Elizabeth: October 1580, 1-10

Pages 436-447

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 14, 1579-1580. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1904.

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October 1580, 1-10

Oct. 1. 442. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
I have all this week been out of town about the company's affairs, and returned this evening ; so I am to crave your favourable construction of my absence which has somewhat 'slowed' the suit. Before my departure, however, I dealt with M. Ymans and the deputies of this town earnestly, who promised me their only care should be to procure all possible expedition ; and, as I understand, there would have been no default on their part, if M. Ymans had not ever since been so ill that he was unable to stir abroad or do anything. His weakness has been 'the let of the not making' the instructions for him that was and is to go to Holland ; but being now ready, he has sent me word that he was to depart at once, and to that end Ymans had drawn him certain articles, which one Scheurmans, an chevin of this town and deputy with the States, has to peruse, and add what he finds requisite. Your packet was opened by my servant in my absence, and the enclosed letters delivered. M. Villiers returns answer, which you shall herewith receive. Thus being come so late to this town that I could not learn how matters passed, and what news had come or fallen out this week, I have also to crave pardon this time. Antwerp, 1 Oct. 1580. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 57.]
Oct. 3. 443. COBHAM to [BURGHLEY].
I received your letter this other day by the northern gentleman. The coming of Marshal de Coss to Court, and the sudden departure of Monsieur from Tours towards Languedoc, give cause of sundry doubts. It is esteemed that the Marshal will shortly return, for the king departs to-morrow from Fontainebleau to Dolinville, and so on to Orleans to meet his young queen coming from the 'baynes,' taking her into his company towards Blois, where they purpose to keep their Court most of the winter. Queen Mother goes hence within 3 or 4 days, as I am informed. The king is sending most of his companies that were at la Fre to Saint-Jean-d'Angely. Monsieur has levied sundry ensigns by his captains, M. de Rochepot and la Fert. Strozzi has gathered some bands about Nantes, with show to embark for Portugal, who will be otherwise employed. They of Rochelle suspect these neighbours. As I have written 'in my former,' so I now rehearse the same, that it is like they have resolved to 'extirp' religion, and those in this realm who profess to take arms for that cause ; or else they have a great enterprise towards some foreign country. But it is rather to be thought that this hostility is prepared for intestine wars, considering that the Spanish king seems to have an assured confidence towards their Majesties, and the king is coldly disposed to take hold of those lawful and easy occasions which are offered for increasing his estate divers ways, whereby he might likewise assuage the swelling greatness of the Catholic King ; which methinks should be more unsupportable to princes than subjects, who sigh and wax sorry to see the dangerous strength and riches the Catholic King has in readiness to bestow where it pleases him for the annoyance of any realm. Besides he is backed with the assistance of the Pope and the faction depending thereon, which daily hearken after the information of fugitives, malcontents, and ambitious minds, envying the peace which her Majesty has hitherto enjoyed more than any other Christian Prince. But seeing the Catholic King has thought it no prejudice to his greatness to confederate himself with his allies, those of his profession, nor has 'left' to make means for aid, forces, and supply of money of other meaner princes, methinks that any prince may take example thereby to prevent the malice of this world. It seems to divers that there is yet hidden some further enterprise, because the Spanish preparations are not only continued, and newly victualled, but also great supplies are looked for from Italy. The certain purpose and intent will be as politicly hidden and cloaked as was that of Portugal, until the 'Spanish' have his forces on the shore ; when he will be assured of those he has intelligence with, and allied [sic] to him by promises or corruption. Such was his policy in Portugal, bringing only strength to support the secret treasons he had packed in that realm. The Spanish secretary to the late deceased ambassador, named Maldonado, informed their Majesties the other day that on Sep. 4 the whole realm of Portugal was reduced to the Catholic King's devotion. This King's ambassador has now advertised the like, as I am informed. It might seem high presumption in me (but my zeal will excuse me) to recommend to your care her Majesty's realms and people. I have undertaken to write of this matter, sure that you will remember my duty ever very particularly borne to you, and also that I have known you to be her Highness's chief spirit in foreseeing the dangers threatened in time past, as a father of your country tendering the wealth thereof. And as you have