Elizabeth: November 1559, 11-15

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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'Elizabeth: November 1559, 11-15', Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865), pp. 101-116. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp101-116 [accessed 25 June 2024].

. "Elizabeth: November 1559, 11-15", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865) 101-116. British History Online, accessed June 25, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp101-116.

. "Elizabeth: November 1559, 11-15", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865). 101-116. British History Online. Web. 25 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp101-116.

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November 1559, 11-15

Nov. 11.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 563. No. CXXV. Keith, 1. 387.
237. Randolph to Sadler and Croftes.
1. Within the last five days he [Randolph] has found the worst success in the matter he so hoped for. Since the taking of the money and the coming of the French to the gates of Edinburgh, has found the most part of the nobles and others such as he knows not whom worthy to commend. The number has decayed so much that the rest were obliged to leave the town on Monday last. In a hot skirmish thirty or forty of both sides were slain and taken, and one captain of ours slain; whereat the multitude was so discouraged and showed such open tokens thereof, that counsel was taken to leave the town with speed and to retire to Stirling to devise further, where they now are. On the said Monday at four they concluded to depart that night to Stirling, "where presently we are." The Earl of Arran, Lord James, and Lord Maxwell were the only ones who opposed this purpose, and they offered to keep the town with 1,000 men if they might be assured of the castle, whereof they now stood in doubt, because the Earl of Morton and Lord Erskine had consulted to end the matter by composition, wherefore the Congregation thought it better to depart than trust to their gentleness. One Blaketer is thought to have wrought mischief and betrayed Ormeston, and persuaded Lord Erskine against the Congregation. Some suspect Lord Ruthven, one of this Congregation, a great friend to Huntly and Morton. The Lords of the Congregation have remained at Stirling two days, and determine to die rather than leave their enterprise. They fear that the Queen will have an evil opinion of their doings, but trust she will accept such offers of service as shall be shortly presented to her by Lord Lydington. Randolph trusts he will be with them [Sadler and Croft] in eight days. Cannot see how again he can write before his departure.
2. Received on Monday both their letters and instructions, to which he made a certain few partakers; all have promised greater silence in their doings, but he will bring certain knowledge thereof. He will also bring a copy of a cartel of defiance which the Earl of Arran had from the Earl Bothwell on Thursday. The same day the Lords sent to take the Bishop of Dumblane, an open adversary to their proceedings, whom they will make to pay well, for that he is rich. This day they leave Stirling towards St. Andrews, where they shall take ship, and hope to reach Berwick or Holy Island very shortly. The Dowager reaches Edinburgh to-morrow. The Earl of Morton is returned to his house, and has not spoken with the Queen. The Lord Erskine is determined to keep the castle from her. Lord Robert, commendator of Holyrood House, has been with the Dowager, and shamefully submitted himself. No one else has been with her.—Stirling, 11 Nov. 1559.
Copy in Railton's hol. In cipher deciphered. Endd. Pp. 3.
Nov. 11.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 51.
238. Another copy of the preceding.
Copy, by Cotton's transcriber. In cipher, deciphered. Pp. 2.
Nov. 11.
MS. Burton-Constable.
239. Another copy of the preceding.
Nov. 12.
R. O.
240. Challoner to Cecil.
1. After the closing up of his other letter sent herewith to him, Sir Richard Leigh arrived, and delivered Cecil's letter of the 2nd inst., for which he returns infinite thanks,—as it has fully and pleasantly instructed his foolish mind, which was troubled and suspended with imaginations. His slackness in writing has proceeded of a misdoubt conceived whether his letters were taken in good part, a fault which he will amend from week to week.
2. Here they have weekly intelligence from their Ambassador in England, and it is thought that England can minister no more matter of news than this country. It is to the advancement of the Ambassador's reputation to hear often from home, and not to seem ignorant of subjects that the Court talks about and of which it asks him questions.
3. Proceeds now to answer the points of Cecil's letters. Sir R. Leigh in part has already satisfied his desire; by good chance they met here at Antwerp. The matter of the horses has been negligently handled. Lord Robert's letter of the 15th ulto. came not to Granado's hands till the 9th inst.: he is gone to Brussels to prove his adventure. Complains that a passport has not been granted for the Queen; they consider the horses are not for her. The Regent expected the Queen would have written to her directly; he regrets that he was commanded to speak in the matter at all, for they suspect his motion was at the instance of Granado.
4. The world here counts the labour of the Duke of Finland lost, and hopes well of Don Carloss the Emperor's son, thinking that marriage most honourable for the Queen and most expedient to all respects; for as for that of Scotland they think it is too much intricate, with a long tail of troubles. Of any meet man at home they do not reckon. If any matter should fall out as these men hope and speak, begs him to have him in remembrance, as he is as ready to stir as to lie still.
5. P. S.—Cannot well send by this bearer the packet of books, whereof he wrote in his last letter, for fear of marring them, but will in three or four days send them by a trusty convoy.—Antwerp, 12 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
Nov. 12.
