Elizabeth: March 1575

Pages 19-40

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 11, 1575-1577. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1880.

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March 1575

March 3. 33. Catherine de Medicis to the Queen.
Prays for a continuance to her son of the friendship that existed between her and the Kings, his father and brother, a friendship which some evil men would destroy. It has pleased God to add to her afflictions by taking to himself her daughter of Lorraine.—Paris, 3 March 1570 (sic). Signed.
Add. Fr. Holog. P. 1.
March 4. 34. Daniel Rogers to Dr. Wilson.
On Tuesday the 1st instant the Commendator sent letters hither to the Amptman of the town commanding him expressly that he should advertise such Englishmen as were here, and notified in this letter, to depart from the town and the King's dominions within 15 days. He took Smart with him as interpreter, and went to the Countess of Northumberland and declared that it was the King's pleasure that she and Highston should depart out of his dominions, at which news she was much abashed, yet asked if the King would pay her any pension, which was denied her. The Countess begins to sell her stuff, and is minded to travel to the Bishop of Metz and so on to Rome. The Earl of Westmoreland, Christopher Neville, and Liggons threaten that Wilson and all his shall not leave the country alive. Smart has advertised him hereof. Christopher Neville vaunts that they will trouble the Queen at home, seeing she will not let them live quietly here. They have received but cold answers from the French King, who would not gladly offend the Queen by nourishing such as she did not like. On Thursday the rebels sent a supplication to his Excellency that it would please him to pay the rest of their stipends due to them and grant them a longer respite, which Wilson will do well to hinder. The Amptman of the town told them before the magistrates that the sooner they departed the better it would be for them. All the town is glad that they should be delivered of such monsters.—Brussels, 4 March 1574. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 12/3.
March 5. 35. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
1. Thanks God he is at the end of this weary and chargeable journey, and hopes the King will be better advised before he go so far from Paris again, for he has utterly lost his credit and the love of his people. Misliking grows daily with his marriage; he must remember Lord Rivers under King Edward IV., but this matter is not like to tarry so long, because the one side is more insolent and the other side more impatient. The Queen Mother is not unlike to have her part of it, it is taken that she was not made privy to the matter till it was privily concluded, but now she makes the best of it, as though it had been her doing. Neither she nor the King nor any of them all do know where to begin, for they see their late doings have taken evil effect, and that hope which they had of peace wax cold.
2. The whole ceremony of the sacre was done by the Guises. The Cardinal of Guise supplied the place of the Archbishop of Rheims, the Duke of Guise, the Duke of Maine, the Duke of Aumale, the place of the three lay peers, the Marquis D'Elbœuf the place of the Duke of Guise as Grand Chamberlain, the Count de Retz as Marshal in the place of the Constable. The Duke of Lorraine arrived the morrow after. The King rose from his dinner with such honor ut nihil supra. The feasts both of the sacre and the marriage, wholly directed by the Duke of Guise as Grand Chamberlain. The King would fain have all like of this marriage, and the Queen's Majesty especially, therefore he [Dale] was invited alone the second day, because he could not be thereat the first day by reason of the question of precedence with Spain; had much good countenance both of the King and Queen Mother; the Queen could "bride it" well enough. The King would have that his mother made the marriage "elle me fit et elle me maria aussi." The Queen Mother's tongue walked where her tooth ached, how much she found her other sons' wives at hand with her. The old Duchess of Guise was always at one end with the King and Queen and the Queen Mother, as one that fain would be her right hand, and indeed she is very wise; if the Queen Mother were ever matched it is by her, one Italian with another, for the Duchess is the Duke of Ferrara's sister. The rest of women's news he shall understand from his wife's letter to her ladyship.
3. Cannot procure the Earl of Oxford's access to the King because of the new mourning for the Duchess of Lorraine, whose death the Queen Mother takes very heavily to heart, being her dear daughter. The Duke of Lorraine upon news of his wife's extremity parted from Rheims, which has somewhat cooled the arrogance of the Guises, for they relied on his presence to establish themselves. There is great heart burning for the bestowing of the government of Normandy, void by the death of the Duke of Bouillon; the Duke of Nevers claimed it as by promise made to him at his being in Poland; the Duchess of Nemours stepped in requiring that preferment as of duty for her husband before a stranger. Now the King will bestow it from them both upon his fatherin-law, M. de Vaudemont, thereupon the Duke of Nevers is departed to his house. The King of Navarre had leave to go in company of M. de Losse, Captain of the Guard, to La Fere in Picardy and is returned. M. Danville has taken another strong town lying upon the Herault not far from Aiguesmortes, called Agde. The King when at Rheims gave out divers commissions for levying of men. M. La Chastre, Governor of Bourges in Berry, is appointed to come in embassy to the Queen, to signify to her the King's sacre and marriage, and as they say to require countenance of the League. This La Chastre is famous for the siege of Sancerre, where he was general and used much extremity. The King's ambassador with the Turk has written that the Turk makes double the preparation for war that his father did; he has put his brother to death. It is said that they of Marseilles have cast two of the Italian customers there into the sea. Bellegarde has left Dauphiny pro derelicto and is come to court. It is said, and likely to be true, for no man looks to that country for the King, that Montbrun has taken two towns upon the Rhone already. It was constantly reported that Montmorency should have been set at liberty, but now the matter is as far off as ever. Some say the King had good inclination thereto, but that the Chancellor dissuaded him upon pretence that if he did deliver him the Parisians would give him no money. It is given out daily that deputies come to the King to treat for peace; they find fault with their passports and such other dilatory excuses.—Paris, 5 March 1574. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. by Burghley. Pp. 3¼.
March [5]. 36. Soldiers in the Low Countries.
20,000 Almain soldiers under five colonels, divided into 70 ensigns of 300 men each. About 5,000 Spanish soldiers in regiments of about 500. Of Walloons there are about 11,000 men. Englishmen in wages under Gaige and Loveles about 90 persons. The whole number of foot soldiers about 36,000. The whole number both horse and foot about 40,000. Names of the different commanders given.
Endd.: March 1574. Pp. 2.
37. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Injured by damp. Pp. 2.
