Elizabeth: December 1559, 16-20

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.


'Elizabeth: December 1559, 16-20 ', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, ed. Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp195-208 [accessed 13 July 2024].

'Elizabeth: December 1559, 16-20 ', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Edited by Joseph Stevenson( London, 1865), British History Online, accessed July 13, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp195-208.

"Elizabeth: December 1559, 16-20 ". Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Ed. Joseph Stevenson(London, 1865), , British History Online. Web. 13 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp195-208.

This volume has gold page scans.
Access these scans with a gold subscription. Key icon

December 1559, 16-20

Dec. 16.
R.O. Sadler, 1. 638. No. CLXXVI.
435. The Queen to Sadler and Croftes.
1. Considering the importance of their service, she has thought meet to inform them not only what she has done, but also what she further means, so that they shall better understand both how to give her advice and how to direct their doings there. She has ordered the levying of 4,000 footmen beside the number in that town; of which she trusts 2,000 are in some readiness and on their way to those parts; the other 2,000 are now commanded to be levied with all speed. She sends them a schedule notifying the places whence they come; and for their coats and conduct money, order is given to be satisfied in the shires. As there is a great want of armour in the shires, and it is not conveniently to be had for money, she has sent to them [Sadler and Croftes] a mass of armoury and weapons to be distributed for reasonable prices.
2. These numbers shall be laid, part in Berwick and part upon those frontiers as shall seem most convenient to them. Victuals are ordered to be sent thither also with all speed. For the use of these men, they shall understand, that as upon the beginning of this great hostility in Scotland she sees it needful that her town and frontier should be replenished and well reinforced with men, so the French proceedings with so great preparations move her to devise further how they may be frustrate in the beginning. Therefore she has caused conference to be had with the Laird of Lethington to understand what the Scots can of themselves do herein, and how they might be enabled thereto; who (not having full authority to make to certain parts a full resolution,) sent one into Scotland, and so she remains now in expectation. Yet in the meantime she has appointed to send Lord Grey thither to act as Warden there, and to have charge of these extraordinary bands of footmen for such service as shall be appointed him, and means also to provide a certain number of horsemen to be levied to join these footmen. Appoints also the Duke of Norfolk as Lieutenant-General of all north of the Trent. Sends also fourteen ships of war, well armed, under the charge of Mr. Winter, together with victuals and munition, which shall depart on Saturday at the furthest. Has ordered him to follow the advice of Sadler and Croftes, and to enter into the Frith, to impeach the entry of any more succours out of France; and also, if occasion offers, to make any notorious defeat upon the French as of himself, without any demonstration of public hostility. Requests them to consider of it beforehand how he may commodiously take some notorious advantage upon the French, and to advise how he may have some advice given by them when he shall come before Holy Island, before he enters the Frith; the manner whereof (because it would not be convenient for him to come on land) should be devised there by them.
3. Has also sent a large quantity of armour, under the charge of one of her armourers, to see the same there safely delivered. As Bennet, the master of her ordnance there, shall be so occupied with the office of the ordnance and artillery that he cannot well attend to the said armoury, requires them to appoint some one of the garrison to be joined with Bennet to deliver such armour to any captains or soldiers for ready money as may be thought advisable, according to the prices in the schedule herewith sent. Prays them to consider these matters, and not only to direct their labours to the doing of the same, but also to return to her their advices and opinions, which she would not have them forbear doing for any doubt of construction thereof; for she will accept it in good part, without prejudice of any for uttering their mind.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 16 Dec. 1559. Pp. 4.
Dec. 16.
MS. Burton-Constable.
436. Another copy of the above.
Orig. Signed by the Queen, and with her signet.
[Dec. 16.]
MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 217.
The Queen to Valentine Browne.
437. Authorizes him to take the reckonings of all treasure, munitions, victuals, and other provisions sent for the furnishing of Berwick and the garrisons in those parts, and to receive sundry sums of treasure for the affairs in the north parts, to be paid over to the Treasurer of Berwick, according to the orders of the Duke of Norfolk, whose warrant shall be sufficient discharge in that behalf.—[Blank] Dec. 1559.