understood how there has been a time in peace, of sparing, so you will with the like eyes and judgement discern the storms on another coast making show of approach, and advise to have necessary provision made for the sustenance and defence of those who have hitherto been well shrouded from enemies and troubles in the service of God. And I am sure you will loathe to see her Majesty with hopes deceived, for all those good entertainments will be continued and yet assured confident friends provided for and fastly embraced. Those are taken to be the most trusty princes who lean to the same profession in religion which her Majesty exercises. Howbeit, perhaps the charges will be 'sticked at' ; but since these causes are to be negotiated by such honourable persons as may be used for so high a cause, where other means may serve to entertain amity, but not used for so apt instruments to frame a strong and princely knot. And because these affairs are public, no demand can be too great to get assured friends of quality ; the rather since it is deemed that there is great working with strong hand and mighty counsels to dissever and disunite those who have put from them the supremacy of the Pope. This is accomplished by councillors and ministers, scattered by the Popish Consistory with the assistance of the House of Austria, which is raising itself above all other potentates under the Catholic cloak. This practice is the more dangerous, because this King is in the mean time amused with the provocations used to him for the utter abolition of his Huguenots, so that he is so much blindfolded that he discerns not the snares and 'incumbrances' of those practices, nor perceives the great danger of the Spanish faction. Therefore it is thought 'a matter remediless' to persuade him from the course taken ; as is like to appear clearly within the next few months. Further considering that so much has already passed for the right understanding of this course, that it were great pity any prince should overmuch repose 'themselves' or 'their' state on the purposes of this country, 'except' more than ordinary promises and assurances may be hadand if these could be obtained as fully as could be wished, it should be remembered how their inconstancy lost the Kingdom of Naples and the Duchy of Milan therefore the other confederacies with princes of the Religion in all places 'may be thought not to be forslowed' ; as I doubt not is both thought on and put in action. I have entered thus far into this 'purpose,' under the protection of your pardon, in consideration of my duty to my sovereign, the service of God, and continuance of the present estate ; moved thereto by their Majesties' having, on occasion of any speech of the Spanish preparations and the affairs of Portugal, always 'inferred' to me how necessary it was for the Queen to consider this. Also the ambassadors in conference have been and are inquisitive what preparations were made by her Majesty ; and lately, if any new forces were sent into Ireland.Moret, 3 Oct. 1580. Add. gone. Endd. by Burghley's secretary. 3 pp. [France IV. 159.]
Oct. 4. 444. COBHAM to [the PRIVY COUNCIL].
After lately receiving your lordships' letter, I moved the King to discharge the new taxation which they of Bordeaux had imposed on the Queen's subjects trading thither ; declaring to him how this imposition was contrary to the grants made by his predecessors and confirmed by himself on coming to the Crown. To have it exacted at that time was found strange, because her subjects were in hope that all gracious dealings should rather proceed from hence, considering it was esteemed that there was especially good intelligence and amity between the Queen and his Majesty, and good hope of its continuance and increase. Wherefore though he had more than ordinary cause to endeavour to get supplies of money, the Queen hoped he would not do anything whereby her merchants should be 'endommaged.' And whereas in appearance this new imposition may seem to bring profit, the 'sequent' would shew otherwise ; for the charges would be so grievous to the English merchants that most would be driven to leave the Bordeaux trade, and so the more loss would happen through the decay of the ancient customs, which are now willingly paid, than gain, by this new exaction, the substance of the trade being a matter of delicacy rather than of necessity. The King said that he desired good demonstrations should be shown on his part towards her Majesty and her vassals ; but as he had not heard tell of it before this instant, and being a matter that concerned his estate he would have his council to consider it, and I should have answer to the Queen's satisfaction. Accordingly he has resolved to cause letters patent to be delivered to me for the discharge of this new imposition, very amply, and as it seems, with a few more effectual words than before. These I have delivered to an English merchant to be carried with all diligence to Bordeaux, the vintage being now 'present' ; and send the copy to your lordships. Moret, 4 Oct. 1580. Add. and endt. gone. 1 pp. [France IV. 160.]
Sept. 22. 445. Copy of letters patent referred to in the last. Fr. 1 pp. [Ibid. IV. 160a.]
Oct. 4. 446. COBHAM to WILSON.
