Elizabeth: July 1559, 15-20

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1863.

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'Elizabeth: July 1559, 15-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559, (London, 1863), pp. 382-401. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol1/pp382-401 [accessed 20 June 2024].

. "Elizabeth: July 1559, 15-20", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559, (London, 1863) 382-401. British History Online, accessed June 20, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol1/pp382-401.

. "Elizabeth: July 1559, 15-20", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1558-1559, (London, 1863). 382-401. British History Online. Web. 20 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol1/pp382-401.

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July 1559, 15-20

July 17.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 162.
995. The Queen to Throkmorton.
The bearer came from him hither with great speed, arriving here on the 12, (fn. 1) at 3 of clock in the afternoon. Has heard his credit and finds very well Throckmorton's careful and diligent service. Refers him to the bearer for answer to diverse things, with whom comes Richard Tremayne, one whom he may use in her service. He may let him resort unto Geneva (fn. 2) to follow his study and learning. (fn. 3) Touching the Earl of Arran, as these bearers can declare, she is desirous that he should be helped from Geneva into this realm or into Scotland, (fn. 4) as will better appear in a memorial ciphered by the new last cipher sent from him [Throkmorton].
Draft, entirely in Cecil's hand, and endd. by him: 17 Julii 1559. Copy of letter from the Queen to Mr. Throkmorton. Void, because Mr. Tremayne goeth not. Many words and passages underlined for the purpose of being put into cipher. P. 1.
[July 17.]
996. Original of the above letter, as despatched.—Greenwich, 16 July, 1 Eliz. Signed by the Queen.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 17.
R.O. Sloane, 4134. 371.
997. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
[July 17.]
998. "A Memorial of Things committed to Killigrew's Charge."
1. He shall show the Ambassador all the intelligence given him of the proceedings in Scotland.
2. He shall devise the most secret and speedy way to convey the Earl of Arran from Geneva either into this realm, or to his father, where he shall think himself in most safety. The said Earl should not come into the possessions of the Emperor, the King of Spain, the Bishops, Papists, nor others confederate with the French. It shall nowise appear who he is, in all his journey, not to his most assured. Because Flanders and the Bass Countries are dangerous for him, it is thought that Embden is the best passage. On his arrival in England he shall continue unknown as he did before, until the Queen's pleasure is understood. "For his abode until that time may be many ways devised, as his arrival chanceth. If he come in by kent away, then may he either come to the embassad . . . (fn. 5) " He must be informed that the Queen's inclination to help him is of her princely nature to relieve such noble personages as be in adversity, upon the experience of her own like trouble; yet the direction of the whole cause of the preservation of the Earl is left to the said Earl's own wisdom and consideration. For the relief of this matter the Ambassador has credit sent him by Mr. Howard by a bill of Mr. Gresham's for 1,000 crowns.
3. She allows Portinary's service, the rather because he served her father. She will allow him 500 crowns pension. Means to retain Florence Diaceto in her service; considering his affection in religion and that he minds to travel into Germany, it may be considered if his acquaintance is good with Johannes Sturmius, or such like as could solicit such an amity and concord as could be well made and published to the world amongst all monarchs, princes, states, and commonweals which are Protestants; and that in those cases his service might be well bestowed.
4. The Ambassador himself shall comfort to return home such Englishmen there as may be serviceable in this, their native country; such as Horsey, Laighton, Cornwall, Crokkett, the two Tremaynes, and others of the like sort. Herein circumspection must be used.
5. Melven to return into England.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Pp. 2.
July 17.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 163.
999. Memorial from the Queen to Throckmorton.
The (fn. 6) safe conveying of the Earl of Arran hither, or into Scotland, seems both profitable and needful. It must be done secretly, in respect of the subjects of the Emperor, the King Catholic, and the French. Haste, with discretion, is necessary; and shipping at Embden, in Friesland, is thought more safe than at Antwerp.
The entertainment of Portynary is very convenient; he may offer him 500 crowns pension. The entertainment of Florence Diaceto is not so needful as the others, but the Queen is content to accept his service and will reward it with some pension. If he goes to Germany he might solicit Sturmius to endeavour a common league amongst all Protestants for confession and defence of the common faith. Melvyn, the Scots man, may be comforted to come hither, to the end that he offers for service towards Scotland, and so may any Englishmen there who may incline to return for duty's sake. The bearer will show the state of things in Scotland. Must take the charge to appoint one for the expedition of Arran from Geneva. Will shortly receive credit for 500 crowns more.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Portions underlined, to be ciphered. Endd. by Cecil: 17 July 1559. Memorial to Sir Nicolas Throkmorton. Pp. 3.
[July 17.]
1000. Another copy of the above. Headed: Cipher; from Mr. Secretary.—18 July 1559.
P. 1.
[July 17.]
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 372.
1001. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
July 17.
1002. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to [Sir James Croft?]
Has received his writing from Berwick the 15th inst., desiring that a small number of persons may be licensed by her to see the demolition of the fort of Aymouth when it is completed. The report of the gentleman sent by him to Capt. Galliart would assure him how diligently the workmen were labouring thereat; of the completion of which she will cause the writer to be informed in due time, in order that he may view it and inform his Queen thereof.—Dunbar, 17 July 1559.
Copy. P. 1.
July 17.
