Mary: April 1554

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1861.

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'Mary: April 1554', Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558, (London, 1861), pp. 69-81. British History Online [accessed 20 June 2024].

. "Mary: April 1554", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558, (London, 1861) 69-81. British History Online, accessed June 20, 2024,

. "Mary: April 1554", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558, (London, 1861). 69-81. British History Online. Web. 20 June 2024,

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April 1554

April 1.
182. Dr. Wotton to Queen Mary. Last evening had dispatched one of his servants with the accompanying packet to her Majesty, instructing him to ride in post with it to Calais. But the posts refused to give him horses, in consequence of their being commanded to horse neither Burgundians, Flemings, Spaniards, nor Englishmen, unless they brought a licence from the Court to take horses. Wherefore he has been forced to send his man to Calais in journies; because the Court being still at Fontainebleau, it would be long ere he could get any such letter. This is probably done to recompense the staying of their packets, as it seems to him that this restraint is made only for the English, seeing that Flemings nor Spaniards ride not post this way. [One page.]
April 5.
183. Lord Wentworth to Queen Mary. In consequence of her Majesty's letter of the 1st inst., has sent over Sir Thomas Cotton, the Knight Porter here, and to save charges has appointed the Gentleman Porter to his place. But should she be otherwise pleased to bestow the same, recommends for it Sir Richard Windebank, an old servant of her father, who has very honestly and painfully served in the wars, and is both sage and discreet in peace. As there is presently great lack of officers here, as the Treasurer, Comptroller, and Knight Porter, beseeches that they may be commanded to be resident upon their charges, since, if need should require, their absence would be somewhat dangerous. [One page.]
April 7.
184. The Bishop of Norwich to Sir William Petre. Has learned both by M. D'Arras and by letter from Masone, that Petre's last advertisements were true. Has nothing further to say than what he wrote by Francisco on Saturday last, that all the bands on this side draw towards the frontiers. Sends letters received from Peter Vannes, which he begs Petre will cause to be delivered by one of his men. If he were to send Petre the perfumed gloves which Vannes has sent to him, he doubts not but upon that price Petre would deliver the letters. Howbeit minds to prove him first without corruption, and when he shall know what Petre has done, shall tell him further of his mind at his return. The Duchess of Lorraine sends presently M. Gilliers, a gentleman of her household, to the Queen, and has requested him to write for his better passage to the Court, as he has done; but what place they will bear with the officers by the way, when he knows he shall tell.
P.S.—May 4. Had sent this letter according to the date first written, and full gently it was delivered to him again on the 27th of the same month. "Think you that I was not angry ? And yet did I not chide." On the 1st of this month he took his leave of the Emperor, and on the 2d of the Queen, when the Regent said she would talk with him before his departure, or else he had set forward this day. But now he tarries a good hour; yet trusts to be at Calais on Whitsunday, and after, as wind and weather shall serve, to come home with diligence. Writes this that Petre may not be over soon in his reckoning, which thinks he goes about to do very straightly, if his eye be so set upon it as he says it is upon the Lord Privy Seal's journey into Spain. Would be loth to be so narrowly watched. Requests the packet inclosed may be with diligence delivered to his old friend Signor Barnardino Ferrarien. for it contains other letters which he shall deliver. [Two pages.]
April 10.