Cecil's draft.
[Dec. 16.]
R. O.
438. "Charges of the Army in the North."
List of the officers employed at Berwick and on the frontiers, with the number of horsemen and footmen under their command, together with a note of the number of gunners at Berwick and Wark.
In Railton's hol., dated in another hand, 1559. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 16.]
R. O.
439. Border Musters.
A note of the number of soldiers fit for active service, of those who are absent and sick, and of such as had passports, with the names of the captains under whom they served.
Endd. by Cecil [?]: 1559. Pp. 2.
Dec. 16.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 641. No. CLXXVII.
440. Cecil to Sadler and Croftes. (fn. 1)
The Queen's letters, herewith sent, will show their proceedings. The French preparations, being very great, must be impeached at the beginning; therefore, the first mean is to obtain possession of the Frith to stay further succour, and then (if the Scots will play their part) to enter by land with 4,000 footmen and 2,000 horsemen and recover Leith. Would know if this sounds feasible to them. Lord Gray is to do this exploit; and have, beside the footmen, 600 horsemen, with lances and pistolets, and 1,400 or 1,500 light horsemen, and five or six good brass pieces for battery. Wynter will be on the seas to-morrow with fourteen strong vessels, such as will make small account of all the French navy in Scotland. Is told that eight French ensigns are perished on the coast of Holland; God send it to prove true! The Duke of Norfolk is almost ready.—The Court, 16 Dec. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal.
Dec. 16.
R. O. Keith, 1. 408.
441. Instructions for Winter.
"Instructions given by the Queen to Wm. Wynter, Esq., Master of the Ordnance of her Admiralty, sent at this present to the seas with [blank] ships armed."
1. He shall sail in one of the fourteen armed ships and take in his company as well the warlike as the others appointed to conduct victuals and munition to Tynemouth, Holy Island, or Berwick, as at this time Admiral and chief conductor of the navy.
2. He shall with all speed conduct the victual and munition to Berwick, Tynemouth, and Holy Island; and that done, he shall consider whether he may enter the navy into the Frith of Scotland, taking the advice, either by his own conference or otherwise, of Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir James Croftes. If he may do this without evident danger to his navy, notwithstanding the power of the French navy lying in the Frith, he shall take his course into the same Frith, making no show of hostility, except he be impeached by the French or Scots taking their part; and in that case he shall do his best with the whole navy, both to defend the Queen's navy and offend the French to the uttermost, either by shot, fire, or otherwise.
3. But if no hostility be showed to him, (which perchance the French will forbear because of their weakness,) yet shall he endeavour himself to do these things following:—
4. He shall do his best that no French ship, nor any of their faction, shall come out of the Frith, neither that any shall come in; he shall not only prohibit the same, but recover the same into his own power.
5. He shall do his best that no manner ship within the Frith shall be suffered to set on land either men, victuals, or any other thing, to the use of the French and their friends, either at Leith, Inchkeith, Dunbar, Blackness, or any other place, whereby the French may have commodity.
6. He shall do his best that the nobility of Scotland and their adherents, which stand against the French for the liberty of their country, may receive such comfort and aid by him as he shall see may further their defence for the oppression of the French.
7. If he see that he may conveniently surprise and defeat the French navy to their discommodity, (wheresoever he shall find them, either in the sea or in the Frith (fn. 2) ) he shall enterprise the same, using there the means of the free Scots which maintain their liberty. (fn. 3) For this is one of the principal points of his service, to impeach the access of any more succour from France into Scotland, and so also to prohibit any departure thence towards France with any intelligence.
8. He shall, if he can conveniently, speak with Sadler and Croftes, to whom he shall show these instructions and the estate of his power, and thereupon proceed, with their advice, to the offence of the French and succour of the Scots, their adversaries.
9. If it shall not be thought meet to attempt any other thing, but to keep the Frith mouth for the keeping out of new succours, then shall he make no appearance of hostility, but make semblance that he is thither driven by wind, or that he comes for victualling upon the coast of Fife, or elsewhere, to colour his lying there until he shall have further occasion to manifest hostility.