R. O.
241. Another copy of the same.
Endd. by Challoner: Sent by the ordinary. Pp. 3.
Nov. 12.
B. M. Cal. B. x. 53 b.
242. The Queen Dowager to Croftes.
Being about to despatch M. du Rubay (Councillor and Master of the ordinary Requests to the Most Christian King) unto the Queen, requests that Croftes will cause him and his company to be supplied with the requisite number of post horses.—Edinbro', 12 Nov. 1559. Signed: La bien votre, Marie.
Orig. Endd. P. 1.
Nov. 12.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 566. No. CXXVI.
243. Cecil to Sadler and Croftes.
1. The Queen, being thereto advised by her Privy Council, wills him to write as follows.
2. It appears manifest to the Queen and her Privy Council that the French intend to break peace with England, (fn. 1) as soon as they may recover their purpose in Scotland. This is not to be trifled withal. Whensoever they shall make an end with Scotland they will begin with England; therefore it seems a good and just counsel for the English for their own safeguard to protract the matter of Scotland against the French. With this only meaning does the Queen consent to further the nobility of Scotland from ruin.
3. For this purpose Cecil writes as follows: It is thought meet the Scots be aided with money and counsel, therefore a portion shall be soon sent to Sadler and Croftes. Despatch is thought most necessary, whereof the Scots have often been advised, and have always excused themselves for lack of money, which both is and must be remedied. Of this they may put the Scots in comfort. Mr. Drury reports they have great lack of captains, of munition and powder, which it is thought cannot be remedied without notorious cause of breach, which is meant to be forborne as long as possible. Still if necessary they may, with all secresy, choose three or four trusty men of the garrison of Berwick, fit for captains, with changed names, to be recommended to some of the nobility, who shall say they departed of their own courage, to exercise themselves in the wars, instead of lying idly in that town. They may carry with them powder and small shot: as Haddington was once relieved by powder sent on horseback from Berwick. They have authority to stay these commands as they think best.
4. For ordnance and munition, the Council has devised two ways; either to have it by some merchant ship passing from Berwick to some appointed creek, as Aberlady, or to make a pretence to send some superfluous ordnance to Newcastle or London, to be changed or molten, which, being shipped, may be directed to go to some place in Scotland, accorded upon with the Protestants.
5. It is thought very meet that the Scotch nobility should direct their suit to the Queen upon these articles following, the enlarging whereof is left to their consideration.
6. First, to declare in the name of the whole realm, the cruelty of the French soldiers, for long time; and here to enlarge on the oppressions made upon them by the French.
7. Secondly, to declare their frequent complaints to the Dowager, and her still further outrages, and her abusing of her power, by fraud and force, to make a conquest of that nation to the crown of France.
8. Thirdly, to show how, to save the whole country from conquest, and preserving the families of the noblemen being by law next inheritors of the Crown, (the French Queen having no issue,) and indeed the rest of the nobility, they were forced to assemble themselves as humble subjects, to make suit that the oppression of the French might be removed; wherein they were abused by promises given and broken, by which the crown might have been conquered and united to France. And for eschewing total ruin they have adventured their lives and property to defend the crown of Scotland; and, remaining fully devoted to their Queen, married to the French King, they are fully determined to expel all such as have laboured with the old Queen to conquer the realm.
9. And further they let the Queen of England know that the French intend to attempt this practice not only against Scotland, but against Ireland and England also. Here they may set forth as things known to them that the French have spread abroad that their Queen is rightful heir of England and Ireland, and have notified the same to the world, by causing the arms of England to be borne quarterly with those of France at jousts and public places, and engraven on seals and wax; naming the French King, husband to the Scotch Queen, King of France, Scotland, England, and Ireland. They have sent secretly into Scotland a seal with the same style, and, in a manner of despite to the English crown, they have sent the Dowager a staff to lean upon, having graven on the top the said usurped arms.
10. Also may be added such other matters as are known to the Scots, which have been devised by the French to the prejudice of England, and may say that it is manifest that the scope of the French is against the crown of England, of which danger they may say they could not but warn the Queen.
11. And lastly, considering that as, by the new authority of the house of Guise, their Queen is led to be content that Scotland should be perpetually knit to her husband's crown of France, and so the blood royal of Scotland be extinct, the realm conquered, her laws and privileges altered, and the people as it were, brought into captivity that the French might then attack England, they beg the Queen of England, being the next Prince to them, that she herself be not abused by the persuasions of the French haunting her Court, but know that this assembly is merely to defend the country from conquest. And in all this the Scots declare that they in no wise withdraw their hearts from their Sovereign Lady, but only wish the country to be freed from all French governors, thinking she should be persuaded not to delight in the usurpation of the just style and title, which must needs breed mortal wars. They therefore beseech the Queen to procure that all the Princes of Christendom shall understand the truth thereof.
12. Last of all, they beseech her, not only for their preservation, but also for that of herself and kingdom, that she will to receive them under her protection from the furious persecution and intended conquest of the French, allowing them always their right allegiance to their Queen.
Nov. 12.
Cecil to Sadler and Croftes.