Please let her Majesty know that the lord of Arbrothe advertised me that he was informed there were two ships prepared to be sent with munitions and arms to Scotland, to be landed at Dumbarton. They were required long since by d'Aubigny, but deferred till now. Sundry Scottish gentlemen and others daily require passports of me to pass through England. I shift off the most part of them ; but to-day I have given a passport to George Lermont, lord of Balcomy, and his servants. He is 'recommended' to be a zealous Protestant.Moret, 4 Oct. 1580. P.S.The Lord of Arbrothe has advertised how this afternoon Colonel Balfour's brother came to him and declared that the Colonel lately sent a Spanish horse and two other singular good horses by him from Flanders to the young King. Whereon d'Aubigny, knowing that Balfour disliked Morton, wished this party to write to his brother, to have his bands ready upon any warning sent him from the King, since the King meant to have them for his guard. And whereas Morton had sought to entrap him, he hoped to find the means to chastise him ; wherewith it seems the Lord of Arbrothe is not well pleased, finding that d'Aubigny will continue his exile. Add. Edd. by L. Tomson. 1 p. [Ibid. IV. 161.]
Oct. 4 447. COBHAM to [the SECRETARIES].
The King has since the taking of la Fre commanded the companies of M. Beauvoy l'Angi [Beauvois-Nangis], and Srillac, to march towards Saint Jean-d'Angely. They passed by this town on Sep. 30. Two days after, 2,000 lansquenets were conducted within a league of the town towards those parts. They were once assigned to repair into Dauphin to the Duke of Maine. The King seems resolved to have the walled towns which are in the Protestants' power or else purposes to use hostility for the 'rehaving' of them. Marshal Biron has taken Montmassier, a principal town of the King of Navarre's, and some little holds ; whereon there is spread a 'voice' of a great victory, and a book of it printed, which I send. Those of Montacut finding they have sufficient garrison have sent 120 horse to Saint-Jean-d'Angely ; who on the way defeated two ensigns of M. de Lancosme, and slew his lieutenant. M. de Tournon in Dauphin has taken some little castles from those of the Religion upon composition, saving their lives. Companies are levying for the King and Monsieur in most of the provinces hereabout. M. Mancheville, one of Monsieur's captains, has amassed as many of the soldiers as were to be had at the breaking-up of the siege of la Fre. They will be conducted by Rochepot. M. de la Chastre has gathered certain troops of horsemen to the number of 1,000, who are to be conducted toward Cambray. M. de Villiers, who was Governor in Bouchain, has made great intreaty to hasten these forces. But what matter of importance will be done that way does not yet clearly appear. The King has been advertised by Maldonado, the Spanish Secretary, now confirmed from thence by his own Ambassador, that about Sept. 4 the realm of Portugal was reduced entirely into the Spanish King's power. Now lately it is advertised that Don Antonio is fled into Barbary to get aid, if he may find any means ; since he has found little assistance hitherto among Christian Princes. The Spanish King uses much clemency towards the Portuguese. There has come advertisement that the Rochelois have taken a principal person of Spain, with money for the Prince of Parma ; but Maldonado assures me he is but a private gentleman sent to the Emperor with 5 or 6 jennets, and that the King has sent to have him released. The Spanish King has sent to Cavaliero Giraldi to deal no further with this King in the affairs of Portugal. To this he has yielded, and seeks favour that way. The Spanish King looks for supplies from Italy ; his ships are newly victualled. This King is sending Girolamo Gondi to Marshal de Retz, who is with the young Duke of Savoy ; and so he passes to Rome, whither the Bishop of Mande, late chancellor to his Highness, goes to be the King's ambassador ligier ; the other to be revoked. M. de Foix would have supplied the place ; but though he is reconciled to the Church, the Pope would not accept him. The King purposes to stay at Dolinville till Villeroy returns from Cognac. He was dispatched thither yesterday, though the King had purposed to meet his Queen at Orleans, which is yet deferred. At Marshal de Coss's coming, good hope was conceived that peace would at once ensue ; but that opinion 'is now quailed,' and all shows and preparations used to the contrary. Advertisement has come of d'Aubigny's prosperous success in Scotland, and that William Stuart is made governor of Dumbarton. They expect commissioners for the renewing of the amity with France. They say here that the Erskines left the King at his last going to Edinburgh. They look for Monbreny, kinsman to d'Aubigny's wife, and Kerry his secretary, a sure conveyor of those designs. Sundry of the great lords who have come into France have become Papists. It is written from Scotland that the borderers have begun some skirmishes ; so they assure themselves there will be a French faction on foot again shortly. In this sort on all sides it seems there is a meaning to raise troubles and disorders, if their wishes take effect.Moret, 4 Oct. 1580. Add. and endt. gone. 2 pp. [Ibid. IV. 162.]