185. The Council to Dr. Wotton. Yesterday the French Ambassador had audience of her Majesty, and stated that of late, a French ship passing by Alderney and saluted by a piece of ordnance from the castle, did not only slack her sails, as the manner is, but cast anchor before the haven there; whence straightway came out some Flemish ships and captured the Frenchman. This the French King considered a plain practice between the Flemish and the English, and contrary to the amity; and further desired to know what was meant by the Queen's navy being in company with the Emperor's ships upon the narrow seas, and whether it was intended that they should assist the Imperial fleet, in case it and the French should meet together. The Ambassador was informed that in regard to the first complaint neither her Majesty nor the Council had heard of the matter, but it should be inquired into, and if found to be as alleged, justice should be done, as she trusted the like would be used by the French in the speedy redressing of her subjects who are daily spoiled by them. As for the English ships in company with those of the Emperor, they had been sent to sea only to attend the Prince of Spain's coming and see to his safe conduction; special charge having been given to both fleets in nowise to attempt anything against the French King's subjects or countries. If, however, they shall be assailed by the French, the English shall do their best to defend themselves and their companions; but her Majesty having from the first desired amity, so is she determined to maintain it, unless provoked to the contrary by the French King. Her Majesty then told the Ambassador how strange it seemed to her that divers of her unnatural subjects, being most heinous traitors and such as have some of them been of late in the field against her and come even to the very Court gates, and others that conspired against her own person and crown, being moved thereto by their wicked heresies and the hate they bear to God and His true and Catholic religion, should in a Christian realm and by a Christian Prince who pretended to bear great friendship to her, be received, borne with, and much made of. The Ambassador, after sundry attempts at excuse, plainly said that his master did not consider himself bound by the treaties, either to deliver the rebels or observe anything in the treaties, as these had not been ratified since her Majesty's accession. Her Majesty required the Ambassador to ascertain from his master whether he meant to stand to the treaties or not. There had some warm talk passed on both sides, yet the Ambassador departed, as it should seem, well satisfied. As this matter of the treaties is of great consequence, Wotton is desired to procure audience of the French King and thoroughly learn his intentions. The Ambassador in course of conversation mentioned that the French King in token of amity had on St. George's day last kept a solemn feast of the Order of the Garter, for which her Majesty expressed her thanks, and desires Wotton to do the same at his next access. Inform him that on the discovery of a practice minded to be attempted at Calais, Sir John Cornwallis had been sent to inquire into the matter and to search the ships of all nations in that port; and certain Burgundians, French, and English have been stayed for their examination. The Lord Admiral, with the navies of the Queen and the Emperor, is now at Portsmouth attending only a good wind. Send him a supplication exhibited for another spoil made by the French. The Parliament ended on Saturday last. [Twelve pages. Draft, corrected by Secretary Petre.]
April 17.
186. Dr. Wotton to Sir William Petre. Because Pickering has long been in possession of the cipher used by Wotton, and is now here, begs him to consider whether there be any danger therein, and if so, to provide for it as he shall think good. Seeing that the rebels here will not be delivered, but are employed in service, which probably will increase their number, suggests that in order to get them home again, it were not amiss that the Queen put them in hope of pardon if they return and require it; in which event he thinks many would return home with their hearts. Understands that one Edward Randall, of Kent, here, has refused to serve, and says that he only fled to save his life, and shall labour by his friends for his pardon, and so long as he is not put in despair of it or be driven thereto by extreme necessity, shall never serve other than her Majesty. Suggests that he should be pardoned. Perceiving himself to be suspected here, would be very loth to continue longer if he might well choose, and so much the more loth if Noailles come away, who has been as long in England as Wotton has been in France. Prays him to consider this, and reminds him of the old proverb "Burnt child fire dreadeth." Sir Robert Southwell's son is at Orleans. Trusts to find the means to send to him shortly. Has purchased for Petre the new Old Pandects of Florence, shall bring them home with him; should he wish for any other book, let him mention it in his next, and he will do the best he can to procure it. Sir William Pickering had told one of Wotton's servants that a copy of a letter which he had written to her Majesty was sent shortly after to the French King; and a scholar told Wotton that he had heard the like happened to one of his letters to her Majesty. This, though he cannot well believe it, he thinks it right to mention. Hears that others of the recent fugitives are of the same mind as Randall, and namely one Staunton, who was required to be delivered. Requests him to inform her Majesty that the King has granted him a general licence for horses, exempting those whom he may send to the Queen from the restraint of late made in that behalf. [Two pages. The greater part in cipher, deciphered.]
April 17.