March 5. 38. Remonstrance of the Prince of Orange and the States of Holland to the King of Spain.
1. Complain that the Duke of Alva, under pretext of his government, has so misgoverned the Low Countries that they have been unwillingly compelled to take up arms for the conservation of their liberties and to withstand the cruel proceedings of the said Duke of Alva and his adherents the outlandish nations. They have not only been brought into misery through wars and debates, but also into disfavour with "circumvoisin" nations, to the loss of all haunt and traffic, handicrafts, negotiations, and commonwealth. Their humble suit is therefore that he will with a pitiful eye behold the present miserable and lamentable state of the Low Countries, and reduce the same to unity and quietness, which cannot be brought to pass as long as the said foreign nations have here either rule, power, or jurisdiction, being naturally bent to seek more their own lust and profit than the common weal of the country. They therefore beg that he will cause the said outlandish and strange nations to avoid and depart the country, and by the free communication and advice of the natural subjects and estates of these Low Countries duly assembled good order and politic rule may be established. By the continuance of these wars and commotions nothing is to be looked for but depopulation and ruin of the land, and the inhabitants giving themselves to take on arms, leaving their accustomed trades and occupations, whereby the people seem inclined to give themselves to a licentious liberty, out of which wars may arise, and a perilous and dangerous alteration follow in all traffic and merchandising by sea. They request that especial regard may be had hereunto, to the intent that Holland and Zealand and the provinces adjoining may be avoided of all foreign nations and soldiers, and that all occasions of war may be suspended.
In the margin was written, in form of apostillation:—
2. The King being informed of the miseries and calamities above mentioned has been pleased to ordain commissioners to communicate with the deputies of the suppliants, so that the best ways and remedies may be provided for satisfying of the same.—Done at Breda, March 5, 1574. Stilo curiœ. Signed by the Secretary De la Torre.
3. To the above the deputies of the Prince of Orange and the estates reply to the commissioners of the King of Spain that they cannot be content with anything else than a plain and categorical answer to their request touching the withdrawal of the foreign soldiers from the Low Countries.
Endd. by Lord Burghley: 5 March 1574.
March 5. 39. News from Antwerp.
1. Names of the six hostages required for those nine persons sent by the Prince to deal at Breda for the conclusion of a peace, being three Flemings and three Spaniards. Names of the nine deputies sent by the Prince. The King will not allow any "interim," much less any alteration in religion, and requires the absolute yielding of all towns and fortresses withheld from him. Certain Englishmen were lately apprehended for seeking the destruction of the Prince. Don Diego de Cordova was slain with a harquebuss as he was viewing the town of Buren. Count Annibal Altemps, captain of a regiment of Almains, is very importune for his pay, to whom the Marquis Vitelli and Count Barlaimont have resorted to require him to have patience. Mons. Schenk, colonel of certain reiters, spoils the country about Maestricht very miserably for want of pay, and the like is done by the Spaniards. Except pay come within these two months the soldiers are like to mutiny universally. It is reported that Castile has offered 2,500,000 ducats every year for 10 years to be levied upon the assignation of Arcavallo, which is 10 in the 100 upon all merchandises. Aragon is said to grant 2,000,000. The West Indians about Mexico are said to have revolted, and Spaniards are sent against them. The young Count Egmont lately fled away in the night from Gosbeck, and is gone into France; he was put in fear that the Commendator minded his sudden apprehension, which is altogether denied here.
2. It is a bruit here that the French King is very sick since his late marriage; but the ambassador of France says that on the 27th ult. he was in good health, but that the young Duchess of Lorraine is lately dead at Nancy, in Lorraine, and further that the King seeks peace by all means possible, and uses the Duke of Montmorency for an especial means in that behalf.
Endd. Pp. 2½.
March 6. 40. Dr. Wilson to Lord Burghley.
1. The Commendator is content that the addition in the Council's letter be inserted in the condition of the obligation to avoid captiousness, and they only to be bound in the sum expressed. The Commendator is as desirous to understand of the arming of the ships as the merchants are willing to come. Such is the need and want here that except some speedy pay comes from Spain the soldiers will never abide such extremity any longer. It having been agreed that the rebels should be banished according to the Intercourse, they have had warning to depart within 15 days, which they all take very heavily. Some have made means to the Commendator in open hearing, who has flatly answered that they must depart at the time appointed. Encloses a letter from Mr. Rogers. Means to go to Brussels to the "sponsayles" of the daughter of the Advocate Fiscal, whom he has made a friend with very quarreling, as the Flemish disposition is chiefly overcome by stoutness. If used like spaniels they love one the better when they are well beaten.
2. Will at the Commendator's request tarry a week for him [the Advocate-Fiscal] to accompany him into England. Will not fear to deal at Brussels in Mr. Polison's matter, notwithstanding the brags of the desperate rebels. Sends a writing touching the King's pay and soldiers, having received the report from one who had it from the Marquis Vitelli. It is said that King Philip has spent in eight years 36,000,000. Can learn nothing touching the Prince of Orange's power. Sends Mr. Englefield's letter, with whom he has had great talk lately. Egremont Ratcliffe confesses himself much bound to Lord Burghley, and offers to serve in Ireland under the Earl of Essex.
3. The French Ambassador told him that the rebels of England have made means to him through Hamilton, who killed Lord James, for his favour to be received in France, but he answered that his master would not offend the Queen. On his hearing that Standen was not banished he said the more the pity, as there was not a worse man living, and that Jehan Lyes [Genlis] was distressed at Mons only by his means.
4. P.S.—The Commendator has desired him to move his Lordship that he may have leave to buy 300 iron pieces of ordnance to furnish certain ships.—Antwerp, 6 March 1574. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
March 7. 41. Letter of Marque.
Permission given by the Mayor and Council of Rochelle to Jullien Bontaut, Captain of Marine, to fit out a ship of war upon his giving due security to return the same to the owners at the end of the war.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 5½.
March 7. 42. Dr. Dale to Francis Walsingham.
