894. The Sultan of Turkey to the Queen.
Desires her to grant her protection and furtherance to a
certain Christian merchant named Gabriel Defreus, who is
proceeding to England upon certain business of his Highness.
—Constantinople, 1 Sept. 1576.
Copy. Endd.: 1576. Lat. P. 2/3.
895. Philip II. to the Queen of England.
Announcing the appointment of Don John of Austria to the
Government of the Low Countries.—Madrid, 1 Sept. 1576.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. Royal Letter.
896. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
According to the Prince of Orange's promise the two
merchants have been set at liberty. The eldest is very ill,
but he thinks it is more from trouble than anything else.—
Middleburg, 1 Sept. 1576. Signed.
2. P.S. (on separate slip of paper).—The agreement will be
made between those of Flanders, which places the Prince in
great danger, so that her Majesty continuing in appearance
[angry] all will go badly.
Add. Endd. Fr. P. ½.
897. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
As yet the Prince has not stayed any ships belonging to her
Majesty's subjects or given charge to any of his own ships to
make war, as the bearer, Mr. Berkley, can inform him more
particularly. In the meanwhile he is in great perplexity,
seeing his ships are daily taken, though he cannot yet persuade
himself that her Majesty intends to enter into war with this
country. Though the writer cannot see that he means to use
any force, yet, considering the people he governs, he will be
overcome at length. Has therefore advised him to send one
well qualified over to England, by whose means all hostility
may cease, but he answers that he cannot do this unless he
be first assured that the Queen would take it in good part.
Has not ceased to enter into particular conference with the
Prince touching such means as are to be used hereafter, and
in the meanwhile waits for the answer of the States in that
matter which he proposed to them in the name of the
churches, but perceives in the end that all his desire is to be
furnished of money. Took occasion to deal with the merchants,
especially with Mr. Godard, for the other is very sick, but he
thinks it better to agree upon some payment by form of assurance than to break off all the traffic, for that can be no
commodity to his Excellency, whereas if the passage be kept
open it will be commodious for the Merchant Adventurers,
staplers, and himself. Again, take what order men can,
merchandise will be transported into the Low Countries and
also conveyed from thence by Calais and Rouen, which will
cause it to be dearer than if it passed by the Scheldt, and the
profit will remain in the traffickers' hands, and no man
benefitted but those who are enemies of both parties. Both
Mr. Gerard and he think that an accord will be more profitable
to England in respect of the carriage of the Spaniards' goods.
Recommends that a passport should be given for one to come
over from the Prince and States to treat of this matter, and
in the meantime that her Majesty should cause a surcease of
all acts of hostility. Thirdly, to frame the Merchant Adventurers and Staplers in time to some good composition, such
as shall be profitable to England and the Low Countries.
Perceives that the Prince is minded to remit the whole to her
Majesty's pleasure and the judgment of her Council.—Middleburg, 4 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. Pp. 2.
898. Translation of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3¼.
899. Wars in the Low Countries.
Names of 16 persons put in prison by the States of the
Low Countries on the 4th Sept. 1576.
900. The Prince of Orange to the Queen.
Declares that all the reports of arrests and illtreatment of
her subjects in Holland and Zealand are false, and that the
bearer can inform her of the truth. These accounts are spread
by those who seek their ruin. They have nothing more at
heart than with all submission and obedience to do her very
humble service.—Middleburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. P. ½.
901. The Prince of Orange to the Privy Council of
Begs that they will give their favourable attention to that
which the bearer has in charge to communicate to them, and
assures them of his goodwill and readiness to do them
service.—Middleburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. P. ½.
902. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
Treating with the merchants after dinner, it appeared to
him that the differences would be settled in this wise, namely,
that the Merchant Adventurers should pay half the sum,
that is to say 62,500 florins, subtracting the 36,000 already
disbursed; within a half year 4,000 to Mr. Morgan, 4,000
to Mr. Pelham, 2,000 to Mr. Bertelai, and to Mr. Haweis
32,000 florins, and the remainder in ready money. The said
sum shall be repaid, always subtracting the third of that
which shall be agreed on for the assurance of the passages
until all is paid. Thinks that the Prince will do everything
that can be desired provided he can defend himself from the
enemy.—Middleburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Endd., with seal. Fr. P. ½.
903. Mines at Keswick.
Loys Horman and Jehan Henry Lincks complain to the
Council that the mines at Keswick cannot be worked on account
of the English contributaries not paying their share of the
expenses, through which 500 quintals of copper, besides silver
and lead, are unavailable.—Augsburg, 5 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Fr. Pp. 3.
904. Loys Horman and Jehan Lincks to Lord Burghley.
Complain that the partners in England belonging to the
company for working the copper mines at Keswick do not
contribute their share of the expenses, and desire that he will
use his influence to have this remedied.—Augsburg, 5 Sept.
Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 1¼.
Affairs of Flanders.
905. Pietro Bizarri to
Journey of the Duke of Bavaria into Saxony. Favourable
reception of the Vaivode of Transylvania in Poland. Intention of the Emperor to send an Embassy into Muscovy.
The Elector of Cologne has returned to his states. The Duke
of Montmorency has been at Spa and Aix la Chapelle for the
baths. Means to go to the fair at Frankfort about his own
business. Duke Casimir has returned to Heidelburg with
loss of money and credit. The Elector Palatine has written
a letter to the Queen of England in recommendation of his
wife's brother Count Adolph, whom he begs he will favour
on account of his numerous good qualities.—Cologne, 5 Sept.
Endd. Ital. Pp. 5.
906. 1. Walsingham to M. de Villiers.