187. Same to Queen Mary. The Legate Pole has his answer from the French King, and having taken his leave is returning to the Emperor. On Sunday the 8th inst. he was solemnly received here, and on the following morning Wotton saw him. The Cardinal declared that notwithstanding he and his friends had been in times past strangely used in England without any his desert, yet all that could never make him change the good will and love that every honest man ought to have and bear to his native country. Besides that general affection and duty which as her born subject he owed to her Majesty, the constant mind which she has ever had and still continues to have to the true religion and Catholic faith has much more bound him to her. Had, in speaking to the King and Council here, mentioned her great desire to reduce the realm of England in matters of religion to the former state, which godly purpose and travail all other Christian princes should assist and help in all that they might, and so much the more, that considering the present state of England, unless this were done by her Majesty and in her time, he said he had little hope that ever the realm should be recovered to the unity of the Catholic church again. He had therefore urged the King to encourage and aid her therein, and required him not to go about to let or hinder her, saying that he spoke on this point, in consequence of hearing that the rebels fled hither were succoured and maintained by him. The King professed his amity, and the Cardinal of Lorraine said that his Majesty did not maintain the rebels, but being presently at war, and in need of men, accepted the service of such as offered themselves, and whereas her Majesty required that such as come hither should be taken and sent to her, the King of the French intends not to be her boia, "which word spoken in Italian signifieth a hangman." In further conversation with Wotton, the Legate seemed much offended with the madness of the rebels and the fugitives that came hither under pretence that they may not abide the realm to be ruled by Spaniards; and he considered the marriage to be very convenient and expedient for the benefit of England. Besides, considering the present state of the realm, he thought peace were most necessary for it; and that therefore, though perhaps her Majesty might chance to be ungently dealt withal by some of her neighbours, in his opinion she might well suffer and dissemble it for the time, rather than to enter in war with any of them, till the people's minds be somewhat better agreed in England. In reference to peace between the Emperor and French King the Cardinal said little, but his words appeared to imply that he is rather in some hope to obtain truces or suspension of arms for a season, than to pacify them. The French King has received tidings from Pietro Strozzi of his defeating the Florentines and the Pope's nephew, Signor Ascanio della Cornea, at Chiusi, which place belonging to the Siennese, Ascanio had hoped to have secretly delivered to him, but had been betrayed to Strozzi by the lieutenant, with whom he was in communication, and brought into an ambush. Many hundreds have been slain, among whom Signor Ridolfo Baglione, the captain of the Florentine horsemen, a man of great estimation for the wars; and Ascanio with many more has been taken prisoner, very few escaping. But the Duke of Florence is still encamped at Sienna. The King also hears that De Thermes has overthrown three ensigns of Spaniards in Corsica. On the 11th had received the Council's letter of the 6th inst. The King had then left Fontainebleau for Paris, hunting by the way, and occupying four or five days in his journey. On the 12th was at Meudon, at the baptism of the son of the Duchess of Guise, who lies in there; arrived here on the following day, and on Saturday the 14th had audience of his Majesty and the Constable. Details his conferences with them at great length. They alleged many grievances on part of the English, insisting much on the watching of their Ambassador and putting him out of his house, interception of letters and delivery of them to the Emperor's Ambassador to be deciphered, the staying of the passages to Scotland, abetting of the seizure of the ship at Margate, denial of redress to French subjects in England, and charged Wotton with overstepping his duties as Ambassador. Had been shown a letter to the Constable from Sir Peter Carew, who therein stated that he fled to France for personal safety, and not for conspiracy against her Majesty, but because he could not suffer the country to be oppressed by strangers, and therefore wondered why Wotton so pursued him, sending men everywhere to seek him out, expressing his willingness to come before him, and in case of conspiracy being in anything proved against him, required he might be straight sent over to her Majesty to be punished. Because her Majesty has refused to enter into any new league, it appears they have conceived a great mistrust of the continuance of her amity. Fears that their refusal to deliver the rebels and their employment of them may encourage others to come here unless her Majesty provides some good means of staying of them. Men of war go down fast to the borders. Trusts her Majesty has well provided her pieces on this side of the sea for fear of all danger in this suspicious time. From the personal charges made against him by the Constable, supposes they have conceived such opinion of him as to render him unable to do her Majesty any service here longer. Sir William Pickering had met one of Wotton's servants and expressed a wish to speak to his master, not on personal matters but on subjects relating to his Majesty which could not be written; will not see him unless commanded thereto by her Majesty. Yesterday received an anonymous letter from an Italian, signed "Un vero Servidor de la Regina et di Vostra Signoria," to the effect that the fugitives say to their friends that they are in active communication with some of the chiefest in England, which shall appear at the arrival of the Prince of Spain, and that they embark in a few days from Normandy in such strength that if they cannot hinder the Prince from landing in England, they will not fail by help of their friends there to let him to come to London. The letter also says that many Italians are daily taken up to go to sea with them. Pickering again meeting his servants, bears him in hand that he goes about to do her Majesty service here, and therefore delivered him a letter directed to Mr. Leigh, which he says is such that if it were known here it should cost him his neck. Wherefore thinks it not amiss to send it. The Killigrews with the Sacre have returned to Brest Haven again, and prepare to return to the sea. The rebels whom he required of the King last day, already know that he did so, and the answer that was made to him. [Fifteen pages. A considerable portion in cipher, deciphered.]