1003. Kirkcaldy to Cecil.
Upon the sight of Cecil's letter to Sir Harry Percy, and upon the consideration of Cecil's questions and answers, the writer repaired with expedition from Norham to Edinburgh, where, after consultation had, he declared the contents of his letters to those whom he makes privy in such matters, which were accepted in very good part, as he may perceive by their letters. Therefore, if Cecil joins with them in this common cause of Christ and of the liberty of the country, all Europe shall know that a league made in the name of God has other foundation and assurance than pactions made by man for worldly commodity. At present they dare not make the matter known to many, for fear of sudden disclosing the secresy of their purpose; for the Queen Regent already suspects that there is some intelligence with England in this case, insomuch that she has spoken openly that there is a servant sent from the Earl of Northumberland to the Earl of Argyll and the Prior. Also some of their number are poor, and corruption by money is feared, but in the end they fear them not. If these latter were removed from their Council they would not be much weaker, as the hearts of the whole barons and commonalty are so bent to this action and so inflamed against France that if any of the nobility would decline (of which they see no appearance) they could not withdraw their friends nor servants from the professing of Christ and maintaining the liberty of their country.
After the minds of some principals are known, who are most secret in council, the matter will be proponed to the whole Council, and then thinks Cecil's assistance shall be sought by common consent and supplication. Wishes him now and then to write so friendly as to show his fervent and unfeigned mind to support them. Wishes the opportunity now offered were not neglected either by him or them; and for his own part he takes God to witness that he will diligently set forth this cause. Asks credence for the bearer.—Edinburgh, 17 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
July 17.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. Calderw., 1. 498. Knox, 1. 384. Keith, 1. 226.
1004. Francis II. to the Lord James.
They have greatly marvelled at the troubles which have happened in these parts and still more that he, in whom they had an entire confidence, who also has the honour to be so near [in relationship] to the Queen of Scotland, one, morever, who had received such favours, should be one of the principal beginners of these tumults and seditions. Thinks he has been seduced to commit such a fault, and prays him to take heed to return to the good way; otherwise he may be well assured that he [the writer] will cause him and all that have done the like to feel what they have deserved.—Paris, 17 July 1559.
July 17.
1005. "Instructions for Sir Thomas Challoner."
"Instructions given to Sir Thomas Challoner, Knight, sent by the Queen, to reside as her Ambassador with the King Catholic in the Low Countries."
1. On his arrival he shall make means by the Conte de Feria or the Bishop of Arras, to have an audience, at which he shall declare her desire to continue the amity between the realms. "She hath been beholden to him, her good brother, in the late time of her sister's reign, and is disposed not only to retain in memory his most brotherly care for her in time of her troubles, but also to pretermit no convenient mean whereby she may declare herself desirous to acquit the same."
2. The Conte de Feria having until recently been resident in the Queen's Court, there was the less need for her to have an Ambassador with the King of Spain; but the Count having now departed from England she sends Sir Thomas to be her Ambassador there to remain. (fn. 7)
3. Although the ancient leagues have not been properly observed by the King by reason of the loss of Calais, yet "there is no friendship which Her Majesty more alloweth and embraceth than this." If the King exhibits any disposition to revive and confirm these ancient leagues, Sir Thomas shall show himself to be very desirous thereof. He shall so order himself therein as the same may be furthered rather by such the King's Councillors which be of the house of Burgundy than of Spain. If Mons. d'Arras is thereto disposed, he shall be informed from Her Majesty that there is no Councillor about the King to whom she gives more credence for the continuance of this amity than to himself. Signed: Cecil.
Copy, with the Queen's signature prefixed. Endd.: 17 July 1559. Instructions for Sir Thomas Chaloner, from Greenwich, to the King of Spain, being yet in the Low Countries. Pp. 4.
July 17.
B.M. Galba, C. 1. 44.
1006. Another copy of the above.
Transcribed for Sir R. Cotton. Slightly injured by fire. Pp. 2.
July 17.
R.O. 171 B.
1007. Another copy of the same.
Modern transcript.
July 18.
1008. Cecil's Memoranda.
That the French King is dead. That great offers are made by the Earl of Argyll and James the Bastard, to tie the amity with Her Highness. How best to work therein, and the answer. The Earl of Arran's offer. What is to be in Fr[ance] for maintenance of the faction. Touching to send over to King Philip for renewing of the league, and to lie there. Whether if Calais were had it were better for the realm, or more chargeable than worth.
A letter to be sent to the Constable, so as to embrace, &c., his good will.
Another to the Queen of Navarre, in case her husband have the government, to embrace her, &c.
A letter of thanks to V. (fn. 8)
If the Dowager of Scotland ask aid, how to answer it.
Earls (fn. 9) of Argile, Rothes, Marshal, Athol, ten Earls. Prior of S. Andrews, Lord James, Lords Arsken, Ruthven, &c., 16 Barons, Lord Flemming, Lord Symple. Duke departed from her to his house.
Endd. by Cecil: 18 July 1559. Mr. Treasurer, Memorial. Pp. 2.
July 18.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 163.
1009. Throckmorton to the Queen.
Has received her letters of the 11th by Mr. Howard, this bearer. Thanks her for her acceptance of his service. Considering the state whereunto things are come by this sudden event, the alteration of Council and Councillors, the change of directions, and the evil opinion those in rule have of him [the writer], partly for a conceit of religion and specially because they judge him a practiser in the matters of the Earl of Arran and Scotland, he cannot do her such service as he would. Yet if she have thoroughly resolved (understanding his late advertisement by Mr. Kyllegrew) that he should remain here, he will do his utmost for his service.
