Elizabeth: August 1583, 1-10

Pages 51-68

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 18, July 1583-July 1584. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1914.

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August 1583, 1–10

Aug. 1. 61. Cobham to Walsingham.
Being commanded by the Lords of the Council to deal effectually with the French King, his mother and others of the Council, I sought access to their Majesties, but the King kept himself so privately that he admitted nobody to his presence. Howbeit, I had audience at last of the Queen Mother in the Tuileries garden on July 29, when after ordinary compliments, she began to discourse of the good health of the Duke of Anjou and the continuance of his good affection towards her Majesty, “so much as she hackled some words on the matter of marriage,” which gave me cause to say that none could better testify of her Majesty's affection and zeal to the Duke than herself, but as for the marriage, the world understood she was desirous rather that he should bestow his love on some younger princess, “and nigher hand to her than the land of England, turning myself to look backward, the which caused the Queen Mother likewise to cast her eyes that way, the Princess of Lorraine being hard behind her, when with that pause the purpose ceased.”
She then began a large demonstration of the King's disposition towards her Majesty; how that he never had a greater desire to continue strait amity with her than now, as she understood by his late speeches, which I promised should be signified to her Majesty; offering to serve them if there were any occasion when the Queen might stand them in stead. And finding that the King was thus inclined, I thought it convenient to inform her of the causes of those English merchants trading in the Duchies of Brittany and Normandy, and their complaints that under colour of certain edicts set forth by the King, new exactions and tolls were imposed upon her Majesty's subjects contrary to such liberties and privileges as they heretofore have enjoyed; the which exactions are like to be continued unless their Majesties take better order for their relief, beseeching her to be a means to the King that such orders may be given to the Privy counsellors and governors of Normandy and Brittany as that her Majesty's subjects might be exempted from those new impositions and suffered to enjoy their ancient immunities; otherwise it might breed a diminution of the good amity between the realms, and cause the English merchants to transfer their trade from those places into other countries.
“The Queen Mother's answer was, she intended to refer the consideration hereof to their Privy Council; calling therewith Secretary Brulart, willing him to take of me the supplication which I had framed in the behalf of the English merchants, receiving promises of the Queen there should be given redress and satisfaction in this cause. I did further enlarge unto her the evil ' treaty' her Majesty's subjects received on the seas by the French pirates. She said M. Joyeuse had undertaken to give order in those matters, who was to return to this court within fifteen days. But I requested in the meantime their Majesties' letters might be addressed to their vice-admirals and governors of their ports, for the apprehending and punishing the French pirates, which was by her likewise promised, but God knoweth how hardly in these days any redress is gotten for disorders.”
I pray that the Lords may understand I have not neglected to deal in these causes so far as the present time may suffer me, deferring to write to them till I have procured some effectual order for the accomplishing of their commands.—Paris, 1 August, 1583.
Add. Endd.pp. [France, X. 19.]
Aug. 1. 62. Humfray Jenney to Walsingham.
The great fame of your noble proceedings “towards all gentlemen as followeth or leaneth unto your honour,” especially those capable to be employed in her Majesty's service, and the love I have to your person, embolden me to beseech you to command me in any gentlemanlike service that may be grateful to her Majesty. You are thought, in Spain, France and Italy to govern that noble ship and guard her from danger of ship-wreck, which navigation may God maintain and prosper. Although your honour know me not, I am bold to pray you to accept me for your poor friend and servant, and to inform yourself of me from Mr. Philip Sidney, Mr. Edward Wotton, Mr. Robert Corbet, and also William Burlace, who likewise served the King in this State of Milan.—Milan, 1 August [style doubtful].
Add. Endd. 1 August, 1583. 1 p. [Italy, I. 7.]
Aug. 2/12. 63. The States of Holland to Walsingham.
Stating that they are sending Joachim Ortell as Resident to England, and hope that he will be able to put an end to the difficulties and differences which often arise between her Majesty's subjects and the inhabitants of Holland in relation to mercantile affairs.
As they entirely trust his honour's favour and goodwill towards them, they have desired Ortell to pay his respects to him, for whom they beseech all assistance and credit in his affairs, whether public or private.—The Hague, 12 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Holl. and Fl., XX. 1.]
64. A like letter addressed to Burghley.
Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Ibid. XX. 1a.]
Aug. 4. 65. Cobham to Walsingham.
The King departed on the 29th of July. He had often solicited the Queen of Navarre to repair to her husband, but she deferred it with excuses of want of money and her business concerning the exchange of her dowry. On the 28th, he sent her express command by the Bishop of Langres and Charles de Birague to depart the next day, assigning 24,000 crowns for satisfying her necessary charges and appointing the above said personages to conduct her on her journey.
