He has had four sore fits, and is brought very low and in danger of his life if they continue as they have done. Gave him their letters and received of him in virtue of them 3,600 pistolets at 6s. 6d. Flemish a-piece. Carries this money back again to Antwerp to-day till their pleasure be known. [One page. Printed by Burgon, Vol. i., p. 198.]
Oct. 17.
Dunkirk.
840. Same to Sir John Boxall. On the 15th inst. delivered the Queen's token to his Majesty, who was much rejoiced at her amendment. Took only 15,000 weight of the 30,000 weight of copper, the prest of which Boxall got for him, because he was bound in 1,000l. to deliver it between this time and Christmas. [One page.]
Oct. 22.
Cercamp.
841. The Earl of Arundel, Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton to the Council. Yesterday the Earl of Arundel and Bishop of Ely rode to the camp to see his Majesty, who is lodged more than a league hence. After a little conversation the King inquired what news they heard out of England, and on being told that at their departure they heard of none but good, he informed them of the Queen's estate, but so as they did not perfectly perceive. After taking their leave Count Feria told them that Harvey the Knight Marshal had letters for them at his tent. Received from Harvey the remembrance subscribed by Boxall, containing notes of matters to be declared to them from the Council by the said Knight Marshal. On this returned to his Majesty, making such request as is contained in the remembrance, but the King said he knew it very well already, being advertised thereof by Don Alonzo, and gave them a very good answer upon their request, saying that he would do as much for the realm of England, if the chance should happen, as he would do for his own. Further, that he had fresher letters than theirs, whereby he understood her Majesty was meetly well amended. Have not yet met with the French Commissioners. Have received four copies of treaties from Boxall, which will be of much service, if they have anything to do here at all. Have sent their letter to the King's camp to Harvey, who is stayed there purposely, lest his resort hither might give any occasion of talk to the French. [Two pages.]
Oct. 23.
Cercamp.
842. The Earl of Arundel, Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton to the Council. Since the departure of Mr. Harvey, considering the weight of the matter communicated by him, have thought it convenient to put their Lordships in remembrance of the care necessary to be taken for the avoiding of the dangers which might ensue upon the bruit of the said matter, fearing the practices of such as would seek occasion thereupon to trouble the state of the realm. Hitherto have had no conference with the other Commissioners. [One page.]
Oct. 23.
Antwerp.
843. Thomas Gresham to Sir John Boxall. Since coming to Antwerp on the 20th inst. concluded bargains with Paulus Van Dalle and Lazarus Tucker. Has written to the Council of a bargain offered him of money, saltpetre, and gunpowder. Desires that the bonds be made speedily and the answer of the Council soon given, as he will not proceed further without their commission. Every man hopes there will be peace. On the 18th inst. the King removed his camp on to his own ground. [One page.]
Oct. 23.
Antwerp.
844. Same to the Council. By his letter of the 17th inst. from Dunkirk certified them that he had received of Pickering 3,600 pistolets. Arrived in Antwerp on the 19th inst. Money is much sought on all hands for the Court upon the States' bonds and the towns, which are in much esteem here and make good payment at their day. Begs them to remember the presents for which he has heretofore moved them; of a chain of gold to Jasper Schetz of 500 or 600 crowns, and to Lazarus Tucker, Lixshalls, and others, of 300 crowns. [Two pages.]
Oct. 23.
Antwerp.
845. Same to Queen Mary. By his letter of the 17th inst. from Dunkirk, certified her Majesty that he had delivered her ring to the King. On the 18th inst. the King moved his camp from Hawssye [Auxy] to his own ground. [One page. Printed by Burgon, Vol. i., p. 201.]
Oct 24.
Antwerp.
