Elizabeth: March 1582, 6-10

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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, 'Elizabeth: March 1582, 6-10', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582, (London, 1907) pp. 534-542. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol15/pp534-542 [accessed 30 May 2024].

. "Elizabeth: March 1582, 6-10", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582, (London, 1907) 534-542. British History Online, accessed May 30, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol15/pp534-542.

. "Elizabeth: March 1582, 6-10", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 15, 1581-1582, (London, 1907). 534-542. British History Online. Web. 30 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol15/pp534-542.

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March 1582, 6-10

I have heard from M. de Sainte-Aldegonde and others of your continued friendship towards me, and of your good affection towards the affairs of this country, as well as of the good offices you have done and still do daily for it. I thank you for them, and beg you to continue. As for affairs here, you will have heard how everything has gone from the report which the Earl will have given you on his return. Since then things have remained stationary, but I hope that his Highness will shortly begin to get them into good order. His task shall be made easier (en recevra soulagement) in all things within my power. Meanwhile I beg you to keep me in her Majesty's good graces.Antwerp, 6 March 1582. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 45.]
March 6. 587. HERLE to BURGHLEY.
You shall have the 'Joyous Entry' in French, that Monsieur was sworn to at his coming to this town ; but in the mean time you have one of your own, which I presented you, in folio and in written hand, with a translation of mine in the 'margent,' out of Dutch into English, of the substance of every article, and you have another also in Dutch and Latin of my procurement, among the things I exhibited to you of the state of Holland. Let me humbly pray your favour, for the honour that is in you, to join with my Lord of Leicester to make an end with Wm. Wade, and incline Mr Secretary to aid therein, that my poor sureties m . . . . . . . and respected. If you will vouchsafe to send for Mr Os[borne ?] and Fanshaw, they are to receive 100 which the said Wade is to have of me. Then my brother Johnson has a bond of Wade's brother of 10, lent him by me, which upon the 'accord' shall be delivered him by the said Wade, and that makes 110. My Lord of Leicester has promised to 'set him contented,' of his own liberality, 40 ; which once dispatched, my conscience and credit were relieved of a great burden, and I should pray to God for your charity on this behalf during life. One word of Mr Secretary's may end it ; and therein to do [sic] a good turn also to Wade. I dare not write to Mr Secretary before it be ended ; wherein make him my friend, and I will do him any acceptable service I am able in 'lyew' thereof ; otherwise I shall be forced to be a banished man out of my own country. If further her Majesty would vouchsafe to contribute any part towards my charger, either openly or secretly, I would deserve it in such sort that she should find herself greatly satisfied many ways. Your letters of favour and commendation to the Prince and Sainte-Aldegonde would increase my credit and means of service. The next Diet of the Empire is worthy of ob [servation], whereunto I offer myself humbly to do all the offices that shall be con . . . . If Mr Secretary were well inclined to me, which is only hindered by this matter of difference of mine with Wade, his commendatory letters would avail me much, and he would find that he were not unserved by me again, in serving still your lordship for my principal patron and director. Speed or dispatch in my poor causes is a double benefit, which I humbly commend to you.Antwerp, 6 Mar. 1581. Add. Endd. 1 pp. [Ibid. XV. 46.]
March 6. 588. OCCURRENTS.