Since, as well by Mr. Secretary's opinion as by his [the writer's] own, it is both necessary and expedient that the Earl of Arran should with speed be retired into Scotland, and (rather than fail) into England, desires her to send to him Henry Kyllegrew and Richard Tremayne, to conduct the Earl through Germany from the place where he now is. No man so fit for a guide through Germany as the said Tremayne, he having the High Dutch tongue very well. The Earl should embark at some of the north-east towns, as Lubeck or Hamburg, or in East Frieseland, if the Countess of Embden is to be trusted, whereof he is somewhat suspicious, as the French King in this last treaty so beneficially comprehended the said Countess. Does not think it good that such a great personage should embark in the King of Spain's Low Countries, being for many purposes of so great importance.
It is no wise safe for her to depend over long in doubtful and unknown terms upon the King of Spain, but as soon as she shall discover (what in no wise is to be delayed) that he will either show himself her enemy, or not her fast friend, then she should speedily ally herself with some other prince, for assuredly it is high time. Having understood by Cecil's letters of 11th July, that the King of Spain did demand the redelivery of the robes and Order of the Toison, is credibly informed that, without further declaration, he means to dissolve his league with her. Thinks it very necessary (as he sent her word by Kyllegrew) that she should arm to the sea forthwith; and in case the French ask what she means, as they likely will, she may answer, she does so because they do so on this side. As to their pretence to chastise the rebels in Scotland, it may be answered that as they have broken the treaty by bearing the arms of England (which is very notorious) she suspects that they mean something against England, for the surety whereof she will stand upon her guard. It is not to be suffered that the French shall vanquish the Scots that now favour her religion, or that she will suffer any such number of the French there to land as may hereafter annoy England. Is credibly informed that the French reckon with little difficulty to suppress the contrary faction in Scotland, and then to assail England.
Advises her to send some kind letter to comfort the Constable here, the delivery of which may be left to the discretion of her Ambassador. In case the King of Navarre makes any alteration here, the Constable will be a principal minister; otherwise he will retire, for the French King has already given him to understand that the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise shall manage his whole affairs. The French will use all the practices they can to make Stranguyse, the pirate, wholly theirs, to be an instrument to impeach her; it would, therefore, be good policy to serve herself by him covertly, as he [the writer] declared to Killegrew. If the suspicions of the King of Spain's well meaning towards her are confirmed, then she should have a good eye to his navy, which, as she knows, has lately arrived in Flanders, to transport him into Spain, as is reported.—Paris, 18 July. Signed.
July 18.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 374.
1010. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
July 18.
1011. The Constable de Montmorency to the Queen.
Has received her letters by the Sieur de Havart and heard the gracious message conveyed by him. Asks her to believe that there is not a gentleman in France better inclined than himself to do her service.—Paris, 18 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
July 19.
1012. Mundt to the Queen.
Eight days ago he sent her a writing presented to the Emperor by the Protestants for the purpose of obtaining indemnity for such of their clergy as chose to join the Confession of Augsburg. Since that time the Emperor has replied that he neither can nor will grant anything which is against his conscience, and asks that no further application be made to him in this matter. He takes his stand upon the resolution lately presented by him to the States, and which he [Mundt] sent to her on 21st June last. So this article is suspended.
It has been discovered that the Pope has recently written to the Emperor by the Cardinal of Augsburg, highly praising his constancy and piety in upholding the ancient religion, and exhorting him to persevere in it; promising that the approbation of himself and the Cardinals for the Emperor's confirmation shall speedily be obtained. Nothing more remains now to be done in this Diet, except the application of the Emperor for money, which is opposed by all the States, as well Catholics as Protestants, as he mentioned in his last letter.
Has ascertained from the Emperor's Court that Count George von Helfensteyn is about to return immediately into England to complete the espousals [sponsalia] between the Queen and Charles Archduke of Austria. Has seen the splendid dresses prepared for this purpose for the Count and the noblemen of his suit. Hears that 6,000 crowns are sent by the exchange into England for the expenses of the embassy. It is also reported that the Baron von Harrach is going into England; he is an Austrian, and "dominus" John James Fuccerus has married his sister, by whom he has nine children.
Has asked the Duke of Wirtemburg what he thinks of Charles; he says that he is good natured, well disposed, and virtuous, and that when he grows up he will become a good Prince. (fn. 10)
The Emperor goes first to Constance, then into Alsace and the Brisgau. Wolfgang, Duke of Deuxponts, the successor of Otto Henry in the Duchy of Nuremberg [Neoburgensis], recommends himself to her.
It was his intention to have left on the 16th of this month, but before leaving he called upon the Elector Palatine to ask him to continue the friendship which had so long existed between his ancestors and England, and found his sentiments towards her were of the most friendly nature. When the writer said he hoped that an embassy would be despatched to England by the Protestant States, in order to promote mutual consent in religion and friendship, the Palatine heartily agreed with him; adding that he himself would propose it to the States and Commissioners, who are at this time assembled here. This will detain the writer here for some days longer, in order that he may ascertain what will be done.
Well informed people think that the Emperor is going into Alsace, which is near the duchy of Luxemburg, that he may there have a conference with Philip to discuss things sacred and profane. The Emperor's agents are here endeavouring to raise money upon interest, to provide him with what he needs at his departure, and pay the debts which he has contracted during his residence.—19 July 1559.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
July 19.
R.O. Tytler, vi. 450.
