Elizabeth: April 1559, 1-10

Pages 193-210

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1863.

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April 1559, 1-10

April 1.
B. M. Calig. B. iv. 225.
472. Commission for Scotland.
Commission of Francis and Mary, King and Queen of France and Scotland, appointing [Jean] de Monluc, Bishop of Valence, [Nicolas] de Pellevé, Bishop of Amiens, and M. de la Brosse, their Commissioners to settle the troubles which for some time past have disturbed Scotland, authorizing them to offer the rebels an amnesty for past offences if they will return to their allegiance, and empowering them to treat with Elizabeth if necessary.—Amboise, 1 April 1559. Signed: François, Marie,—De l'Aubespine.
Copy. Pp. 2.
April 1.
B. M. Calig. B. ix. 53.
473. Another copy of the above.
Copy, dated by Cecil. Endd.: Copy of the commission sent by Chapperone. Pp. 3.
April 1.
B. M. Nero, B. vi. 9.
474. Sir Edward Carne to the Queen.
1. Acknowledges her letter of 4th February, which he received on the 10th ult., licensing him to return home, according to his long suit made in that behalf, of the receipt of which he advertised her on the 11th of the same. When putting himself in order to depart was warned not to do so without first giving the Pope knowledge thereof, whereupon he made suit to declare to him how long he had been away from home during the late Queen's reign, and had continually made suit to be allowed to return to his wife and children; and that he therefore desired to take his leave of him and return immediately. The Pope, however, deferring to grant him an audience on the pretence that he was sick, Carne went to the Cardinal of Naples, through whom it was usual to seek an audience with His Holiness. Getting, however, nothing but fair words from him, he went to the Cardinal Trani, the chief of Council, and who rules all under the Pope, asking him to inform His Holiness of his [the writer's] recall, and that he wished to depart speedily out of Italy before the extreme heats; that he could stay no longer conveniently, and was only waiting to inform the Pope of his departure. The Cardinal said that the Pope knew well that Carne was revoked before the Cardinal of Naples had moved him, and that he would learn his pleasure.
2. On the 21st ultimo Cardinal Trani told him that the Pope was sore moved in such sort when he spoke to him of Carne's departure that he durst no way further press him therein, and that he thought he would not suffer him to depart. Carne told him that he must needs depart, first on account of his duty to his Sovereign, and next from necessity, and begged him to do the best he could for him; which he promised to do. In the mean season he made him ready to get him hence.
3. On the morrow, after Easter Day, being the 27th of the last month, the said Cardinal told him that the Pope would not suffer him to depart "herehence," the Queen and her realm "being revolted from his obedience and this see, as he was informed;" and therefore had given him strait commandment to charge Carne not to depart, without his special commandment, and to stay in the meantime in the English house here. Carne told him that he was very ill-handed for his long service to be kept here as a prisoner. The Cardinal said, "Content yourself, this is the Pope's pleasure," and would hear him no further.
4. So he dares not out of the gates of this city, which are straitly kept night and day with soldiers; also he is wellknown, besides being old and able to make no shift.
5. Begs the Queen to remember his thirty years service under her father, brother, and sister, wherein he consumed all the substance that he had, without any recompence, but lived with his diets only, with the hardest. Unless she have mercy he will have nothing to live upon, besides he is an old man and almost at his grave, and can make little shift. Will, however, omit no occasion for his deliverance "herehence." Begs the Queen to pardon him for lamenting his case to her, since there is no other to whom he can do so. Has no other occurrence to advertise her of, but that the Pope has driven all the Bishops that lay at Rome to depart "herehence" to their bishoprics.
The report is that the peace is concluded, and that there will be a general council this year somewhere out of Italy.— Rome, April 1, 1559. Signed: Edward Carne.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 2.
R. O. Rymer, xv. 513. Dumont, V. 29.
475. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
Treaty of peace between Francis and Mary, King and Queen of Scotland, and Elizabeth, Queen of England, concluded at Cateau Cambresis, 2 April 1559.
Prefixed is an abstract of the commission of the Ambassadors, authorizing them to treat.
The treaty contains the following clauses:—
1. That there shall be peace between Scotland and England.
2. That neither shall invade the territories of the other.
3. That neither shall assist the enemies of the other.
4. That neither shall shelter the rebels, traitors, murderers, thieves, robbers, or fugitives of the other, but shall surrender them on twenty days' notice.
5. That the fortress of Aymouth shall be rased, and all violations of the treaty of Boulogne, A.D. 1549, shall be remedied.
6. That all other claims, on either side, shall be reserved for the present.
7. That, as there are certain articles respecting which the Ambassadors are not at this time sufficiently informed, these shall remain unsettled for the present, but shall be arranged within two months by Commissioners to be appointed for the purpose.