1. Glad to perceive he is not in such grief as was reported; broke the matter to Cauriam, who now might have the more leisure because he is disappointed of his room about this Queen, which he had with the other, wherewithal he is utterly out of patience. The Duke of Nevers is likewise, because he cannot have the government of Normandy. The Queen Mother might think it were expedient for her that her friends were in place, if she be in that credit she may do it, whereof men begin to doubt because of this marriage, which is wrought without her, and yet she makes as though she had been the chief doer of it.
2. All that he has been able to do in Sir Arthur Champernoun's matter is that he has gotten again the books he delivered to the King at Lord North's being here. Shall now see what answer can be gotten in these matters, for they are committed to Chiverny to be examined. Sir Arthur shall be sure of the best he can do. Knows not whether La Chastre has charge to require the renovation of the treaty; the Queen is not bound by it unless she list, namely, unless the King will be sworn to it first as the Queen was, and keep the Edict of Pacification standing in force at the time of the making of the treaty. The King says still he will have peace, yet since his coming to Paris there are about 40 commissions sealed for captains to levy soldiers. This taking of Agde and a town or two more pricks the King to do somewhat one way or other. Men say deputies will come for some treaty, they see none as yet. It was much bruited the Queen's Majesty had holpen Meru with money, but sees no effect of it as yet, it is the thing they chiefly fear here.
3. The death of the Duchess of Lorraine has put the Queen Mother so out of tune that he could have no access to her for Lord Oxford, who has spoken with the King and Queen his wife, and taken his leave with many great words of compliment; he used himself very moderately and comely, and is well liked as a goodly gentleman. They are practising to send Bellegarde into Poland as ambassador, for fear he have over much credit about the King.—Paris, 5 March. Signed.
4. P.S.—La Chastre has come to him ready to take his horse, he uttered that he came to require renovation of the league, said the King had sworn to it, which he hardly believes. Had news that D'Uzes had given an overthrow to Danville, the news now is rather to the contrary; somewhat has been between them which is not of the best, otherwise he may be sure it would be blown out loud enough. Has had privy advertisement that there is a practice in hand against Rochelle, by whom he cannot learn. De la Haye is a dangerous person; here is one come to the Court who is much made of, which was given hostage into Rochelle for Lusignan. —Paris, 7 May 1574. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
March 7. 43. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
1. Has been too much overcharged with this tedious voyage and long lying at Lyons. Has received from Spinola, from his despatch from Paris to his return from Lyons, being but five months and a half, 4,200 crowns, besides 800 crowns which he was fain to take of another man. The Ambassador of Spain has a saying that "ambassadors in France are eaten up by their horses," which they are constrained to keep in great number, and that continually, because of the uncertainty of the removal of the Court. Would be loth to seem excessive; if his own store of revenue would supply it, he would pass it, as it is, is constrained to beseech him to help it as well as may be. Sends a few notes to declare that the Queen may reasonably avoid the confirmation of the league with the French King, showing how far she is bound. There are divers allegations and authorities to be alleged very fully for the matter. The rumour that the Queen has given money to Meru waxes cold. Understood by La Chastre that he carried with him an act in which the King swore to the observation of the peace, which is cunningly handled to be done in absentia partis. Had audience the same day of the King, but he spake not one word of that particular matter. Presented Lord Oxford to the King and Queen, who used him honourably, and the King asked if he were married; said he had a fair lady. "They are," said he, "a fine couple." The Queen Mother as yet gives audience to none of the ambassadors.—Paris, 7 March, 1574. Signed.
2. P.S.—Montluc and Fayot, both for the King in Gascony, are fallen out, and were like to have fought.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Pp. 1¾.
March 44. Notes on the Renovation of the League.
Stipulatio alteri facta est inutilis, and therefore the late King could not make a covenant for his brother. Although divers are of opinion, stipulatio alteri facta valeat si confirmetur juramento, yet the contrary may well be defended, and the chief reasons brought for that side are taken out of the Canon Law. Also, in omni facto non videntur ea contineri de quibus verisimiliter non est cogitatum, it is evident that if the case had been put at the making of the treaty that the massacre should have followed, and all the edicts and pacifications broken, the Queen would never have passed the treaty with the King that dead is, much less with his successor. Omnis promissio seu conventio intelligitur rebus sic stantibus et in eodem statu permanentibus non autem illis mutatis. Now the state of things being utterly altered, and the edicts and pacifications broken, which were the chief causes that induced the Queen to enter into the treaty, it were hard to bind the Queen to observe it with him who was no party to it. It were reason that the King should offer himself first to be sworn, and not be at liberty himself and bind the Queen either in oath or honor.
Enclosure. P. 1.
March 7. 45. Dr. Dale to Sir Thomas Smith and Francis Walsingham.
Mentions nothing that is not contained in the letters from Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley and Walsingham of the same date.—Paris, 7 March 1574. Signed.
Add. Endd. by Walsingham. P. 1.
March 13. 46. Dr. Wilson to Lord Burghley.
1. Yesterday the Commendator gave him a very gentle and courteous farewell, when he required his Excellency that the Governor of the Merchants might have favourable audience of him from time to time. He answered that such expedition should be used, and favour shown that no Englishman should have cause to complain. He further said in the presence of Mr. Eton, that he would not search any Englishman's conscience, but would suffer the company to serve God in their house secretly, so that no open scandal might be given thereof, and that they should do no overt act offensive to the Catholic professed religion, which he and Mr. Eton promised should not be done. Wilson said that if their people should forget themselves with any notorious outward act, that the Queen would like very well to have them sharply punished.
2. Perceived by his letter the evil usage of the Inquisition towards the English, which he has communicated to two or three of the Council, requiring them to tell the Commendator that he might write to the King for redress. Amongst others, one Arias Montanus came to him, who being very well learned and godly of life, and a man altogether void of malice or spite, he declared to him these hard dealings in Spain, who showed himself very sorry therfore, and said he would speak to the Commendator. This Arias Montanus is he that set forth the great Bible in eight volumes in the sacred tongues, which cost Wilson 25li Flemish, a man of great estimation with King Philip, and generally beloved here as well for his good life as his great learning. Has had him and Don Bernardino twice or thrice at his house, and knows that no books passed the printers but such as he allows. Hopes to know through him the printer and author of the Treatise of Treasons. Arias Montanus told him that he would not allow the seventh book of Saunders' Monarchia to be printed within King Philip's dominions, so that Fowler printed the rest of the book at Louvain, and the seventh was printed at Cologne, and so joined to the rest. Tarries the longer because he would see the rebels gone out of the country. Is working to win the Earl of Westmoreland homewards to put himself to the Queen's mercy. Would not have given Muffet any money, but that the Earl of Leicester required him so to do.