The Grand Duke of Tuscany made knight of the Golden Fleece, and was gone to Leghorn. The Cardinal his brother was in charge of all the Catholic King's business with the Church. The Grand Duke was lending the king 400,000 crowns ; and it was said that he would have Orbetello, a sea-port in the country of Siena. Eight captains sent to Rome by the Catholic King. Many people were being levied for the king in Naples, Milan, and the county of Tirol, and it was said that Archduke Ferdinand would come to the Low Countries as general, and that the Prince of Parma would return to Italy to be married. Troops were continually coming from Italy la file, and some Italians and Spanish captains of account had arrived at Namur. Giannin Andrea Doria had had from his Majesty the banner of the sea, and the king would have regularly 150 galleys in commission. The king had got what he wanted of the King of Barbary for 200,000 crowns down. They had routed and taken 3 ships of Don Antonio, going with money to the Azores. Sivan Pasha had returned to the favour of the Grand Signor, and the people certainly held with the Soffi. Colonel Verdugo was gone with a force, and it was thought he would fortify some place to hinder the passage of the Rhine. The Spaniards and Italians who had accompanied the Empress to Spain were to be employed in the Low Countries. They might be 4,000 men, veteran soldiers. In the Dukedom of Milan many great murders have been committed of late but specially at Pavia, by the insolence of the students, by whom among others the 'father of the Inquisitions' was slain. There is a great levy of soldiers, both in sundry places, and generally everywhere [sic]. Endd. by Herle : Occurrents from Monsr. de Byllyott, a principal person about the P. of Parma, and a Tuscan born ; and by Burghley with date. Ital. all but two last pars. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 47.]
A Florentine gentleman, a friend of mine, has asked me to introduce him to the ambassador Cobham, because he had something to communicate to him for the service of her Majesty and the benefit of her subjects, a pious Christian work, and not a matter of scandal. This gentleman has more than once communicated with the ambassador, and has begged me, knowing how much I am your devoted servant, that I would recommend to you the matter of his request, and beseech you to favour him and help him to obtain his pious and righteous desire of having the privilegio therefore, according to the . . . . . which he has given to the ambassador. Of which business you will be fully informed both by the privilegio and by the memorial he has given the ambassador. He looks for nothing if he does not give satisfaction to her Majesty. And since Mr Jacopo Mannucci, to whom I have written, will tell you what is occurring, I will not trouble you with a longer letter.Paris, 7 March . . . . Add. Endd. with date, 7 March 1582 (i.e. day of the month as given by the writer, and therefore probably before change of style). Ital. 1 p. [France VII. 37 bis.]
March 7. 590. HERLE to BURGHLEY.
This morning I was prayed by Paul Buys of Holland to come by 10 o'clock to him. He uttered many things of his affection and duty to you, and my Lord of Leicester, and of his desire to do her Majesty service ; and truly he is most honestly inclined that way, and of great ability to perform it. He declared in brief that looking to the obligation these countries had to her Majesty, and to the necessity of the present time, he had thought good to make a motion to some principal person here, that a league might be treated of between the Queen of England and these countries of Holland, Zealand, Friesland, and some of the maritime towns, for the defence of either state, and their assurance against such preparations as might be made by sea, by any of the adversaries of the Religion and common cause ; which might be such a bulwark to meet all the devices of the enemy, that it would terrify and confound, and break the projects before they began. The person that he had moved this to, was of like opinion, and the 'platt' ought to be first laid, and others proceeded in with the respect that appertained to so great a cause and such a princess as the Queen, and good substance and secrecy ; with such contribution and caution as she should impose. This the said Paul Buys desired me to let you and the Earl of Leicester understand beforehand ; to prepare your 'wisdoms and favours' to consider what were necessary to further the course thereof, when time were. By this he said that