846. The Burgesses, Eschevins, and Council of Antwerp to Queen Mary. Have received her letters by the hands of the Governor of her merchants. Touching the expediting of the cause which James Hawes and other English merchants have before them, as much haste as is consistent with justice is always made, and the case of Hawes will not be concluded for many days. As regards the favour to be granted to the Governor and merchants he can witness that the decision has been to their advantage, and such answer has been given to their demands as will doubtless satisfy them. Beg remedy for the custom which is growing among the English merchants of leaving Antwerp during the free fair time and carrying on business in Holland, Zealand, and elsewhere. [French. One page.]
Oct. 25.
Cercamp.
847. The Earl of Arundel, Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton to the Council. Yesterday Francisco arrived with the joyful news of her Majesty's good recovery, to the great comfort of all the Commissioners. They immediately dispatched Francisco with the letters for his Majesty. He has not yet returned, but having opportunity of the present messenger think good to apprize them of the promises, as also that yesterday they entered upon communication with the French in presence of the Duchess of Lorraine and the King's Commissioners for his countries. Think it were necessary for them to know upon what occasions and causes given by the Scots, the Protector Somerset made war with them. If they can be certified of this in time, it may serve them to very good purpose, like as the copies of the two last treaties with France, recently sent, have done. [One page.]
Oct. 28.
Rome.
848. Antonio Pecchi to Yaxley. After many inconveniences and impediments in his voyage at length reached Rome on the 22d inst. safe and sound. Remembering his obligations writes these few lines to Yaxley to give news of himself. Though he has spoken with many of Yaxley's friends, cannot at present execute his commissions on account of much occupation, and being on the point of going to Naples in two days. As soon as he shall be settled, will not fail to pay his debt towards Yaxley and his friend. [Italian. One page.]
Oct. 29.
Cereamp.
849. The Earl of Arundel, Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton to the Council. On Monday the 23d, the Commissioners assembled at the residence of the Duchess of Lorraine who presided thereat. The Duke of Alva and the English Commissioners sat opposite to the French, and the rest of his Majesty's Commissioners sat beneath. The Bishop of Ely opened the proceedings, declaring the cause of their coming, but demurred to entering into the discussion in consequence of the French not having their commission with them. This objection they at last waived, by advice of the Duke of Alva and the King's Commissioners, and the Bishop then commenced by demanding the restitution of Calais. The Cardinal of Lorraine answered, that Calais having been taken from them by force and by that same means returned to the Crown of France, it was unreasonable to require restitution of it. To this it was replied that the taking of Calais by King Edward III. had been confirmed by the treaty of Bretigny and by King John and his son Charles the Regent of France, who renounced all right and pretence to Calais, making cession and transportation of such right to King Edward and his successors; that such renunciation was not gratis, but great recompence had been given for it by Edward, and that by other treaties since then it had remained in the peaceable possession of the English Crown. Such prescription extended to more than 200 years, in all which time the French had no title to it. The Cardinal objected that the treaty of Bretigny and what had followed thereon was of none effect, partly because King John was then a prisoner, and partly because, this treaty having been made for his liberation, and he dying in prison, the deed became null. He also denied that any recompence had been given, as well as prescription, right, and claim. These objections were sought to be repelled by the fact that the treaty having been made by the Regent Charles, albeit with consent of his father, the King's death could not nullify it; neither indeed, if it had been made by himself only, since covenants made by a prisoner for his ransom are good and available in law. Moreover, it had been solemnly confirmed and sworn to by King John and his son, while the former was at free liberty in Boulogne, in which liberty he lived at home two or three years, then went to the Pope at Avignon and there enterprised a war against the infidels. That he returned voluntarily to England to visit King Edward, by whom while prisoner he had been so gently entertained, and partly to excuse his son Louis of Anjou, who being one of the hostages had violated his promise by flying from Calais to France. His dying in England was therefore a mere chance. As for recompence, because that Calais should remain to him, King Edward renounced his right and surrendered to King John the duchies of Normandy and Touraine, the counties of Anjou and Maine, with other things; and in regard to prescription, Calais having been taken