13. Thus (fn. 2) they [Sadler and Croft] will see what is meant. But the Scots may alter it if necessary, so that it may seem the best way for them to be honourably defended.
14. Has not yet told the Queen of the loss of the money by Ormeston, but will to-morrow.—Westminster, 12 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Nov. 12.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 574. No. CXXVII.
244. Cecil to Sadler and Croftes. (fn. 3)
1. The postscript of their letter of the 8th inst. has much amazed him. The Queen is in consultation whether aid shall be given openly or secretly to Scotland, and if openly, whether she will enter into the war which he fears will be the end. Would have them [Sadler and Croft] encourage the Protestants not thus to shrink, neither yielding to fear nor persuasions, and they shall shortly hear of more aid than hitherto has been mentioned. The Council will be forced (though it be to all our discontentation) to advise the Queen to begin in time, rather than too late. "Two days consultation here will utter what is to be done. In the mean season, for God's sake, comfort them to stand fast and follow such part of another letter, which I send herewith, which was written yesternight and now despatched. I pray you advertise what manner of aid would save the purpose." What succours pass to the French out of France? Thinks Mr. Randall shall be sent down shortly.—Westminster, 12 Nov. 1559. Signed.
2. P. S.—The other great letter here included may be considered as they see cause.
[Nov. 12.]
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 658. No. CLXXXIX.
245. Berwick Accounts.
Schedule of money owing by the captains of Berwick for victuals delivered from the 11 Dec. 1558 until the 12 Nov. 1559.
For victuals delivered to the soldiers from 11 Dec. 1558 to 23 July 1559, 3,791l. 8s. 4d.
Do. do. to the labourers, from 4 March 1558 to 20 Aug. 1559, 1,952l. 14s. 6d.
Do. do. to labourers and soldiers from 23 July till 12 Nov. 1559, 2,386l. 7s. 6d.
Nov. 13.
R. O.
246. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to the Queen.
Reminds her of a former letter requesting that no aid should be afforded to the subjects of Scotland disobedient and rebellious to the writer, to which the Queen had sent a reasonable answer, which the writer accepted in good part. Nevertheless the said rebels "avaunt them" that they have already received in one part, as they doubt not to obtain hereafter her greater support. Wherefore she has thought necessary to despatch the bearer, M. du Rubay, Councillor and Master of the Requests ordinary to the Most Christian King, and Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, for whom she asks credit. Ross, her herald, who accompanies him, will convey the Queen's answer hereto.—Edinburgh, 13 Nov. 1559. Signed: Marie R.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Broadside.
Nov. 13.
R. O.
247. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to the Queen.
Requests a safe conduct for Thomas Stewart of Gastoune, and three servants through England, on his journey to and from France.—Edinburgh, 13 Nov. 1559. Signed: Marie R.
Orig. Add. Endd. Broadside.
Nov. 13.
R. O.
248. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to the Queen.
On 3rd inst. John Henderson, Master of the Mary of Leith, belonging to Thomas Lindsay of that town, coming from Dieppe, was compelled by tempest of weather to run his ship on land near Ross, a town in Bamboroughshire, belonging to Sir Ralph Grey, where she remained with all her lading tight and unbroken, her master hoping safely to have departed next full tide. The water bailiff of the said town has seized both vessel and cargo, whereof part belongs to Lord d'Oysel, whereupon she prays that restitution may be made of the same.—Edinburgh, 13 Nov. 1559. Signed: Marie R.
Orig. Add. Endd. Broadside.
Nov. 13.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 575. No. CXXVIII.
249. Northumberland to Sadler.
Has appointed his deputies, Thomas Claveringe, John Hall, and Marmaduke Slingsbie, to be with him on Wednesday next, to let him understand the state of their charges, and to give him the rolls and writings. He prays that the counterpart of all these writings may be delivered to Thomas Claveringe at his leisure, within eight days to be sent up to London. His brother Slingsbie has refused the office of Tynedale, as he [the Earl] is not able to give him sufficient entertainment. Yet he would have Marmaduke Slingsbie remain in this wild country until Thursday, when he doubts not he [Sadler] will appoint some other fitting officer. Will leave for London this day. —Warkworth, 13 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Nov. 13.
R. O. Keith, 1. 390.
250. Proclamation of Francis II. and Mary.
Francis and Mary, King and Queen of France, Scotland, England and Ireland, (fn. 4) to the Queen Dowager of Scotland.
1. Having been informed of the recent disturbances in Scotland, occasioned by certain turbulent spirits there, who, under the pretence of religion, endeavoured to seduce the people to their own party, meaning thereby to cast off the authority of the Sovereigns,—they had despatched thither James de la Brosse and Nicolas Pellevé, Bishop of Amiens, to settle these affairs amicably in the national assemblies. This was the plan which first suggested itself to the writers as the best means of restoring peace; but events turned out differently from what they had expected. For the insurgents, advancing from one degree of rebellion to another, overthrew churches, plundered the monasteries for both sexes, cruelly treated the clergy, seized the Mint, took possession of the royal residences, and took up arms. Their leaders took violent possession of Edinburgh [Isleburga], drove out the Queen Dowager, and the French and Scotch who adhered to her, and at the present time daily attack the French troops garrisoned therein, waging war with them as against a public enemy, so that it has become necessary to resist these attempts and to repel force by force.