Thus she began her journey on the 29th “with a small confused train, without using and receiving such ordinary compliments as otherwise might have appertained unto her; she herself carried in her litter, accompanied by the Princess of Condé as far as Bourg-la-reine, where they dined.” Before her departing, the King had constrained her to send away her two chief favourites, Madame de Duras and Bethune, with one of her chambermaids called Bar be, otherwise Mademoiselle de Vau, all which ladies were afterwards apprehended at Montmirail by the King's guards. The King passed through Bourg-la-reine just when the Queen was there, “having the leathers of his coach cast down to the intent he should not see nor be seen,” his coach being driven through the village in great haste. The Queen lodged that night at Palesieux, where she remained all the next day. And the last of July, by order of the King there arrived a troop of horsemen with pistols who stayed her train, and a captain of the King's footguard came to her litter, “willing her to unmask herself, which she found strange, saying he knew her well enough. He answered: No, adding, what he did was by the King's commandment, whereon she discovered her face.” Which being done the said captain and those with him went to her ladies and women, causing them to unmask themselves and searching their coaches very circumspectly. Lastly they apprehended M. Tutti, a gentleman of the said Queen's, who is committed prisoner.
The King having dealt so vehemently, calling in question his sister's honour, many have mistrusted that he would proceed further, either in taking away her life, or at least imprisoning her in the castle of Amboise or Loches. Meanwhile, his indignation shown so publicly cannot but bring a great heart-sore to the Queen Mother. They say that the King caused all letters written by the Queen of Navarre to Monsieur since the King's coming here to be taken, which he detains; but it is judged that neither these letters “nor yet the King's imputing of her disordinate pleasure,” have been the principal cause of his high displeasure, but that he was animated against her, “understanding she had caused a pasquin to be written wherein the King was deeply touched.” Thus in sundry wise the Court surmises on the cause of her disgrace.
It is given out that there will be great alterations in this Court before Christmas. The King has caused Chanvallon's house to be searched, but he had fled first to Germany. His Majesty went from Dollenville on July 31 to Fontainebleau, where he stays, sending the Duke d'Epernon to the Queen Mother, who returns to-day.
It is understood the King solicited in person the Chief President on behalf of Madame de Longueville, who has now a process against Madame de Nemours, mother to the Duke of Guise, “whereby there is conceived a displeasure of the King that way.
“The King continueth his determination to hold here in Paris about the 10th of September an assembly of his princes, bishops, privy counsellors and governors of provinces, with some of the chief burgesses of the capital towns, at which time some reformations may be treated on.” The particularities are not yet made known.
The Abbot of Toulouse, sent for hither because of his outward show of sanctimony, is returned. The Duke of Lorraine is said to have introduced the Inquisition into his country. M. Laval marries the eldest daughter of Madame d'Allègre.
“The Baron of Viteaux, the 28th of July, was challenged into the field by La Millaud (Milleaux), son unto him whom the Baron had heretofore slain, when as in particular fight with their rapiers and daggers, in their shirt and hose, the Baron was slain.”
The Duke of Savoy is said to have caused Capt. La Marle and other gentlemen of the Religion to be slain, alleging that La Marle had murdered one of his gentlemen.
Duke Joyeuse has been solemnly received at Venice into the Buzzentori, with great demonstrations and banquetings. He goes thence to Milan, where the governor makes great preparations and will lodge him in the castle in sumptuous manner. He is expected to be at Lyons about Aug. 24, after their account.
“The Duke of Ferrara had a practice in Sarzana, a town belonging to the Genoese in Tuscany, nigh unto Pietra Peana. The conspirators being discovered are carried prisoners unto Genoa, which hath bred some jealousy in Tuscany and Florence. The Genoese have slain certain gentlemen and soldiers in a castle which the Duke of Mantua had lately made in the Marquisate of Monferrato, nigh unto the Genoese territories. Those of the Pont Tremoli have complained unto the Governor of Milan how the Duke of Parma hath intruded on them in violent manner; whereon they suspect in Italy the Dukes of Ferrara, Mantua and Parma are entered into some new league. The Governor of Milan is much troubled with sundry tumults which are arisen in Italy through the strifes for confines and jurisdictions, he having a special care for the preservation of the peace in Italy.”
Two bands of foot and some companies of horse are arrived at Rome from Corsica, and every day the Pope sends garrisons into the towns about Rome, the cause whereof is not clearly known. The banished men, especially three priests, whereof two are named II Guarcina [sic] and the other Marino, do great harm with sundry horse and foot towards the sea-side, burning, slaying and taking men. The harvest about Rome has been reasonably good, but the dearth of corn continues.
Letters from Spain state that the Marquis of Santa Cruz had arrived at the Isle of St. Michel, where all the army was in safety, staying only to refresh the soldiers and embark the men brought to St. Michel last year, before assaying to win the Isles of Terceiras. The Court of Spain held the marriage to be concluded between their King and la Reine Blanche, as also that Duke Ernest would accompany her. The truce for three years between the Turk and Spain was held for agreed upon. Most of the grandees of Spain were arrived at Madrid, and the procurors or burgesses for the principal cities, to hold the Cortes or parliament of Estates, which was to begin on Midsummer day last past. The Spanish King begins to make provision to maintain the Prince of Parma in his good progress in Flanders. The plague is still bad in Andalusia, and in Madrid diligent care is taken, “doubting the infection.”
They write from Germany that the Elector Palatine marries the daughter of that Count of Embden whose wife is the King of Sweden's sister. Count Montbéliard (Monpleard), next heir to the Duke of Würtemberg, has another son.