8. That, until this be done, the treaty last entered into between Edward VI. and Queen Mary be observed.
9. That in this treaty be comprehended, on the part of Scotland, the Kings of France and Spain, and on the part of England, Philip King of Spain.
10. That this treaty be proclaimed on the borders, by each party, within thirty days.
11. That each of the contracting parties shall confirm this treaty within ten days after having been required so to do by the other.
Appended are:
Commission of Francis and Mary, &c., dat. Villiers costé Retz, 1 March 1559.
Commission of Elizabeth, 20 January 1559.
Signed: Carolus Cardinalis de Lotharingia, A. de Montmorency, Jacques D'Albon, J. de Morvillier, E. D'Orleans, De l'Aubespine.
Orig. Vellum, with five seals. Endd. Lat. Pp. 6.
April 2.
B.M. Sloane, 4131. 56 and 67.
476. A collation of Rymer's text of the above treaty with the original copy mentioned in the last article, by Forbes.
Two copies.
April 2.
R. O.
477. Another copy of the above.
Copy. Pp. 8.
April 2.
R. O.
478. Another copy of the above, omitting the commissions.
A few notes by Cecil. Pp. 6.
April 2.
R. O.
479. Another copy of the above, omitting the commissions.
Pp. 5.
April 2.
R. O.
480. Another copy of the above, omitting the commissions.
Pp. 6.
April 2.
R. O.
481. Another copy of the above, omitting the commissions.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.
April 2.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 5.
482. Another copy of the above, omitting the commissions.
Copy. Pp. 5.
April 2.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 68. Fœd. xv., 505. Dumont, V. 31. Leonard, 11. 527.
483. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
The Commissioners of Henry King of France, and Elizabeth Queen of England, having met at Cateau Cambresis, have concluded a peace between their respective realms in the following terms.
1. There shall be peace between Henry and Elizabeth and their subjects.
2. That neither shall invade the realm of the other.
3. That neither shall assist any prince or people who invade the realms of the other.
4. That the present treaty shall continue in force even if the previous articles be violated by the subjects of either realm, in which case the offenders shall be punished, and none others.
5. That the inhabitants of each kingdom shall have liberty to trade with the other.
6. That, during this peace, no armed vessel shall leave any of the ports of either France or England without giving previous security to the Admiral of France or England, respectively, that the above provisions of the peace shall not be violated.
7. That the King of France shall have peaceable possession for the space of eight years, of Calais, Ruysbank, Nyhuse, Merk, Oye, Hammes, Sandgate, and Guisnes, with their appurtenances, acquired by the King of France during the late war with Queen Mary. At the end of eight years the premises shall be restored to England.
8. That along with the town of Calais should also be restored to England 16 brass pieces of artillery; viz., 3 cannons, 3 demy cannons, 3 bastards, and 7 smaller pieces, called mayennes.
9. That the King of France shall cause seven or eight, (and not more) substantial merchants, not subjects of France, to become bound to the Queen of England, in the sum of 500,000 crowns of gold of the sun, for the restitution of the premises at the end of the period specified.
10. That it shall be lawful for the King of France from year to year to change the securities mentioned in the last article, and to substitute others, whom the Queen of England shall be bound to accept.
11. That the King of France shall surrender to the Queen. as hostages for the ratification of the treaty, the following personages, (for whose sufficiency he vouches) viz., Frederick de Foix, Count de Candale, and Chaptal de Buch, Louis de Saint Maure, Marquis de Nesle and Count de Laval, Gaste de Foix, Marquis de Trani, and [Antoine] du Prat, Prevost of Paris, and Sieur de Nantoillet, who shall become bond for the said sum of 500,000 crowns until the merchants mentioned in § 9 shall be produced.
12. That these hostages shall not be detained in custody in England, but shall make oath that they will not depart from England without the Queen's licence.
13. That it shall be lawful for the King to change these hostages every two months.
14. That during this period of eight years it shall not be lawful either for the King of France, or the King and Queen of Scotland, or the Queen of England, to make any hostile attempt upon the realm or subjects of the other. If this be done by the King of France, then he and the King Dauphin shall be bound to surrender Calais and the places aforesaid, and if this be not done the merchants or hostages, (as the case may be,) shall be bound to forfeit the sum of 500,000 crowns aforesaid. If on the other hand, the subjects of the Queen of England violate the treaty, the King of France, the King Dauphin, and the merchants or hostages, shall be free from their promises and bonds respectively. Private individuals violating this treaty shall be punished by their own Sovereigns.
15. The port of Aymouth, in the realm of Scotland, and all buildings erected either by the French, the Scotch, or the English, in violation of the treaty of Boulogne, of March 1549, shall be demolished within three months from the date of this treaty.
