Elizabeth: March 1559, 11-20

Pages 170-180

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1863.

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March 1559, 11-20

March 12.
R. O. Dumont, V. 28. Castelnau, ii. Add. 262.
405. Preliminary Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
Articles agreed upon between the deputies of the King of France and of the King and Queen Dauphins, the King and Queen of Scotland, on the one part, and those of the Queen of England on the other, by the mediation of the deputies of the King of Spain, in the presence of the Duchess Dowager of Parma and Milan and of the Duke of Lorraine, her son.
1. That there shall be peace between the King of France, the King and Queen of Scotland, and the Queen of England.
2. For eight years from the present date the King of France shall retain peaceable possession of Calais and its dependencies, at the end of which period he shall restore it to the Crown of England.
3. For security thereof the King shall procure that seven or eight stranger merchants shall become bond for payment to the Queen of 500,000 crowns of the sun in the event of his non-compliance of the contract.
4. These merchants may be changed from year to year at the discretion of the King.
5. Any violation of the peace shall in like manner violate the conditions imperative upon the other parties in the contract.
6. The fortress [Aymouth] shall be demolished as infringing the terms of the treaty of Boulogne concluded in March 1549.
March 12. 7. All other actions and disputes shall continue as they were. —Chateau Cambresis, 12 March, 1558, before Easter. Signed: Cardinal of Lorraine, De Montmorency, S. Andre, De Morvillier, E. d'Orleans, De l'Aubespine.
Copy. Fr. Pp. 4.
March 12.
R. O.
406. Copy of portions of the above treaty.
Endd, by Cecil: 12 Junii, copy of the two articles of the treaty. Pp. 2.
March 12.
R. O.
407. Cavalcante to Cecil.
They arrived on the third. The King received the Queen's letter with the same satisfaction he had previously done, and was pleased that the writer had been sent back hither. He said that on the following morning he would despatch Cavalcanti to the conference, but afterwards changed his intention and sent La Marqua, with the despatch brought by the writer, and he is charged to wait for an answer. Will conform to the King's wishes, as he had been desired to do by Cecil. Will not however fail to mention that La Marqua is known to every one here, posts and postilions; but this the writer cannot remedy. Cecil may be assured that he would neither have spoken nor written of this matter, being bound by obligations to him, and duty to the Queen. Refers for further information to the bearer.—Villa Coterey [Villers Cotterets], 12 March 1558. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
March 15.
R. O.
408. The English Commissioners at Cateau Cambresis to the Queen.
Having met the French on Sunday, the 12th instant, and after long debate (because of the earnest standing, as well of the English as of the Spanish Commissioners, for the present redeliverance of Calais) peace was at length concluded with the French, according to the enclosed articles in French. The original, subscribed by the French themselves, they keep to form their treaty upon in Latin. The discourse of what has passed since their last letter of 2nd instant were long to write, but they will declare all occurrences on their return.
They must needs acknowledge that the Spanish Commissioners "have both earnestly and honestly (as far as we could ever perceive) used themselves." Though these articles were agreed upon on Sunday last, there has been some travail for the penning and subscribing of them, for which cause they could not send them away sooner.
By these articles it is agreed that the French shall give hostages, but the French Commissioners would not at first that they should be sent into England, but should go to the Low Countries; finally, however, they consented, on condition that they be lodged near together and might have privately the customable service of their country. The names of these sixteen hostages have been delivered to them; four of them shall be "laid in" at first, and if the French King revoke them, other four shall be delivered in their places, and so in order, till they have put in their merchant bonds.
This day the Cardinal and Constable, intending to send one to the Queen Dowager of Scotland to inform her of the terms of this peace, desire them to require from the Queen a safe conduct for this person to pass through England, and also their letters, to go safely to her Court and understand her pleasure. These they granted. Trusts she will take their doings in this treaty in good part.—Chateau Cambresis, 15 March 1558.—Signed: W. Howard, Thomas Ely, N. Wotton.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 15.