the States of the Low Countries were ever likely to fall into the hands of England and to depend entirely on her Majesty, without her charge, to whom they bore true and loyal affection, howsoever things 'had their revolution.' Further he was not scrupulous, he said, if she were made acquainted with his pure intentions on this behalf, if you thought meet, in private sort, as of a thing yet undigested, to impart it 'with' her ; yet as of a matter that will be negotiated with her as soon as it may be brought to maturity and shape, and that with speed ; whereof he willed that your Lordships should take knowledge, for he would be ready to do anything that was for the service of England and his country. He signified further to me, to be imparted speedily to the Queen by you, that above five weeks ago the King of Denmark dispatched secretly by ship to Spain his principal councillor and Stadtholder of Zegensbergh from Copenhagen called the Rich Henryck Rantzow ; for matters, as may be conjectured, prejudicial to the States of the Low Countries and consequently to England. The King of Denmark has two virtues in him that are remarkable ; the one that he is changeable and heady, the other, covetous and busy above measure, which is also the natural disposition of his minister Rantzow, a person well known to both your Lordships by fame and 'notion.' It is likely that in returning from Spain, and the Danish ships are easily observed, and his person withal. In Lisbon, where the King's Court now is, it were an easy matter to decipher him ; and to come along with him as a passenger. He is of stature but mean ; not much hair, and that must now be white, or most [sic] 'gryssell.' In examining some circumstances with P. Buys, I find that the King of Denmark has grievously and newly enhanced his toll within the Sound ; which the Hollanders, and next them the Hanse Towns, do 'stomach' and will not yield to. And hereof it may be that the King of Denmark, desirous to satisfy and strengthen his doings by the King of Spain against his rebellious subjects, seeks, by way of a double commodity to reserve his unlawful exertions, and to employ his navy also in his service, which it would be as dangerous to her Majesty and her subjects to suffer as harmful to the Hollanders and Hanse Towns. It is of most perilous consequence that the King of Spain should have two such furnished and able navies at his command as those of Denmark and Sweden, which latter is already to be employed in any action of his, as may appear from the King of Sweden's own original letter intercepted and extant, after it had been put in cipher, by the Viceroy of Naples, and then returned again to the King of Sweden, who, as you know, is an Apostata. The Martinists, being now joined everywhere with the papists, will procure the King of Denmark to 'change some course' in this next Imperial Diet, touching the difference in the Religion, and to be heavy on the Protestants, and thereby procure others to do the like. Thirdly, Paul Buys advertised me that there were certain in Flanders, whether towns or men, for he spoke in general terms, who sought means to join the Malcontents. (Note by (?) Leicester in margin : This is meant 'by' certain Magistrates and gentlemen of Gaunt, papists, who would not swear to administer under the Duke of Alenon ; who hereupon are expelled the town and charged with conspiracy and defection.) It is a thing much noted, that the French king stays so long from sending some persons of degree, to congratulate 'with' Monsieur his new estate. This defect, with other observations, increases suspicion and diffidence of some harm that the state of these things 'are' to receive by debility, and by the commixture or permission of two religions, 'having their minds fixed' still towards England, as to a 'saved' anchor. The enemy makes a bravery, as though he would besiege Dunkirk, which is the sum of what passed between Paul Buys and me. I beseech your lordships that I may hear from you with speed, or 'namely,' that I may be able to entertain him with thanks from her Majesty and you. He has bidden me say to you that he will, to me alone, impart all the secrets and acts that shall be treated here in Council, or elsewhere abroad, that her Majesty may be served thereby ; commending himself to your lordships. Antwerp, 7 March 1581. Add. 'by Mr Anthony Mildmay.' Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 48.]
March 7. 591. HERLE to LEICESTER.
Copy of the last. Add. Endd. 1 pp. [Ibid. XV. 49.]
March 8. 592. HERLE to WALSINGHAM.