16. All suits and claims between the King of France and the King and Queen of Scotland on the one hand, and the Queen of England on the other, shall mutually remain whole and entire. These, it is hoped, will speedily be terminated.
17. Neither of the contracting parties shall harbour the rebels or traitors of the other, but shall give them up within twenty days after being required thereto.
18. That letters of reprisal or marque shall be given only against the chief delinquents, their goods and factors; and this only after the denial of justice.
19. That in this treaty shall be comprehended, on the part of France, the King of Spain, and the King, Queen, and realm of Scotland; and on the part of the Queen of England Philip King of Spain.
20. That each of the contracting parties shall cause the truce to be proclaimed at Paris and London within ten days of the date of the present treaty, and within the ports and chief towns of France and England as speedily as possible.
21. That the King of France and the Queen of England shall respectively swear to observe the articles of this treaty.
Appended are—
1. The commission from Henry II., appointing deputies for the execution of the above treaty. (See 22 Jan. 1559.)
2. The commission of Elizabeth to the like effect. (See 20 Jan. 1559.)
The treaty is dated at Cateau Cambresis, 2 April 1559,— Signed, (on the part of France) Carolus Cardinalis de Lotaringia; F. de Montmorency; Jacques d'Albon; De Morvillier; E. d'Orleans; De Laubespine: (on the part of England) W. Howard, Thomas Ely, N. Wotton. With the seals of the five French Commissioners.
Orig. on vellum. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 12.
April 2.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 191.
484. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
April 2.
R. O.
485. Another copy of the above.
Pp. 12.
April 2.
R. O.
486. Another copy of the above.
Treaty Book, 1. 171.
April 2.
R. O.
487. Another copy of the above.
Treaty Book, 2. 210.
April 2.
B. M. Calig. E. V. 53 b.
488. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
The English counterpart of the treaty of Cateau Cambresis, in which the English Commissioners take the precedence.
Copy, injured by fire. Pp. 12.
April 2.
R. O.
489. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
French counterpart of the treaty of Cateau Cambresis.— Fontainbleau, [blank] April 1559.
Orig. Signed by Henry, with seal. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 12.
April 2.
R. O.
490. Treaty of Cateau Cambresis.
"Extract of certain articles out of the treaty of France, made 1559, April 2, concerning Calais," viz. the seventh and fourteenth articles, with the attestations of the Ambassadors.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
April 3.
R. O.
491. The English Commissioners at Cateau Cambresis to the Queen.
On the 26th ult. they received her letters of the 22nd, and are comforted by finding that she accepts their excuse made in the matter laid to their charge. Sir John Mason, the bearer hereof, will inform her of all their proceedings, as well betwixt them and the French as between the Spaniards and the French, and in what case all matters are now; on the receipt of her last letter Sir John desired to return straight to her, yet they required him to remain here until this day; as did also the Spanish Commissioners, who, when they came to the penning of our matters on all sides, mistrusted the cavillations of the French, whereof not only they but the writers also have had good proof. The Spaniards therefore required most earnestly that Sir John should not depart until that they and the English were at a more certainty of their said conclusion. These matters are now at a point to be finished.—Casteau en Cambresis, 3 April 1559. Signed: W. Howard, Thomas Ely, N. Wotton.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 3.
B. M. Calig. B. ix. 203.
492. Carne to the Queen.
Although revoked by her he could neither get access to the Pope or leave to depart. Understanding that the Queen had revolted from the obedience of that see, the Pope, by Bernardinus, Cardinal of St. Matthew, has commanded the writer, upon penalty of excommunication, not to depart from Rome, and has assigned him the government of the Hospital of the English nation for his maintenance. He perceives that the French have obtained somewhat of their purpose the month before, but in what particular he cannot learn.—Rome, 3 April 1559.
Abridged copy.
April 3.
R. O.
493. The Earl of Northumberland to the Privy Council.
The Laird of Lethington being here on his repair to the Court, (for the better order to be kept on the Borders) desired that the writer would meet the Lieutenant of Scotland for the redress of attemptates done during the abstinence; and for that cause wrote to the Queen Dowager, fixing the meeting at Lady Kirk, near Norham, on the Tuesday after. This appointment could not be kept for lack of time.
It was next agreed that their deputies should meet on the Tuesday before Easter, which they did, but without any results.
Thursday last was then fixed for the purpose, and the Lieutenant and the Earl met at Ridingburn. The gentlemen borderers attended; and for a furtherance of justice, the Justice Clerk of Scotland also came. When the Earl stated that the Scottish thieves and rebels had committed many attemptates upon the English, this they excused by reason that the Scottish subjects were not dutiful and obedient; howbeit in words they offered to make redress for all.