R. O.
409. Mundt to the Queen.
On the 3rd inst., the Emperor being present, this proposition was made to those Estates that are here. It comprehended four articles.
1. Agreement and concord for religion and that no sect should be suffered in the Empire, but only "Catholica Religio and Augustana Confessio" should be admitted in the Empire.
2. For the defence of Christendom against the Turks, for which purpose the Emperor required of all the Estates of the Empire that they would pay for four years "duplam Romanam expeditionem" which is every year 8,000 horsemen and 40,000 footmen, his own countries being exhausted and impoverished by the manifold invasions of the Turks; and that all subsidies granted heretofore for the defences in Hungary against the Turks should be speedily paid.
3. To equalize the money through all Germany, so that one value and goodness of the coins should be observed through the whole Empire.
4. "De camera imperii reformanda et visitanda, et de pace publica conservanda."
After this proposition the Emperor himself declared the great cruelty of late commited. in Carinthia by the Turk, and that except speedy remedy were done all Germany should lament the delay. The Estates are now in deliberation upon this proposition.
Many are of opinion that the chief treaty in this Diet will be for money.
"Two Electors be here, the Bishops of Magunts and Trier, the rest, as Collen, Palsgrave, Saxon and Brandenburg, have sent hither their commissaries." No temporal Princes are here personally, but only their commissaries. The Count de Luna, a lord out of Spain, who "hath received Milan in the King's name of Spain tanquam feudum ab imperio, and the Count of Arenberg are here, who will take as feuda imperialia all lands that appertain to the Empire, as Geldria, Trajectum, Frisia, &c., in the King's name. The French Ambassador has been once with the Emperor, but, as was supposed by the shortness of the treaty, only to congratulate him on his new dignity. He has desired audience for the common estates, which was granted, but at the day appointed, "he faineth him to be sick," so that it was thought nothing but magnifica promissa.
The Colonel Reyffenberg is also here under a safe conduct. The Bishop of Rome has no man here, and pretends that he will not confirm this Emperor unless he surrenders his election in his hands. The King of Polonia has an Ambassador here, as it is supposed, to expostulate against the King of Spain, who has taken certain revenues from the King of Pole in Apulia, which belong to him from his mother, who was a Duchess of Bar. Florentia, Genoa, Venetia, Ferrara, have their Ambassadors here, who follow the Emperor's court.
Has spoken with the Ambassadors of the Elector of Saxony to have audience to declare to them and the other Commissioners of the Protestant Princes her message to their masters, which they gladly accept, but defer it till the arrival of the commissaries of the new Palatine (who is daily looked for), as the Palatine is the chief person to convoke the others in handling matters of religion in these parts.— Augusta, 15 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add., with armorial seal. Endd.: 15 March 1558. Pp. 3.
March 15.
R. O.
410. Mundt to Cecil.
On the 8th inst., arrived at this town with the commissaries of Argentin. Has already informed the Queen of such occurrences as he has learned. It is like that the Princes and cities "Augustanœ Confessionis" will require that first "articulus religionis" be agreed upon before any subsidy or aid be granted, but if matters be decided after the old custom, so that "vocum pluralitas" shall prevail, then it is like that the Emperor will obtain his purpose, and that "ex prœsenti necessitate." His Majesty intends well, "but the great might and power of the Turk doth suppress and drun his mediocrity."
The merchants say that a truce is taken between the Turk and the Emperor for three years. Maximilian is not here, but his younger brother Carolus. Has been "axed" if the Emperor has not at this time an ambassador in England, the Count of Helfensteyn. Asks Cecil's counsel in the conduct of affairs, "aula Argo oculatior est." Commends himself to the Lords of the Council and Sir Anthony Cooke.— Augusta, 15 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 15 March 1558. Pp. 2.
March 15.