10. He shall show no occasion of hostility as in the Queen's name, but having brought victual to Berwick he has thought meet to ride in the Frith for thirteen or fourteen days, until the victuallers are discharged at Berwick. And if no other just quarrel be given him, as it is thought he shall not lack of the French (except it be for cowardness), then may he challenge the French for carrying the arms of England to the dishonour of his sovereign and country, which he cannot abide; and so, as of his own hand, do that enterprise he shall see most hurtful to the French.
11. Upon advice of Sadler and Croftes, he shall seek to victual his navy on Fife side by friendship of the free Scots, paying reasonably for the same.
12. Until the Duke of Norfolk come to the North, he shall follow the advices of Sadler and Croftes.
Cecil's hol. draft. Endd. by him: 16 Dec. 1559. Pp. 4.
Dec. 16.
B. M. Calig. B. x. 57.
442. Another copy of the above.
[Dec. 16.]
R. O.
Instructions for Winter.
443. "Instructions given by the Queen to Wm. Winter, Esq., Master of the Ordnance of her Admiralty, sent the [blank] day of December to the seas for the purposes ensuing."
1. He shall make speed to the seas with the fleet of fourteen ships of war equipped with men and victuals for her service, the rest being provided for the carriage of victuals, armour, munition, and artillery to Tynemouth, Holy Island, and Berwick; and as Admiral and principal conductor he shall endeavour himself in the execution of the things following.
2. For the better order of the navy towards the Queen's service, he shall understand that these three points following are the principal causes of this voyage, to which he shall direct himself with all industry. (1.) To conduct safely to Tynemouth, Holy Island, and Berwick, all his victuals, ordnance, munition, etc. (2.) To permit no succour of men, victuals, or other thing, whatsoever it be, to pass out of France into Scotland; but to the best of his power to impeach it. (3.) To do some effectual enterprise upon the French navy that shall be found either upon the seas or the Frith, to the ruin and defeat of the same, which, if it be not prevented in time, shall tend to great danger of the realm. And for the execution of these things, although divers ways they have given her sufficient cause to make avenge upon them with open hostility, yet she has thought convenient, (as yet for a season (fn. 4) ) to forbear any open declaration of war against them. She wills therefore that he shall, as of his own courage, attempt this thing, for the doing whereof her pleasure is not only to allow him and all his company, but also to have the same his service in good remembrance. And as for any quarrel to be made, it is not unlikely but he shall have the same sufficiently given him, and shall find some of their ships bearing the arms of England, whereupon he may well ground himself, or upon other such like matter. If he finds by the way any French or any other hoy or other vessel carrying anything to the succour of the French, he shall take the same; and if the resistance be made with force, he shall then use his discretion to their oppression.
3. At his entry into the Frith he shall seek occasion to distress the French navy, and also keep the entry so that no more succours come out of France into Scotland, nor any intelligence go out of Scotland; for hereupon depends the success of all the year following.
4. If he sees that he cannot do any such enterprise upon the French as is desired (wherein she trusts he shall find no let), then shall he make semblance that his lying in the Frith is because his ships being so great can have no sure harbour anywhere near Berwick, and that he must tarry to see the return of such ships as he has brought to Berwick; and so notwithstanding he shall abide to take opportunity for the enterprise as he shall see cause.
5. He shall send to Berwick as he passes by to have the advice of Sadler and Croftes, who are already warned of his coming, and by whom he shall learn the estate of the French navy, and also what friendship he may find in Scotland, specially on Fife side, either for help of victual or otherwise. Yet he shall be circumspect how he trusts the Scots, by whom, being divided into parts, he may be deceived He shall therefore see that he adventures not himself with them on the land, yet shall he show himself to mistrust none of them. If he may victual himself by the friendship of the Scots, either in Fife side or elsewhere, for reasonable money, he may thereby save of his English victual.
6. In the rest of his doings he shall follow the advice of Sadler and Croftes, until the Duke of Norfolk shall come into the North, who, as her Lieutenant-General, shall in all causes give him directions. He shall advertise from time to time of his doings to Berwick.