They met again at the same place yesterday, but delays were again made by the Scotch, much otherwise than was before promised, and nothing in effect could be had of them. The Justice Clerk was before this, by reason of a sickness that took him in the field, departed. Are to meet again upon Tuesday come a seven night, which shall be the 11th inst. Promises have been made openly on both sides for the observation of peace during the time of the abstinence, and punishment of offences, if any should happen.
P.S. [mutilated.] Has discharged of garrisons, horsemen, . . . . footmen, 350; there remain . . . . horsemen and 600 footmen. Great exclamations for want of the pay, but he has pacified them with promises. Hopes the mass of the money will be hastened.—Warkworth, 3 April 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 3.
R. O.
494. Croft to the Privy Council.
Has received their letters of 27 March, in which they require him to abridge the Queen's charges at Berwick. In his opinion the foot bands are not to be diminished so long as the works are unfinished. Although when the works now in hand are completed, a less number of men than those now required may serve the ordinary guard of the town, yet until then, things require more care than if the work had not been begun at all.
Nevertheless to abate the charges; here are two bands of horsemen, one of 100, late under Lord Evers, and now assigned to the writer, partly for the amendment of his entertainment; these may be cassed, reserving a few, being his servants, to wait upon him, and for his entertainment, it may be reserved to the Queen's consideration. The other band of 50 is under Mr. Bowes, Marshal of the town, who being at that time with their Lordships, they may call him before them, and take some order with him that in lieu of his horsemen he may have an augmentation of his diet. Requests to be informed of their pleasure, that he may take order against the coming of the money.—Berwick, 3 April 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
April 3.
R. O.
495. Gresham to Cecil.
By his letter of the 28th ult. he signified the buying of the rest of the Queen's corrin powder and serpentine powder, as also of his departure to Brussels, where he has been until this day. Has obtained the King's passport for the 200 barrels of saltpetre, which he freely granted to the Queen at the writer's first suit; but the Duke of Savoy and the Council of Finance made great difficulty for the passing thereof, as he was informed by the secretary Vander Aa. Informs the Queen hereof, that she may make the much more of such passports as he has yet remaining, granted by the Queen her late sister, the like of which will not be granted hereafter. Corriers are now not to be had for money; those sent to the Queen hence have cost her 16s. 8d. Flemish the piece, those made in England cost her 23s. 4d. sterling, which makes 26s. 8d., as the exchange now goes.
Wishes to know whether he shall ship home the munition and armour. If the powder and saltpetre should miscarry by fire, as it is dangerous merchandise, the Queen must bear the loss. Likewise as three ships of war of the Scots are yet remaining in Zealand, the Queen should send three or four of her best ships of war that are abroad "for the sewre waiftinge of this monnyssione and armewr." Here are no English ships, but Dutch hoyes, wherein he must lade all the gear, as he has hitherto done, but then he had the Queen's ships "to wayfte them."
The particulars of the peace not yet known. Is coming home very shortly to report to the Queen all his proceedings. Sir Wm. Pickering has been a little diseased of a fever, but is well amended. Encloses a letter from Mr. Mownte.— Antwerp, 3 April 1559. Signed: Thomas Gresham, mercer.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 3 March (sic) 1559. Pp. 3.
[April 3.]
R. O.
496. Gresham's Purchases in Flanders.
A note of all such property as I, Thomas Gresham, have remaining in my hands for the behalf of the Queen, in April 1559.
P. 1.
April 5.
R. O.
497. Mundt to the Queen.
Last week, when the Ambassadors of the new Palatine were come hither to this Diet, he communicated with them, then with the Commissioners of the Elector of Saxony (Augustus), of Johannis Frederici (son to Johannes Fredericus), of the Duke of Wirtemburg, and of the Landgrave, with each apart, to the effect that the Queen desires especially to preserve amity with those Princes and Estates of the Empire that maintain and possess the true and right religion, and that for this purpose she has commissioned him to repair to the Diet.
They answered him, after one sort, that this message would be acceptable to their masters, "not doubting that Your Majesty will restore true religion and God's glory again."
In the Diet, the article of religion is now in hand, and the treaties which have been among the collocutors at Worms are now here examined and debated. The Protestants have laboured by the Emperor that this article be first taken in hand, and it seemeth that they will grant nothing until this article be moderated. They require that it shall be free to all them that will profess the Gospel; and that the Bishops or other shall not punish any man therefor, showing and using himself besides honestly and obediently. To this the Bishops will agree in no way, and on their side is the Duke of Bavaria and all other prelates and abbots. The Emperor suffers that his men, those that will, may communicate sub utraque specie, and many of his household and guard have communicated this "Oestern" in the Protestant churches, and come to their sermons daily.—Augsburg, 5 April 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
April 5.