1013. The Lords of the Congregation to the Queen.
Though no good success has as yet attended their labours towards promoting perpetual amity between the two realms, yet they, the professors of Jesus Christ in this realm of Scotland, cannot cease to be suitors to her and her Council to have an eye on their present estate. Having enterprised to enter in battle against the devil, against idolatry, and that sort of men, from whom they look for nothing but the utter subversion of their commonwealth, if they shall be overthrown in this battle, (of which they stand in great danger, as well by domestic enemies as by the great preparation which they hear to be sent against them by France,) they fear that their ruin will be but an entrance to greater cruelty. They are therefore compelled to seek remedy against such tyranny by all such lawful means as God shall offer. Knowing her to have enterprised like reformation of religion, they crave such support as may to them be comfortable, and declare her grace and counsel unfeignedly to "thrust" the advancement of Christ Jesus and of His Gospel. Whatever shall reasonably be required of them for a perpetual amity to stand between the two realms shall neither be denied nor in any point violated. They have written more at length to Mr. Cecil.— Edinburgh, 19 July. Signed: Archd. Ergyll, Alex. Glencairne, James Sanctandos, Patrick Ruthwen, Robert Boyd, Andw. Wcheiltree.
In the handwriting of John Knox, with armorial seal. Endd. by Cecil: 19 Julii 1559. Add. Seal. Broadside.
July 19.
1014. The Queen to Francis II.
Throckmorton having for a long time resided at the Court of the late King, his father, she continues him in his office, and asks credence for him.
Draft, endd. by Cecil: 19 July 1559. Fr. Broadside.
July 19.
1015. The Queen to the Constable of France. (fn. 11)
Although all things are subject to change, true friendship always remains one in all changes. Is disposed towards him as she has always been. It will be a pleasure to her to prove her regard, as her Ambassador will inform him more fully.— 19 July 1559.
Draft in Cecil's hand.
[July 19.]
1016. French translation of the above, dated 17 July 1559. Draft.
July 19.
1017. The Queen to the Duke of Guise.
Hopes that no change of circumstances will alter a friendship based upon reason and honour. As by his order and council he did much to procure the inheritance of the late King to descend to the present King and Queen of France, so she prays him to continue the same good offices. Her Ambassador, Throckmorton, will declare her mind more fully.— 19 July 1559.
Draft in Cecil's hand.
[July 19.] French translation of the above, dated 17 July 1559.
July 19.
1018. The Queen to the King of Navarre.
The good report for diverse respects of his name which she hears of him induces her to write to him, and thus to renew her acquaintance with him. Is anxious to serve and please him, as she has stated at greater length to her faithful servant Throckmorton, for whom she asks credence.—19 July 1559.
Draft in Cecil's hol.
[July 19.] 1019. French translation of the above, dated 17 July 1559. Draft.
July 19.
1020. The Queen to the Queen of Navarre.
Ventures to say at the beginning, si Deus nobiscum, quis contra nos? Has been for diverse considerations desirous to have her acquaintance, but since distance forbids this, yet it may be done in mind and goodwill, sentiments which she, the writer, will always entertain towards her correspondent, quite as much as if they were together. Her faithful M. Throckmorton will express the feelings of the writer, with regard to her, "not only for the degree of the world, but for the true profession and sincerity of your Christian religion," [in which she prays that the Creator may keep her by His grace and that she may continue a supporter of His Holy Word (fn. 12) ].—19 July 1559.
Draft in Cecil's hol.
[July 19.] 1021. French translation of the above, dated 17 July 1559.
July 19.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 166.
1022. The Queen to Throckmorton.
Has received his letters by the bearer hereof, and understands his credit concerning the Earl of Arran. Common charity, the honour of the party, and her own experience of such misfortunes moves her to compassion. Wishes that he shall counsel the Earl well how to preserve himself from the danger of the French King and the Guises. Although other ways may be devised, yet thinks if he be forced to depart thence, that either, persona dissimulata, to go to Geneva, and there to remain until he know further, or else to come to Jersey and so to Plymouth or Southampton, and to pass thence to his father in Scotland. And if he shall be in need, upon knowledge she will remedy it. Let him not think that her readiness to relieve him is for any cause but that both for God's cause and his parentage she cannot permit him to be oppressed with this calamity; adding thereto the experience that she herself has had in worst cases felt and yet past. He shall know the rest by the bearer.
She sees good cause to accept his services and wills him to continue therein, whereof she will not be forgetful. Thinks it strange the Earl of Arran mentions in his letters the cause he has to thank her for the offers made him by her. She doubts what to think; and mislikes that any such occasion should be given him by any message. This bearer affirms that he said nothing tending thereto.
Draft in Cecil's hol. Portions underlined to be expressed in cipher. Add.: 1559, July 19. Pp. 3.
July 19.
B.M Sloane, 4134, 380.
1023. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
July 19.
B. M. Calig. E.V. 79. 1.
1024. Throckmorton to the Queen.
Burnt. Has signified [the arrival of] Charles Howard at this town ...... Has been informed on the 15th inst., by [one that learnt it] at the mouth of the Duke of Alva, that the amity between the late French King and the King of Spain [is like to be renewed, and the] promises agreed between the Princes concluded and confirmed out of hand and all . . . for which purpose, and also for the avoiding of fu[rther] . . . . that the Duke of Alva and other great personages . . . . . . . the ratification of the said trety between . . . . . . now be, which notwithstanding it my like you . . . . . ways as shall be thought good by your wisdom to prop . . . . best for your purpose to provide for the . . . . . . malice of the French, if they mean other . . . . . I am done to understand certainly they do. Burnt.