I presume in the good mind that I ever bore to your virtue and person, and in the duty I desire [sic] to do you the best service I can, to 'expone' to you my hard estate, and to pray you with good favour to amend the same. You have understood how it pleased my Lord of Leicester to make choice of me to attend him in his journey hither, and that at his return I remained here, which has been occasioned by the strait dealing of Mr Wade towards me ; who for the non-payment of 50 [sic] at the day has proceeded in suit of law against me, and finally condemned me. It has been a matter much labored by my Lord of Leicester, to entreat him to come to a reasonable end with me ; wherein my Lord Treasurer dealt also somewhat. By my Lord of Leicester, to the end it might be an onward between us, considering my poverty, and that I was utterly unable to satisfy Mr Wade's appetite, 'granted' to pay 40 out of his own purse, and that the rest should be made up by men to the sum, in the whole of 150. Mr Fanshaw and Mr Osborne offered him the assignment of 100 at their hands, of the first money they should receive out of Wales (?), and I to 'content' him the other 10. But he, 'grating' to have further assurance, such as I could not yield, broke off wholly, and now would have 300. The extremity whereof, considering that my liberty is the only thing that remains to me, has made me take a voluntary exile upon me, yet ready to perform anything in my power for the gentleman's satisfaction ; whereof my Lord of Leicester and my Lord Treasurer will witness for me. I have entreated either of them by letters at this present, as I likewise do you, to 'send for before you' Mr Fanshaw and Mr Osborne, that order may be taken with them for the 100 ; and for the 10. Mr Wade knows how to be satisfied by a bond of his brother's that shall be delivered him. The other 40 my good Lord of Leicester is inclined to answer for me. My humble request to you in particular is to draw the gentleman's consent to be satisfied herewith, which you will find to be an act of equity and conscience, and thereunto have done Mr Wade a good turn also, for he will find nothing in me to 'pursue' but want ; and to 'control thereof' to his own harm will give small taste of tractableness or policy, much more to add affliction to the afflicted. He is wise, and can measure wisely who deals with him, and for whom. If I find your favour extended towards me, poor soul, in this, as I ever assure myself well of you, I will strive to do you such service as shall show my thankfulness ever after, and to him a mindfulness that shall yield him a good turn, according to my ability, before it be long ; having quietness of my own, and liberty entirely, which I commend humbly to your hands. For occurrents, I know you are satisfied from here in other sort than I can write ; besides that I would not hurt the sufficiency of this worthy gentleman, Mr A. Mildmay your nephew, who is instructed in all things. But if you will give me leave from henceforth to make you acquainted with what I know, I will willingly endeavour myself to content you in some good sort, for I have the means. I have sent you for novelty a new 'Guisiardyn,' amplified much and corrected, and a piece of Monsieur's new coin, 10 stivers. You shall have his 'Joyous Entry' the first impression and before it come to public show.Antwerp, 8 March 1581. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 50.]
I thank you for the trouble you have taken to get my letters to hand, and for sending me the answer, by which I recognise that the person whom you wot of finds less difficulty in the execution of the enterprise for the furtherance of which you have seen solicitation made, than the fear which we feel regarded a good result in this action allows us to do. As for us, our affairs in these countries do not go forward so much that we should meddle in others so far away. I see from the King of Navarre's letter, written on the 20th ult. to M. du Plessis, that he considers all this embarkation very suspicious and that throughout Guyenne they were almost in alarm. I wrote to you four or five days ago of what was taking place here ; the difficulty which had arisen in the matter of religion went on till yesterday, when it was granted to his Highness, after many representations on either side, that the 'temple' of St. Michael in the abbey of which he is lodged should be allowed to the Roman Catholics for the exercise of their religion, with power to ask for others, till the end of the war. This difference came very inopportunely amid these beginnings which had been so joyful and glad (alegres), and has somewhat delayed the course of most urgent affairs ; to which however a hand has now been put, to provide for levying an army, and to make preparations according to the answer that is received from the king. We have every reason to pray, for I see nothing either in public or in private to make us very elated (insolens). I have a favour to beg of you, which is to send me the copy of a cipher which M. de Maninville left you. He left me its fellow, but it was lost with some other baggage (hardes) a few days ago. It might serve me sometimes to impart to you things which I could not otherwise write. The lack of it is the reason why I could not understand all his letter, and am not filling this with what I should have liked. I am your servant, loving and honouring you as your virtue merits, as does M. de Laval, who commends himself to your good graces.Antwerp, 9 March. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 51.]