Count John of Nassau has a regiment of English and Scots in garrison in the town of Bun [Bonn]. The conductors of the forces for the Elector Truchsess are to be: Lazarus Muller, commanding a regiment of lanzknechts; Hans von Buck and Henrick von Stein, each 1,000 reiters; Frederick von Werman, George von Walbrun, the aforesaid Elector, Meinhart von Schomberg, marshal of the camp and Frederick, Herr von Dun of Prussia, each 1,000 reiters. Casimir has 500 reiters for his guard, being general of the whole army. The French foot, who passed near Strasburg, have also now joined Casimir's forces. The Elector has moreover 4,000 men in Westphalia well appointed, with other preparations for the defence of that country.
This despatch comes by Secretary Wilson's son. He has bestowed his time well in France, in very modest and discreet manner.—Paris, 4 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. 6 ½ pp. [France, X. 20.]
Aug. 4/14. 66. The Mayor, Bailiffs, Councillors and “Peers” of Rochelle to the Queen.
We beg to inform your Majesty that recently some of this town having freighted a vessel with sundry kinds of goods, the master whereof was Robert Giraud, she was captured and carried off, on her way to Flanders, by Captain Clinton, a citizen of London, who, according to Giraud's report, disposed of the goods as he pleased, contrary to all justice and right, and to the great prejudice of our townspeople, who remain impoverished and deprived of means.
And, inasmuch as we are well-assured that your Majesty would not permit these outrages to be committed with impunity by your subjects, of what condition and quality soever they may be, we have thought it our duty, at the prayer of the present bearer, (who is one of the merchants owning the largest share of the goods in question), to write this unto you, that you may grant to him and his companions in this loss your most laudable justice. La Rochelle, 14 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. by R. Beale: “In the behalf of certain merchants spoiled by Clinton Atkinson.” Fr. ½ p. [France, X. 21.]
Aug. 4. 67. Stokes to Walsingham.
The Four Members of Flanders have this week made the Prince of Chimay governor of Flanders, without the advice or consent of the Prince of Orange, whose counsel they will follow as little as they may, especially those of Ghent governing as they think good, and placing and displacing captains and soldiers as they see cause. The Prince of Chimay has been for two days past at Sluys. There in the castle was an “ensign” of the Prince of Orange's soldiers, who are now discharged and sent into Zeeland, from whence they came. The governor of the castle is also discharged, and a gentleman of the Prince of Chimay put in his place.
There was to be a meeting in Zeeland of the several States, but the Four Members of Flanders are unwilling to go thither, and especially those of Ghent. Yet they say they will go in order to speak with General Norris.
The Four Members have broken up their assembly in this town, and will keep it at Ghent, whither the Prince of Chimay rides to-morrow to talk with the town about their troublesome state, and there, it is thought, some strange matters will be passed.
The Prince of Orange is out of favour in those parts because he presses them still to take the aid of the French. This week he sent to them here to “lee” the Swiss in this town and the French in Vilvorde, “but it seems these parts are wholly resolved never to deal any more with the French to the last man.”
The Four Members are aggrieved with Holland and Zeeland, because they send their own ships to Nieuport and Dunkirk with victuals and other needful things, which much helps the enemy, in whose government all things are scant.
Some gentlemen of the enemy's side begin to have doubt of the Spaniard, for letters are come from some of good calling in Artois and the camp to gentlemen of this side, desiring an agreement together, for they fear the Spaniards may otherwise be masters of both sides, they showing themselves very stout.
The Prince of Chimay has sent from this town to Ypres three ensigns of Scots and two of Flemings. About three hundred went into the town; the rest came back for their guide, having lost their way in the night. It seems the enemy are but few in number there, for these men passed in quietly, and as yet the cannon does not play.
The Prince of Chimay and the Four Members have made a contract with Col. Morgan for five ensigns of English foot, a hundred and fifty men in each; “and those that wants” he must send for into England, for now he has only three hundred towards the number. I see some good will in this State to maintain the quarrel, but their money is spent and gone, and what is “almost a worse matter,” they are divided and full of jealousy, one of another, “and no obedience amongst them.” So it is feared they cannot stand long, and also that Holland and Zeeland will fall from these parts, there being some displeasure between them.
I am sorry I can write no better news, “which falls here every day worse and worse for this poor miserable country. God send it better at his good pleasure.” Bruges, 4 August, 1583, stilo Anglie.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XX. 2.]
After Aug. 4/14. 68. A report concerning ships on the coast of France.
The embarkation at Honfleur, La Havre and Fécamp was for Scotland. There were fifteen ships, large and small, called secretly the army of the Duke of Maine, his lieutenant being M. de Brissac. The Duke of Guise came to Dieppe, accompanied by the Cardinal of Bourbon and the Duke of Maine, and two Scotsmen, one named Thomas Morgan, the other said to be the nephew of the Scots' ambassador at Paris. From Dieppe they went to Bacqueville's chateau, where they dined. The following remark was made by one of the Scots to the Duke of Guise: It is time, Sir, to help these poor people of Scotland, who are looking for your good succour. And were it only for the reason that the heretics call you butcher, that ought to be enough to cause you to make haste. At these words, some ladies began to smile, and M. de Guise answered them: Ladies, he is talking Scotch; you do not understand it. At that moment there arrived two Englishmen, come in post from Rouen. M. de Guise brought them into a cabinet and they were nearly two hours together. Then they returned to Rouen and M. de Guise and his company went to an abbey called Jumièges, where they slept. Thence to Fécamp and so to La Milleraye, where they stayed five or six days, holding council every day. Thence, on advices from the Queen Mother, they departed for Gaillon.