2. Before resorting to such extremities, which are contrary as well to the disposition as the wishes of the writers, they desire to apply, if possible, milder remedies, and at least to separate those who will be faithful from those who continue to act as rebels. They therefore request the Queen Dowager to cause a public proclamation to be made, and the like to be affixed upon the city gates, the doors of the churches, &c., to the effect that such of the people as have thus misconducted themselves should lay down their arms and return quietly home, conducting themselves henceforth as obedient subjects, within [blank]; (fn. 5) after which period, if they continue in their rebellion, they should be treated accordingly, their estates and property forfeited, and their heirs degraded. All who have promised to adhere to them are freed from their oath, and they themselves are to be apprehended, imprisoned, and punished. If they resist they are to be dealt with as public enemies. Such ecclesiastics as have joined them are to be treated like laymen if they continue obstinate. If they have let church lands to their adherents, the latter are no longer bound to bring their rents, and their goods may be seized for the public use.—Blois, Ides Nov. (fn. 6) 1559.
Copy. Lat. Pp. 5.
[Nov. 13.]
R. O.
251. Copy of the original draft of the above, with several corrections in the margin and between the lines.
Pp. 3. Lat.
[Nov. 13.]
R. O.
252. Another copy of the above.
Williamson's transcript. Lat.
[Nov. 13.]
R. O.
253. Another copy of the same.
Pp. 5. Lat.
[Nov. 13.]
B. M. Calig. B. x. 56.
254. Another copy of the above.
Pp. 2. Lat.
[Nov. 13.]
B. M. Julius, F. vi. 157 b.
255. Another copy of the above.
Imperfect. Lat.
Nov. 14.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 257.
256. Killigrew and Jones to the Queen.
1. The French preparation for Scotland to prosecute the matter earnestly continues still. On the 8th inst. Protestant the courier arrived here, who reports that the French in Leith have sent word hither that they are in extremity, specially for want of victuals. For their relief the Marquis d'Albœuf and Martigues are appointed to take shipping at Calais on 30 inst. with eight ensigns of footmen; eight ships are prepared for their conduct, and two more for victuals. It is thought they mind to fortify Dunbar and Inchkeith. (fn. 7)
2. The Duchess of Savoy, who was said to have taken her leave at Vallery to depart to Savoy, is yet at Blois to procure as well assurance of the marriage money due to her husband, as of the lands given unto them, not hitherto performed. M. de Candalle's brother has been earnest with the writers to know when the Queen will receive the new hos- tages, as they stay for no other occasion. Killigrew willed him to persuade the Cardinal that the hostages might be in readiness against the Ambassador's return, who he was assured would bring her resolution. Carrouge since his return has not only reported that the Queen has sworn not to aid the Earl of Arran and the Scots, but that if the French Queen would cease to bear the arms of England, she [Elizabeth] would forbear to give the arms of France. The Cardinal of Lorraine has declared to the Queen Mother that Elizabeth repents her altering in religion, and has caused a new silver crucifix to be made, and hears Mass secretly in her chamber.
3. The merchants who lent money to the late King for the interest of 6 per cent. are defalked of half of the interest, nor fully assured of the payment of the rest; at which there is great discontent. One Craig, a Scotch merchant, brought hitherto to the French Queen letters of safe conduct for his trafficking with France, from the Queen Dowager and M. D'Oysel, with letters for obtaining the like here. Whereupon the Queen said, that as all the merchants were her good subjects, and no war between France and Scotland, they might traffic freely and needed no passport.
4. Divers Scotch merchants, who have gone to Bordeaux for wine, are warned not to land where the same may come to the hands of the Congregation in Scotland.
5. On the 11th inst. one Parry, an Irish gentleman, came to speak with them, and declared that he was come to this Court to sue for his pension due to him, which at length he has obtained, and that the Queen and Duke of Guise moved him to go with the Marquis d'Albœuf into Scotland, whereunto he was not willing. He required them to signify to her that if she will grant him his pardon, he will serve her.
6. At the King's entry into Blois the arms of England and Scotland were set up as they were at Rheims. Baron de la Gard is returned from Brest, where he has given order for the preparation of certain ships; and the Grand Prior is at Marseilles for putting in order the galleys for next summer. Portonary came from Paris to this Court in their company, and declared his desire to go into Italy, with request to have so much of his pension as is due to him. His intention is to send his wife into England to see her friends there. Much difficulty was made, and the Queen said that the King had now need of his service, and the rather that he had the Scottish language; whereupon the Cardinal and Duke moved him to go into Scotland and offered to double his pension. He excused himself by his age, and said the late King granted him leave, so the Queen has promised to satisfy him in his suit.