3. Goes to-morrow to Brussels. Hopes to be at Dunkirk on Saturday. Councillor Boischot comes over with him. Catelyne and Poole are the parties that conspired the Prince's death, two known evil men for their lives and lewdness. Yesterday the Duke of Arschot went to Breda to deal with Count Swartzenburg for a conclusion of quietness. Is sorry to hear that he is very sick, and prays him for his countrys' sake to have regard to his health.—Antwerp, 13 March 1574. Signed.
Endd. Pp. 3.
March [14.] 47. Declaration by the Prince of Orange and the Estates of Holland and Zealand.
Have received the writing delivered to their deputies at Breda on the 14th March, and expected a different reply to their requests, which tended to the pacification and prosperity of the Low Countries. Complain at length of the tyranny and oppression of the Spanish soldierly, and recapitulate the services rendered to the crown of Spain by the inhabitants of the Low Countries in various wars. Those of Holland and Zealand have been constrained to call in various strangers for their defence against the Spaniards, whose withdrawal they earnestly demand. Recommend the King to rule by the advice of the Estates General of the country, and point out the unreasonableness of banishing all those of the Reformed religion, and requiring them to sell their possessions at a loss.
Draft. Endd. Fr. Pp. 8.
March 14. 48. The Commendator of Castile to the Queen.
Complimentary letter on the occasion of the return of Dr. Wilson.—Antwerp, 14 March 1574. Signed.
Add. Fr. Broadside.
March 14. 49. The Commendator of Castile's answer to the Deputies of the Prince of Orange.
1. Has seen their writing of the 12th instant as to the first article touching the avoiding of all strange nations wherein the Spaniards are comprised, it seems very strange considering that they are natural subjects to the King, whilst the French, Gascons, English, Scotch, and Dutch [Germans], by whom they strengthen themselves, be indeed mere strangers and outlandish, nevertheless this being granted, and his Majesty being not minded to keep the said Spaniards in these countries any longer than necessary, he ought not therein to be any further required. Touching the second point for the assembling of the Estates, his Majesty is well content upon humble request to be counselled and assisted by his Estates, and considering the assembly of the general States requires long tract of time, and cannot be brought to pass without great grievance and trouble, these articles following are set forth and propounded,—
2. That the knights, gentlemen, and towns of Holland and Zealand shall have all their rights, privileges, and customs in like manner as they had before these troubles.
No man shall lay to the charge of another anything that may have happened by reason of these troubles. All sentences of banishment and confiscation shall be cancelled. All goods taken by either party shall be restored to their owners. All prisoners to be set at liberty without ransom. All other causes which shall arise shall be ordered and pacified. All castles, towns, forts, and ships with their ordnance to be delivered up to the King. The King means that the Catholic Romish religion in all his lands shall be maintained and kept freely and peaceably. Such as will not live with the Catholics shall have leave to sell their goods and depart out of the country within a certain time, provided they make no exercise of their religion. Albeit his Majesty's word alone ought to be sufficient assurance, it shall be lawful for them to set forth what further surety they will further require.— Breda, 14 March 1574. Stilo curiœ. Signed: J. de la Torre and P. Broys.
Copy. Fr. Pp. 3½.
50. Translation of the above.
Corrected by Burghley. Endd. Pp. 7¼.
March 18. 51. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
1. The deputies for treaties of peace are looked for at the end of this month ; the King has sent them more large safe conducts. The Prince of Condé and Danville are resolved to make their peace such as the King will not like or else to make none at all. In the meantime all ways are devised for money and other preparations of war. The town of Paris makes difficulty to give the King 600,000 francs, and yet they gave so much to his brother this time 12 months. The mass of the money must come of the sale of church lands. The King has appointed 200,000 crowns of the first money to be sent into Poland (wherewithal the French are angry) to stop their mouths from an election. Bellegarde is named to go ambassador to get him out of the way. The Queen Mother cannot abide him of old, the house of Guise hates him, the rest envy him for his late credit and honour with the King They charge him with the dishonour of Livron, and that he favours them of the religion, yet he alone advised the King to take another way. The chief of the embassy is the Marquis D'Elbœuf, because he is a Guise, and must set forth the cause of the Duke of Ferrara, his kinsman, who is an earnest suitor for that kingdom if the King be constrained to depart from it. The Pope's nuncio calls upon the King to accept the Pope's offer of 4,000 footmen and 200 horsemen, for he fears for himself, for they of the religion were like of late to have taken another town of the Pope's near Viterby, in Avignon, and wax strong upon the Rhone, both above and beneath Avignon. Montbrun has of very late taken Endeurze, a proper town upon that river. Danville has taken a council of four of them of the religion and four "politiques;" he permits liberty of religion and eases the people of their exactions, whereby many follow him. The Governor of Lyons has commanded them of the religion to keep their houses or to put in sureties for their behaviour. The gentleman that was given hostage to Rochelle by Montpensier is named Laynauday; he has promised the King to procure La Noüe to come to the Court upon the King's word, which makes men think he has further intelligence in Rochelle. Chiverny sent word that La Chastre had strait commandment diligently to apply the despatch of the Queen's subjects' suits. Had all passports and commissions for post horses and letters for Lord Oxford that he could require ; got the ambassador of Venice's letters for him both to the state and to the ambassador's particular friends. It is determined that Biron and Matignon shall be Marshals, to counterpoise the greatness of the Marshals De Retz and Bellegarde, the one in respect of the King, the other of the Queen Mother, and yet she likes not Biron. Mauvissiere says he is commanded to make himself ready to come as ambassador resident with the Queen. It is reported that the Rochellois have taken Laffon, not far from them ; if it be true it is of great consequence.—Paris, 18 March 1574. Signed.