Oct. 4. 448. COBHAM to [WALSINGHAM].
Some months ago there went into England a Modenese named Castelvetro, 'of whom I was this day enquired of' by the ambassador of Ferrara, he being desirous to send his letters to him. I have offered to see them safely delivered. It has been signified to me that Castelvetro is an 'Arriane,' and holds strange opinions. But he is rather thought and suspected to be a Jesuit ; 'pretending' to find means to become the Scottish king's schoolmaster for the Italian tongue, wherein he professes to be exquisite. He has made a friendship with Camillo Cardonio, the son of a Neapolitan, lately come over, whose father is dead since his departure, and was 'devout of the Religion.' I suppose that he is likewise well-affected but not overwary, and therefore the 'easilier' abused. I am also requested by the same ambassador to write a letter of credit in commendation of il Signor Roberto Bellone, d'Udine Forlana, meaning to retire to England. I could wish he were well 'looked into,' for I suppose he has some other intent ; or else obtains my letter to use in case of need if he is stayed. There are sundry who address themselves to Scotland by divers means.Moret, 4 Oct. 1580. P.S.Roberto Bellone intends to start hence within two days. Add. gone. Endd. by L. Tomson. p. [Ibid. IV. 163.]
Oct. 8. 449. COBHAM to [? WALSINGHAM].
I have been advertised that Captain Lather, one of the King's guard and a devout servant of the Scottish Queen, has to-day left this town by ordinary journey, towards Calais, entrusted with the packet of Clermont d'Entragues, a captain in the King's guard and brother-in-law to d'Aubigny. It may contain matter of some consequence, considering the affairs of those parts, and the 'confident' person who sends them. The Bishop of Glasgow, I hear, has also written to Lather, who has been to me for a passport. I assured him that he might pass into England without any certificate but to show he was a Scotchman. In his company is gone from here Mr Seton, Lord Seton's younger son, a Jesuit, pensioner of the Pope. He was prior of Pluscatife [Pluscardine], which Earl Morton took from him, and gave to one of his bastard sons. This gentleman is in 'favour' like the Duke of Norfolk, resembling him much about the mouth but somewhat redder-headed, and little hair on his face. Lord Hamilton is most willing to obey his Majesty's commands, remaining constantly bent, and could be contented to become Lord Morton's friend, if the Queen commanded him and ordered the matter. I hear in sundry ways that he remains very zealous and constant, notwithstanding the hard and bitter temptations of his fortune, and I think the Queen may command and possess him before all other sovereigns. I could wish she would bestow some liberality. I think it long since I heard from England and from you. Moret, 8 Oct. 1580. Add. and endt. gone. 1 p. [France IV. 164.]
Oct. 8. 450. THE QUEEN to DON ANTONIO.
'Serenissimo Prencipe'John Royz de Sousa, the present bearer, will give you a full report of our reply to his proposals in your name. We are sure that having regard to the present time, and to what he will tell you of the state of our affairs, you will take our answer in good part. How much displeasure we have felt on account of the sharp blows and thwartings of fortune, which have lately, according to the current rumour, befallen you, the bearer can inform you. We are consoled only by a firm opinion that we have conceived of your magnanimity, which has we are sure force enough to overcome the malignity of fortune. With this hope we conclude. 'Vostra affetma : come sorella.' 'Al Re Don Antonio.' Draft in hand of Walsingham. Subscription and address in hand of L. Cave. Endd. with date by L. Tomson. On back some calculations about stores in Walsingham's hand. Ital. 1 p. [Portugal I. 41.]