79. 1. b. [Mr. Howard sent to the Constable to] know when he should repair to him, who answered that it was not meet for Throckmorton to [discuss] this matter being an Ambassador, but that if he [Howard] would come next morning he would speak with him, which he did, and finding the Constable in the parket at the Tournelles proceeded with him [in such] sort as it may like her to understand from Mr. Howard's own report. Throckmorton then sent to the Duke of Guise to know a time for Mr. Howard's repair to him; who after he had consulted a while with the Cardinal, the latter, (who, with the said Duke [manages] all the affairs of the Court,) answered that he should be next day at [dinner] time at the Louvre, where presently remain the King, the two [French] Queens, and the house of Guise. When Mr. Howard was come thither in very due time, one told [him] that the Duke was at dinner and had stayed a good time for [him], and in very deed it was before the ordinary time of dinner a good hour. [So] staying with M. de Noailles till they had dined, the [Car]dinal of Lorraine came to him forth of the King's chamber, with whom [unto] the King and the Duke of Guise Mr. Howard proceeded, as him[self] can further declare. . . . . These continue their preparations for despatching into Scotland and daily in[crease] their numbers of men of war.
79. m. Is informed that Stranguish has of late been at Fe[camp, in] Normandy, but what became of him and where he is he cannot yet learn.
and that it was he said 16th of this present at night such a evensong, called for place d'Angletérre which it may please Your Ma[jesty]
Advises her [to arm] in such sort as shall seem convenient against the French, as by all means that he can learn, their mind is to annoy her as much as they may.
Is informed that the Mareschal St. André is [appointed] chief gentleman of the chamber, and that there . . . . brother to M. de Humieres.
July 19. The Lord Davy, brother to the Earl of Arran, the [was taken] out of the guard of those who had him in keeping and [placed in the charge] of Mons. de Cheveney, Captain of the French guard [and by him taken] prisoner to Bois de Vincent, which Cheveney is . . . . . . nation and albeit the Earl of Arran is going away
The Duke of Chatelherault's lands in France have been taken [from him]. It is supposed that Mons. Dandelot shall be dis[placed from the command of the] footman and the room g[iven] to the Count of Rochefaucault. The King departs this day to Medune and next [day to one of the] houses of the Cardinal of Lorraine, and returns [to Paris within] these eight days. The French have in hand with divers Alm[ains] for the bringing out of Bas Almaine to the sea side diverse [men of war]
79. m. b. Mr. Howard at his first [audienc]e with the French King, the Cardinal of Lorraine, [and the Duke of] Guise, was promised that he should hear further from them, and was willed by them in the meantime to go and repose himself; whereupon he stayed that whole day and almost all the next ; and in the evening not having heard anything from the Court, Throckmorton sent [Mr. Jo]nes to know their pleasure. Answer was returned that he [should] understand from the Cardinal of the time of Mr. Howard's coming to [the] Court. But hearing in like manner nothing from them, he again [sent] a messenger on the 22nd inst. at night to the Court, to learn something of Mr. Howard's repair there, the rather for that [he had he]ard of the King's departure out of the town. Answer was [sent] him by the Cardinal that next day M. de Noailles should [bring] word of their resolution.
79. n. On the 18th M. de Noailles came and declared to him and Mr. Howard together that the King having conceived great [disqui]et upon the death of his father, whereby he was driven to be somewhat [melan]cholic; so they had thought good for his better [condole]nce that he should take his pleasure for a few days in the country. The King's determination to depart was so sudden that Mr. Howard could not conveniently speak [with] him before; nevertheless he desired him to do his affections and [com]mendations to the Queen, not doubting but that she would continue all articles agreed between her and the late King. For answer to the which Throckmorton said that as the Queen found the King [his father's good] disposition to continue [amity], so she for her part meant the [same], and finding the same disposition in the [King] that now is would be ready to continue the [same] towards him, not doubting to find the same [goodwill on his] behalf towards her.
Yesternight Mr. Howard repaired to the Constable to take his leave of him. How he found [the same and what] enter tainment he had Throckmorton refers to [this bearer], who has in his charge so behaved as [to cause him] to conceive well of him.—Paris, 19th July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Injured by fire. Pp. 5.
July 19.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 167.
1025. Throckmorton to Cecil.
After weighing with himself the importance of the success of things touching religion in Scotland for the English, thinks it greatly necessary, notwithstanding any difficulty heretofore made about it, that Knox should have liberty to repair into England, how short soever his abode be there ; the necessity whereof will appear by the Queen's letters. For being of credit, as he is amongst them upon whom depends the stay of that affair, it shall much conduce to their confirmation and constancy in their proceeding thoroughly with the matter without interruption. Delays are dangerous. This is his simple opinion.
Understands that divers Frenchmen, for liberty of their conscience, intend to come to England to avoid the persecution, and that divers lawyers and gentlemen mind to sell their goods and live on the profit in England. Would indeed, for charity's sake, wish them to make their abode in England, yet prays that an eye may be on those who shall come, lest coming under colour of religion they cover other designs; yet the matter be so handled as that the poor men who seek sanctuary may have it granted them, as divers of the English had in time of persecution.
The French gentleman (whom in his last letters Cecil named M. de Frommet,) who handled Mr. Howard so evil by the way, is called M. de Chalue, nephew to M. d'Ozell. Prays him to send the letter here enclosed to Sir James Crofts, or Sir Henry Percy, to be conveyed by them to the direction, with speed; and asks him, after having perused it, to seal it.
Begs him to put the Queen in remembrance of two persons whom he mentioned in his letter to her, to be sent over thither. Refers him to his letters to her for further occurrences. Signed. Paris, 19 July 1559.
P. S.—James Bassentine, a Scottish man, has been with him to offer his service, which he has refused. He further desired to be placed with some man in England, or to have a passport for his own country. Is learned in the mathematicals; and that is all Throckmorton knows of him.
Having made up the Queen's letter and being ready to seal up the present, Barnaby, his servant, (whom he sent to Dieppe for the conveyance of his last letters of the 13th inst. into England) has returned and reports that on Saturday last, at 5 p.m., they were delivered to Oliver, the courier, who forthwith embarked with the same.