2. P.S.—The King caused a dispensation to be obtained for his marriage cum clausula quamvis rem cum eaprius habiusset et aiiis ineptissimis clausulis. When the Nuncio presented this dispensation he excused himself that he proceeded to his marriage without it, and that he wrote for it only to satisfy his mother, who made that scruple without cause, because she would not have had him marry that way ; whereby it is seen what secret working there was between the King and the Guises, and how far this is from the words "elle me fit et elle me maria." Montpensier caused the Guises and their wives to be summoned to have his precedence judged by the Parliament, and Monsieur joined with him. The Queen was taught to say that this was done in spite of her. The King inhibited the Parliament and frowned on his brother. The Queen Mother is threatened by her son with omnia extrema if she do not take care. The Duke of Guise sows dissension between Monsieur and the King of Navarre by a woman with whom they are all three great. The Queen of Navarre is offended for the abusing of her husband. Madame de Nemours is out with her daughter, the Duke of Montpensier's wife, for the matters of precedence, and every side is out of quiet more with those things at home than with matters abroad. The Queen Mother dissimulates carefully. William, son to Sir Thomas Gerard, being here with others that are come out of the Low Countries, minds to return to England and reveal such things as he understood of a book sent by the Bishop of Ross to Douay to one Turner, late of Cambridge, to be put into English. In the book are contained the doings of the Scottish Queen and others with her, wherein much mention is made of him (Burghley). The bishop is always busy, and [Dale] fears that, though he have lost the Cardinal, he finds others of that house no less affectionate and more of credit and readier to be doing, though not with so good advice ; the bishop does not omit any occasion, and is never from them. Learns that he who comes to be secretary to the Scottish Queen has been brought up in practices.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Pp. 4.
March 18. 52. Dr. Dale to Francis Walsingham.
Hears his health is well amended. Longs to hear what is done by La Chastre ; cannot tell at this Court what to make of them there. They are afraid lest the Prince of Condé shall have succour out of Germany, which is thought here cannot be without English angelets. Here is a great bruit in this Court, but it is secretly kept and closely handled between the Guises and the Princes of the blood that Monsieur has been taken up for halting, and threatened of his best joint. The Guises practice to sever the King of Navarre from Monsieur, and such other practises among them, which trouble them more than their business abroad. Learned that the King himself uttered that the Queen Mother was against this marriage, which, for his part, he thought ever. All this she dissembles utterly, but many things pass by her mill more than were wont. If Danville and they of Languedoc and Rochelle can keep themselves in unity they may keep themselves from harm. All the practice is to win the one from the other, and who more made of than La Noüe and they of Rochelle? They can lack no good capitulation if they will make peace for themselves, and leave the rest. All the hatred is now against Danville; he wins both parties as he goes. If it be true that they of Rochelle have taken Luffon, farewell treaty for their part!—Paris, 18 March. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 20. 53. Walsingham to the Queen.
Learns from Mr. Killegrew that she is determined presently to despatch him into Scotland, and that the chief points of his charge are:—First, to observe the proceedings of him who is looked for out of France; secondly, to excuse her long stay in sending as proceeding from some answer looked for out of Germany touching a general league for the defence of religion; thirdly, that he should signify that the general league proceeding, the particular would be less necessary, especially as her Majesty has always assisted them; fourthly, as she considers that the sending home of the Queen of Scots might be perilous to them, she means to commit her to the custody of such as shall carefully look unto her whereby she may be divided from practice. Fears that if the Regent does not receive such answer to his requests as may be to his contentment, her sending thither may be rather prejudicial than profitable. Points out that a mutual league for defence with Scotland is more necessary for her than for them, as none will ever assail them but with intention to have a foot in England. If by her delay they should think that she holds them in contempt there may follow an alienation incurable. Advises that pensions should be granted, as if they should be "aliened" from her besides other great mischiefs, the ordinary charges upon the Borders would be much increased. As the French large pensions are paid by leasure, they would more esteem a mean pension from her than one of five times the value offered by the French.—London, 20 March 1575.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 1½.
March 23. 54. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
1. The handling of the matters he writes of falls out unhappily for letting of things that might be done at this time; knows not what is picked out of his tables that is slain, nor of the man himself; but some are already apprehended. Supposes the King of Spain's ambassador here and the Commendator have done their freewill to bring things to the pass they are in. Thinks somewhat has proceeded of speeches he used to the ambassador to persuade him to purge such matters as might breed jealousy, whereof he understands he has carefully advertised the Commendator. There is no law nor reason that the Queen should be bound for the renovation of the treaty unless the King would renew the Edict of pacification and other things that were in force at the time of the treaty. Cannot reach to understand if it be sincerely meant of this side, or else to try to make the refusal to proceed of the Queen's part. Well he wots it was not meant when Lord North was at Lyons, whatever these new accidents have bred since. Lord Oxford used himself orderly and moderately. God send him a Raphael in his company, which he trusts verily he has, for Mr. Lewen is both discreet and of good years, and one Lord Oxford respects.—Paris 23, March 1574. Signed.
2. P.S.—The King is made believe his brother has had intelligence with the Prince of Condé about an enterprise the Prince had of late about Compeigne, and so the jealousies was daily, and there are that advise the King to make himself assured of his brother. The Queen Mother is marvellously vexed with these matters, and is resolved that there can be no better way to piece up these griefs than by some patched peace, and therefore the deputies can make their bargain the better if it be well handled. The Queen Mother has procured the Queen's maidens and women to be put away from her upon pretence that the like was done to the Emperor's daughter, but in truth, because they were instruments for the Guises. For this the Queen kept her bed and much ado there has been, but hitherto the Queen Mother has her will.
Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
March 23. 55. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
There is much difficulty made at this Court for the passing of La Chastre. The Queen has sent as good ships for his conduct, as her own ambassadors have had. Though the French never conduct any of her Majesty's, yet it is thought not enough. Repaired to the King and Queen Mother to let them understand the truth, and if there were any unknown or unwonted accident had happened the King might take the Queen's good meaning as it was intended. The King said he had already written for further assurance, and desired him to do the like; knows not how well they were satisfied with his excuse. Desired them earnestly that somewhat might be done for the contentment of the Queen's subjects while La Chastre was in England. Sends the enclosed copies, for he knows that La Chastre will have instructions to excuse matters. The King's ambassador in Switzerland has sent him advertisement that the deputies are resolved with the Prince of Condé at Basle upon such points as the King likes not of at all; yet they are so weary of their domestic dissensions that they incline for peace, and so their former preparations for war do cease. The King made reckoning to have a million and a half of francs of the sale of church lands; cannot learn of much money that comes in that way, or that any make haste to buy those lands. De Retz is withdrawn to his own house. Mauvissiere looks not to come till the latter end of April. Lord Oxford departed hence the 16th of this present, and took the way by Germany.—Paris, 23 March 1574. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1⅓.
March. 56. Dr. Dale to Chiverny.
Thanks him for his ready attention to their affairs. Prays him read through the papers he has sent him, so that they may soon arrive at a proper understanding, and have all matters settled advantageously. Signed.
March. Philip Chiverny to Dr. Dale.
Hopes his zeal will be seen from the event, which he hopes may be gratifying. Will read through the papers, and will discuss them with him before he refers them to the King. Will do all he can for this satisfaction. Signed.
Copies. Lat. Enclosure. P. 1.
March 23. 57. Dr. Dale to Francis Walsingham.
If the deputies, when they can, hold hard they can make what capitulation they list, for the Queen Mother is so vexed with these dissensions at home that she will have peace abroad, "quoy qu'il couste." She bears the Guises more in the spleen than ever she did. Somewhat she is appeased with ridding the Queen's women from her, and the Queen of her side "snybbed" much with the matter, notwithstanding the King is wholly entertained by the Guises as familiar companions and not attending upon their prince. The King of Navarre hangs on among them; Monsieur shows openly he cannot bear it, and he (Dale) believes the Queen Mother to be half contented privily to bear with him in that behalf. —Paris, 23 March 1574. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. Pp. 1⅓.
March 23. 58. Dr. Dale to Francis Walsingham.
They were all bent to preparations of war, but these domestic discords do tame them. It is a very hell among them, not one content or in quiet with another, nor mother with son, nor brother with brother, nor mother with daughter. It is much doubted lest the Guises have won away the King of Navarre from Monsieur. Now with putting away of the Queen's women from her there is a new revel, but always the Queen Mother has her will, though she be vexed of all sides, and likes as little of the Guises as others do. It is thought verily she can be content to make Monsieur great to keep down the Guises. The deputies cannot but make their profit of these things.—Paris, 25 March 1574. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2½.
March 23. 59. Dr. Dale to Francis Walsingham.
1. The Count de Retz is withdrawn to his house and says he will meddle no more. Morvilliers and Limoges are used in negotiations as they were wont to be. The Duke of Nevers utterly miscontented, yet come again to the Court. The Chancellor works all things with the Queen Mother and she by him. The Queen Mother travails to keep Pibrac out of favour, and has already laid a plot to disgrace him, as she has already done the Marshal de Bellegarde, as favourers of the Montmorencies. The Cardinal of Guise would fain be doing as his brother was. The Duke of Guise uses conference with the Cardinal and most with his mother, who has a better head than them all. Chiverny keeps himself in favour with the King and Queen Mother, and consequently with the Chancellor. It is an unhappy turn that Meru's man is slayed.—Paris, 23 March. Signed.
2. P.S.—There is some matter picked out by Meru's man's tables, and some apprehended; knows not what nor who as yet.
Add. Endd. Pp. 1½.
March 25. 60. John Dymock to Lord Burghley.
Has received very courteous words from the King of Sweden, and that he should be set at liberty to his contentment, but as yet nothing done. Has desired the Council to be a means to the King for his release, and also that he might have answer to the Queen's letter of 24 March last year, and might know what order the King would take for their payment due 13 years ago, which they promised to do before their departure. On the 19th instant the Earl Pietter Brat, who is the chiefest next to the King's brothers, sent for him, and said that the King and all the nobility pitied his case, and that his Majesty's pleasure was that he should have his liberty, so that he would be content to keep secret what should be told him; first he confessed that the King knew of the wrong done to him by the Lady Cecilia, yet might not he or his Council impute all to her, but some part bear with her doings, she being the King's sister. Further he must enter into bonds to make no evil report of the King or his brothers and sisters; and as these words were speaking came Sir Andrew Keith, a Scottish gentleman, who is married to a near kinswoman of the King, who had long talk with the Earl. Afterwards Sir Andrew had begun after the like manner, he told him that the Queen would as well have care of her subjects as the King, and desired to have a plain answer. Within two days Sir Andrew told him that the King was content for his departure on the aforesaid conditions, but would take no order for the payment of the debts or answer to the Queen's letters, for that there is a certain grief happened between them. Recommends that some wise and learned man should be sent as ambassador to this King. M. Pinart, the French ambassador, after his departure hence went to the Duke Charles and the Princess Elizabeth, where he continued five days, where was great cheer, with presents, and the Lady Elizabeth's picture for the French King, so it is thought there will be a marriage between them. This M. Pinart, one night being drunk, said that the Queen of England could not hold out long, as she had not past four or five of her council and noblemen who were of her religion, nor more than three in the 100 of the common people. This he had from one who had been in times past preceptor to the Lord Darnley. The Russians have taken all Lief-land and lay seige to Revel with 70,000 men.—Stockholm, 25 March 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Pp. 32/3.
March 26. 61. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
Chiverny appoints to be with him to-morrow. If the skill of this painter here be liked supposes he would be induced to come thither, for he is a Fleming, and likes not overwell of his entertainment here. It seems he has done Lord Oxford well; his Lordship's device is very proper, witty, and significant.—Paris, 26 March 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 2/3.
March 27. 62. Dr. Wilson to the Prince of Orange.
Has been sent over as ambassador of the Queen of England to the Commendator to aid in bringing about a peace in the Low Countries, and also to procure a free passage for the Merchant Adventurers up the Scheldt, which he has obtained after some trouble. Being in Dunkirk on his return to England has been informed of the stay of an English vessel at Flushing, and therefore desires that he will give orders that it may be set at liberty.—Dunkirk, 27 March 1575. Signed.