M. de Brissac came to M. de Guise at La Milleraye, being much troubled, and talked with him a long time. The latter bit his lips with vexation. The news he brought, which came from La Havre, caused the breaking off of the embarkation. M. de Brissac spread a rumour that he was going to Brouage to sell his ships and provisions, which were spoiling, and to pay the soldiers. M. de Guise had sent 13,000 crowns to La Havre, which he has since recalled.
While the embarkation was preparing, the Bishop of Rouen [Leslie, Bishop of Ross], who is a Scot, said to a priest that he was only a servant at Rouen, but that he hoped shortly to be in his pontificate in Scotland.
About a month ago there came to Rouen an English gentleman called Gilford [qy. Gifford], much favoured by M. de Guise; who says he left England for his religion, and also because all his goods had been seized. Peter Gyllman, master of a ship of London, arrived at Rouen on Aug. 14 new style, having taken on board at Gravesend sixteen or seventeen young English gentlemen, who are en pension with some English priests there, as I am assured.
In a French hand. Endd. by L. Tomson: “The report made by one sent to discover the embarkation in France for Scotland.” Fr.pp. [France, X. 22.]
Aug. 5. 69. Cobham to Walsingham.
I have already written to you the course taken by the King in sending hence his sister. I hear he resolved on it at Mezières, being offended with her for sending her gentleman, Madran, to the Duke of Anjou. When he left Mezières he pretended to his mother that he was going through Burgundy to Lyons, howbeit he came directly to Paris, and ordered the Queen of Navarre to repair to her husband, which she professed to desire, staying only to receive the money on the assignations his Majesty had given her. Finding the King's fervent disposition to send her away, she went to her mother, desiring to see the King, which intention pleased the old Queen so well that she requested him to admit her daughter to his presence. The King refused to see her, and ordered her to put from her Mesdames de Duras and Bethune, the which she refused, alleging that to thrust them out of her doors at her departing were dishonourable. He, “displeased so much the more with this answer, caused the Duchess du Sezze [d'Uzés] for to assure the Queen of Navarre how, if they were not that day despatched out of her house, he meant to have them taken perforce and carried prisoners to Bois de Vincennes.” This much was treated at Madril and at Madame de Sipiere's house, from the 22nd July until the 27th, on which day the Queen of Navarre went into the Tuileries garden, where the Queen Mother took her apart into a little cabinet and signified to her that the King would see her if she would not speak sharply or sourly to him. The Queen of Navarre complained that he had affronted her with many despites and “had hearkened unto all the dishonest purposes which might be imagined against her, as that she had been delivered of a child, which was a lie. But she was able to verify sundry acts done by his Majesty, both natural and unnatural, with many enormities and excesses, the particularities whereof she uttered in great choler, forgetting nothing which had passed.” Her mother reproved her speeches, putting her in mind of her duty to the King; wishing that past matters might not be spoken of, and hoping she would use more modest language to him, as it behoved her to see him and depart in his good grace. The Queen of Navarre however declared that she was resolved “to speak unto the King so much as had been said, with more matter that should be true,” so as notwithstanding any entreaty of the mother, the daughter did not alter her mind. The old Queen, perceiving this heart-burning could not be qualified, offered to accompany her two days' journey out of Paris. The Queen of Navarre besought her not to do so, as they would report she would have been kept prisoner in this town if her mother had not gotten her out. Thus the daughter parted from the Queen Mother, “without weeping or changing of countenance, passing forth into the next chamber, where with a cheerful countenance she took her leave of the Princesses and all the other ladies, returning to her house.”
The next morning the Duchess du Sezze, at four o'clock in the morning, came to the Queen of Navarre, declaring to her that if Mesdames de Duras and Bethune were not gone they might have a shrewd turn done to them. And as overnight the King had by other means signified unto these two ladies that if they stayed they should be put in a sack and cast into the river, the Queen of Navarre conveyed them privily out of her back door, directing them to her next neighbour, the Marquise de Nesle, the Cardinal de Birague's daughter, who received them, asking advice of her father whether she was to keep them. The Cardinal advised her to consult the Queen Mother, who requested the Marquise to keep them secret and lend them a coach to carry them away, the which was performed. But the King got knowledge of this and all else that was said and done in the Queen of Navarre's house, and hearing of her stoutness and the bold language she had poured forth in her rage, was moved to greater indignation and insisted on her departure, as I wrote in my former letter. The King in this gar boy le has employed the Duchess du Sezze to carry messages. The Queen of Navarre mistrusts that the Duke of Anjou has sent her letters to his Majesty, and conjectures this to be a great part of her disgrace. Yet she showed a friend of mine a long letter from Monsieur full of affection, and promising to take her into his protection, with assurance to run her fortune. But his Highness's dealings are mistrusted.
She attributes part of the King's indignation to the Duke d'Epernon. The best sort of people at Court do not like his Majesty's proceedings with his sister. There is great expectation how the King of Navarre will “comport” the action. God give him good counsel and comfort.