July 19. Had appointed his servant to understand whether John Ribawde was to be won or not, whom his servant met on the way back from Dieppe. Ribawde said he had little occasion to tarry at Dieppe, being frequently appointed by the Court to ride to and fro for the despatching of ships into Scotland. He sent Throckmorton word to beware of one man who resorted to him. Told Barnaby that for the conveying of men into Scotland no ships of war are prepared, but all hoys and coasters, fit only for passengers, and that all the footmen at this time to be sent into Scotland shall take shipping at Calais and Boulogne, and thereabouts. He said that within a few days he would come and talk with Throckmorton himself. Throckmorton tells Cecil this that he may inform the Queen. The Lord Admiral can understand what ships are in the ports on this side, and whether the men shall be embarked at Boulogne or Calais. The Constable has informed Mr. Howard that the late King shall not be interred these sixteen days. Signed.
Orig. Add. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd. by Cecil: The secret. Pp. 4.
July 19.
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 382.
1026. Another copy of the above. Forbes' transcript.
July 19.
1027. Mundt to Cecil.
Wrote last the 12 inst., and has now informed the Queen of what has occurred in the interim. Has been twice detained as he was about to return home; once by the person sent to him by Cecil, and the second time by the Elector Palatine, whom he went to visit before leaving. The Elector Palatine directs all affairs of religion throughout Upper Germany, just as the Elector of Saxony does through Lower Germany. At his advice Mundt delayed his departure, being unwilling to seem negligent in his business, even although it should occasion a delay of some days.
A Jesuit named Canisius, an Italian by birth, who teaches at Ingolstadt, reports that the Pope has consented to a marriage between the Queen of England and Charles, provided there is a probability that she will embrace the Catholic religion.
Every one believes that this Diet will be dissolved within two or three weeks, unless delay should arise from the discussions about money, to which the States are invited. Since the primary articles, those about religion and the Council, are suspended rather than settled, he will leave this place for Strasburg within three or four days. Has now been five months absent from home.—19 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Mundt's hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
July 19.
R.O. Knox, ii. 23.
1028. The Lords of the Congregation to Cecil.
The contents of a letter directed by him to Sir Henry Percy having been certified to them by Mr. Kirkaldy of Grange this Sunday, 15 July, they perceive that the said Grange has travailed with Cecil, as with an unfeigned favourer of Christ's true religion and of the liberty of his country, for knowledge of his [Cecil's] mind towards them in case they are assaulted by any foreign invasion or greater power than they are well able to resist. His comfortable answer to this question they have considered with joy, as also his motion and what he demands, to wit what they, the Protestants, do purpose? To what end they mean to direct their actions ? How they will, and how they are able to accomplish the same ? What doubts they have of any adversary power ? And, finally, what amity might ensue betwixt these two realms; and how the same might be hoped to be perpetual ?
To these they briefly answer, that their whole and only purpose is to advance the glory of Christ Jesus, the true preaching of His Evangil within this realm ; to remove superstition and all sorts of external idolatry; to bridle to their powers the fury of those that have cruelly shed the blood of their brethren; and to their uttermost to maintain the liberty of their country from the tyranny and thraldom of strangers.
How they shall accomplish these premises is to them unknown, but they trust that God will perform the same. Supposing that neither their present danger nor the warlike preparation that France makes against them are hid from him, they omit that part. As touching the assurance of a perpetual amity to stand betwixt these two realms, nothing on earth is to them more desirable than such a joyful conjunction.
As for the revolting to France (which he seems to suspect and fear,) they utterly abhor that infidelity, for they seek rather heaven than earth; but even if they should look anything to temporal commodity they should have no occasion to return to France, for now they begin to feel the burden of that yoke which in the end shall be intolerable; "and therefore intend we by God's grace to cut away such instruments (the papistical clergy) as by whom this realm hath been before abused." No mention of any change of authority has even entered their hearts except that extreme necessity compel them thereto; but perceiving that France, the Queen Regent here, together with her priests and Frenchmen, pretend nothing else but the suppression of Christ's Evangel, the maintenance of idolatry, their ruin and the utter subversion of this poor realm, they are fully purposed to seek the next remedy to withstand their tyranny, in which matter they heartily require his faithful counsel and furtherance at the Queen's and Council's hands.
July 19. Thus far have they hazarded to make him participant of their purpose, estate, and request, because in the said letters he requires of Mr. Kyrkcaldeye some further ground than his own word or writing. They refer to the instructions and credit committed to the messenger, and require further answer with expedition.—Edinburgh, 19 July 1559. Signed: Archibald Ergyll, Alex. Glencarne, James Sanctanctandr. (sic), Patrick Ruthwen, Robert Boyd, Andro Wcheltre.
Orig. Add. In Knox's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
July 19.
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 180.
1029. Another copy of the above. Omitting the signature and date.
July 19.
1030. Henry Balnaves to Cecil.
Having known the earnest love and fervent constancy which is in Cecil towards the forthsetting and true maintaining of Christ's holy religion, together with the remembrance of his most gentle humanity shown to him [Balnaves] at all times, therefore writes to him. It is unnecessary to open at length anything contained in another letter written to him by the Lords of the Congregation and Council of this realm, but will here briefly collect the same upon these two heads following. (1.) The setting forth of God's glory according to His Holy Word, as it is in England presently begun; and, (2) the preservation of this realm from the tyranny and subjection of strangers, Frenchmen. Howbeit, the first brag they [the Scots] must suffer. Needful it is that with common consent they should both join to the defence of themselves and for resistance of their common enemy, who pretends no less title by tyranny of the Bishop of Rome's authority to England than to this realm. For the performance of this he heartily desires Cecil so to labour at the Queen, as he, the writer, will do here, that the message sent to her by the Lords here may take good success and be to other nations an example of love to our friends and terror and fear to our enemies. If the Queen and Council will apply them as the Lords here will, and are minded to do in all things according to their ability, on either side there shall follow a happy and prosperous success.