R. O.
411. Fr. Baldwinus to Cecil.
Would not venture to send him either his letters nor his books were he not encouraged by his friend, the English Legate, Henry Kyllygrew. Sends a little book as a proof of his regard, the contents of which are perhaps not very alien from Cecil's own thoughts at this time. On the very day on which the joyful intelligence reached him of the accession of Queen Elizabeth, it was his turn "in auditorio prolectiœnis" to discuss the important question "de Jure Affinitatis," which he had formerly heard debated and discussed when he was a boy, but which he now felt ought to be investigated more thoroughly at a time when malicious men for their own purposes secretly circulate so many calumnies. Cecil may hence gather the sentiments of the writer. Wishes that the messenger would give him leisure to send a more ample token of his good will. One word however suffices a wise man, and the messenger will tell more.
Although he is aware that the question has long since been discussed and settled in England, yet, in order to arouse his intentions on the subject, he sends the headings of his own disputation upon the subject to Cecil, and further refers him to Sir Anthony Coke, Cecil's father-in-law, whom the writer formerly knew, of whose return to his country and his rank he has heard. The Queen possibly might not be displeased with his writing.—Id. Mart.
Orig. Hol. (?) Endd.: 1559. Lat. Pp. 3.
March 15.
B. M. Harl. 353. 157.
412. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 15 Mar. 1558.—Present: the Lords Great Seal and Treasurer; the Earls of Shrewsbury and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Treasurer, Mr. Comptroller, Mr. ViceChamberlain, Mr. Secretary; Mr. Cave, Mr. Sackevill.
A letter of thanks to the Earl of Northumberland for his good husbandry used in his late discharging the garrisons of the Northumberland men, requiring him to take the like order for a further discharge and cassing of so many others, as by reason of sickness or any other respect shall be thought by him unmeet or superfluous for the present service, so as the same his doings tend not to the weakening or danger of his charge. And because some of them that are to be discharged cannot conveniently so be without a present pay, it is signified unto him that order is taken here that such money as Abington, the surveyor of victuals at Berwick, hath there in store shall be delivered over by some of his ministers unto the hands of the Treasurer there, to be defrayed and employed only upon the pays of such as cannot otherwise be well discharged.
A letter also to the same effect unto Sir William Ingleby, Knt., Treasurer of Berwick.
March 15.
R. O. 27 VI. 44.
413. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 15.
R. O. 27 V. 94.
414. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 16.
B. M. Harl. 353, 157 b.
415. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 16 Mar. 1558.—Present: the Lords Great Seal and Treasurer; the Earls of Shrewsbury and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, Mr. Secretary; Mr. Cave, Mr. Sackevill.
A letter to the Lieutenant of the Tower to set at liberty one Nicholas Anker, a Frenchman, being suspected as a spy.
March 16.
R. O. 27 V. 95.
416. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 16.
R. O. 27 VI. 45.
417. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 17. 418. Sir J. Croftes to the Lords of the Council.
Sends the bearer, Mr. Drury, with instructions from him to them, for sundry things touching the charge of Berwick.— Berwick, 17 March 1558. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 18.
R. O.
419. The English Commissioners to the Queen.
Sir John Mason, having arrived on the 16th, delivered to them her letter of the 7th, and expressed her discontentation with them, to their great and importable grief, desiring rather to be out of the world than that she should continue in any such opinion of them. These causes, if they were true, deserve the vilest death. But they protest before God and her that they have been, are, and will be faithful and true subjects to her, and ask her to understand the truth of the matter laid to their charge, which is this—
The Spanish Commissioners having told them that the French required that the claims of debts, arrearages, &c., arising out the question of Calais, should be put to arbiters, to the intent that by that indirect and subtle means they might allege before the arbiters that these debts being due to the crown of England, were due not to herself, but to the Scottish Queen. If this might have been brought to pass, then the examination of her title to the crown might, though not expressly nor directly, yet by this means have been questioned before the examination of these claims. The French, to avoid her demands, would allege the Queen of Scots' false pretence to the crown of England, whereby they meant to bring the Queen's just title in question. They [the writers] therefore thought meet to require to understand from herself, not whether they should agree to put her title in compromise, (for the French themselves, as impudent as they are, durst never have required that of them directly and expressly,) but whether they should put the matter of the debts, arrearages, pensions, and restitution of Calais, or any of them, to the discussion of arbiters. This is the truth, but they perceive indeed that they might have expressed more plainly their minds therein, for which they humbly beseech forgiveness.