Received his letter on the 4th inst., which he has communicated to the Council, whose answer he encloses. Trusts
that all matters will be soon appeased and complains of the
conduct of the Flushingers, which is a great hindrance to the
accord, and causes much bitter feeling [aigreur] amongst her
Majesty's subjects. Gives a summary of the Queen's answer
to the different points contained in his letter.—Windsor,
6 Sept. 1576.
Rough draft in French.
2. The Queen's answer touching the Prince of Orange's
1. As to the release of such ships as were lately taken,
she cannot avoid it (considering that her subjects have been
greatly outraged since Sir William Winter's departure by the
Flushingers) until she shall understand from the Prince what
security he will give that her subjects shall be free from
2. Restitution shall be made of the four ships stayed in
3. All the mariners and others taken in the said ships,
saving 12 of the principal, shall be set at liberty.
4. All the merchant ships pertaining to them of Holland
and Zealand shall be also released.
5. Orders shall be given to the Queen's ships to forbear to
molest any of the Flushingers for the space of 20 days.
Notes of matters contained in the preceding letter.
3. [Walsingham] to M. de Villiers.
The bad conduct of those of Flushing has greatly hindered
their plans and favoured those of the Spanish faction, who
continue by these means to anger the Queen more and more.
He must therefore travail with the Prince of Orange to stop
this, lest the foundation which is well laid should be destroyed before the building is raised. Enjoins him to secrecy.
Draft in French, partly in cipher, with marginal note
Min. to M. de Villiers at Windsor.
907. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
At his arrival at Flushing he found a courier from the
States of Brabant to the Prince of Orange, with news that
23 of the counsellors had been made prisoners at Brussels.
Yesterday there came a letter from those of Flanders demanding
a conference between the States of this country and those of
Flanders.—Flushing, 6 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd., with seal. Fr. P. ⅓.
908. [Walsingham] to M. de St. Aldegonde.
Has received his letters, which have given him great contentment, as also they have done to the Lords of the Council
to whom he has shown them. If he continues in the same
mind and goodwill all will turn out well. Has written more
fully to M. de Villiers.—Copy.
Endd.: Min. to St. Aldegonde. Fr. P. ½.
909. Dr. Dale to Burghley.
1. Had dealt with the King and Queen Mother touching
James Fitzmorris. Had hoped to have brought him somewhat out of credit, that the King would not make any further
account of him, but for all the persuasion he could use he is
better entertained than a better man or a better cause would
require at this time, but so it is, to do a shrewd turn they
spare nothing. Is advertised he had 5,000 crowns given him,
which, if it be true, is not pour ses beaux yeux as the scantness of money is at this time; true it is, he had a good
round piece of money and a horse which he sent for a present to him that paid the money sent him back again. He
is returned to St. Malo. Sends the Secretary a copy of the
letter of the new King of Poland to the King; it is worth
the reading, both for the matter and the good penning of it;
men may see thereby what an ornament it is in Court, bene
et Latine scribere. If Duke Casimir made his entry into
his country in such triumphant manner, as is reported, with
his spoils and jewels, and Bellieure before him as hostage, it
may be judged how hard it is to bear fortune with modesty.
The King and all the Court are much offended at it. Madame
Danville is come to the Court. Now the Guises are to depart,
M. Vaudemont is come to the Court in their place. The
Queen Mother has been going to Monsieur these ten days, but
now it is broken off, for neither are very willing. Men speak
much of the marriage between the Prince of Condé and the
Princess of Navarre. The King of Navarre has sent again for
his wife for fashion's sake, but his chief meaning is to be satisfied of his marriage money.—Paris, 10 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. P. 1¼.
2. P.S.—Understands further of James Fitzmorris that
he makes report to the King he can obtain no favour of the
Queen, and vaunts that he finds such favour of the King that
he is sufficiently provided for.
Slip of paper.
910. Philip II. to Jeronimo de Rodas.
1. Has received his letters informing him of the mutiny
of the Spaniards who have retired to Alost, and of the inconveniences which have ensued thereby, and that the Council
of State have proclaimed them rebels, and levied men of war;
and further, that he, Vargas, and Julian Romero have been
obliged to take refuge in the palace at Brussels. Understands
by his letters of 18 and 19 August that the Spaniards have
been pacified by his intercession, and that he hoped to do the
like with the Walloons. Moreover, letters of change for
200,000 crowns having arrived safely, that ought to satisfy
both parties, especially as further provision of money cannot be
made till the arrival of Don John. He shall be sent without
forces, but with the true means of pacification, Rodas is therefore to do everything, that the fire kindled between the
soldiery and the people may be extinguished.
2. From all that he has heard, he considers that that which
has already happened proceeds chiefly from the mistrust that
exists, and that there is no better remedy than to disband the
forces levied by those of the Council, to make the people lay
down their arms, and to provide that the soldiery should
retire into their garrisons. He therefore commands the
Council of State to see this performed, and sends Rodas
certain instructions in cipher which he is to keep secret.
3. His will is that all should obey the Council of State
as representing his proper person, and that they should use
all means to preserve tranquility till the coming of his
brother Don John; and he further orders him to inform all
colonels and other officers who signed the letter dated 13
August that he relies on their fidelity. Has written to Don
Sancho D'Avila recommending him to use caution in event of
those of the Low Countries continuing in their evil courses.