April 18.
The Groyne. [Coruña.]
188. John, Earl of Bedford, Lord Privy Seal, and Thomas Viscount Fitzwalter to the Council. Left Plymouth for Spain on the 12th inst., intending, if wind and weather would have served, to have arrived at Allaredo [Laredo], which they thought most convenient, as nearest the Court by upwards of 100 miles, and to have sent the ships thence to the Groyne [Coruña], where the Prince means to embark. But by force of contrary winds, were constrained to direct their course hither, where they arrived this day, when there came on board to welcome them the Bishop of Lowa [Lugo] (a very grave and sober man), the Captain of the Castle (a man of a good house), the Corregidor of the town and others, and after their departing caused great shot of ordnance and sundry other pleasures to be shown. Perceive by the manner and fashion of the people that they much rejoice at their coming, and have found such plenty of victuals and other necessaries for their use that they marvel not a little how the same could be had in so short a space, the country being so barren. Immediately on arriving thought it requisite to advertise the Prince thereof, and the Captain of the Castle made great request that his brother should be the messenger, as he thought the news should be so well accepted by the Prince. The Alcaldo Maiora, one of the chief of the Privy Council of Gallicia, had been appointed and remained here till the 15th, in order to receive them, but had left on hearing, by two English ships that came half way with them from Plymouth, that they had gone to Allaredo. However, being apprized of their arrival by post, he has come this day and shows them very great entertainment, both of provision for horses for them and their carriage, and offers them what money they may ask, rightly considering that their exchange had been made to Bilbao or Allaredo. Had been afraid their ships would run short of victuals during their stay here, but the Prince's purveyor, although he thinks they are sufficiently provided, has offered to supply to the uttermost anything that may be needed. On Friday next intend to proceed towards the Prince's Court, if those provisions for horses and carriage can so soon be made in readiness, having in company above 200 horses, besides those that must serve for carriage. [One page and a half.]
April 20.
San Lucar.
189. Duchess of Medina Sidonia to Queen Mary. Credentials of the Count Olivares, who goes in Prince Philip's train to England. [Spanish. One page.]
April 21.
190. The Bishop of Norwich to the Council. On the receipt of their letter of 16th March in favour of Sir Jacques Granago [Granado], declared to M. D'Arras, M. de Praet, and others of the Council, the good and faithful service performed to her Majesty by Granado on the day of the overthrow of her rebels; whereby not only the evil bruit and slander which was here made upon him is stayed and ceased, but the Emperor is very well pleased with him, and will continue his good lord so long as he shall faithfully serve her Majesty. The King of the Romans has sent Don Pedro Lasso de Castella, Master of his horse, as Ambassador to England at the Queen's marriage. He brings in his train Don Fernando de Gamboa Biscayno and about 50 horse, who have been about Louvain and Malines these four or five days, and will pass towards England as they shall hear any likelihood of the Prince's arrival. Don Fernando de Gonzaga, Governor of Milan, has come here; some think he shall go without his office, but the reception which he has met with from the Emperor and the nobility speaks otherwise, unless he is to get as good or a better office in lieu thereof. It is thought the French will attempt something about Luxemburg. The Count de Mega and others go to Thionville, and divers bands of Spaniards and Germans shall remain for its defence. Some think the French will essay to take Liege, which would be a wonderful danger to this country. Men of war are daily sent towards those posts. News have arrived of the capture in an ambush, near Chiusi, of two Captains of the Duke of Florence, Rodolfo Baglione and Ascanio della Cornea, nephew to the Bishop of Rome, the former and many of their soldiers being slain, and the latter taken prisoner. By Baglione's death, the Duke has lost a valiant captain and faithful servant; and many think this loss of great importance, much impairing the good hope hitherto had of Sienna. Since these news, has received confirmatory intelligence of this and other occurrents in Italy from Mr. Vannes, which shall herewith be sent. Cardinal Pole arrived here from France on the 19th with no conclusion of peace, but, as some report, with an offer of an abstinence for this summer, so that in the mean season further communication might be had for a peace. [Two pages.]