They cannot now proceed to the finishing of the rest of the treaty, because the Spanish Commissioners have done nothing in their own matters as yet, having been continually occupied in bringing the writers and the French to some agreement. In the penning, difficulties now and then arise, which will somewhat longer protract the matter.—Chateau Cambresis, 18 March 1558. Signed: W. Howard, Thomas Ely, N. Wotton.
Orig. Add. Pp. 4.
March 18.
R. O. 171 B.
420. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 18.
421. Sir J. Mason to the Queen.
Arriving here on 16th inst. found the Lord Chamberlain's son newly despatched to her with the conclusion of the peace and the chief capitulations of the same, whereby he found a great part of his commission shortened. Delivered to the Lords here her letter, and spoke according to his instructions. The letter of the Lords of the Council he had sent before. At his coming he found them very much appalled with these letters; but when they had read hers, (which he delivered immediately upon his arrival,) like as he knew the reading thereof would be no little trouble to them, so found he it. Wherefore assures her he had such pity as for common charity's sake he is forced to beseech her upon his knees to make them men again, who remain so amazed as, albeit he has put them as much as he can in courage with the declaration of her good nature, yet neither that nor any other thing can breed any comfort in them, lamenting that by ten lines inaptly penned they have run in danger of her indignation. Beseeches her to impart to them some slip of that clemency whereof nature has planted so good a store in her.
Confesses that he could get out of their letter none other sense but such as was too much to be misliked; but hearing them declare their own meanings, and being thoroughly informed by talk with them how the matter passed, finds that the lack of well-handling of their pen and the want of the setting forth, in a matter of such weight, of all due circumstances used and passed in the same, has rather hindered their good meaning than that indeed the matter has been by them so fondly handled as was, and might be, justly gathered by the same. Much pity were it that an error of their pen should frustrate them of the thanks which their good travail has deserved.
His humble request is that she would send them some good answer to restore them to life again, which he would not so earnestly desire if any "suspect" remained in him.
The peace being now concluded he takes his commission to be ended yet the Commissioners think his continuance till the penning of the treaty be done will be to some purpose. Means to-morrow to repair to the Spanish Commissioners and show them her good taking of their assistance, advice, and counsel given from time to time, and pray them to give thanks therefor to the King, from whence the charge came to them, and to assure him of her constant amity, from which no practice could hitherto, nor shall hereafter, induce her at any time to swerve. And this he will show was a great piece of his errand hither. They have very well demeaned themselves in her causes, wherein they have always been as earnest as in her own, without any kind of halting or dissimulation perceived in them at any time. This last matter was not without the showing of their great displeasure that any such thing should pass out of the Frenchmen's mouths, to whom they had at all times made such answer therein as to the indignity thereof did appertain.
After this will bestow some good words on her behalf to the Constable, and the rest of that side by whom, with wine and other presents, he has been very courteously welcomed since his coming to this town. The Spanish Commissioners have not yet made an end, having been so earnest, they say, in our matters as to suffer their own to be asleep. The "grosse" is concluded upon on both sides; the difficulty rests in the penning and due framing of their agreement. There is a speech that D'Andelot, who came here yesterday in post, has set the matter a little back, so there is little likelihood of their "dissembling" before the holidays.—Chasteau in Cambreseys, 18 March 1558. Signed.
Orig. Pp. 4.