Has written similar letters to Alexander de Gonzaga and
other chief officers, in order that they may understand from
Rodas what are his intentions, and so act in accordance with
them. Particularly warns him to look well after the safety
of the citadels of Antwerp, Ghent, and Valenciennes. As for
the Duke of Arschot, M. de Champagny, and others of like
temper, he must dissimulate with them, making a virtue of
necessity, until the arrival of Don John, who will take such
steps as he shall find convenient. There is no reply required
to the letter sent 29 July, signed by him, Alexander de
Gonzaga, Alonzo de Vargas, but he may tell them and Julian
Romero that he is well pleased with the contents, and with
the care they have taken in his service, and that his brother, when he arrives, will honour and reward them according to their merits. Is advertised of the persons whom he
has pointed out for Bishops of Antwerp and Ghent, and also
of the necessity in which the Bishop of Haarlem is at present,
who shall be relieved. Has also heard of the pretension
which the Bishop of Liege sent to him by the Archdeacon of
Brabant, which is reasonable should be satisfied. He is to
mention this in the memorial of advertisements which he
is to send to Don John, and also the names of the English
refugees in the Low Countries, in order that provision may
be made for the religious persons serving the Lord with
such affection as they do. He has done well by burning
the papers in the citadel of Antwerp, as thereby there is no
longer need to trouble about them. Gives him permission
to quit the Low Countries shortly before the arrival of Don
John of Austria. He is to say farewell quietly to the
Council, and on no account to wait for the coming of Don
John, or even meet him on the road, so that no occasion
for sinister suspicions may arise. Would have been glad if
he could have met and spoken with his brother, but as
this is not well feasible he is to write to him very fully
on such matters he thinks ought to be communicated to
him, as well about the government of spiritual and temporal affairs as about the revenue and the war. He is to
leave this writing in the hands of Don Balthazar Lopez de
la Cuenca, to be delivered to the Prince, and he is to send
a copy in cipher to the King. Sends him an order for
1,000 crowns for the expenses of his journey.—St. Lorent
[Escurial], 11 Sept. 1576.
Copy. Endd.: "The copy of the King of Spain's letter
intercepted, which were directed to Rodas, bearing date
11 Sept. 1576." Fr. Pp. 9¼.
911. Extract of that portion of the above letter referring to
the Bishops of Antwerp, Ghent, Haarlem, and Liege, and the
relief of the English refugees in the Low Countries.
Endd. Span. P. 1.
912. R. Colshill to Walsingham.
1. Has received his letters of 28 July and 23 August,
and by the first perceives that he understands the unwilling
ness of this city to grant her Majesty either credit or loan
of money, to excuse which action there fails no excuses.
Albeit he has received good entertainment, he never found in
them will to pleasure her Majesty, although with good
terms he pressed them to remember the great benefits and
privileges they have long enjoyed by her goodness. Begs
that their guilt may be no condemnation to his innocency.
It is excused by the absence of such as promised the same
at the Diet, and by the want of expedition in England,
whereby their money was otherwise determined. Thinks
there is no want of money if they had will. Earnestly
travailed with them for 100,000 dollars, or less, to serve the
Earl of Leicester's turn, but could not have it, and yet the
Burgomaster Sowderman delivered as of himself that if they
could have their ancient privileges restored they would not
only lend 200,000li, but 400,000li. Hears of a further, communication the fruit whereof he dare not warrant anything.
Hears of sundry practices here by the ministers of the Kings
of Spain and France, and the Pope's nuncio, for that it is
said that this money should be used to maintain the Protestants, yet thinks that this service may take good eff[...]
elsewhere. Has been at great charges for his living, and
sending to different places on her Majesty's service. The
Duke of Silesia has offered of himself 400,000 dollars. Intends
to repair to Aachen [Aix la Chapelle] where he understands there are great sums of money, but of more interest
than their commission is to give. By this bearer he will
receive a letter from Count Carlo de [Nevenor], addressed
to her Majesty; he seems greatly affected to her; he is
very rich, and married a sister of the Prince of Orange, and
is a Protestant. He has with him a kinsman called Count
Adolph Nevenor, a lusty gallant, married to the old Count's
sister, who was Count Horn's wife, who is a very modest
and virtuous lady, and well affected to the Queen. This
nobleman's sister is married to the Count Palatine, and was
wife to Count Brederode. He makes great offers to serve
her Majesty with footmen and horsemen at all times, and is
very desirous to be her pensioner. He is a Protestant, and
brought up in France and desires Walsingham to further his
wife's request for her Majesty's picture, for she never goes
without her Majesty's counterfeit in her bosom, "and is so ill
done as it grieveth me to behold the same, knowing the
excellency of her Majesty."
2. By the goodness of her Majesty, and by the Earl of
Leicester's letter, his own suit takes good effect; he has
already got the Mother's consent, and if he could only get
her Majesty's letter in his favour he would have small
difficulty in obtaining the daughter. Begs that Dr. Furstemburg may have his pension; he is more worthy of 100li
than 100 dollars. Mr. Dymock has come hither out of
Sweden, by whom he finds there is a greater sum to be had
in the land of Holst than the Queen requires. Dymock
has been of great assistance to him in his own cause.—
11 Sept. 1576.
3. Begs that he may have some comfort concerning their
letters patent, that howsoever he does, he may have to pay
his debts. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
913. Mr. Colshill to Burghley.
Has received the answer of the Burgomasters to the
Queen's letters in writing, which he has caused to be translated into French, and sent to Mr. Walsingham. It is a flat
denial to lend their money on credit in whole or part. They
plead inability, but the Burgomaster Sowderman told him
that if their ancient privileges might be restored to them not
200,000li but 400,000li should be ready to serve her Majesty.
Beseeches that the fault may not be laid on the innocents.