Of all the misfortunes that have befallen me in these Low Countries nothing has troubled me more than your opinion that I was a dangerous man ; wherein though I might then have cleared myself by such proof as my innocency could witness, yet I never thought to take time for my 'purgement,' and so neither wrote nor otherwise 'repined at so great a touch.' But now to show how loth I am to be in the ill opinion of those who are virtuous, and how far I am from deserving such a name, I humbly resort to your judgement what my life has been indeed these two years, and what occasion I have given for ill opinion. My coming over was to gain experience, the better to 'enable myself' for her Majesty's service ; my continuance has been spending my goods and hazarding my body on every service of account that there has been here, with such regard to the duty of my country that I dare refer myself to the 'nearest' search of my doings. How I have been crossed by certain merchants, and slandered as a man of no reputation, and how the end has showed, I desire the world should know. I did indeed hurt a foolish lewd fellow, who I think by extremity of law, in a place where men of his coat, and friends, shall lack no favour [sic]. But his villanous tongue has done me more hurt, and that cause made me lose more time than is in him to recompense. Besides I may well think some of his 'adherence' (for which he has paid) have likewise sought my discredit with you ; and no marvel, for I think you have never heard but one side, which I have always suffered to let the end judge it. My request therefore is that you would vouchsafe to impart the cause to me in detail, or else allow of my 'purgement' and assure me of your good opinion ; either of which if you would, you will greatly bind me to do you service, to which I have by nature been more ready than is meet to write.Antwerp, 8 Oct. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson (with year). 1 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 58.]
I have received yours of the 1st inst. and thank you both for it and for accepting my service. A ship has arrived here which left 'Alareda' in Biscay on the 19th ult. The master reports that 3 weeks before his coming from thence there went from Santander 6 tall ships for Ireland, carrying to the number of 2,000 soldiers all Italians ; and that at his being in 'Alareda' there was an Irish bishop who had a large commission from the King to take up certain provision of shipping, munition and other furniture without let and hindrance of any soever. Further he says it was certainly given out there that 8,000 Italians more were in readiness at 'Groyne' to go likewise to Ireland as soon as shipping could be provided. Thus I am bold to write what I hear, not doubting but that the certainty of these matters is better known to you than can be advertised from hence, 'leaving' in like sort to write anything of the affairs of these parts whereof you are informed at large by others. Antwerp, 8 Oct. 1580. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 59.]
Oct. 8. 453. EMANUEL, ERNEST.
Dialogue between two persons on the state of the Low Countries. They discuss : 1. If the country can be maintained without a prince. 2. If as a popular republic after the Swiss fashion. 3. If as an aristocracy. 4. If it is lawful for us to change lords. 5. Our obligation and the lord's. 6. The good and harm to be expected in the event of either the Prince of Orange accepting the princedom, or the reception of the Duke of Anjou. 7. The conditions which in the former case the Prince of Orange might ask of us, and we in the second should ask the Duke of Anjou. 8. How either ought to comport himself. 9. If it were better to elect successive princes, or introduce a law like the Salic. Antwerp, 8 October 1580. The dialogue follows. It is supposed to take place at Mechlin, between two 'great personages,' one, Ernest, returning from Cologne, the other, Emanuel, from the Court of France. It occupies 27 pp. closely written, and is doubtless that referred to by Rossel in his letter of Sep. 17 (No. 425). Fr. 1 + 27 pp. [Ibid. XIII. 60.]