7. Since their arrival in this town seventeen persons were taken for the Word's sake and committed to be conveyed to Orleans and other places to be prosecuted. But on their way between this town and Orleans they were rescued by sixty horsemen. The Duchess of Ferrara, this King's aunt, shall come into France and reside in Brittany, out of which house she is descended. It is reported that the Archduke of Austria shall marry the Queen; and that the matter is already concluded, which does not but please the French; the Ambassador of Venice has received advertisements thereof out of Italy.
8. The French Queen on the 11th inst. felt herself very ill, and looked very pale, and on the 12th kept her chamber all the day long.
9. There are in readiness eighty sail to convey victuals into Scotland. M. de Montmorency and his wife are come to this Court to take their leave of the Queen of Spain. Mr. Florence is minded by the said Montmorency to stay his suit for three or four days till the coming of the Cardinal of Châtilon. Montpesat, sent to the Emperor about 30 Sept., is not yet returned. The Queen Mother has made some declaration of unkindness towards Queen Elizabeth, because of late the Ambassador of France there could not have more than half-a-dozen horses.
10. The French mind, if they once get footing enough in Scotland, to fortify six places from Leithward towards Berwick, whereof Leith, Dunbar, Inskif, Dundy, Ayemouthe, and a place called by the French "Isle des Chevaux," are named. They mind also to make ten "galleasses" to serve them on the narrow seas, each to carry 600 men, which will serve also for landing of a good number of men at once with small difficulty. Lord Seaton shall have the company of the men of arms which the Earl of Arran had; and shall be made Knight of the Order and Duke of Châtellerault.—14 Nov. 1559.
Copy, portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd: Minute from Killigrew and Jones to the Queen. Pp. 8.
Nov. 14.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 22.
257. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Nov. 14.
B. M. Add. 5754. 56. Sadler, 1. 578. No. CXXX.
258. The Queen to Sadler.
He shall consider as well the contents of the letter of the Council sent herewith, as also such other credit as is sent by the bearer, and further what shall be thought meet for the safety of that part of her realm. Sends 3,000l., which he shall bestow as he shall see occasion, wherein she will allow his doings.—Westminster, 14 Nov. 1559.
Copy of the Queen's letters remaining with Sadler, certified by the signatures of Winchester and Wa. Mildmay. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Nov. 14.
B. M. Add. 5754. 58.
259. Another copy of the above.
P. 1.
Nov. 14.
MS. Burton-Constable.
260. Another copy of the above. Signed by the Queen.
Add. by Cecil.
Nov. 14.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 579. No. CXXXI.
261. The Privy Council to the Earl of Northumberland.
Have received his letters of the 9th, touching the two Scotch ships lately driven on land there, and therefore the Lord Admiral has sent down a servant with instructions, who is advised to use the advice of Sadler and Croftes, for that it is near Berwick.—Westminster, 14 Nov. 1559. Signed: Winchester, F. Clynton, Ab. Cave, W. Northt., W. Howard, W. Cecill, Ry. Sakervyle, Penbroke, Tho. Parry. E. Rogers.
Nov. 14.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 576. No. CXXIX. Keith, 1. 389.
262. The Privy Council to Sadler and Croftes.
1. Are daily occupied in consulting of the French proceedings to the apparent conquest of Scotland. Though they have not come to a perfect resolution, yet, hearing of the retire of the Protestants to Lythtro, their present determination is to send the bearer, Mr. Randall, with a sum of money to be used as occasion shall require. They think, further, he should be secretly sent into Scotland to comfort the Protestants, and to encourage them not to shrink in anywise, but to give them counsel, and animate them with an assurance that if they shall want any honourable aid, it shall be given them. He may also inform them that the Queen is preparing a navy to the seas, and more power of men to be levied in the North, and sent to Berwick and the frontiers, and that the Queen will address the Duke of Norfolk to be lieutenant-general of the North parts. Their meaning is further that Mr. Randall shall endeavour himself to discover the strength and lacks of the Scots, and also of the French; that, knowing this, the Queen may consider what is necessary to be done. Yet they leave these proceedings to the wisdom of Sadler and Croftes for changes or alterations.
2. They think it convenient that Abingdon be ordered to make a great mass of victual as speedily as possible, and to omit no man therein. Also that they suffer no captain to leave his charge, but rather devise all preparations for maintaining a further power on the frontier, if such should be sent.—Westminster, 14 Nov. 1559. Signed: Winchester, Pembroke, Tho. Parry, Ab. Cave, N. Wotton, Ri. Sackvil, W. Northampt., F. Clynton, E. Rogers, F. Knollys, Wm. Petrie, Arundel, W. Howard, W. Cecil, John Mason.
Orig., with seal of Cecil's arms. Add.
Nov. 14.
R. O.
263. Another copy of the above, omitting the last sentence.
The names are in Cecil's hand, and endd. by him. Pp. 3.
Nov. 14.
B. M. Cal. B. x. 54.
264. Another copy of the above.
Transcript by Cotton's copyist. Pp. 2.
Nov. 14.