I enclose a little cipher, beseeching it may be deciphered, which will, I think, help me to the knowledge of certain causes.—5 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. 4 pp. [France, X. 23.]
Aug. 5. 70. Dr. Lobetius to Walsingham.
My last was of the 8th of last month. The French soldiers of whom I wrote to you have at last reached Bonn without much difficulty, under the good conduct of Dr. Beutterich. Another levy of foot and some horse has been made, which the Baron de Krechingen will lead, and the army of reiters and lanzknechts levied in the name of Duke Casimir is completed. His Excellency is about to join them and to descend towards Cologne. Although he is not yet aided by those whom he hoped for, he is of good courage, and resolute to employ all means for liberty, religion and his country, in opposition to the usurpation of the Pope. If the Prince of Parma does not oppose his designs, there is no great preparation to make headway against him. They are levying some lanzknechts about Lake Constance in the name of the King of Spain, to send to Cologne for the new archbishop. The brother of the Emperor, Ernestus, Ferdinand, brother of the Duke of Bavaria, and Chr. of Brunswick were lately at Augsburg (Augusta) in order to go to Innsbruck, there to meet the Archduke Ferdinand, I know not for what intent.
Advertisements from Italy do not speak of any preparations for this war; they tell of nothing but the honours, triumphs and splendours bestowed on the Duke de Joyeuse, sent thither by the King, in all places and especially in Rome. The said Duke was going to meet the King at Lyons, where was also to be the Duke d'Epernon, after having made his entries as lieutenant of the King, and being received with great pomp and magnificence at Verdun, Metz and Thoul.
The difference between the Duke of Savoy and the Bernois and those of Geneva is to be treated of in one way or another at Michaelmas; and probably there may be an assembly at Lucerne, where the Cantons would reply to the demand of the Pope for 4,000 Swiss. The Duke of Savoy is said to be arming his towns near to Geneva by putting good garrisons into them and in other ways.
A propos of Geneva, I hear that in your kingdom they have made a collection of money, with the consent of your Queen and her estates, for the said town, which has much need of it, and that it will amount to 100,000 crowns. It is a pious work to lend aid to a town of such importance, to obviate the evils which would otherwise come upon it. But speaking of Geneva reminds me of our venerable old M. Sturmius, of whom I cannot think with pleasure, seeing that I am reminded of his poverty and misery. It would be well done to make him a participant in some part of this collection, to preserve him from ruin. We see that the King of Navarre and the Prince of Condé do nothing for him in return for what he writes for them; for more than twenty years the poor man has been fed with vain hope and endures a dangerous time of waiting, during which the interests due to his creditors have reduced him to the greatest straits to keep them quiet as to the principal, which he cannot pay. I greatly fear that his creditors may play him some ill-turn, incited by those who are his enemies on account of his religion and who desire his ruin, a thing which could not happen to so renowned a person at nearly 80 years of age without making a great talk in the world. Your mistress could do much, if it pleased her, and you, who are in credit and authority, cannot want means to persuade her to it.—Strasburg, 5 August, 1583.
Postscript.—M. Sturmius salutes you humbly; will write to you by the Sieur Zolcher (Solker) and thank you for your favours, for he acknowledges that from no one in England has he received more kindness than from you.
The Prince Palatine de la petite Pierre has sold to the Duke of Lorraine the Comte of Pfalzburg and its dependencies, for 400,000 florins, to be paid by degrees. I have just been told that in a skirmish near Cologne Dr. Beutterich has received a wound from an arquebuss in his leg, and has lost some of his men.—Signed J. L.
Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XX. 3.]
Aug. 6. 71. [Walsingham] to Cobham.
The Queen having of late received a letter from Queen Mother by Madame Mauvissière, whereof I send you a copy [see p. 23 above], containing, among other things, an overture for establishing peace throughout Christendom by some other means than the marriage, her Majesty's pleasure is, you should signify to the said Queen her thankful acceptation of her letter and overtures, letting her understand that if she will send particularities of what she wishes to be done therein, she will find her Majesty ready to join to the uttermost of her power in furtherance of so good a purpose.— 6 August, 1583.
Draft or copy. Endd. by L. Tomson. ⅓ p. [France, X. 24.]
Aug. 6. 72. Norreys to Walsingham.
Since I despatched Mr. Danett to her Majesty, the wind has been so contrary that no ships could depart. M. de Biron and his troops are also waiting for it.
The bruit of her Majesty sending me hither has made the whole country in great expectation of what she will do for them, and they have “respited to that with the French” till they know her pleasure. Meanwhile, they have resolved “every province to entertain and pay a certain number of men, to accord as they think the abuses that have been in disposing of their money; but I fear when they shall see how little will be done for them from us, they will run a desperate course, and so it will be very ill serving here for those of our country.” Therefore I beseech you to advise me if any good may be done for me at home.
Ypres remains besieged, but some soldiers have entered the town, so that it is like to hold out some good time. “Colonel Morgan showed his honest design towards his countrymen, who in my absence treated for himself and sought to break all the rest of the companies. He hath accepted so ill a composition as will be a very hard precedent for us all.”