Finds that there has been great practice to hinder this service
by the ministers of the King of Spain, the Pope, and the
French King, as they fear that this money is borrowed to
assist the Protestants. Has been promised by the Duke of
Silesia the 400,000 dollars which were provided for the Duke
of Alençon. Is also assured that there will be found in
Holstein more than they have commission to receive. Would
have repaired thither if he had not received letters from Walsingham to stay for Mr. Castelyn's return. Is heartily sorry
that there is more ability and secrecy judged to be in him, or
that a merchant is thought fitter to serve here than a gentleman, as they disdain the race and doings of merchants, and
call them in derision "pepper-men." Trusts that he will have
in consideration as he has had to bear all the charges in her
Majesty's service. Means to go to Aachen, where there is store
of money by reason of the rich Netherlanders having fled
thither. His own cause takes so good and sweet a course that
there is more than hope if her Majesty and his good friends
fail him not. Though sought by nobles, it is never denied him
his repair unto her, when to all others it is denied. Refers
him to this gentleman, Mr. Bond, to understand what he has
seen, and knows who has been with him all this journey. The
stay of their proceedings is that she would be assured of his
good behaviour, and that he will be found a good husband for
her, and God calling him before her that she may be protected
from wrong and enjoy her own. Her mother's consent
he has, and he doubt not of hers also, if he may be backed as
aforesaid. Desires him to procure the Queen's letters, and
send his own in Latin to the maid named Margaret Hilton,
and to other people to befriend him. Desires that Dr. Furstemberg's pension of 100 dollars may be confirmed, as he thinks
him worthy of one of 100li.—Cologne, 12 Sept. 1576.
Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
914. The Elector Palatine to the Queen.
Deferring the payment of the 50,000 crowns borrowed last
year to the Spring mart at Frankfort in 1577.—Heidelberg,
16 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
915. George Gascoigne to Burghley.
1. The troubles and news of Flanders have set all the soldiers
of this realm in a triumph. The King had determined a
solemn triumph at a marriage made in his Court on Sunday
last, and upon these occurrents kept close and was not seen.
There remain yet at Chalons, in Champagne, 25 cornets of
reiters, which Duke Casimir brought into these parts. The
Duke of Montmorency, Monsieur de Sories (the King's
minion), and other gentlemen to the number of 500, the
bravest soldiers in France well appointed, remain in the lower
parts of Germany, notwithstanding that their return from the
battle has been long executed. Here pass daily numbers of
captains, brave gentlemen, and soldiers, as well French as
others, from the King to Monsieur his brother, who is presently
at Tours; they spare not to triumph upon this occasion in
Flanders, and speak it openly with great words. Assures
him that the King and his brother are friends, and that there
passes presently from them a messenger, or ambassador, or
commissary, towards Germany for levies. Danville's wife
has spoken with the King and Queen Mother not without
great suspicion. The King has still here about him in readiness 7,000 footmen. Means to become an eye-witness of the
stir in Flanders, and from thence he shall shortly hear from
him.—Paris, 15 Sept. 1576. Signed.
2. P.S.—Wine must be excessive dear this year, their vineyards are destroyed with frost and hail.
Add., with seal. Endd. Pp. 2.
916. Memorial for Mr. Foxall.
If the King of Denmark or his counsellors shall enter into
any communication in behalf of renewing such ancient leagues
as have been with England he shall declare that there is like
good disposition in her Majesty to proceed therein. Forasmuch as the greatest difficulty in renewing the said league
seems to consist in which prince shall first send or write to
the other, this may be got over by both sending commissioners
to some convenient place, as Lubeck or Hamburg, by which
way the matter can be more effectually dealt with than by
writing. He is to inform himself whether the King means
only to renew such leagues as have passed heretofore between
the two crowns, or whether he means to demand any privileges for his subjects trafficking in England, and if he sees such
demands tend to the abatement of her Majesty's customs, or
to the prejudice of her subjects, he is to dissuade him from the
A note of such indignities as have been offered to her
Majesty by the King of Spain and his Ministers.
The misusing of her ambassador consists in searching his
coffers; not giving him audience for three weeks after his
arrival; not allowing him the exercise of his religion in his
own house; forcing his servants to be present at their ceremonies, and making his son and steward assist at a mass with
torches in token of being converts; not allowing him to
deliver the Queen's letters; and dismissing him without taking
leave or receiving any reward of the King.
1. The imprisoning and burning her subjects.
2. Confiscating their goods.
3. Giving pensions and entertainments to her rebels.
4. Not punishing D'Espes, who was discovered to be one
of the chief authors of the rebellion in the North.
5. The Duke of Alva's contemptuous dealing towards her
Majesty and her subjects at his first coming into the Low
6. The Commendator's late proud and insolent manner of
writing to her Majesty.
Negotiations between England and Denmark.
Matters propounded to the Queen of England, to which an
answer was required in the name of the King of Denmark.
Whether the Queen would accept the mediation of the
King of Denmark to bring about a reconciliation with Spain.
Also that the King's subjects should not be molested in their
traffic with Spain, and that the English officers should be forbidden to seize upon vessels in any of the King's ports.
Certain matters connected with Iceland fisheries.
In Latin. Incomplete. Endorsed by Burghley, 16 Sept.
1576. Pp. 3¼.
917. Lord Scrope to Walsingham.
In commendation of Captain William Selby for fully paying
and duly answering all such as were his soldiers in Ireland of
their pay, and also for their conduct and transportation by
water.—Carlisle, 16 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. ⅓.
918. Advertisements from Antwerp.
By the three Estates of Brabant, Artois, and [Herige.]
Considering that in this present dangerous time there is no
fitter means or remedy than to keep the unity and concord of
these Low Countries established by Charles, the Emperor of
famous memory, in 1548.