Ital. P. 1.
March 27. 63. Dr. Wilson to M. Boissot.
Desires him to release the English ship which is stayed at Flushing, and informs him that if it is not done at once the Queen will find means to make the Flushingers feel her resentment.—Dunkirk, 27 March 1575. Signed.
Endd. Ital. P. 2/3.
March 29. 64. R. Stafford to [Lord Burghley].
1. Has not written before because the means are taken away to send from Heidelberg to Antwerp. Although there were a great number who both before and since the Vidame's coming went about to make up as fast as they could articles of peace, to have sent to the King, and not have tarried the coming of the deputies of the Languedoc; yet by the Vidame's counsel, whom since his coming, the Prince chiefly rests on, and Mons. De Thore's continual exclaiming that in so doing they did that for the King, that all his own power was not able to do, which is to put discussion amongst themselves, there was nothing agreed upon. At their coming they declared their forces, and how little they cared for peace in their parts, yet for the common utility of the whole realm, and the ease of their poor afflicted brethren, they were come to the Prince as their head, reminding him of the condition wherewithal they chose him their chief, which was that with out the consent of the whole of the churches he should of his own head consent to nothing. Whereupon they with the deputies from other parts concluded upon the articles they should demand of the King. The chief are that the religion shall be preached in all places in France; that the Protestants shall have in all provinces certain towns, and not give over those they have already, keeping their due obedience, and paying their duty to the King; that the Estates of France should be called together, and have liberty to ordain of all things; that all offices be corrected, and unable men put out; no strangers to rule or govern; all debts made by the Protestants for hire of soldiers to be paid; and restoration of goods and honours.
2. They of Languedoc would have had put in that the authors of the slaughter of Paris should be put in their hands to be executed, and the death of the Admiral revenged, but this was thought by common assent to be an impossible thing, and therefore without purpose to be asked. The other articles have they charge to release nothing of and be gone away, and a gentleman of the King's, and a trumpet for their surety.
3. The Prince looks for nothing but wars, and makes all the private preparation he can. They have sent M. D'Argenlieu to Heidelberg, and as they shall hear from him the Vidame will return likewise. They keep it close from all men.
4. Before the Vidame's coming hither there was such confusion in their counsels that nothing was concluded upon, but it was known at the court of France almost as soon, for there are here a number of these politic Papists and others that be malcontents, and most of these have no religion. All be, as they were, of the general council, but since the Vidame's coming they have made a private council, where assists no one but the Prince, M. De Thore, the Vidame, and M. Beza, and these have sworn not to declare their counsels to anybody; but the Prince has for his help M. De Montagu, the Vidame, M. D'Argenlieu, and M. De Thore, M. De Vezines. These know all secrets, howbeit they come not to the Council openly.—Basle, 29 Sept. 1575. Signed.
5. P.S.—At his being at the Landgrave's he saw a letter from his Lordship to Dr. Sturmius, which the Landgrave takes in very evil part, because he writes that the Princes of Germany are in some things too hasty, and in others too slow.
Pp. 4.
March 30. 65. Dr. Dale to Lord Burghley.
1. Chiverny, who was to have been with him on Sunday last, sent his excuse in the evening. He sent Peter la Clere, a merchant of Rouen, with a great complaint, his suit is no less but to arrest the English merchants' goods at Rouen. Finds he has received as much of his goods as might be found; that his ship lies where he can have it when he list, and that the parties are in hold or bound to answer to the law; yet he makes all his exclamation against Lord Clinton, at whose hands he has received this favour. Sent Chiverny word that he would satisfy him with reason.
2. The deputies are newly come, and are straitly watched, but as yet they have not been dealt withal. Certain news is come that the Viscount of Touraine is in arms and has taken St. Flour in Auvergne, marching towards Danville with 800 horses and 2,000 footmen. M. Meru's man was brought to the King, and was willed to be brought again after dinner, in the meantime while his keepers were at dinner he stepped aside and is not heard of, yet the gates were shut, and proclamation made for the apprehension of him.
3. There is another, one Condé of Picardy, committed to Bois de Vincennes; he is a man that has little meddled. This escape increases the jealousy against the English, for they will suspect always in such a case more than is indeed. Jacomo has been noted by some for the man that came in his company, so that the party indeed has more cause to beware.
4. Monsieur has been suffered of late to go abroad alone with his guard, but not out of the town, and promised he shall have a house, and keep house of his own, to win him that way. For all the preparation the King makes for money cannot hear of any yet that comes in. There is post upon post with the news of Genes [Genoa] that the old nobility is driven out of the town, and the Spaniards slain, which is of great consequence for Spain. M. De Foix "cannot get no grace" at Rome, nor be admitted ambassador. Prays to be instructed of M. La Chastre's doings, that he may the better deal with them here.—Paris, 30 March 1575. Signed.
5. P.S.—Must not omit that the Queen will need be with child, it is spoken of in every place.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Pp. 2.
March. 66. Articles to be proposed by the Deputies.
1. (1.) The observation of the Edict of January. (2.) Peaceably to enjoy the towns which are in the possession of them of the religion. (3.) Restitution of all prisoners and others which are absent for the cause, to their honours, offices, and goods, with declaration of their innocency. (4.) A declaration that the Act of St. Bartholomew was detestable, and all things done thereupon to be revoked. (5.) Hereafter the King shall levy no subsidies, nor do any other thing of like weight without the consent of the Estates. (6.) To have Metz, Verdun, and Toul for pledges of the observation of the premises.
2. It is said the King was so offended with these articles, that reading them he cast them in the fire for anger, and since makes his preparations in such wise as are mentioned in the French advertisement.
Enclosure. P. ¾.
March. 67. — [to Dr. Dale.]