Oct. 9. 454. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last, I have 'of new' ['anew' was originally written, but was corrected in another hand] solicited the States and his Excellency for expedition. Both seem very desirous that all were dispatched, and yet are 'marvellous long to forward the same.' Those of Zealand allege themselves to be overcharged, and the partition to be unequal ; whereupon it is put to them of this town and Flanders to consider further of it. It is thought that each of them will take to their charge 1,500 guilders above the 6,000, so that Zealand should be eased of half, and their part amount to 3,000 guilders. To-morrow those of this town in their 'college' are to deal with this, and next week it will be seen what the States will determine. The Prince told me when I delivered your letter that he was ready for her Majesty's better satisfaction to bind himself for the part which those of Holland ought to 'answer,' and will perform it ; so it is hoped there will be some end made without sending into Holland, and no time or labour shall be spared on my behalf to advance it. I received your packet this week and delivered the enclosures, except that to Mr Yorke, who is absent and expected here daily. For our news you may hereby perceive such as I could learn. I would not leave 'them' unadvertised, though I am certain 'more certainer and better are from others sent.' The division I wrote of before that was growing among the States in some respects rather increases than diminishes. Those of Holland seek to withdraw themselves, yielding to nothing that the States here agree, but run clean contrary, declaring that they intend to hold by the Pacification of Ghent, and need not to meddle with the quarrels of others against Malcontents. They have of late raised there a new 'convoy' upon all goods coming in and passing by them, and that none may escape, have ships of war in the mouths of every river and passage. Those of Zealand, Brabant and Flanders are so aggrieved that they have sent or will send to them to remove their ships and withdraw the exaction, or they will seek means to clear the passages by force. Moreover those of Holland continue to send all kind of victuals, fuel and other provision to the enemy ; using a trade with them to their great strengthening ; insomuch that those of Flanders are arming five ships of war and keep the passages along their coast, and meet all comers and goers to those parts. The Prince is still travailing by all means to take up and 'even' these particular questions which engender division and may be an overthrow to both at the last. To this end I am given secretly to understand that there shall be a general meeting of all the United Provinces at the Hague next month, where not only the taking up of all those particular griefs shall be treated, but also about the receiving of Monsieur, whom those of Holland and other places depending on them, as I wrote to you, 'cannot nor will not yield to accept of.' The Prince is sending one to the Estates of Holland, who are assembled at the Hague, in two days ; and upon his return I hope to hear further. Paul Buys I take to be altogether 'affectionated' to England, and he is the man that rules all both in Holland and among those of the United Provinces who are assembled at Utrecht. In Friesland the enemy has taken 'Olderzele,' which was surrendered by composition, seeing no hope of assistance. The States' men lie in villages near the good towns, and can venture no more but with danger upon the enemy, without other help. Those of the Union have taken order to provide all the towns in Friesland and thereabouts with sufficient garrisons, for this time of year will not suffer any service in the field in that country ; and moreover, to be provided with men, have given order to levy 3,000 foot and 600 horse. Nivelles being so battered that the breach was 'assaultable,' the soldiers that kept it yielded by agreement, delivering the place, with their captains and officers, into the enemy's hands ; and about 200 of them it is said have left the States' service, and are 'entertained' by the other. Their forces are gone thence to Ninove, which will not so soon be gotten, being stronger and kept by some of M. de la Noue's Frenchmen. It is also much feared that Vilvorde will be attempted, some of the enemy being come to Louvain, and the Prince sending 3 companies of Scots to Vilvorde, 'would not be' received by those that kept it. The Prince returned last Monday from Mechlin. His enterprise was upon Maestricht, whence the men that were sent thither have retired with the loss of two only, finding more resistance and less seconding from within than was hoped. The want of money is the only overthrow of the States' doings ; the soldiers in all places being still ready to mutiny, as lately in Brussels, which had almost made a great stir in the town upon the enemy's taking of Nivelles. The chief hope of these countries now depends only upon the hope of the French aid, which they look for daily, news having come last Wednesday that Monsieur will accept the offer of the States, and 'subsign' the articles, finding them reasonable by the declaration made by the Commissioners of the causes moving them to make the more strict demands. To further his promise, Monsieur will forthwith send Marshal de Coss and M. 'Premiaulx' to the King, to show what intent he was of, and took order that the Count of 'Rochpott' should with certain horse and foot forthwith be prepared to hasten to Cambray to assist the States. Those of Cambray are said to have broken down all the King of Spain's arms, and erected the Duke of Alenon's in their place. This week the Duke of Aerschot passed through Lige toward the Duchess of Parma, who lies at Namur. The Bishop of Lige has 2,000 or 3,000 men 'in field' to keep his country from spoiling and to cut off all stragglers. He has lately taken by composition a strong house called Diepenbeck, which some freebooters kept, and ransacked the country about. I hear that the English rebels begin to be very lusty, and 'stick not to vaunt' that her Majesty will not only be set to work in Ireland, but part of England may chance also to be troubled, and that more hotly than is doubted. The Earl of Westmorland I hear is gone to Spain, and will have some great charge from the King, though the Pope perhaps may bear the name. This was written by my old friend, who has returned to Cologne, 'and do meane' to 'entertain' him by writing, to learn further of these proceedings. A Grey friar that came from Spain brought these news to Lige, and said further 'to have' heard among the secret and chief friends of the Catholics, that the French would do nothing that should or might tend to their harm or the assistance of the other side.Antwerp, 9 Oct. 1580. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson, with a note as to the financial question. 3 pp. [Ibid. XIII. 61.]