So it is that the aforesaid Estates desire an assembly of
the governors with the deputies of the Estates of all these
countries to devise meet means for the welfare of the same,
and, that they should not be reprehended of any oversight, they
have levied men of war to be employed where by common
resolution it shall be thought needful for the maintenance of
the holy Catholic Roman religion, the King's service, the
defence of their desolate fatherland, and the pacification of the
same. Have further required the Estates of other provinces
to do the like, and to send their deputies to Brussels to communicate and resolve on these matters. In the meantime
they require all captains to maintain order and quietness.—
Brussels, 8 Sept. 1576.
Headed: Advertisements from Antwerp, 16 Sept. 1576.
919. Advertisements from Antwerp.
The Spaniards lie in Duffel and Wallen, being two towns
having bridges over the water between Antwerp and Mechlin,
the other between Lyre and Mechlin.
They have taken St. Barnard's, an abbey two leagues from
They keep also Lyre [Lierre.]
On Wednesday came to Brussels the Count of Lalain and
Count Egmont with the Barons of Beersele and of Gasbeck,
with 80 gentlemen and 600 horse, and were met at Brussels
with 1,000 shot and 150 horse.
In Burghley's writing.
Endd: Advertisements from Antwerp, 16 Sept. 1576.
920. Advertisement from Antwerp.
On Sunday afternoon last, Camargo, provost-marshal of the
Court and one of the Castellan's chief counsellors, having
intelligence that Zeratz, who was the last burgomaster in
Brussels, was come to town, and thinking he could give intelligence of all that was passed in Brussels, laid privily for
him, and, as soon as he stirred out of his lodging, after a
familiar fleering sort saluted him, and when he thought he had
him in a sure place openly apprehended him in the King's
name, and with all speed led him towards the Castle. The
commons having advertised Count Overstein, he sent his
guard to stop him, who, not being able to get to the Castle,
took his prisoner into a tower on the town wall; but the
commons with ladders scaled the place and entered at the top
and fetched out the prisoner, slew one of the provost's men,
and took Camargo (being shot in the leg) and led him to
Count Overstein, who sent him to the castle at night. Afterwards Count Overstein came to the market place and thanked
the burgesses, and promised to stand by them, so that no
disorder should be suffered in the town. The same night
the Spaniards took Willibrock on the river of Bruges, where
they have fortified themselves and stop the passage by water.
Other places taken by the Spaniards [see Sept. 16]. They
keep strong watch in the town, and the Spaniards dare not stir.
The Spaniards of Alost and the Dutch of Termonde were
proclaimed rebels in Ghent on Wednesday. A captain named
Uitenhove with 600 Walloons has gone from Ypres to lie
about Termond. Arrival of Counts Lalain and Egmont at
Bruges (see Sept. 16). They prepare men in all places, and
there will be a great number; the Spaniards still brag it out
and do mischief where they can. On Wednesday they made
a privy enterprise to Louvain which failed, but the same
night issued out of Alost 1,000 shot and 60 horsemen, who
went within two miles of Brussels and fetched all the cattle
they could get and set certain farms on fire. They are not
yet all paid, and will not do but what they think good,
having imprisoned the Eletto for that he persuaded them to
good rule. The Castellan demanded certain places near the
castle, which were refused. The burgesses of Antwerp will
watch with the Dutch, and officers are appointed to lead
them, but it is not yet agreed when. The Spaniards have
forsaken Bommel and Browershaven and lie within a league
of this town. The Walloons are still in Zericksee, their colonel
in hold, and they spoiling the poor burgesses. The Italian,
Spanish, and Portuguese merchants requested licence that
they might watch together in some place, which was refused,
but if they list they may take their turns with their neighbours. The High Dutch colonels have consulted together
and agreed to keep such places as their men are in for the
King against all comers until the King's pleasure is known.
Certain Albanian light horsemen made an enterprise against
Douay, but it is reported that they have been overthrown.
Certain of the prisoners apprehended in Brussels are put in
a tower called Treurenberg, where none come but they be
sharply dealt with and pay with their lives if they have
offended. There shall enter the town this day two ensigns
of High Dutch for the better safeguard of the place; the
captain of the castle, to put the burgesses out of conceit
that he pretended any harm to them, said he would have
had Spaniards, and was willing to swear that he will suffer
no hurt to be done by the Spaniards.—Antwerp, 17 Sept.
Add.: To the right worshipful Mr. Wm. Davison. Pp.
921. William Wade to Burghley.
Don John of Austria is secretly gone into Spain with two
galleys only, some say for his despatch for the Low Country,
and some upon bruit of the death of the Spanish King.
Hears that young Lansac took sea at Bordeaux with divers
captains and soldiers, and in good order, the last month. He
was named one of the chief in the voyage. Strozzi sets forth.
The plague is extreme in Venice and Padua, and spreads
through all Lombardy. M. de Nevers is returned from Spa,
and Marshal of Montmorency looked for. To give him place
all the Guises are departed the Court after great feasting.
Bellieure is come from Duke Casimir, he mitigates the report
of the triumphing of the reiters. The Duke of Arschot his
conspiring with those of Brussels is suspected to a further
intent to draw the Prince of Orange out of Holland.—Paris,
21 September 1576. Signed.
Add., with seal. Endd. P. 1.
922. M. de Villiers to Walsingham.
Has lately recovered of an ague which has held him these
15 days. Yesterday there was brought into Flushing one of
her Majesty's ships called the Bark of Boulogne, and two
merchant ships of Ipswich laden with cloth and salt. So
soon as he heard thereof, though he was very sick, he went to
the Prince, who promised him that straightway the Bark of
Boulogne should be released. Fears that do what they can
they will hardly get the two merchant ships out of their
hands unless the owners pay well for it, as they always
answer as before that they will not suffer any to go into
Flanders, and that these ships were going to Nieuport. Is
troubled that he cannot speak flatly and in plain terms to
them by reason that he must speak according to the estate of
his calling which he has professed these many years.—
Middleburg, 22 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
923. Translation of the above.
Endd. Pp. 1¼.