April 26.
191. The Earl of Bedford and Viscount Fitzwalter to the Council. From want of convenient furniture for themselves and their company, could not leave the Groyne [Coruña] before Tuesday the 24th, on which day they arrived here. Next morning a courier arrived to the Bishop of Lowga [Lugo] and the Alcaldo Maiora, who accompanied them, with notice that the Master of the Posts of Spain would arrive that evening with certain knowledge of the Prince's pleasure concerning their journey. Wherefore they remained there, and about six or seven o'clock that afternoon the Master of the Posts arrived, bringing the letter of which copy is inclosed. He has orders, with advice of the aforesaid Bishop and others having authority in these parts, to see that all their charges, and those of the rest of the lords and gentlemen in their company and their servants, shall be borne and defrayed at the Prince's sole cost, it being his mind that no Englishman should be at one penny charge here. It is the Prince's desire that they shall remain either here, or at St. James [Santiago], or Logrono [Coruña], as they please, until his coming, which shall be in all possible haste, as he means to depart from Valladolid hitherward within eight days. The Prince has taken that order with them, because, he says, he considers after their voyage how painful it were for them to come so far into the country as the Court is, the passage being so ill, and provision so hard to come by; and that the country were not able to serve both him and them, if they should come down together, their number being so great. Hear that the Prince has appointed the Queen of Portugal, with a Council, to govern his dominions, and has already sent for her, which they think will make him tarry so much longer to set order on these things. However, the Master of the Posts shows them that if she does not arrive speedily, the Prince will leave Valladolid in post to meet her, although he believes she will be with the Prince in the course of eight days. [Two pages.]
Duplicate of the preceding, dated 27th April. [Two pages.] Incloses,
191. I. Philip, Prince of Spain, to the Earl of Bedford and Viscount Fitzwalter. Has received their letter of the 18th, and therewith much pleasure in hearing of their safe arrival. Requests them to credit the bearer Raymondo de Taxis, Chief Master of Posts to the Emperor, who will explain his views, and to rest and solace themselves after their voyage until he arrives, which he trusts shall be shortly. Valladolid, April 22. [Spanish. Half a page. Copy.]
191. II. Copy of the preceding. [Spanish. Half a page.]
191. III. Translation of the preceding. [Half a page.]
[Circa 27.]
192. The Council to Dr. Wotton. Two days ago the French Ambassador had presented letters to her Majesty from his master complaining of denial of justice in general, and of the breaking of the shallop at Margate and impeachment of passages to Scotland in particular. Her Majesty said these trifles, as compared with her grievances in France, should be looked into, and referred him to the Council for further reply. Their conference with him, wherein they let him be aware their certain knowledge of facts was not to be stifled with fair words. His strong professions. Perceive by his talk that he trusts to be shortly licensed to return, and that his brother, who is now here with him, shall supply his place. The Lord Admiral is ordered to go with about 40 of her Majesty's ships to escort the Prince of Spain, and is to be joined by others of the Emperor, who are strictly commanded to attempt nothing prejudicial to French vessels, unless they are attacked by them. This he shall declare to the King. Marvel that they have heard nothing from him touching the despatch sent to him by his servant, before Easter. The Emperor's Ambassador has promised that so long as his master's ships are with the Queen's, they shall show no hostility to the French. If he sees any likelihood of peace to arise from Cardinal Pole's visit, he is to apprize the King and Constable that her Majesty will spare no pains that may help thereto. [Draft, autograph of Petre. Five pages.]
April 28.
193. Ratification of the Treaty of Marriage between Queen Mary and the Prince of Spain. [Latin. Eleven pages.]
April 28.
194. Lord Grey to the Council. Marshal St. André and M. Ville bon are addressed towards these frontiers in all speed with a very great number of horse, and as their exploit, whatever it may be, requires expedition, it is ordered that their foot come with more leisure and also in great power. Although the French report that they re-victual Ardres, yet perceiving no cause of such access thither, suspects they assemble to attempt hitherwards or against the Emperor's dominions. Stands circumspectly on his guard, and last night gave warning to the Captain of Gravelines, wherein he has proceeded upon special letters from her Majesty, signifying the terms of amity which exist between her and the Emperor. For this refers himself to their honourable corrections. [One page. Indorsed by Petre.]
April 28.