The States of Flanders have sent for our English troops to enter Alost. There is news here that the French King has drawn down the Turk into Barbary, to make war against Spain, meaning to declare himself an open enemy to Spain if these countries will accept him; and that the Turk in passing has made great spoils in Italy and carried away “as good as 10,000 souls.” Whether this be true or only a French device you will learn from other advertisements.—Flushing, 6 August, 1583.
I beseech you to grant Mr. Danett favourable access if he comes to you about my affairs.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl and Fl. XX. 4.]
Aug. 6. 73. John Herbert to Walsingham.
Having undertaken the journey for her Majesty's subjects that trade to these Easterly parts, I parted from Hamburg the 13th of July, passed the wide and waste countries of Mecklenburg, Pomerland and Cassubia, and came to Dantzick without peril or danger the 28th of the same, where, by reason of a fair, called Dominick fair, their chiefest mart for the whole year, and as I understood by Master Salkyns, Deputy for that Company, that her Majesty's letters of credit and commission were not yet come to his hands, I remained for a sevennight, to see the concourse of divers nations and the diversity of their merchandise and to view the place, the “commodity” to bring all kind of merchandise out of the land to the same, and the commodious harbouring of ships in the port. The fair drawing to an end, and our merchants repairing to Elbing, I arrived there the 3rd of this month, and on the 4th received your letter and instructions, her Majesty's letters to the King of Poland and the officers of Elbing, with commission under the Great Seal for concluding a residence for the Easterly Company here.
On Monday, the 5th [o.s.], I delivered her Majesty's letters to the burgomasters, and after a set speech, wherewith the people of this country is much delighted, “among other I touched, by the way, that her Majesty was somewhat aggrieved with the last annotations sent by the citizens of this town. They replied that it was so prescribed unto them by some of the King's Council, that as then seemed to doubt of the issue of this treaty, as a thing not meant by the English nation; but assured me that on their side there should be no want of goodwill to yield to any composition, and to employ themselves to the uttermost to procure the King to assent unto the same; whereof they seem to have great hope, by late advertisements received from their agent that remaineth at Court.
“I pray God in the end it may prove so, for I perceived by the sly speech of the chief Burgomasters of Dantzick, whom at the request of Mr. Salkyns I visited, that they make full account that the King will grant nothing to this town that may prejudice the rest of his ports in this quarter.” And I find from many here that the trade might have been restored at Dantzick with less charge and greater commodity of traffic and benefit to her Majesty's subjects than can be hoped for by all the immunities that may be granted by the citizens of Elbing. But therewith I have nothing to do, but am tied to the limits prescribed to me, the which, God willing, I will perform with all diligence and dutiful care.—Elbing, 6 August, 1583.
Add. Endd.pp. (Poland, I. 27.)
Aug. 5 and 8. 74. Advertisements From Cologne.
Cologne, Aug. 5, 1583. O.S.—Since my last to you of July 29 and Aug. 1, I have received yours of the 24 July, with your exhortations in relation to the gast, which I have imparted to him, and can assure you that he lacks neither good will nor matter, and that he will lose no time, although he is now waiting for an “extravagant” person who comes from Ca [Spain] and since then from Hu [the Elector].
Our news are as usual. Casimir's army is to be mustered on the 10th instant at Königstein (Coninckstein), near Frankfort, or at Ingelheim (Englem), between Mainz and Bingen, and to march thence at once. Many have left and do daily leave this town, some to go up, others down.
Those of Deutz have all left and Salentin has put in a garrison of about 300, to prevent those of Bonn from seizing and fortifying the abbey. The soldiers threaten the fugitives, if they do not come back, to set fire to it, which they would rather endure than return.
A plot has been discovered which those of Bonn had on hand against the camp at Briihl (Broelle), and the designer of it has been taken and quartered.
The Duke of Saxe Lauenburg was taken in a skirmish, but rescued by a reiter, who wrested him from and killed his captor. But the reiters have lost their chief, Ulrich Klever, whom those of Bevart have taken and carried into the town of Gueldres.
The Liégois arrive a la file at the camp at Briihl, and daily more soldiers come into Bonn from Westphalia. The Bavarian finds himself much hindered. Neither the Duke of Cleves nor this senate wish to interfere, and the Archbishops of Mainz and Treves say the same, and he has no money, so that Truchsess may do his worst, provided that he is better furnished, which I doubt. It is thought that at the Emperor's request the Landgrave and others will come here to settle the difference, but this will not be. The nuncio, having played his part, is making ready to depart. He yesterday consecrated the new church of the Jesuits, before it is finished, and dined and supped with the fathers.
Cologne, Aug. 8, 1583.—Last Tuesday the gast found himself in good company of all sorts, both Jesuits and le Lusque [Sudermann] and others like him. There was no lack of talk about current affairs, from which he hopes to have drawn important facts for his friends.
The nuncio is expecting the arrival of the person who is come from Ca [Spain] to Hu [the Elector]. All the reverend persons are only now becoming excited as to the great army of Casimir, by which our burghers have been greatly alarmed, so that many quit the town daily, and Col. von Stein is already with a thousand horsemen near Frankfort, while other 5,000 are ready to march, not counting the footmen in great numbers.