R. O.
498. Mundt to Cecil.
Writes at this time to the Queen of his proceedings here in her name, to such Princes' ambassadors as he judges to be her friends. Hopes that his proceedings may please her, and be profitable to setting forth God's glory. Wishes (as he has done in his letters of 25 Jan. and 15 March) that a certain mandatum were given him, so that if he did transgress fines mandati he should be reum culpœ. Prays to be commended to Sir Anthony Coke.
Of the conditions of the peace made, item, of the proceedings in matters of religion in the Parliament in England, he is of honest men daily asked, but hereof he can make no answer.—Augusta, 5 April 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 5.
R. O.
499. The English Commissioners at Cateau Cambresis to the Privy Council.
The treaties between us, France and Scotland, were thoroughly concluded and partly signed on the evening of the 2nd inst., and fully signed, sealed, and delivered on the 3rd. All are dated on the 2nd.
It is provided therein that the peace with France shall be proclaimed at London and Paris within 10 days (by the 12th inst.) and at places by the sea coast as soon as may be, and that the peace with Scotland shall be proclaimed upon the borders within thirty days. Sir John Mason has been advertised of this by his servants, but for security they repeat it.
On the 3rd, when the treaties on all sides were completed, they went all together to the parish church in Casteau Cambresis, with the Duchess of Lorraine and her son, the Duke, where proclamation was immediately made of the same, and Te Deum and Mass sung. They are now on their way homeward; but forasmuch as the Lord Chamberlain is sick of an ague tertian, (which took him on the 31st March and on Tuesday the 4th inst. troubled him with the third fit,) they cannot be so soon at home as they desired.—Cambray, 5 April, in the morning. Signed: W. Howard, Thomas Ely, N. Wotton.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 5.
R. O.
500. The Earl of Northumberland to the Privy Council.
Understanding by his brother and Sir Richard Lee the coming hither of my Lord of Bedford, he spares his coming to the Court that he may attend upon his Lordship here, "making and declaring unto his Lordship by view and sight of certain those things here more perfectness than otherwise in any other place can be done." Advises that my Lord of Bedford have charge to view generally the state of these frontiers.—Warkworth, 5 April 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 5.
B. M. Galba, B. xi. 224.
501. Expedition to Holstein.
"A brief discourse or sum of W. Erle's expedition and voyage into the land of Holst, to certain of the Queen's most honourable Privy Council, 5th April 1559."
The Duke of Holst having written to Queen Mary to the effect that he desired that her subjects (who are now excluded from the traffic of the Steedes or Hanse towns) should trade with his country, she answered that she intended shortly to send some man to view the aptness of his havens. Hereupon the merchants, to open the trade, appointed the writer to bring both cloths and the Queen's second letter, which was well received by the Duke, but the project was hindered by the envy of his subjects at the instigation of the Hanse. The Chancellor having brought with him a letter from the Duke, the matter was debated between them, during which Erle admitted that the havens and country were meet, and that the cloths were not sold was occasioned by the iniquity of the time; but he promised that the English would bring meeter sorts, as the Duke most earnestly required and promised sale thereof. Thought that the Duke himself, and not the Queen, should write to his neighbours to resort thither for trade, as the benefit would be his own. Judges that Husone on the West Sea was the meetest haven, and Sleswyk on the East Sea, or Belt, so be it he would clear the deep that is destroyed at the entry, otherwise Flensburg were better.
The Duke thought the Queen should forbid all trade into Holland and the places between his country and that, so should the haunt and traffic be greater; but Erle thought this would not be, for she would not bind her subjects to an inconveniency.
The Duke next declared that he would make the English free throughout his countries, so as to pay no custom either in or out, requiring that his subjects might enjoy like freedom of custom; but Erle thought that this could not be brought to pass, for the desert was not equal.
This was the sum of the writer's conclusion, the Duke promising to send his Ambassador thither.
Endd.: A discourse of W. Erle touching Holst, delivered to Mr. Secretary Cecil. Slightly injured by fire. Pp. 6.
April 6.
R. O.
502. The Queen to Dorothy, Queen of Denmark.
Has received her letters, dated 15th Jan., and thanks her for her affectionate congratulations. As to the proposed treaty between Elizabeth and the children of the Queen of Denmark, since it tends to the advancement of the religion which they mutually profess and of God's service, she gives the present letters, witnesses of her good will in the same, to the bearer Johannes Spithovius (Dorothy's messenger, and Elizabeth's servant), who will further inform her verbally of such matters as he had been previously instructed by Dorothy to express in like manner to the writer. Thanks her for her kindness to the said Johannes, in a country which was certainly in a wretched condition.—6 April 1559.