upon a just title and in a just war, thereafter renounced, ceded, and permuted, and held without interruption for 210 years, the prescription was perfected 100 years ago, becoming a prescription immemorial. Multo magis so now. After this contention had lasted some time, the French remained obstinate in their answers. The English Commissioners then demanded the 2,000,000 of crowns long due, showing how friendly King Henry VIII. had dealt with King Francis in lending him such large sums of money in his distresses, as was admitted by the confessions of King Francis and the Lady Regent, the treaty of Moore, the treaty pacis perpetuœ, and other writings. This demand was resisted by the Cardinal and the Bishop of Orleans, on the grounds that although by the treaty of Moore 2,000,000 were due, that was converted into another debt by the treaty perpetuœ pacis; and as that treaty had been broken by the English making wars at Boulogne against King Francis, they had forfeited the debt. And although there was recognition of the sum in the first treaty for Boulogne, wherein it was agreed that the English should not go to war with the Scots, this compact having been infringed by the Protector [Somerset] such money could not be claimed. Further in that first treaty Boulogne had been pledged to the English for payment of the 2,000,000; and seeing that in the last treaty they had agreed to redeliver it for 400,000 crowns, the previous debt was renounced, even had it been due. All these averments the English Commissioners denied, showing inter alia that the condition of the treaty in so far as it comprehended the Scots was, that the Scots should make no aggression; whereas they not only had made incursions and invasions, but had refused to adhere to treaties and agreements made between them and the English. The French would not admit their reasoning and required judges thereon. The demand for pensions and arrearages was disposed of in similar manner; and they must needs say that unless affection blind them too much in their own cause, there were never in an earnest matter more evident cavillations alleged, than were herein by the French Commissioners. On Tuesday the English and King Philip's Commissioners met together in Ruy Gomez's chambers, when they went over the treaties and various proofs of the matters argued on the preceding day, when his Majesty's Commissioners thought good that the Bishop of Ely and Dr. Wotton should next morning meet with the Bishop of Orleans, M. de L'Aubespine, and his brother Bassefontaine, now Bishop of Limoges, to confer again, and to examine the documentary evidence. This was done in presence of M. D'Arras; but nothing save vain words and stiff affirmations were to be had from the French. In the afternoon the King's Commissioners had an equally inconclusive meeting with the Cardinal and the French; and again on Thursday the 27th, when finally the French determined that they would remain in possession of Calais, and for the rest of the Commissioners' demands, were content that indifferent judges should be appointed to determine them. On Friday the King's Commissioners required them to meet at the Duke of Alva's lodging, where the former read a letter to his Majesty containing an account of the several proceedings, and gave it their opinion that all further conference with the French on part of the English Commissioners was but time lost, unless they had been privately talked with and induced by such means to some good conformity, for so they said had they used them in all their own matters hitherto. His Majesty's Commissioners have shown themselves very friendly and earnest in the setting forth of the English claims, bearing out the declaration of the King, formerly expressed at the camp, that he should have no less care of England than of his own patrimony. Do not see what further they can perform under the circumstances; and as on the conclusion or breaking of the peace depends either the loss of Calais for ever, or the continuance in war yet for a time, which are both such as the choice of either of them is very hard and doubtful, it seems expedient the matter were debated and concluded by the Parliament, which is now at hand, seeing that either of those ways import so much to the whole realm.
P.S.—Have thought it not convenient to trouble the Queen at this time with their long letters. [Nine pages.]
Oct. 29.
Cercamp.
850. The Earl of Arundel, Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton to King Philip. Had intended to have notified to his Majesty their proceedings with the French Commissioners; but understanding that the same have been fully reported to him by the Duke of Alva and the rest, confine themselves to stating the obstinate refusal of the French to restore Calais, and their opinion that the questions should be discussed in the ensuing Parliament. [Latin. Copy.]
Oct. 30.
Artois.
851. King Philip's reply to the preceding. His Majesty was aware of the reply of the French, but exhorts them not to depart until they receive his orders, hoping for the better settlement of the question, the French being generally intractable at first. [Latin. Copy. Both letter and reply on same sheet. One page and a half.]