Bavaria's camp at Brühl, reinforced by 1,500 Liégois, is being strengthened by great trenches, with determination to await the enemy. On Tuesday, the 6th, they of Bonn set fire to half the little town of Deutz, but were prevented by shot from the soldiers who occupy the monastery from burning the rest, who only dared to come out stealthily because of a strong ambuscade which surrounded the said little town, for protection of the firebrands who threaten to return shortly to accomplish the rest. They lost seven men, one of whom wore a gold chain, and two prisoners, who have confessed that the Counts of Solms and Mœurs were present (fn. 1). Yesterday Salentin reinforced the monastery with a company of soldiers.
The Bavarians are determined to give battle to the German, however strong he may be, which makes people believe that some of Parma's cavalry is coming here.
Copy enclosed in Gilpin's letter of the 17th.
Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XX. 15a.]
Aug. 8. 75. Cobham to Walsingham.
I have just now received your letters by Mr. Stanton, and will deliver to the King what you command me concerning the French singer now returned; most humbly thanking you for your good news of Mr. Stafford's coming to this place, whom I shall welcome with much good will.
Those of Geneva expect nothing but wars with the Duke of Savoy. Those of Berne find some untrusty persons among themselves. The King of Poland has been present at a conference between “certain ministers Polonois” of the Religion and other ministers of the Lutheran sect, where, though they accorded not on the opinion of the Sacrament, yet they agreed throughout that realm to live in love and good concord, the Polonian King having consented to the permission of this much. The conference was either procured or much favoured by the Great Chancellor of that realm, who is married to a virtuous lady, zealous in the Religion.
The Duke of Savoy has caused fifteen in one company to be slain travelling out of Italy, and it was bruited that one of them was La Merle, but I hear he is sick at his house. Some thought it was M. Châtillon, but he is in Guyenne.
The Queen of Navarre continues about Châteaudun, in great grief, abstaining from meat and rest. Her physician was sought for to be apprehended, but escaped.
The King of Navarre is sending M. de Ségur to her Majesty, with one or two other gentlemen; they are said to have embarked at Rochelle and to be well advanced on their journey. The Queen Mother is thought to be with the Duke of Anjou, waited on by all three secretaries of state. The physician Paulmier is sent for to his Highness, who is fallen sick. The King is on his way to Lyons.—Paris, 8 August.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [France X. 25.]
Aug. 8/18. 76. Colonel Morgan to Walsingham.
I have received yours of the 8th of last month; and “as for the mares, I would they were so good as could wish
“Your honour writeth to have heard of disagreement to be between those of our nation here. Truly, the agreement would soon be made, so men might have their own. I doubt lest those that advertised you thereof were the chief and only cause of our disagreement, and that by their own particular quarrels, and yet say that other men are in default thereof.” The truth will in time be known. I am no cause thereof, except that some are aggrieved by my maintaining my own rights, and I doubt not so to discharge myself thereof as to content you, beseeching you to tell me if any would so tax me, that I may give you full satisfaction.
I pray you to assist the bearer, Mr. Tucker, in business of mine which he has to do in England.—Bruges, 18 August, 1583, stilo novo.
Add. Endd. “Capt. Morgan”(sic). 1¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XX. 5.]
Aug. 8/18. 77. Dr. William Parry to Burghley.
“The liberty that I have long desired to withdraw myself to some university is at last by Mr. Secretary's advice and favour granted, so as now I may spend the rest of my term in Orleans and Paris, and, if I be not to blame, return with reasonable contentment.”
I have no news to send you, but that it was mistrusted there was some enterprise intended against Geneva on Monday last, but the same being discovered and soldiers provided for the better defence of the town, nothing appeared. I see small reason to think the town strong in men or money. And albeit Zurich, Berne, Basle and “Schaffuse” are strong and befriend them, “yet it is doubted that whensoever they shall set forward in aid of Geneva, the rest of the cantons will follow them at the heels or offend them at home.
Such as favour Spain are in great jollity for the Prince of Parma's great fortune in Flanders, and do daily expect to hear of the good speed of the Spanish navy at the Terceiras. There went lately from Genoa towards Barcelona (for Barbary) 2,000 Italian soldiers, and it is reported that 'mo' shall be sent. It is to Larache, as I remember. The King's coming hither is deferred by reason of the Duke of Joyeuse's sickness, whose entertainment in Italy we hear to be exceedingly great, specially in Milan.
“Monsieur's manner of proceeding of late with the Queen Mother doth give the world cause to speak broadly, and to mistrust some greater pact than is yet discovered. I pray God her Majesty do not find herself deceived in her French friends.”
I fear the late alteration in Scotland will not be either speedily or quietly repaired. Some think the death of Lennox gives hope of assurance, but I find it to weaken it and increase malice. It seems that her Majesty “presumeth” greatly of the Hamiltons. I am of opinion (and not without reasonable grounds) that she cannot trust them.
Pardon me for being thus plain and bold. I will not hereafter be thus troublesome to you.—Lyons, 18 August, 1583. [Style doubtful, but probably new.]
P.S. (on separate slip).—Aldred departed for Milan on the 10th inst. in hope to bring Mr. “Umpton” away. You will shortly hear that Pyne has done him a great deal of wrong and little furthered him.
Add. Endd.pp. [France X. 26.]