1. M. De Lenoday, under colour of going to Rochelle to induce them of the town to make peace with the King, and M. De la Noüe to go to the Court, had an enterprise upon that town, which they have discovered, and punished with death five or six of the conspirators. Knowing this M. De Lenoday has returned, being unwilling to enter the town. Upon this they of the town have taken occasion to take Marennes and Livron. The King has levied a loan upon the wealthy people in this town and on strangers of a million of livres. He has farmed out to Diaceto, a Florentine, under the name of another, the "parties casuelles," for 60,000 francs a month. He has suppressed all pensions for the present year. He has gathered in all the money he could from the sale of benefices, deriving therefrom two millions of gold, with which he hopes to make war in good earnest should there be no peace. The clergy of Dauphiny have sent deputies to the King because of the sale of benefices that the King has made there, and they found complaints on the six-tenths that they pay every year, or a million of francs that the King has demanded from them, and on the war that they have in Dauphiny, which they make at their own expense without it costing the King a sou. One of them had the hardihood to say that Danville took but one-and-a-half tenths from the Church.
2. Noted in the margin by Dale: "It is doubted whether this part touching the executing of the conspirators be true," and "For all these devices there comes no money."
Enclosure. Fr. P. 1.
March 30. 68. Masino del Bene to Lord Burghley.
With regard to the matter proposed through Jacomo Manucci, he leaves it entirely in his hands, having by experience great knowledge of his honour and justice. Remits the matter of recompense to his discretion.—Paris, 30 March 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. 1.
March 30. 69. Thomas Wilkes to Lord Burghley.
As he looked for a short despatch of his matters here, he deferred the relation of his doings until his own coming, having no man whom he might conveniently send. Is however required to stay till the 7th of next month, but hopes to be returned nearly as soon as this shall come to his hands.— Heidelberg, 30 March 1575. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. P. 2/3.
March 30. 70. The Council of Spain to the Inquisition of Seville.
Desiring that a vessel named the "Elizabeth" belonging to certain merchants of London which has been embargoed at St. Lucar by the Inquisition may be released.—Madrid, 30 March 1575. Signed.
Copy trans. Endd. Pp. 12/3.
71. Prisoners in the Inquisition at Seville.
List of eight names of Englishmen belonging to the "Elizabeth" and the bark "Andrea," who were in the Inquisition at Seville.
Endd. Span. P. 1.
[March] 72. Spanish Goods Arrested.
Note of matters to be considered for the recompense of the goods which were arrested.
Endd. P. 1.
March. 73. News from Rome and the Levant.
1. News from the Levant of March 3, of great naval preparations by the Turk at Constantinople.
2. From Rome 18 March 1575. Death of Cardinal Bebba. The cause of Monsieur de Foix is remitted to the Cardinals Sforza and Maffei, and Foix stays at Sienna with the Grand Duke. The Abbot Birago has been sent into France with the consecrated rose for the Queen.
Ital. Pp. 1¼.
[March.] 74. M. de la Chastre's Mission.
Names of the noblemen, gentlemen, and others who accompanied M. de la Chastre on his mission from Henry III. of France to Elizabeth.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 1½.
[March ?] 75. Dr. Dale to the Regent of Scotland.
There is no place from whence disquietness may arise so soon as from hence, where there lacks neither will nor solicitors. Has been as plain with the President of Tours and with the Bishop of Ross since his coming here, in the presence of the Bishop of Glasgow, as he could devise. Has told them flatly it behoved them to be careful that neither they nor any other breed any disquietness if they love their own mistress, and willed them to look carefully thereunto. They have so many and so great instruments here, that it is hardly to be thought that such heads will be in rest if time might serve. For anything he can learn, neither they nor the Huntleys who made so great professions at their first coming hither are in any great hope at this time to work anything to effect, notwithstanding the Huntleys do not lack good entertainment. Can hardly discern who are of trust or "who are made supports of purpose." If he will address such unto him with whom he may boldly deal withal, will do his best to find out their designs, not only in respect to him, but also for the service of his mistress.
Copy. Endd. P. 1.
[March.] 76. Cipher in the handwriting of Dr. Dale.
Has had much difficulty to hear from the Duke of Alençon; a new good body has taken upon him to carry messages to and fro. Willed him to know what had passed, in what case he was, and which way the Queen of England may do him good. He brought answer that the Duke highly thanks the Queen and esteems himself bound to her while he lives, and was much comforted; he knows no better way than, if it pleased her, to send some man to treat for his liberty. "By Jacomo."
Partly deciphered. P. ⅓.
[March.] 77. Cipher in the handwriting of Dr. Dale.
His Secretary has spoken with the King of Navarre, who has had conference with the Duke of Alençon; they both take themselves out of danger. They desire him to follow the Queen Mother for their liberty as he has begun, in the name of the Queen of England. They cannot write, yet they desire much to have some letter from the Queen or of some near about her. It is a perilous practise of the Queen Mother to set debate between the Duke and the Duke of Montmorenci.
Partly deciphered. Pp. 1⅓.
[March.] 78. Dr. Dale to [Lord Burghley].
Touching the satisfaction of Mr. Wickham, has committed the matter to his Lordship. Beseeches that Dr. Forth may be wholly reconciled to him. Signed.
Endd. P. ½.
March. 79. Wars of the Religion.
List of towns and castles held by the Huguenots in Dauphiny, Provence, Languedoc, Quercy, Gascony, Agenois, Comtè de Foix, Albigeois, Lauraguais, Perigord, Vivarais, Limousin, Auvergne, Bourbonnais, and Poitou.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
[March.] 80. Le Jeu de France.

"Les novelles qu'on dit c'est que soulz la balance
"D'un jeu l'estat Francoys s'esbranle inconstamment
"A prime se jouant nostre entier changement
"Par quattre qui devoyent conserver notre France.
"Le premier soit qui n'ait en son jeu grand fiance
"Soit pour faire le fin passe tout simplement.
Le Roy de Navarre:—
"Le second qui en perte a joue longuement
"Se picque de sa reste et fait tourner la chance.
La Royne Mere:—
"Le tierce qui tenant tout void que l'heur ne dit plus
"Demande a composer monstrant l'espoir d'un flus
"Cachant son mauvais jeu soubs la carte couverte.
Le Roy:—
"Mais le quart quitte tout pour le malheur qu'il a
"Qui nous appaurit tous d'autant que celuy la
"Nous tient associez de moitie a sa perte."
Endd. Fr. P. ½.