Refers for particulars to the bearer, Mr. Whitelaw.—Edinburgh, 19 July 1559. Signed: Henry Balnaves, of Halhill.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp.2.
July 19.
1031. The Queen's Loans in Antwerp.
"A note of all such money as hath been taken up by exchange in Antwerp for the Queen, begun 19 July 1559 to 15 August."
Pp. 3.
July 20.
R. O. Knox, ii. 28.
1032. Knox to the Queen.
Her displeasure most unjustly conceived has been to his wretched heart a burden grievous and almost intolerable, yet the testimony of a clean conscience upholds him that in desperation he sinks not, which in God's presence bears him record that maliciously he never offended her or her realm. Howsoever he be judged of man he is assured to be absolved of Him who only knows the secrets of hearts. Cannot deny the writing of a book against the usurped authority and unjust regiment of women, neither is he minded to retract or call back any principal point or proposition of the same till truth and verity further appear. Why she or such as unfeignedly favour the liberty of England should be offended at the author he cannot perceive. For first, his book touched not her (in special), nor is it prejudicial to any liberty of the realm if the time of writing be indifferently considered. He could not be an enemy to her person, for deliverance whereof he studied and enterprised more than any of his accusers. How can he envy her regiment for which he has thirsted, and for which (as oblivion will suffer) he renders thanks unfeignedly to God that it has pleased Him to exalt her head (which some times was in danger) to the manifestation of His glory and the extirpation of idolatry ? As for any offence committed against England in writing that or any other work, he will not refuse that moderate and indifferent men judge betwixt him and his accusers: to wit, whether of the parties most hurts the liberty of England, he who affirms "that no woman may be exalted above any realm to make the liberty of the same thrall to a strange, proud, and cruel nation; or they that approve whatsoever pleases princes for the time." If he were as well disposed to accuse as some of them, to their shame, have declared themselves, he doubts not in few words to let reasonable men understand that some, (who this day lowly crouch to Her Grace, and labour to make him odious in her eyes,) did in her adversity neither show themselves faithful friends to her, or so careful over their own country as they would be esteemed.
Omitting the accusation of other, there is nothing in his book that can be prejudicial to her just regiment, provided she be not found ungrate to God. Ungrate she will be proved (however flatterers justify her fact) if she transfer the glory of that honour in which she now stands to any other thing than the dispensation of His mercy, which only makes that lawful to her which nature and law deny to all women. Neither should she fear that this her humiliation before God will weaken her lawful authority before men; nay, it will be the establishment of the same not only to her but to her seed and posterity; whereas a proud conceit and elevation of herself will occasion her reign to be unstable, troublesome, and short. God is witness that he unfeignedly loves and reverences her; he prays that her reign may be long, prosperous, and quiet, and that for the quietness of which Christ's members before persecuted have received under her. Yet if he should flatter her he were no friend, but a deceivable traitor. Is compelled of conscience to say that neither the consent of people, the process of time, nor multitude of men can establish a law which God shall approve; whatsoever He approves by His eternal Word shall be approved, and whatsoever He damns shall be condemned, though all men on earth would hazard the justification of the same. Therefore, the only way for her to keep these benefits of God, abundantly poured upon her and her realm, is unfeignedly to render unto God, to His mercy and undeserved grace, the whole glory of her exaltation. She should forget her birth and all title which thereupon doth hang, and consider deeply how for fear of her life she declined from God and bowed to idolatry, and not let it appear a small offence in her eyes that she declined from Christ Jesus in the day of His battle. She is not to esteem the mercy vulgar and common which she has received; to wit, that God has covered her former offence, has preserved her when most unthankful, and in the end raised her up not only from the dust but from the ports of death to rule over His people, for the comfort of His kirk.
It appertains, therefore, to her to ground the justice of her authority not upon that law, which from year to year changes, but upon the eternal Providence of Him, who, contrary to nature and without her deserving, has thus exalted her head. If thus in God's presence she humbles herself, as in his heart he glorifies God for the rest granted to his afflicted flock in England, under her, a weak instrument, so will he with tongue and pen justify her authority and regiment as the Holy Ghost has justified the same in Deborah. But if she shall begin to brag of her birth and build her authority upon her own law, flatter her who list, her felicity shall be short.
Desires her to interpret his rude words in the best part, as written by one who is no enemy to her.
By divers letters he has required licence to visit her realm, not to seek his own ease or commodity, which if she now denies he must remit his cause to God; adding, that it is commonly seen "that such as refuse the council of the faithful (appear it never so sharp) are compelled to follow the deceit of flatterers to their own perdition." Prays that her heart may be moved to understand what is said, and discretion given her to rule herself and actions to the glory of God.— Edinburgh, 20 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Mr. Knox to the Queen, by Al. Wh. Pp. 4.
July 20.
Petyt MSS. 538. 47. f. 41.
1033. A nearly contemporaneous transcript of the above, with a few verbal variations and omitting a portion at the end.
July 20.
R.O. 171 B.
1034. Another copy of the above. Modern transcript.
[July 20.]
B. M. Sloane, 4734. 179.
1035. Another copy of the preceding, dated 14 July.
[July 20 ?]
Sloane, 4734. Knox, 1. 372.