March 18.
R. O.
422. Sir John Mason to Cecil.
Arrived here on the 16th inst., having not had one fair day in all his journey. Found the peace concluded for our part three days before his coming, whereof he was very glad for more causes than one. The Spanish Commissioners have not yet passed their bargain thoroughly; they do not stand upon any material point, but rather upon whether, in matters of opinion, the penning shall be this way or that way. Yet some judge that D'Andelot has brought some further scruple with him, who on Sunday last arrived here in post with a great train in white crosses, "spick and span new." Howsoever the matter is, the agreement will be well enough. It was thought that on Tuesday all matters might have been brought to such perfection that on Wednesday each party might have departed; but now it is thought that this will not be before the holidays. In the meantime the English Commissioners are drawing up their treaty, which, however, must tarry the signing and sealing till the other parties be at a point.
The French are very loth to have their hostages go into England, pretending the cause thereof to be the alterations in our service. If they go into England they do in anywise require they may use according to the fashion used in the Church of France, and that for that purpose they may be lodged together. "This liberty, you know, was given to the French Ambassador in King Edward's time." For his part would prefer that they should tarry here rather than come among us, where they shall serve for nothing but to espy. But as there is an Ambassador, all is one, for he will bring with him spies enough. They can come into England with those who shall be sent to make the said ratification, which will be in six weeks or two months hence.
The Queen's letter and his [Mason's] instructions have marvellously overthrown the English Commissioners, two of whom, especially, take the matter so heavily that they will carry it to their graves. If he [Cecil] saw them he would have as much pity of them as ever he had of men. Notably perceives what a great grief entering into a man suddenly may do. His comforting of them seems nothing. Poor Dr. Wotton is fallen half into an ague; marry, rather an ague of the mind than of the body, and being before sore broken, this helpeth him forward apace. The Bishop of Ely, albeit his health doth continue, yet is he factus totus stupidus. "I promise you it plucketh tears out of mine eyes to think upon their cares. The said Bishop hath heard diverse bruits out of England which were sufficient much to amaze him, but the last matter hath knit up the knot. You know he is a man able to do some service, and at this time he hath well showed it, whatsoever he hath been in the other time of government, or whatsoever his judgment may be thought in such matters as now do pass at home, it were too much pity clean to overthrow him for lack of a comfortable word. His judgment was well known in King Edward's time, and yet you know he was employed, and did great service. And so do I assuredly think he will in this time do, if he put thereunto."
As to their letter, it was illpenned, as they admit, but they had an explanation to give of it. Their meaning was never to move anything touching the title which the Spaniards had thoroughly rejected to the French, but only to avoid arbiters, whereby the craft of the Frenchmen might be met withal, who they found would indirectly thereby devise that cavillation. "They have now made their meanings more plain, wherewith my trust is the Queen will remain satisfied. For the love of God, Mr. Secretary, help to salve this sore, and move the Queen to heal the wounds which she hath given, with some comfortable letter. And the sooner it may like her so to do, the better shall her service here take perfection, being in effect the senses of her ministers at this present taken away by sorrow."
What shall they do when they break up? Thinks that one should go to the King to thank him; this my Lord Chamberlain will be content to do. For himself, he may return out of hand, and thinks the other two may return at the same time. —"From the vale of misery," 18 March 1558.
P. S.—No great occurrences. Duke Augustus is gone to the coronation of the King of Denmark. "The Queen of Scots is very sick, and these men fear she will not long continue. God take her to Him so soon as may please Him." Of the deaths of the Earl of Casselles, the Lords of Rothes and Fleming, and of the Bishop of Orkney, in France, is sure he has heard long since.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
March 18.
B. M. Harl. 353. 158.
423. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 18 March 1558.—Present: the Lord Great Seal, the Marquis of Northampton; the Earls of Bedford and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Treasurer, Mr. Secretary.