Aug. 9. 78. Gilpin to Walsingham.
So long as Mr. Norreys is here, who is conversant with those who understand best the certainty of matters in these parts, I leave the advertising thereof to his “careful travails.” But I have received the enclosed [see p. 49 above] from my friend, and look for him here within two or three weeks, whence with all diligence I will help his despatch for England, and having given him 100 pistolets “per exchange,” I thought good to advertise you thereof.—Middelburg, 9 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. XX. 6.]
Aug. 9/19. 79. Horatio Palavicino to Walsingham.
Giving an account of the manner in which Signor Cataneo of Antwerp has negotiated the purchase of bonds to the value of 3,948l. 10s. 6d. sterling, with the factors of Birboom of Cologne. For 3,300l. of this sum, Mr. Gilpin will have to be bound in Antwerp as proctor for Alderman Richard Martin.— Paris, 19 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. Italian. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XX. 7.]
Aug. 10. 80. Cobham to Walsingham.
It is doubtful whether the King will go to Lyons, for Duke Joyeuse has fallen sick at Vercelli of this new “frensy ague,” so that they say his Majesty will go to Bourbon Nancy, to bring the young Queen hither, when she has finished her taking of the bath waters.
Mesdames de Duras and Bethune were brought to the King as he was on his way to Montargis. After he had reproved them for their life and “liberal” manner of speaking of him, he commanded Bethune to remain with her brother, and Madame de Duras to repair to Paris, where she now is; having visited the Duke d'Epernon before his departure, and showing herself in the palace and other places with a cheerful countenance.
Barbe, otherwise Mademoiselle de Vau, is sent by order of the King to Fontainebleau, among her husband's friends, to be delivered of her child. De Tutti is released, and the Queen of Navarre, being amended of her indisposition, has gone towards La Fleche in Anjou, a fair house of the King of Navarre's. This King, being on his way to Saintonge and advertised of his Queen being sent from hence, is returned in haste into Gascony. The Prince of Condé has followed, to comfort him in his heaviness.
They tell me that M. d'Epernon has said he will undertake so to accommodate matters that one hood shall cover the French King and the King and Queen of Navarre, which speeches being reported to the Duke of Maine, he found strange and hard to bring to pass.
It is understood that there has been an enterprise intended for surprising Strasburg. The chief leaders were M. de Rochepot and Beauvais-Nangis (Beauvais de Langi), who levied many companies in Burgundy and Champagne, giving out that they were for the French King's service in Languedoc. This is discovered to those of Strasburg, who find it hard the King should seek so much evil to them. They conceive that Puygaillard's companies of men of arms were to have served for that purpose.
I hear that Casimir was like to have been murdered in his own park early one morning, as he went to a little lodge where he used to pray. By good fortune he returned to seek a paper he had left in his bedchamber, and two of his guards, passing through the park, espied nine or ten horsemen muffled, wellmounted, mostly on Spanish jennets. They informed Duke Casimir as he was passing over the bridge out of his house, whereupon the Duke of Biponts, with the other gentlemen in the house, armed themselves and mounted on horseback to find the horsemen, but they, perceiving they had been seen by the guards, left the park and fled towards Metz.
M. de Fleury has concluded the league between the King and the cantons of Berne, whereon there were made “fires of joy” and other triumphs in Berne. The Duke of Guise is to-day come to this town.
They “speak it very constantly” that the King has accorded to Monsieur to be his lieutenant-general, so as the marriage with his niece, the Princess of Lorraine, may take effect, but by the experience heretofore had of the King's hard disposition to grant his brother so high an authority in any sort within this realm, it is not easily to be believed.
It is said that the Queen is bringing Monsieur nearer to Paris, and that the forces he has with him will be shortly dispersed. The Duke de Nevers is here, the King having spoken with him in passing on his journey. The preparations for the wars of Languedoc are not hastened, so that it is hoped matters will for this year be passed over.
They write from Rome that certain of the Englishmen in the Inquisition have secretly abjured from their religion, whereof part are condemned and sent to the galleys at Civita Vecchia and the others released. It seems that the men gathered about the State of Rome are to be employed to chasten the subjects of the Pope's son in the duchy of Sora, who have shown themselves stubborn and disobedient against him; the which action the viceroy of Naples likes well, hoping that King Philip's vassals in the kingdom of Naples will be terrified by this example, and more humble in their subjection to the Catholic King.
The Pope supposes that the banished men about Rome are maintained by the Roman barons and gentlemen, “of whom he pretended to have taken away certain seignoris feodataris to the Church of Rome.” His nuncio in Cologne has begun to give order amongst the priests and the monastery men and women, which has given offence.
There are two reports here of the affairs of the Terceiras. Don Antonio “pretendeth” to have news that all the Spanish “army” is lost, saving only 12 ships, and those of the Spanish faction give out that the Marquis of Santa Cruz has entered the Terceiras with his forces and done some slaughter there. I enclose the occurrents from sundry parts.—Paris, 10 August, 1583.
Add. Endd.pp. [France X. 27.]


  • 1. Perhaps a confusion of the titles of the same person; but possibly Count Hermann Adolf, the displaced canon of Cologne (called variously Count of Salm, Solms or Wied) was present.