7. If he shall be so let that he cannot execute this charge, then he shall communicate the same to [blank], and deliver these his instructions to the same [blank], whom she authorizes to execute this charge in like manner.
Draft in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: 1559. Pp. 4.
Dec. 16.
R. O.
444. Adolf, Duke of Holstein, to the Queen.
Desires her licence for Joachim Bekeman, Henry of Czevona, and John Militor to export from England to Bohemia and Poland each of them 500 white clothes of the sort called "Wilser et Westerlaken," to be purchased by them from the weavers at Blackwall hall.—Gottorp, 17 Cal. Jan. 1559. Signed
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Broadside.
Dec. 16.
R. O.
445. The Queen's Marriage.
"Instructions given to [blank] Shelley, sent to the King of the Romans, delivered at Westminster, 16 Dec. 1559."
Dated (but erroneously) 11 Dec. 1558, and entered under that date in Vol. 1., No. 74.
Dec. 16.
R. O. 171 B.
446. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 17.
R. O.
447. Frederic II., King of Denmark, to the Queen.
Recommends the bearer, Herbrad a Langen, who has for some years past distinguished himself in war, and who now desires to be employed in her service in England.—Niburg, 17 Dec. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
Dec. 17.
R. O. 171 B.
448. Adolf, Duke of Holstein, to the Queen.
1. His Chancellor whom he had sent to her has just returned, bringing with him two of her welcome letters, expressive of her desire to promote trade between their respective countries. The writer has also read the replies of her commissioners to his articles. He thanks her for her willingness to continue the connexion which bound him to England during the reign of King Philip. His Legate having had no power to agree upon details, and having returned home for further instructions, it appears to the writer that no plan could be better than that he himself should visit her Court in person, to receive her instructions and complete the arrangement. If agreeable to her he will set out upon his journey forthwith.
2. Thanks her for her kindness and liberality to his messenger.—Gottorp, 16 Cal. Jan. 1559.
Modern transcript. Lat.
Dec. 17.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 642. No. CLXXVIII.
449. Nicholas Errington to Sir John Forster.
George Heron, of Chipchase, sent Edward Charlton, Harry Charlton, of the Larnerborne, and John Charlton, of Thorneyborne in Tynedale, as prisoners to the gaol at Hexham; Thomas Mylborne (otherwise Thomas Headman) being sore sick, was not able to be carried to Newcastle. On the 15th inst. at night, these prisoners, the gaoler, with two Scotch pledges, and one Hurste, who was in ward for the surety of John Errington, are gone; all doors being left open except the new house door that Mr. Slingsbie built, where the gaoler lay nightly for the safeguard of the prisoners. Can get no knowledge of their going.—Hexham, 17 Dec. 1559. Signed.
Dec. 17.
R. O.
450. Munitions for Berwick.
(1.) "The North Parts. The store and remain of all sorts and kinds of ordnance and munitions remaining in sundry places within the north parts, the last of Sept. 1559; wherein is also remembered such supplements of the like as are thought meet to be supplied for the defence of every the said places;" viz., at Newcastle and Berwick, for the furniture of 4,000 men, and for my Lord of Norfolk.
(2.) "9 Sept. 1559. Emptions to be provided and bought for the furniture of the town of Berwick."
Endd. by Cecil: 17 Dec. 1559, ordnance, armour, sent to Berwick. Pp. 10.
Dec. 18.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 280.
451. Killigrew and Jones to the Queen.
1. On the 13th they sent letters to her and the Council by Barnaby expressly in post. They also wrote to the Ambassador in Flanders with these letters enclosed, which they sent by the King of Spain's Ambassador's servant, to be from her said Ambassador conveyed to herself.
2. To continue their account of the French proceedings towards Scotland, they understand that the navy in readiness at Calais, for transporting twelve ensigns of men of war (which by this time have gone), are fifteen in all; which are to return to conduct the Queen Dowager from Scotland, who is so grievously ill that there is some talk of her death; which ships are of the best of the King's navy.