A letter to the Treasurer of Berwick touching the order taken for the due payment of such victuals as shall be delivered of the Queen's store there to the labourers at Berwick, according to the minute remaining in the Council chest.
A like letter to the said Treasurer to pay to the Lord Evere all such duties and sums of money as was due unto him for his entertainment of his captainship of the town and castle of Berwick until the 5th of March last, at which day he was discharged of the said rooms, and also to pay unto him as much as is due for the entertainment granted unto him of 20s. per diem until the said 5th of March; and nevertheless he is willed to defalcate so much as is due by him for victuals which he hath received of the Queen's store. And where he demands a further allowance of 2d. per diem by way of benevolence, he is required to stay the payment thereof until the Queen's further pleasure shall be signified unto him.
March 18.
R. O. 27 VI. 47.
424. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 18.
R. O. 27 V. 97.
425. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 19.
B. M. Harl. 353. 158 b.
426. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 19 March 1558.—Present: the Lord Great Seal, the Marquis of Northampton; the Earls of Bedford and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Treasurer, Mr. Secretary.
This day the Lords were contented that the Lord Admiral shall license a ship of London, called the John Evangelist of London, to pass into Barbary with one master and thirty mariners, notwithstanding the former restraint.
March 18.
R. O. 27 V. 98.
427. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 18.
R. O. 27 VI. 48.
428. Another copy of the preceding.
Modern transcript.
March 20.
R. O.
429. Robert Corneweylle to Cecil.
Craves him for the despatch and expedition of the Queen's gracious answer to his submission.—Paris, 20 March 1559.
Hol. Add. Endd.: 20 March 1558. Pp. 2.
March 20.
B. M. Harl. 353. 158 b.
430. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 20 March 1558.—Present: the Lords Great Seal and Treasurer; the Marquis of Northampton; the Earls of Bedford and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Secretary; Mr. Cave, Mr. Peeter, Mr. Sackevill.
This day, upon suit made by certain of the inhabitants of the town of Newcastle that they might have licence to pass with their ships following into the Low Countries from that town, the Lords, considering that there should not now be so great necessity to stay the said ships, were pleased that the Lord Admiral should give order that the same might pass, notwithstanding the former restraint, [viz.]: The John Bradlinges, the Marten, the Mychaell, the Barbara, the George Anderson, the Mary Flower, the James Ellyson, the Angel, the George Bewyck, the James Rowkesby, the Jesus, the Andrew, the Peter, the Anne Gallant, the Fox, the Trinity.
A letter to the Lord Dacre in answer of his of the 13th of this present, touching his request to understand how he shall use the assured Scotch now during the abstinence. For answer, he is willed to signify hither their names and haviours, and a copy of the article of their assurance, to the end some order may be taken for them upon the conclusion of the peace; and in the meantime to give them in charge to forbear to make any incursions into Scotland, but to use themselves quietly as the subjects of this realm, as they mind the preservation of their security.
March 20.
R. O. 27 V. 97.
431. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 20.
R. O. 27 V. 49.
432. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 20.
R. O.
433. Cavalcanti to Cecil.
Has arrived here to speak with the Vidame before he sets out for Calais, and finds Kyligray here whom he thought to have been there. Will not neglect the present opportunity of writing to Cecil. Things at Court are as he mentioned in his last letter. Knows all that has passed at Cambrasi, as well by public report as otherwise. The conclusion will give great and general satisfaction, especially when the necessity of the Christian world is considered. Will wait here for the final decision, and if the ultimate arrangements be not quite such as might be desired, yet hopes that time, peace, and friendship will supply what is deficient. Will justify his conduct at the fitting time and place. Recommends himself to Cecil's protection, being conscious that he has served with discretion and prudence, and will do so as long as he lives. Refers himself to Kyligray. Has remained here only one day and will return to the Court this night. Desires to salute Cecil's wife, to whom he is under many obligations.—Paris, 20 March 1558. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Ital. Pp. 3.