924. Sir John Forster to Walsingham.
Recommends Captain Selby for the good discharge of his
soldiers pay in Ireland.—Alnwick, 23 Sept. 1576. Signed.
Add. Endd. P. ¼.
925. The French King's Answer to the Prince of Condé.
He has seen his instruction to M. Montducage, and makes
answer thereto that he has issued the necessary warrants for
the 200,000 livres agreed to be paid him, and has called on
the Syndic of the clergy to provide the Prince with 120,000
livres; he has willingly accorded him the revenue of Cognac
and the town of St. Jean d'Angeli for his residence, and that
he could give him the revenue of the latter if the state of his
affairs did not forbid it. He has great displeasure that the
Edict should be so ill observed, but he will omit nothing to
punish offences against it. The people of Metz are allowed
exercise of the pretended reformed religion in a manner with
which they are content. He will do all he can at all occasions for the Vidame of Chartres. The hindrance of the exercise
of religion comes from the long continuance of the troubles in
France, and the Catholics are as much hindered as the others.
—Paris, 28 Sept. 1576.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2½.
926. Another copy.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 2½.
927. Jeronimo Rodas to Philip II.
1. Since he last wrote, affairs have gone from bad to
2. Since the States of Flanders have joined them the
others have shown themselves so bold as to besiege the citadel
of Ghent, which must shortly yield on account of the difficulty of sending succours; first through the mutiny of the
Spaniards in Alost, who refuse to leave that town; and
secondly, because three companies of Polwiller's Almains in
garrison at Termonde have accepted pay from the States, made
their colonel prisoner, broken down the bridge, and refused
passage to Don Fernando de Toledo and his soldiers. The
Prince of Orange has dismissed a part of his people, who
have been taken into the service of the States, to whom he
has sent a quantity of artillery for the purpose of battering
the said citadel.
3. If this place is lost those of this town [Antwerp] will
attack the castle, and also the town of Lierre, which are their
only places of retreat, as the others are in the hands of the
Almains, whom they cannot trust. Colonel Mondragon's men
have deserted to the service of the States, who have publicly
proclaimed them (the Spaniards) rebels, and further ordered
that no one shall obey any commands of Rodas, pretending
that he has usurped the government by his private authority.
The Council at Brussels daily issue ordinances against them,
notwithstanding that they are prisoners and completely under
the control of the States, who compel them to do all that they
command, and the more so through the Duke of Arschot who
has taken oath to the said States to be their leader. The
proclamations have not yet been published here, as the governor and magistrates have forbidden it, notwithstanding that
the people cry out that it should be done. They have their
deputies at Brussels, and though they pretend to be neutral
they are just as rebellious as any of the other towns, and
though they dissimulate in words thwart them in every way
possible. The council of war, having well considered all this,
have determined to surprise a village opposite the town,
called "the Passage," and to make a fort there by which the
town will be kept in more subjection than by the citadel.
4. This will prevent the enemy from coming up the river,
who have themselves proposed to occupy the place, and so
cut off their victuals and prevent their passage into Flanders.
The townspeople say that by the Spaniards taking this place
their victuals from Flanders will be cut off, which, however,
is not true. Complains of the want of understanding between
Count Elfenstein and those of the council of war, and urges
the King to write and command him to do his duty. He has
of his own authority withdrawn one company from Maestricht, which rather needed reinforcements, whereby Montedoca
writes that there is great likelihood of its being lost. Rodas
very much misdoubts him. Amongst other things he has
allowed the guilds of the town to arm themselves and keep
watch and ward with his people at night.
5. M. Champagny agrees to all this, and he and Helfenstein
have four or five days ago imprisoned William Cotton and 10
of his companions, under pretence that they daily came to
the citadel to Rodas and Avila, wishing to surprise the new
town, whence followed a riot among the townspeople, who
said that there were Englishmen concealed in order to set the
town on fire.
6. The Count begins to see that it is necessary to restrain
the people, and has asked for reinforcements, which will arrive
to-morrow. He further complains of the distrust in which
he is held, and the more so as he is related to the King.
Sancho D'Avila, seeing that the enemy had the upper hand
all along the river, thought it would be well to equip certain
vessels and bring them out of the haven under the protection of the citadel, which the said Count would not permit,
saying that the Council of State at Brussels had commanded
the contrary. Entreats the King to consider all these matters
and use all endeavours to send them succours speedily.—
Antwerp, 28 Sept. 1576.
7. Sept. 29, 1576.—Colonel Mondragon arrived here yesterday, who said that it was not possible to succour Ghent; he
has received letters from his Walloons, saying that if they
did not receive three months' pay they would abandon the
islands. The council of war have sent Mondragon back to
induce eight ensigns to continue in guard of Zericksee and
some others forts by giving them pay for the current month;
and that the rest of the soldiers should be withdrawn and
joined with sundry forces of the Spaniards for the succour of
the castle of Ghent. This cannot be done for 10 or 13 days,
but he trusts that they will be able to hold out, as they have
not yet commenced the battery, and there are 150 Spanish
soldiers within with abundance of provisions, though with little
powder. All the foreign merchants are withdrawing from
Antwerp on account of the insecurity there, which is the cause
why, if his Majesty sends hither letters of change, no one will
accept them. In addition to this the Fugger's factor cannot,
recover a single real to meet the balance of the 200,000
crowns which he sent last. To-morrow, the month of the aid
given to the Almains expires, and if they do not get some
money there is like to be great disorder.