195. Dr. Wotton to Queen Mary. Is credibly informed that the Emperor's Ambassador has a secretary or servant who communicates to the Ambassador of France all that passes between her Majesty and his master. Will write of this more fully, which he trusts her Majesty shall receive shortly, if he may have post horses, and his letters be suffered to pass, as he somewhat doubts whether they shall. Therefore at all adventures thinks it good to send these few lines by way of Dieppe. [One page. In cipher, deciphered.]
April 28.
196. Same to same. An Italian named Portinaris, who long served in England both her Majesty's father and brother, dined with him, and at his departure gave him the inclosed writing and requested him to peruse it. Perceiving its contents can do no better than send the identical paper. Some of the Council know the man far better than he does, and therefore can better inform her Majesty of him. If she shall think it meet that any answer shall be made upon his request, when her pleasure is known it shall be done. [One page.] Incloses,
196. I. A memorial from Portinaris, stating that he had been 28 years in the service of King Henry VIII. and King Edward VI., and in reward of his services was made keeper of Sandon Castle in the Isle of Wight, with a salary of 100l. sterling per annum, also had the superintendence of the tomb of King Henry, with 24l. per annum, and was one of the 50 gentlemen pensioners, with pay of 46l. 13s. 4d. yearly. That the Duke of Somerset, on the pretext that he could not be at all these places at once, and that it was necessary for the dignity of King Edward that a distribution of offices should be made, had deprived him of all except the gentleman pensionership, promising to remember him when times were better. Had in vain remonstrated with the Duke. His testimonials from the Council certifying his successful repulse of the French when they attacked the Isle of Wight, and his engineering abilities in mining Boulogne. Is married to an English woman, and for their support had been obliged to go to France and accept employment on the fortifications in Piedmont, for which he had been handsomely paid. Now, seeing their military and naval preparations, fearing to be ordered to Scotland, and unwilling to serve against the English, he is resolved to leave France, and therefore beseeches Wotton to intercede for a restitution of his appointments, and for his being employed by her Majesty. [Italian. Five pages.]
April 28.
197. Dr. Wotton to Sir William Petre. Supposes he now looks daily for the Prince, and when he is come, then, as they say, Novus rex, nova lex. Begs to be informed how he shall use himself in his writing, as he does not know what order is taken therefor at home. Supposes that he knows Portinaris, who is fain to return to England, as appears by his request sent herewith. Will be glad to know what answer her Majesty desires shall be made to him. Portinaris would wish the matter kept secret and known to few, for fear of danger. [One page.]
April 29.
198. Dr. Wotton to Queen Mary. Sir William Pickering, in whose company the rebels here at first much rejoiced, but whom they now greatly mistrust, departed hence secretly on the 25th inst. in the company of Thomas Danet, who likewise would not do anything which might turn to her Majesty's prejudice, nor follow the rebels' minds. They intend to go to Lyons, and thence to Italy and Germany, thinking they might depart the more secretly, because Peter Carew and others of the rebels had gone on the preceding day to the Court, which is now at Anet. But on the morrow after Pickering's departure their absence was perceived by two English merchants inquiring for him at the inn which he frequented; and the Staffords lying there, and hearing of it, made such search that they found he was gone, but whither no one could tell. Supposing, however, that Wotton had sent him in post to her Majesty to declare what he knew of their proceedings, they at first were minded to have sent in post a person after him, who overtaking him should have slain him with a dag, but the man chancing to be then out of the way, they finally determined that Thomas Stafford, and, as he takes it, Sir Robert Stafford, should take post and ride to the Court to advertise the French King. Wherefore he thinks that Pickering and Danet will be in great danger of their lives ere they get out of France, especially because the former having promised to go to Court with Peter Carew, the King will make a great matter of his breach of promise. The day before he left, Pickering told a servant of Wotton that towards the end of summer the French King, by Carew's provocation, intends to land the rebels and others at Lee in Essex and the Isle of Wight, where they reckon to land easily and either to march on, if met, as they say they will be, by any number of other Englishmen, or else to fortify themselves there. Also that all her Majesty's communications with the Emperor's Ambassador were betrayed by a corrupt secretary to the French Ambassador, which Wotton believes is true. Moreover, that Carew has an Englishman, name unknown, who frequently goes as a spy to England. If Pickering and Danet escape, (but God knows how they shall !) recommends her Majesty to show them mercy, as both are willing and able to do her service. Also, recommends Edward Randall of Kent, and Staunton, who are equally resolved on fidelity to her Majesty, but who cannot as yet escape from the rebels, whose movements they will communicate; they are the principal men of knowledge and experience of war among them. Randall says that the French King knows so much of her Majesty's affairs at home, that he fears what Wotton writes of him may come to the King's knowledge; and that the King will on their landing in England join a number of Scots to the rebels, who urge him to make war against England in name of the right and title of the young Scottish Queen to the crown thereof. Further, that the King has sent for De Thermes, and though it is commonly thought that he will return to Corsica, yet Pickering says he is recalled for the purpose of going to Scotland again. The Italians here say that although it was thought that the Turk and the Sophi would have sat still this summer, it now appears otherwise; and it is reported that the King of Algiers' navy comes here very shortly to join with the French; but Wotton thinks that King is not very well able to spare any great navy of his own at this time. [In cipher, deciphered. Four pages.]