Draft, corrected and endd. by Cecil. Add.: Dominæ Dorothæ, Daniæ, Norwegiæ Reginæ, jam viduæ. Lat. Pp. 3.
April 6.
R. O. 171 B.
503. Another copy of the above. Modern transcript.
April 6.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 157. Calder. 1. 431.
504. Knox to Anna Lock.
Received at Dieppe on 17th March her letter, dated at Geneva, 7th Feb. Apologizes for his negligence in writing. His remembrance of her is not yet dead, though it be renewed by no outward token for one year. Of nature he is churlish and in conditions different from many; yet one thing he is not ashamed to affirm, that familiarity once throughly contracted was never broken by his default. Corporal absence of one year or two from him cannot quench in his heart that familiar acquaintance in Jesus Christ which half a year did engender and almost two years did nourish and confirm. Whether he writes or not she may be persuaded that he has her in such memory as it becomes the faithful to have the faithful.
In answering her questions he knows he will be judged extreme and rigorous, but it is no time to flatter nor dissemble. Our Master calls His own to depart from Babylon, and severely threateneth death and damnation to such as have the mark of the Beast. "And a portion of his mark are all these dregs of papistry which are left in your great book of England, any jot of which I will never counsel any man to use. One iota, I say, of these diabolical inventions, viz., crossing in baptism, kneeling at the Lord's Table, mummulling and singing of the Litany, a fulgure et tempestate, a subitanea et improvisa morte. The whole order of the book appeareth rather to be devised for the upholding of massing priests than for any good instruction which the simple people can thereof receive. Your Sacraments were ministered, by the most part, without the soul, and by those who, to Jesus Christ, were no true ministers; and God grant that so yet they be not. Without the soul, I say, they were ministered, because they were ministered without the Word truly and openly preached; and your ministers before, for the most part, were none of Christ's ministers, but mass-mongering priests. They were newly-created singers or sayers of matins, evensong, and of communion; to church or to purify women, and to bury the dead with 'commendo cinerem cineri,' &c., whereof no point I find enjoined to Christ's ministers, but only to preach Christ Jesus crucified, and to minister the Sacraments in such simplicity as from Him they had received them. Yea, so bound to preach did the Apostle confess himself, that he would not acknowledge himself to be sent to baptize; affirming thereby that the chiefest office of Christ's ministers is to preach the glad tidings of the Kingdom, repentance and remission of sins, the seals whereof be the Sacraments; and the true ministers of them be only those that be appointed to preach, and also do preach Christ Jesus, and the benefits of his death. But such were not your ministers, for the most part; for the first entry to their ministry was, to offer Christ Jesus for the sins of the quick and the dead, and in that same purpose, as time hath declared, did no small number remain. And yet, I think, that Mr. Parson and Mr. Vicar shall cause his chaplain mummill the Communion, &c. I appear to jest with you."
She having asked of him, whether it were lawful to accompany these children, at the request of their friends, to the "kirk," who shall be baptized after the manner accustomed in the days of King Edward; and whether the Lord's Supper be truly ministered, if the receivers be suffered to sit or to stand, and the bread being such as is commonly used, notwithstanding of the singing of the Ten Commandments out of tune, and the singing of the Creed, &c., and whether we may be partakers in that supper or no? To these, her questions, he answers thus, "with Mr. Parson's pattering of his constrained prayers, and with the mass-mongering of Mr. Vicar and of his wicked companions" . . . . . . . (fn. 1) Where Christ is not preached the Sacraments have neither life or soul; and further, none can be a lawful minister of Christ's Sacrament who is not first a minister of His blessed Word. Whether she, with a good conscience, can communicate with that which in effect is no Sacrament, and honour him as Christ's minister, who is but a bastard, yea, Christ's plain enemy, she may judge herself.
Knows that she and others will find this his judgment extreme, but he will be guiltless of their blood. Holds and affirms all things polluted, yea, execrable and accursed, which God by His Word has not sanctified in His religion.
April 6. Will salute no man in commendation specially, for his First Blast has blown from him all his friends in England. His conscience bears record that yet he is in the favour of God. Fears the Second Blast shall sound somewhat more sharp, except that men be more moderate than he hears they are. Understands his book is to be written against; fears that men shall rather destroy than edify by such enterprises. "England hath refused me, but because before it did refuse Christ Jesus, the less do I regard the loss of that familiarity. God grant that their ingratitude be not punished with severity, and that ere that they be aware."— Dieppe, 6 April 1559.
April 7.
B.M. Harl. 353. 165 b.
505. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 7th April 1559.—Present: the Lord Great Seal, the Earl of Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Treasurer, Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain; Mr. Cave, Mr. Sackeville.
A letter to the Earl of Northumberland signifying the conclusion of the peace; the Council, therefore, required him to give order that none serving under him do annoy the Scotch, but use them as friends. Nevertheless, he is willed to stay the publishing of this proclamation until he shall further understand from the Queen.
A like letter to Sir James Crofts, captain of Berwick, &c.
April 7.
R. O. 27 V. 115.
506. Another copy of the same. Modern transcript.
April 7.
R. O. 27 VI. 69.
507. Another copy of the same. Modern transcript.
April 8.
B. M. Harl. 353. 166 b.
508. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 8th April 1559.—Present: the Lord Great Seal, the Lord Treasurer; the Earls of Shrewsbury and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, Mr. Secretary; Mr. Mason, Mr. Cave, Mr. Sackevill.
A letter to the Mayor of London, with a proclamation declaring the peace concluded between the Queen, the French King, and the Scots, which he is willed to cause to be proclaimed in such places within the city and in such decent manner as has been accustomed.
A like letter, with another proclamation of the peace, to the Lord President of Wales.
April 8.
R. O. 27 V. 117.
509. Another copy of the same. Modern transcript.
R. O.
27 VI. 72.
510. Another copy of the same. Modern transcript.
April 8.
B. M. Add. 5756. 121.
511. Proclamation of Peace.
Allowance to Richard Jugge and John [Caw]ode, printers to the Queen, for printing "300 proclamations declaring the peace taken between the Queen and the French King, &c., delivered 8th April 1559, 20s."
P. 1.
April 9.
R. O.
512. The Queen to Croftes.
Peace having been concluded on the 2nd inst., between her and the realms of France and Scotland (as by a proclamation which she sends herewith more fully appears) he shall, upon understanding on what day peace shall be proclaimed in Scotland (which he may do by conference with Signor de Betincourt, Master of the Household of the Queen Regent of Scotland, who will pass by him or the Earl of Northumberland on his way out of France into Scotland) cause the proclamation to be made the same day at Berwick.
Understanding by his letters to her Council that he had determined to cass certain numbers of horsemen serving under him at Berwick for the abridging of her charges, in so doing she thinks he will do well. Money shall shortly be sent for their payment.
He having stayed from execution a robber who had confessed his crime in hope of life, she is pleased therewith; let his pardon be sued out in due form, and let the rest be proceeded with according to the order of the laws.
Draft. Endd.: 1559, 9 Aprilis, Minute from the Queen to Sir James Croftes, with the proclamation of the peace. Pp.4.
April 10.
R. O.
513. Instructions for Gresham.
"Instructions given by the Queen, the [blank] day of April, 1 Eliz., to Thomas Gresham, her agent in the parts beyond the seas, presently sent thither for the things following:"—
1. Returning to Antwerp he shall "put over" for three or six months all sums of money due next May to the merchants there, upon the like interest as before. If he cannot do this, with preservation of her credit, then he shall "take up" the necessary amount. He has already "put over" a great part of the sums due by the late Queen.
2. If the price of munition and armour, such as have been by him purchased for the Queen, now after the peace become more reasonable, he shall endeavour to have some reasonable bargain for the same quantity, or for the half thereof, remaining upon a licence granted to the late Queen; and shall use his best policy to send over such munition and armour as is already provided.
3. [He shall prove some bargain in secresy for buying of some bullion to be brought hither.] (fn. 2)
Copy, corrected by Cecil. Endd.: 10 April 1559. Pp. 3.
April 10.
Harl. 7004. 1. Knox, 11. 16. Calderwood, 1. 434.
514. Knox to Cecil
Wishes him the Spirit of wisdom, judgment, and sanctification by Jesus Christ. Will not trouble him with long writing, nor labour to conciliate his favour, which he supposes he has already, howsoever rumours bruit the contrary. His letter will be absolved in two points.