1036. Reformation in Scotland.
The Lords of the Congregation of Scotland to the Queen Dowager of Scotland and her Council.
They have stayed the printing irons in consideration that the commonwealth was greatly hurt by corrupting of the money of Scotland; and they, being born Councillors of this realm, and sworn to procure the profit of the same, could do no less of duty and conscience than to stay that for a time which they saw so abused that unless remedy were found would turn to the detriment of the whole body of the realm.
As to her accusation of plunder, they remit her to the conscience of Master Robert Richesone, Master of the Mint, who from their hands received silver, gold, and metal, as well coined as uncoined; so that with them there did not remain "the value of a bawbee."
July 20.
R. O.
1037. Sir Richard Lee to the Privy Council. (fn. 13)
Has received their letter of the 15th inst. In reply states that he has asked the Queen to send some person of credit hither to view the works. Since these works have already been very chargeable, and will be more so still, thinks they should be seen by such a man as, being about the Court, might daily put them in remembrance of the importance thereof.
The town is not much the stronger. If the works already begun are perfected, yet is there some other part of the town so weak as if the enemy attempt it, the town will be lost. Cannot express this by writing, it can only be understood by view of the place.
In reply to their question as to the quantity of timber bought of Mr. Whalleye, answers that he has bargained with him for 1,000 tons at 6s. 8d. the ton, to be delivered at Hull; 200 tons are already brought here. Will send a carpenter to Hull. Requests them to see that ready payment be made for all that is brought here.—Berwick, 20 July 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 20.
R. O.
1038. Garrison of Berwick.
"Articles whereunto every captain shall be sworn."
1. He shall be a faithful subject unto the Queen.
2. He shall govern his soldiers as to good subjects and soldiers belongs.
3. He shall keep the whole numbers of his band without dismissing or admitting any, or giving passes without at the same instant signifying it to the captain or governor of the town and the muster-master. The like when any shall die or escape away.
4. He shall not bring to musters anyone who has not served for the time for which he receives pay, nor shall he refuse to come with his band to musters upon the call of the captain or muster-master.
5. He shall not suffer any to leave the victualler unpaid, or to sell his armour.
6. If he shall be proved to have offended, refers himself to be punished, to lose all his wages and armour, to be dismissed out of his charge, and to depart out of the town.
Draft in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: 20 July. Articles for Captains at Berwick. Pp. 2.
July 20.
1039. Croft to Cecil.
Has received last night Cecil's letters of 15 July, confirmatory of what Croft wrote in his letters of 11th and 12th inst., the contents whereof he will use according to Cecil's advice. The Protestants of Scotland have communed daily with the Duke of Chastelherault, and the other Commissioners, from Friday daily until now, without any conclusion. Yesterday and to-day has expected Kirkaldy, who however has not yet come. The Protestants have knowledge of the French King's death, and shall know the rest concerning the Earl of Arran. Kirkaldy has not yet discovered himself plainly to be of the Protestant party, nor does he come to the Queen Regent, but feigns himself sick. Money is owing him for serving in the late wars, in hope whereof he drives time. The man is poor and cannot travail in these matters without charges, wherein he must be relieved by the Queen if these proceedings go forwards, and so must as many as be principal doers have relief. They be all poor, and necessity will force them to leave off when all they have is spent, "and you know in all practices, money must be one part."
Encloses an answer to a letter which he sent to the Queen Regent of Scotland.—Berwick, 20 July 1559. Signed.
P.S.—Asks for a warrant to the Treasurer for his allowance to begin 1 inst.
Orig. Add. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 20.
1040. The Queen's Debts at Antwerp.
"A note of all such debts as that the Queen doth owe to diverse and sundry merchants in the city of Antwerp," being a list of sums of money taken up by Thomas Gresham, from 20th October 1558 to 20th July 1559, to pay debts due by her until 20th July 1560, amounting to 133,680l. 12s. 8d.
Endd. by Cecil: Mr. Gresham's report of the debts, 1559. Pp. 2.


  • 1. Originally 13.
  • 2. Originally, Germany.
  • 3. This sentence is cancelled.
  • 4. The sentence stood originally thus: Touching the Earl of Arran, because of his affliction in this persecution which he suffereth for his religion and country, we have compassion upon him, and therefore (as these bearers shall show you,) we wish him delivered and relieved.
  • 5. This sentence is cancelled in the original draft.
  • 6. The following sentence was prefixed, but is cancelled, "Sir,—There needeth small writing where there is so good a messenger, and therefore I do make to you but a brief memorial of words rather than of matters. To motion to him further declaration."
  • 7. This article is cancelled, and its place is supplied by a fragment, consisting of the following heads: 1. The Queen hopes that the Conte de Feria and the Bishop of Aquila have already informed him why she has not previously sent any Ambassador to him. She now sends "the said Sir Thomas," there to reside and attend upon him. 2. He may assure "the same Mons. d'Arras," that the Queen will do anything he may require for the renewal of the ancient leagues with the house of Burgundy.
  • 8. This entry is unfinished, and has been cancelled.
  • 9. To the end, in Cecil's autograph.
  • 10. This sentence is in cipher, deciphered.
  • 11. This and the three following letters are written upon the same sheet in Cecil's holograph. The French version, upon a single leaf, is endorsed by him: "17 July 1559. Copy of four French letters from the Queen's Majesty to the King of Navarre, the Duke of Guise, Constable, per Killigr[ew]."
  • 12. This passage, which does not occur in the English draft, is added from the French.
  • 13. On the reverse of the leaf is a rough ground plan of a fortified town, to which, however, no reference is made in the letter.