March 10. 594. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
My last served to inform you that the claim for a mass (la prtendue m.) was delaying the establishment of order in these countries. In which matter his Highness, urged by his people, and backed by his Excellency with incredible importunity, and by threats of the potentates, of the disfavour of the king his brother, with other 'incidents' has obtained from the breede raed, the magistrates, and the Estates of Brabant the church or temple of St. Michael, to have mass muttered [? fluster] and sung, where all Catholics what I call papistswill assist, provided they have been resident in Antwerp for three years past, and that they renounce the King of Spain and take the oath to his Highness. These conditions were settled last Wednesday, the 7th, to the contentment of his Highness, who up till then had deferred making his proposals to the States General. Today, the 10th, he has set forth the state in which the country is, and the order which ought to be taken to re-establish it ; to wit the Council of State, the Privy Council, the finances and other necessary councils, the management of the war, the maintenance of order, the establishment of his household. I will send you the proposals and the reply by the first post. The intention of the States is that his Highness should swear and make oath to all the United Provinces before they reply to his proposals, since he has been received and admitted Duke of Brabant, and in pursuance of the treaty cannot be transported into each province to take the oath. However, I perceive he will be bridled as regards the ordering of the finances, by the promotion of sundry people who are at the devotion of his Excellency and the States, who will lead us into a perpetual necessity ; on which matter I leave you to ponder, seeing it is the sinews of authority. Many details are treated of during these claims, which are delaying the progress of military affairs, for which reason the enemy, foreseeing our actions, is disposing his affairs to get the advantage over us. He has collected 36 pieces of artillery at Lille, the order (?) of all his munitions and all the outfit, according to the advices. Those of Lille insist on an attack upon Meenen ; la Motte wants to have it on Dunkirk. All dispositions and preparations have been made. This information, certain as it is, has urged his Highness to call our people together to consider steps against the enemy, to break their designs. To this end all the chiefs are starting for some good exploit, whither I think of betaking myself ; awaiting another opportunity to let her Majesty know of some performance worthy of her service, which has not yet reached the mark which they claim to have set for it.Antwerp, 10 March 1582. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 52.]
The master of that unlucky youth, Giovanni Scotti, not only gave to Signor Horatio and me the care of protecting his interests in the Queen's credit, but also took part in all the expenses incurred by us in regard to it over there, in order to get the desired assignment of it. Now, as you know, her Majesty gave express order in writing to yourself and two others of the Council to make an appointment with me ; which they not only did, but also passed a writing of their own which must still be in Signor Horatio's hands, in which is included no less the share of that master of Scotti's than ours, and he has no less right to have his own bills, and the course of his interest, than Signor Horatio, who has obtained the one and the other. Now he finds it very strange that after so much inconvenience and expense, his youth should have been so long uselessly entertained there, and complains not a little to me of this his misfortune ; and I can do no less than beg you that for the sake of her Majesty's credit, of the deed you passed, of justice, and of the service that I claim with you, you would let the aforesaid youth have what was once so solemnly promised him ; and I pray you the more, because I should not like the principal in question under stress of desperation to indemnify himself in any abnormal way.Antwerp, 10 March 1582. Add. Endd. Ital. p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 53.]
Pardon me that since coming into this country I have not written to you. I looked every day to have returned, but the wind has overruled my determination, being always contrary since my Lord of Leicester's departure. Notwithstanding which, to avoid her Majesty's displeasure, I endeavoured lately to embark, but before I had gone a league from Antwerp there arose such a storm that by no possible means could I recover the town again, but was constrained to cast anchor, where I remained from 7 at night till 4 the next morning, all which time the storm continued with so great violence that I looked every moment to have been cast away, but God preserved me beyond my expectation. It may perhaps seem strange that in a river there should be so great danger of shipwreck, a place rather of 'harbouroe' for ships ; but the loss of 22 ships between this town and Flushing may satisfy your doubt. I myself saw these before the very 'key' of the town. Please signify this to her Majesty ; I hope she will rather pity my hard adventure than be offended with my staying here against my will. I shall not fail to take the first opportunity of returning, which will be with the better will, if I may understand she is satisfied on that point. I am persuaded you are sufficiently advertised how matters pass here, wherefore I will not trouble you with what is already known to you. At my coming home you shall know, if it please you, what observations I have made.Antwerp, 10 March. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 54.]