(1.) He wishes to discharge his conscience towards Cecil, who, having received all that he has from God, ought to employ the same for the advancement of His glory. This, alas! in times past he [Cecil] has not done, but being overcome with common iniquity, has followed the world in the way of perdition; for, to the suppressing of Christ's true Evangel, to the erecting of idolatry, and to the shedding of the blood of God's dear children, he has, by silence, consented and subscribed. This his horrible defection from the truth known and once possessed, God has to this day mercifully spared; yea, to man's judgment He has utterly forgotten and pardoned the same. He has not treated him as He has done others of like knowledge; whom, in His anger, He did most justly strike after their defection. But him, guilty in the same offences, He has fostered and preserved, as it were in His own bosom, during the time of that most miserable thraldom [of that professed enemy of God, mischievous Mary;] (fn. 3) and now has set him at such liberty as the fury of God's enemies cannot hurt him. As the benefit which he has received is great, so God's justice requires of him a thankful heart; for, seeing that His mercy has spared him, a traitor to God's Majesty; seeing further, that among his enemies He has preserved him; and lastly, seeing, although worthy of hell, He has promoted him to honours and dignity, of him must He require earnest repentance for his former defection, a heart mindful of His merciful providence, and a will ready to advance His glory. Carnal wisdom and worldly policy (to which he is bruited to be much inclined) should give place to God's simple and naked truth. Very love compels the writer to say that, except the Spirit of God purges his [Cecil's] heart from that venom, he shall not long escape the reward of dissemblers. Let him call to mind what he heard proclaimed in the chapel of St. James's, when this verse of the First Psalm was entreated, "Not so, O wicked, not so." Let him consider that he now travels in the same way which they then did occupy. Plainly to speak, now is he in that estate and credit in which he shall either comfort the sorrowful and afflicted for righteousness' sake, or shall oppugn the Spirit of God speaking in His messengers. The troublers of God's servants are threatened to have their names in execration to the posterities following. "And this is the conclusion of that which to yourself I say:—Except that in the cause of Christ's Evangel ye be found simple, sincere, fervent, and unfeigned, ye shall taste of the same cup which politic heads have drunken in before you."
(2.) As regards himself: by diverse messengers he has requested such privileges as Turks commonly grant to men of every nation; that is, peaceably to travel through England, that he might with greater expedition repair to his own country, which now begins to thirst for Christ's truth. Understands that this request has been so rejected that the solicitors thereof hardly escaped imprisonment. Some of his flock are so extremely handled that those who have most cruelly shed the blood of God's most dear children find greater favours than they do. If any who have suffered exile in these most dolorous days of persecution, deserve praise for peace, concord, sober and quiet living, it is they. As for himself, he has a good conscience that since his first acquaintance with England willingly he never offended person within it, excepting "in open chair" to reprove what God condemned.
But Cecil will say that he has written a treasonable book against the Regiment of Women. If this be his offence the poor flock is innocent, for none of that company did he consult before the finishing of the same. It will be hard to prove that book treasonable. No more doubts the truth of his principal proposition than he doubts the voice of God. If his book is written against, fears that flatterers shall rather hurt than help the matter. Except his error be plainly confuted by better authority than by such laws as from year to year may and do change, he dares not promise silence in so weighty a business. Is no enemy to the person nor yet to the regiment of her whom God has now promoted. God comforts His afflicted by an infirm vessel. If Queen Elizabeth shall confess that the extraordinary dispensation of God's mercy makes that lawful in her which both nature and God's Law deny to all women, none in England shall be more willing to maintain her authority than himself; but if she grounds her title upon the customs, laws, or ordinances of men, then he is assured that, as such foolish presumption highly offends God's Majesty, so does he greatly fear that her ingratitude shall not long lack punishment. This, in the name of the Eternal God and of His Son Jesus Christ, he requires him to signify to her in his [Knox's] name; adding, that only humility and dejection of herself before God shall be the firmity and stability of her throne, which he knows shall be assaulted more ways than one. Is his offence (though he had written ten books) so heinous that he cannot have licence to preach of Jesus Christ to refresh those thirsty souls that long have lacked the water of life? Will accuse no man; but greatly fears that the leprous have no pleasure to behold their faces in the clear glass. Does not require to frequent the Court, nor yet for any continuance in England, but only in passing to his own country to communicate with him and some others such things as willingly he lists not to commit to paper, nor yet to the knowledge and credit of many; and then in the north parts to offer God's favours to such as mourn for their former defection. This is the third time that he has begged licence to visit the hungry and thirsty in England.—Dyepe, [Dieppe] 10 April 1559.
P. S.—"Suspecting (fn. 4) the former messenger to have protracted time in this journey, I have doubled my letters by this gentleman, of whose fidelity I am fully persuaded; desiring you most affectionately by him to signify unto me if I may have licence only to visit the poor and dispersed flock at Berwick, Newcastle, and other parts in the north. I hope in God that nothing it shall hurt the Commonwealth of England that such licence be granted unto me."—From Diepe, the 22 April 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
[April 10.]
B. M. Sloane 4734. 158.
515. Another copy of the above.
[April 10.]
B. M. Sloane 4737. 91 b.
516. Abstract of the above.


  • 1. The MS. breaks off at this point.
  • 2. This article is cancelled.
  • 3. These words do not occur in the original letter, but are found in the copy incorporated by Knox into his history.
  • 4. This postscript does not occur in the copy in Knox's History.