R. O.
265. Frederick Spedt to Cecil.
Both English and Germans have told him of Cecil's wisdom in administering the affairs of England, and of his liberality towards foreigners. The writer has always been well disposed towards England. A few days ago, William Harley, a young Englishman, came and asked him to take service under the Queen. Has always been willing to do so at small expense, and has arranged that four colonels of horse with 4,000 horsemen, and four colonels of infantry with sixty ensigns of foot, shall be ready to serve. Asks Cecil whether he would not prefer these men to those who affect the service of the Spaniards or the French, and thinks himself that it would be best to accept their offers, as they would be more obedient and content with less. Thinks that it would be better for the Queen to marry a foreigner. Professes his readiness to give what information he can of the state of affairs in Germany.—Lubeck, 14 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
Nov. 15.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 262.
266. Killigrew and Jones to the Queen.
1. They have stayed their letters of the 14th till next morning to make them as full as they could. Martigues asked a gentleman, appointed to go with him into Scotland, how their doings were liked there. He was answered, Well, and that of this beginning there would other things follow.
2. It is very secretly reported that the French King has become a leper; and for fear of his coming to Chatellerault the people have removed their children, and of late there are certain of them wanting about Tours, which cannot be heard of, and commandment shall be given that there shall be no seeking for the same. The French King the last day, being on hunting, was in such fear that he was forced to leave his pastime and return to the Court. Whereupon commandment was given to the Scotch guard to wear jack and mail and pistolets, and he will not go again hunting unless better accompanied.
3. The Marquis d'Elbœuf said they should carry victuals with them, and that their ships should do nothing but pass to and fro with victuals for the furniture of the great army to be sent there in the spring. Those gentlemen appointed to go have every one 100 francs given for their journey. One of the Earl of Arran's company of men at arms is lately slain, and there are prinses des corpz for twelve more who fled out of their garrisons.—15 Nov. 1559.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd.: Minute from Killigrew and Jones to the Queen's Majesty.—15 Nov. 1559. Pp. 2.
Nov. 15.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 34.
267. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Nov. 15.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 580. No. CXXXII.
268. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to the Earl of Northumberland.
On the 3rd a Scotchman named John Henderson, master of a ship of Leith, called the Marie, belonging to Thomas Lindsay, in returning from Dieppe was constrained to run her on land, near Ross, in Bamburghshire, belonging to Sir Ralph Gray, believing, as the ship had her lading tight and unbroken, they might safely depart next day for Scotland. In the mean time came the water bailiff and took the skipper by the hand as prisoner, assuring him that he would keep the ship and goods, as officer of Sir Ralph's, from being troubled by other Englishmen. The bailiff, however, has not only meddled with the said lading and the ship, which belonged partly to D'Oysell, and the rest to the merchants of Edinburgh and Glasgow, but also withholds the same, contrary to treaty of peace. She prays the Earl to write to Sir Ralph Gray, that the ship be restored.—Edinburgh, 15 Nov. 1559.— Signed.
Nov. 15.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 582. No. CXXXIV.
269. D'Oysell to the Earl of Northumberland.
The Earl has already heard of a Scotch ship, which, in her returning from France, was driven on land in Bamburghshire, near Ross, whole and unbroken. The water bailiff under Sir Ralph Gray came and unjustly meddled with the ship and the goods therein; whereof a part pertains to the writer, as appears by a letter of the Dowager in favour of the owners. Prays him to write to Sir Ralph Gray and the others bearing rule, to make restitution of the ship and goods to the bearers hereof.—Edinburgh, 15 Nov. 1559. Signed: Cleutin.
Nov. 15.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 583. No. CXXXV.
270. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to Croftes.
A ship having lately been driven on land, near Ross, and the bailiff having meddled with the said ship and goods, the bearers hereof repair thither to have restitution of the same. She prays him to suffer them to have free passage through Berwick, for that purpose.—Edinburgh, 15 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Nov. 15.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 581. No. CXXXIII.
271. The Privy Council to Sadler and Croftes.
1. Considering the stirs in Scotland, it is thought necessary to see well to that piece [Berwick], lest things happen contrary to what might be desired. Think that 4,000 more men of war than they presently have were necessary, but, being uncertain about the victualling of the said town, they have determined presently to send but 2,000, who shall arrive with what speed they may; they therefore pray them [Sadler and Croftes] to see that nothing be omitted, especially in provision of victual. What further lacks be there for the defence of the town, or frontiers? Also in what state does the Treasurer there stand, and what money has he received towards the debt of July; and what is the debt since?
2. P. S.—It is ordered that the Lord Treasurer, with Mr. Cave and Mr. Sackfeld, have the care of providing the victuals for Berwick and the navy; and therefore Abingdon is to receive and follow their instructions.—Westminster, 15 Nov. 1559. Signed: Winchester, F. Clynton, Tho. Parry, W. Northt., W. Howard, Ab. Cave, Pembroke, E. Rogers, F. Knollys, W. Cecil, Ri. Sackville.
P. S. in Cecil's hand.
Nov. 15.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 585. No. CXXXVII.
272. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
1. Since the departure of the Protestants from Edinburgh, the writers have not heard word directly from them nor yet know where they are. Some say that they remain still at Stirling, others that they have all separated and gone home.
2. Yesternight M. Rubaye arrived, Master of the Requests ordinary with the French King, being directed to the Queen from the Dowager of Scotland, as by her letters here inclosed to Croftes shall appear. With him arrived Rosse the Scotch herald, who reports that young Lydington and Henry Balnaves have come into England. David Forrest came hither three days past, who left England on account of religion early in Queen Mary's reign, and is now returned because of the troubles in Scotland. He told them that Lydington is coming to England from the Protestants.
3. The said Rubaye left to-day towards London, making no great journeys. The Dowager uses no extremity, nor pursues any one who has showed himself against her at this time. She has made proclamation of pardon to all the burgesses and inhabitants of Edinburgh, wishing them to return to their business without danger. It is thought she would receive the Duke and the Lords to her grace if they would put away Balnaves, young Lydington, and Ormeston. —Berwick, 15 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. in Raylton's hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Nov. 15.
MS. Burton-Constable.
273. Another copy of the above.
Nov. 15.
R. O. Sadler, 1.584.No. CXXXVI.
274. Sadler to Cecil.
The Earl of Northumberland departed last Monday towards London, and before his departure proclaimed the writer in Alnwick his deputy Warden of these Marches, so that the Earl takes himself to be still Warden, and if he so remain and receive the profits of his office and he [Sadler] have the charge and travail of the same, then it shall be easy and profitable to the Earl. Nevertheless, as the Queen has committed this charge to him, he will do his uttermost to satisfy her, and trusts to her that he will not be impoverished by the same, as he will of force have to entertain some gentlemen here whose help he must needs have for the better execution of this office. He must also have at least twenty horsemen to attend on him when he travels in the country, as he intends to visit all places along the frontiers within the limits of his charge for the better information of the Court at his return. Begs to know who will succeed him in this charge, and when he shall be discharged, as he trusts in his friendship to have him soon despatched out of this unpleasant country. If he should say his opinion, he thinks neither the Earl nor his brother are so meet to have the rule of any of these Marches as he could wish.—Berwick, 15 Nov. 1559.
Orig., in Sadler's hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Nov. 15.
MS. Burton-Constable.
275. Another copy of the above.
Nov. 15.
R. O.
276. Croftes to Cecil.
1. Has already written to inquire what shall be done concerning the benevolence which was granted to the old garrisons, as the pay for the half year, which ended last August, shall be made shortly; for without it, or some increase of wages, the places will not be supplied. Wishes letters were directed to Mr. Sadler to have consideration what way were best to be taken herein, either by increase of wages or the continuance of the benevolence for a time.
2. There was lately a shipwreck in Northumberland, whereby certain munitions, as corslets, targets, and dags, appertaining to M. D'Oysel and the bands serving under him, have come on land. Since munitions for war may not pass out of the realm without licence, the same are stayed; therefore asks to be allowed to buy the same for this town. A part thereof is in the hands of Mr. Somerset, who is desirous to buy it towards the furniture of his band; would be glad if he should have it, which if he could procure, it would much beautify his band.
3. P. S.—The parcels which Mr. Somerset has are herein enclosed.—Berwick, 15 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Nov. 15.
R. O. Tytler, vi. 460.
277. The Lord James to Cecil.
Although he has in a general letter with his brethren presently written to him, yet he has thought it necessary to gratify in one part his good mind, at all times shown not only towards the common cause, but in particular towards himself. Desires Cecil to continue in the same towards the weal of the common cause and of himself. Recommends his friend the young Laird of Lethington, the bearer hereof, and his proceedings towards the premises.—St. Andrews, 15 Nov. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.


  • 1. Report by Noailles to Francis II.
    MS. Paris, Teulet, i. 371.
    1. Having been informed that the Queen was making preparations for war, and had sent her Admiral to Gillingham to inspect the navy, and having himself had some conversation with her on Sunday last, he makes the following report.
    2. On the following day he was credibly informed that she had directed the Admiral to hasten the ships for the defence of the coasts, being apprehensive of the French. She has ordered Lord Cobham to levy troops for the defence of Kent; and the Earl of Rutland to inspect the ports from Hull to Berwick. The defences of the Isle of Wight, Portsmouth, Hampton, and other places are pushed on. The various receivers are ordered to forward their receipts to the Treasurer, a large sum being about to be sent to Berwick. The Queen is going to levy 2,000 foot soldiers for the defence of the Scottish borders, as she says; but really for the assistance of the Scottish rebels. This has been managed by Sadler, (an able intriguer and a man of much experience,) who had the chief direction of the design for the union of the two realms under the Duke of Somerset. He is to be made governor of these parts, and the Earl of Northumberland is to be revoked. [Grey has had this government, and Sadler had been made his lieutenant.] These 2,000 men are to be under his orders; and should the enterprise to aid the rebels prove a failure, he has the Queen's permission to disavow it.