8. They have not a single real here, so it is necessary that
the King should send letters of change, and they will do all
they can to have them met. It will also be well to make
further levies of men in Germany for their assistance, for if
the castle of Ghent is lost they will come and shut them up
in this place and Lierre, which are not particularly well provided, especially with powder. It is also most requisite that
his Majesty should send hither some one of rank to deprive
the Council of State of the authority with which he invested
them, as by their placards they prevent their receiving any
assistance and do what they can to withdraw all the towns
and provinces from the King's obedience. M. de Hierges does
all he can to thwart his Majesty. Among all the States there
is not a living soul who gives them any assistance, or even
makes the least show of wishing to join them, save Gaspard
de Robles, Seigneur de Billy. Encloses a copy of a letter
which he sent to the Duke of Arschot, who made an attempt
to leave Brussels, but was stopped by the people, who said
that as he had begun the dance he must finish it. They are
making great provision in Brussels, as they look for certain
that peace will be published in three or four days, which
causes a great affection of the people towards the Estates, as
high and low long to wash their hands in the blood of the
Spaniards. The Bishop of Liege has sent his maitre d'hotel,
Vander Linden, to treat about the business his Majesty knows
of. He says that Maestricht is in no danger, but Montedoca
has since sent four letters in one day to say that the place is
in great peril of being soon lost, as the townsmen arm themselves and keep watch and ward with the Germans as they
do at Antwerp.
Endd.: The copy of two letters of Jeronimo Rodas sent to
the King of Spain, bearing date 28 and 29 Sept. 1576.
Intercepted. Fr. Pp. 11¾.
928. Francisco Giraldi to Lord Burghley.
Forwards the substance of the conditions on which the
King his master will be contented to establish a perpetual
league with the Queen, and prays him to consider the honour
which would result to him in bringing about a treaty of
concord between two such great Sovereigns.—30 Sept. 1576.
Add. Endd., with seal. Ital. P. 1.
929. Towns and Castles between Antwerp and Heidelburg.
"A note of divers towns and castles, with their distance,
comparisons of their bigness, and to whom they appertain,
lying between Antwerp and Heidelburgh;" also an account of
the castle and great tun at Heidelburg.
Endd.: Sept. 1576. Pp. 5¾.
930. Customs of Berwick.
Notes for an answer to be made to the Customer and Controller's articles in the port of Berwick, to the effect that the
burgesses of Berwick are not exempt from the statutes regulating the customs and subsidies to be paid on different
merchandise, and also that if the Act of 22 Edward IV.,
cap. 8, providing that all traffic between England and Scotland should pass through Berwick and Carlisle, shall be newly
proclaimed and searchers appointed on the frontiers to see it
duly performed, that the inconveniences mentioned in their
articles will be reformed.
Endd.: Sept. 1576. Pp. 1¾.
931. Report by the Customer of Berwick.
Sundry notes of the decay of her Majesty's customs within
the port of Berwick, and the members to be certified to Lord
Burghley by the customer, controller, and searcher of Berwick.
First, that the Scots of mean condition, and chiefly "pedders,"
convey and carry away by night over the dry marches into
Scotland great quantities of wool and fells, leather, and other
wares, without paying any customs for the same; and also
bring into England in the same way their slight Scottish
merchandises, viz., linen, cloth, woollen caps, steel caps, short
swords, Scottish daggers, spurs, horse harness, and such other
base commodities. They carry these things upon horseback,
or by foot packs, until they come within 20 miles of Berwick
amongst their supporters, of whom there are a great number
in Northumberland, both gentlemen and others, by whose
help in a night or two they carry the commodities into Scotland by unusual byeways. Concerning the sea traffic, they
use unusual and unlawful creeks between Berwick and Tinmouth, where they land and carry away commodities without
paying any customs. They sometimes use Bamburgh, where
Sir John Forster claims privilege, and will not suffer the
Customers to exercise their office. The like is also used at
Morpeth, Alnwick, and most other towns in Northumberland.
Their opinion for reforming this abuse is that proclamation
should be made of her Highness' pleasure to put in execution
the statute of 22 Edward IV., cap. 8. Also that the customers
may have powers to appoint deputies and to seize on commodities, and that the wardens shall not give conducts to any
merchants except they can show certificates under the seal of
the custom house of Berwick. Also that notice should be
given to Sir John Forster concerning his taking for his own
use such merchandizes as are seized, for not paying customs
and subsidies, and also that he has no power to take up
merchandize at Bamburgh or elsewhere without paying customs
therefor. They also desire to know whether he shall pay
imposts for his wines which he takes up there. Also for the
appointment of deputies at Blyth, which is now much
frequented by the Dutch.
Endd. Pp. 12/3.
932. News from Cologne.
Movements of the Turkish army under Occialli. The
King of Spain's army was prepared to resist the enemy. The
galleys of the King of Spain have departed from Genoa with
700,000 crowns and great store of armour. The controversy
about the confines of Zara are ended by the Turk restoring to
the Venetians much more than they looked for. The con
tagious disease in Venice, whereof there died 40,000 persons,
begins to diminish. The French King has sent to Rome to
obtain the alienation of 200,000 crowns of ecclesiastical promotions for his urgent occasions, and has obtained the grant
of 40,000. He has also offered to the Pope the sale of the
earldom of Saluces. The King of Spain will prefer to the
archbishopric of Toledo one of the sons of the Emperor. The
Prince of Stigliano has left the Archbishop of Naples 100,000
crowns of annual rent, disinheriting his son of as much as
he might. There died likewise the Marquis of Capaccio, as
is thought, of poisoning. The Turks make incursions even
to the gates of Vienna, and have burnt many villages.