April 29. 199. Queen Mary to Dr. Wotton. His letter of the 17th has been received. Although such answer has been previously given to the doleances set forth by the French King and Constable, as ought to have well satisfied them, desires him at his opportunity to state that no new impositions or restraints have been placed on articles of commerce, that the letters of the Ambassador, which during the rebellion had been taken out of the Chancellor's house, could not be found, and therefore neither these, nor any others, had ever been given to the Emperor's Ambassador to be deciphered; that the box and money had been restored to the courier, whose suspicious manner of going at such a time and by such his unaccustomed way, with his inquiring for the rebels and such like circumstances, was the sole occasion of his stay; that the statement as to the Ambassador's house being watched, or access thereto forbidden, is utterly false; that touching the Ambassador being turned out of his house, the fact is, he had for more than half a year been lodged in that of Lord North, who, to his own inconvenience, had for the time vacated from courtesy to the Ambassador, and now requiring it, the Ambassador has with his own free will and consent been placed in Bridewell, one of her Majesty's own residences, a place, as she thinks, meet enough for any Ambassador, and such as he pays no rent for, which is seldom used in France with her Ambassadors. As for denial of passage through the realm to Scotland, none but suspected parties have ever been interrupted; nevertheless there is now good cause to be well ware unto whom liberty of such passage shall be granted, not only for the practice attempted by D'Oysel (which however much denied is clearly manifest), but because of late at the passing of the Bishop of Ross there has been discovered a very foul and unfriendly part attempted by one Pringle, one of the Bishop's train, and devised, as he says, by the Queen Dowager of Scotland, the Earl Bothwell, and the said Bishop, as may be seen by Pringle's own deposition sent herewith; wherein also it may be seen that this Bishop has been not only a deviser, but also a chief stirrer, practiser, and procurer from time to time. And although such dishonourable dealing might by law have justified the detention of the Bishop, yet he has been suffered to pass with warning only. As to the frigate, if they will not believe what has already been told them no more can be said. Is surprised at the favour shown to such a traitor as Carew, and his impudence in seeking to excuse himself; for although he pretends his enterprise to have been only against the Prince of Spain and strangers, the same was to the manifest danger of her Majesty's person and the whole realm, grounded upon his misliking of religion. Wotton may confer with Pickering and the other fugitives as he thinks convenient. Six or seven days ago the French Ambassador had audience of her Majesty to complain that some English vessels had spoiled certain French ships and carried them to Spain, and that some other French ships had been stayed in Ireland. He had been told that such matter had not been heard of, and that no English ships of war had gone to Spain but those conveying the Lord Privy Seal and Lord Fitzwalter, who would not attack any of the French King's subjects unless first provoked thereto, and if he would declare who had committed the spoil, order for justice would be taken. As to those said to be detained in Ireland, had ascertained from Sir Edmund Roos, late Vice-Admiral there, that he had on his own responsibility ordered some French vessels, accused of piracy, to be stayed until inquiry could be made. Orders have been issued, that they shall be released on finding surety to abide such action of law as may be raised, and indeed Roos should have been punished for acting without authority, had not the Ambassador himself interceded for him. Sends a note of spoils lately committed by the French on some of her Majesty's subjects in the West country, and a supplication from the merchants of Southampton, for which desires him to seek redress. [Draft, corrected by Petre. Fourteen pages.]