    3. She has also ordered Capt. Bourdic [Borthwick], a Scotchman, to raise 1,000 light horse on the borders, ready to aid the rebels. This man came to the writer on the 6th inst. and said that he would set out on the morrow; he could do the [French] King good service, as he had already promised Noailles. He asked that his effects in France and Scotland should be restored to him, which was promised. The writer asked him what were his plans? He answered that he hoped, by means of his numerous friends, to induce the Congregation to accept a truce, or he would establish himself in some castle, where, under the authority of the King and Queen, and by the help of his relatives, he could bring the country to submission. In answer to a question asked by the writer, he said that he had once thought of seizing Borthwick Castle, near Edinburgh, (which would contain 500 or 600 men,) for this purpose, but had since given the preference to that of Hermitage, upon the borders, which belongs to the Earl of Bothwell, as being stronger and better fitted for his enterprise, since he could raise in its neighbourhood 1,000 or 1,500 banished men and thieves, and many gentlemen and troops. He intends to visit the Earl of Lennox in passing, to solicit him to help the Regent, which he thinks the Earl will probably do, he being a man of considerable position and influence, and the decided enemy to the Duke of Châtellerault and his house. The Earl's son is the nearest heir to the throne of England and Scotland, both on the father's side and on the mother's. Borthwick dislikes the Earl of Arran, with whose family his own has been at enmity. On his departure he assured the writer, with a great oath, that he would serve only God and the King [of France].
    4. The writer scarce knows what to think of Borthwick and his enterprise. He is certainly displeased that Elizabeth has not paid him more than 500 crowns out of the 6,000 or 7,000 which are due to him; and he is anxious to obtain his property and to return to the service of his natural lord. On the other hand his real and his pretended plans harmonize suspiciously together; he has resided in this Court for four or five months, and he continues an obstinate Protestant.
    5. The Queen is making four new galleys at Portsmouth, and she has sent a German engineer to inspect the fortresses in the north and reconnoitre Leith. Throckmorton has arrived here on the 7th inst. most unexpectedly, which is regarded as a prognostic of war. His wife did not know of his intended return, having that morning sent to the writer a letter addressed to her husband in France, with a request that it might be forwarded to him. In short, people here believe that they are on the eve of a war. The Queen's preparations confirm this idea. She has arranged with the Duke of Finland for the sale of a large quantity of lead which she is to send into Sweden, probably from the churches and monasteries of her realm.
  • 2. What follows is in Cecil's hand.
  • 3. Jewel to Peter Martyr.
    Dec. 1.
    Epistt. Tigur. I. XXV.
    1. Received yesterday from Scotland a letter from Pamphilus [Randolph], the presiding angel and companion of our friend Crito [Arran], on the whole state of affairs in that realm, from the very beginning of the disturbances, which he asked the writer to communicate to Martyr, to whom Pamphilus was prevented from writing by the circumstances of time and place.
    2. At the outset the Scotch published certain declarations, first, that they only regarded the public weal, and that none sought his own private advantage; next, that the Queen should cease from fortifying Leith, and that should she refuse, they would act as men who love their liberty and their country. The Queen, however, a haughty Frenchwoman, rejected these terms, exclaiming that it was an indignity to her to be dictated to by her subjects. Many of the Scots still were obedient to her authority. They came to an engagement, in which the Bishop of S. Andrews, a soldier (one worthy to be the slave of a woman), was deserted by all his own people before the battle. Only two little boys remained to him; "I suppose that he might not have to return to his mistress unattended." The preachers Knox and Goodman are with the Scots in their camp, and they style themselves the Congregation of Christ.
    3. They next required the Queen to retire from Leith, unless she wished to be driven thence by force. From this time they began to treat about an alliance with England. The Queen (a woman with a man's courage), though she was daily deserted by some of her own party, was nowise dismayed; but keeping possession of the garrison, made sallies against the enemy, planned everything, and surveyed everything with her own eyes. The Scotch are a powerful and numerous people, and but for their want of skill in sieges and the art of war, they would long ere this have effected something decisive. Slight skirmishes took place on both sides up to Nov. 6., after which the Scotch retired to winter quarters; whereupon a rumour was spread by the Queen's party that the Scotch had become dispirited and had run away. However, they and their leaders still keep their ground, hold consultations, increase their numbers, levy money, and have their troops ready for any opportunity that may occur.
    4. Has written briefly, but will be more explicit hereafter. Great news is expected. England is raising troops and thinking seriously about the war. . . . —London, 1 Dec., the day on which he first heard of the death of Queen Mary. Signed. Lat.
  • 4. The corrector of the draft underlines the words "Angliæ et Hiberniæ," and puts "&c." in the margin.
  • 5. A similar blank occurs in the draft.
  • 6. In the draft there is a blank before the word November, and it reads thus: "1559, et regnorem nostrorum, viz.: Franciæ primo et Scotiæ, (blank)."
  • 7. The writers here repeat the same information as that contained in their letter of the 10th November to Cecil, (No. 227) respecting the King's movements and Jones' interview with the Spanish Ambassador, etc. They then proceed as in the text.