The Emperor at Ratisbon makes great instance for a subsidy
against the Turk, and the Protestants demand liberty of
religion in all Germany. The Emperor sends an embassy into
Muscovy. There is no other Prince in the Imperial Diet save
the Elector of Cologne. The Sophy being dead, his eldest
son, who has been kept 15 years in prison, is now crowned
King. The Muscovite has offered to assist the Archduke
Ernest against the Turk. The Emperor is content to suffer
the Vaivode to enjoy Poland. The Duke of Saxony, the
Marquis of Brandenburg, and other great Princes of Germany
have taken in hand with the Vaivode that he shall break the
dependance between him and the Turk, and specially not
suffer him through Poland to invade Germany or pass to the
Baltic, or otherwise they will move sharp war against him.
The Vaivode, having married Margaret, the sister of Sigismund, late King of Poland, having above 60 years, has, with
consent of the nobility, called the King of Sweden's eldest son
into Poland that he may succeed him in that kingdom. The
Emperor, demanding at Ratisbon a subsidy for the maintenance of 60,000 men against the Turk, with much ado was
granted one for 48,000, with condition that the religion of
Augsburg may be free in all Germany. The Imperial Council
will finish about Michaelmas. There is a church granted to
the Protestants at Metz.
Endd.: Sept. 1576. Notes in Burghley's writing. Pp. 3.
933. The Queen's Instructions to Sir Amias Paulet.
1. Having determined to license Valentine Dale, Doctor of
Civil Law, to repair to her, she has made choice of him to
serve in the same place, wherein she trusts her expectation
shall be satisfied of his fidelity and diligence, and for his better
guiding has thought fit to deliver him the following by way
2. After he have been presented by Dale to the French
King, the Queen Mother, and others as shall be thought meet,
he is to use such speech to the King as it may appear his
special charge is to be a minister for the conservation of their
good amity and peace, and consequently to preserve concord
and intercourse between the subjects of both countries, according to the treaties, and shall require them, if at any time
anything to the contrary shall be conceived of him, it may in
some wise be declared, as they may understand his answer,
wherewith he doubts not but to satisfy them.
3. The first and principal part of his office shall be to continue there as well to execute her commandments, and deliver
her letters and messages upon matters occurrent, as to
require and receive answers, and to procure good and reasonable resolutions as the natures of the matter shall impart.
4. The second shall be to have continual regard of their
doings there, as well private as public, that might be prejudicial
to her and her state, and to advertise her diligently and
secretly, and to this end he will do well to require of Dale
some good information by what means he may attain the
intelligence of things needful, and whom he may best use and
trust. And if anything shall seem of that importance that it
may not abide the time of his advertisement and her answer
she leaves it to his discretion to omit no time convenient,
but to resort to the King or some other to declare what he
understands and mislikes, and in what sort it is hurtful to
their amity, and therefore to require reformation or some
plain answer meet to be imparted to her. He shall not deal
by way of complaint upon any light intelligence, lest thereafter less regard be had to him when he shall have just cause
5. The third is, to have regard of such suits as her subjects
using the trade of merchandise with that realm shall have
cause to make upon depredations, arrests, and any such
injuries, showing to such of the King's council as have charge
thereof that favourable expedition shall provoke her and her
ministers to do the like, breed mutual love, and cause the
intercourse of merchants to be more frequent. And that he
may be the more able to treat upon anything generally
touching the amity between them, and more particularly upon
the trade and intercourse of merchandise, she has ordered that
he have copies of the treaties now in force, by the which he
shall be well informed how to deal in all matters that shall
come in controversy. Though she thinks it meet that at his
first access he forbear to deal in any matter that might not
be to the King grateful, yet at some other convenient time she
would have him and the Queen his mother plainly to understand that she finds herself greatly touched in honour to
have her subjects daily spoiled and outraged by sea as they
are, not by pirates, but by such as avow themselves set out
by his commission, and yet upon complaint made there is no
redress, a thing so repugnant to the amity that unless he take
order therein she cannot see how the amity can long continue, for that, for the satisfaction of her subjects, she will
be driven to grant them letters of marque, whereof in the
end there cannot but follow some such dangerous inconvenience as she would be loth to see. For conclusion in
this point, she thinks it convenient he lay before him some
complaints that have been recommended to him by Dale,
to which no exception can be taken or reason alleged why
satisfaction should not be made.
6. Doubts not but that he considers how necessary it is for
the quietness of her realm and herself that that party in
France which has professed reformation of religion should be
continued in that favour which the King by his Edict
granted them, and therefore would have him at all times
let it appear to the King that she thinks nothing could
procure him more assurance of inward quietness than the
observation of the Edict. This point he may amplify as
he shall see cause from time to time, when he may think
his dealing therein may any way further the observation of
the Edict, and of this her intention she wills that he give
understanding to such of the principals of that party as have
an interest therein.
7. Has willed Dale to deliver to him all such her plate as
he had delivered to him at his entry into his charge, which
he shall receive of him by indenture, not doubting he will
have good regard to the safe custody thereof.
934. Draft of the above, with corrections in Walsingham's hand.
Endd. Pp. 7¼.
935. Copy of paras. 2–4 and the first portion of 5 of the above.
Endd. Pp. 3¾.
936. Copy of paras. 1–6 of the above.
937. Note in Dale's hand.
Understands for certain that the Ambassador of Spain came
in at the back gate of the Louvre upon the 18th, between
nine and ten of the clock, and remained with the King until
it was almost 12 of the clock, and then was let out again at
the back gate. Is advertised there is something intended
against Geneva between the Duke of Savoy, Don John of
Austria, and the Duke of Nemours to be done in the passage
of Don John and his army that way, also that there are certain capitulations concluded between the French King and
the King of Spain, both for the passage of Don John with
his army and also for those things that are to be performed by
Don John either in France or otherwise. Pp. 2.