3. The Scots, since they were overthrown, have met with the French and given them an overthrow. On the 17th inst. there was a courier despatched suddenly into Scotland, which was not spoken of the day before. The same day, in the presence of certain Scotchmen, the Queen, in talking with one named Steward, said she marvelled what ailed the Lords of Scotland with her; seeing they had put down churches, and should be suffered to live in their religion, they could not be content. So it is judged the courier was sent this, and about with warning for the French in Scotland to be in readiness at the landing of the Marquis and his ensigns.
4. On the 16th proclamation was made at Blois for all soldiers of garrisons to be ready on the 10th January to mus ter without armour, and a month after with armour; being promised money at both musters. Order was also given for the mustering of their men at arms, and two captains are sent into Gascony for levying men of war. Since Elizabeth has ready twenty ships well appointed, there is great rumour of war. That Scotchmen may not leave France without special leave, their passage at Dieppe is stayed.
5. On the same day that Bourg was degraded at Paris, a president of the Parliament (a great persecutor) called Mineur, was slain with shot of two pistolets, by persons pretending to have suits unto him, as he was going to the palace to sit in judgment; both escaped. At the same time another (feigning himself one of the Congregation at Paris, and persuading one of the same to disclose the rest to the Cardinal of Lorraine) was also slain; and the doers escaped. Six score commissions are sent forth for the persecution for religion; and that they may be more speedily executed, all appellations usually made at Paris, are restrained for a year.
6. An unfounded report is made that her marriage with the Earl of Arran shall be on the 1st of next January.
7. II Cavalier de la Cieva is (it is said) appointed Ambassador resident to the Queen; a man of wisdom and experience; he has been a good time Ambassador to Portugal.
8. Noailles, who is with her, is not acceptable to the house of Guise, the rather that he was placed there by the Constable, who has lost his office of government in Languedoc, which is given to the Duke of Guise.
9. Dudley is come from Paris to this Court to give information of a coiner who offered him, in counterfeit gold, of pieces of old angels, "roils, and double ryals," to be conveyed to England; whereupon he makes suit for the confiscation of the party; which suit ended, he says he will proceed to her service.
10. The Cardinal of Ferrara is to be elected Pope, because of the agreement between him and the Cardinal Caraffa; and if he be elected, he is taken assuredly to be of the French party.—Blois, 18 Dec. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
Dec. 18.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 70.
452. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 18.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 643. No. CLXXIX.
453. Walter Ker, of Cessford, to Sadler.
Complains that upon last Saturday night there came to Zeitten [Yetholm?] twenty-four Englishmen, and there cruelly hurt three or four Scotchmen, and have taken an Englishman from David Mechelson's house, who was delivered to him by the warrant of the truce.—Cessford, Monday, 18 Dec. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add.
Dec. 19.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 644. No. CLXXX.
454. Sadler and Croftes to the Privy Council.
1. Sir W. Ingleby having been long in Yorkshire about the receipt of money for the payment of the garrisons, has returned and has not enough money now to pay the garrisons to the 25th of July last by 270l. 15s. 6d., and since then the debt is increased to 12,566l. 7s. Therefore, as more men are coming (who must be lodged in the country, and pay ready money,) they remind the Council how meet it is that the Treasurer be furnished forthwith with a good mass of money. There is not sufficient victual to serve those already in the town for two months.
2. P.S.—The Treasurer has in hand 270l. 15s. 6d. to meet 15,000l. due 25 July. The debt due from 25 July to 11 Oct. is 12,566l. 7s.—19 Dec. 1559.
Dec. 19.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 645. No. CLXXXI.
455. Sadler to Cecil.
At the making up of this packet the Queen's letters and his arrived, about the impeachment of the French fortifying themselves at Aymouth, wherein he perceives that their opinions were not disagreeable, for if any advantage might have been taken they would not even have awaited his [Cecil's] answer. At Lord Grey's coming he hopes to be acquitted of his office of Warden. He has received no answer though he has frequently written to him [Cecil] of the charges he has been put to during his office, assuring him if he durst he would be angry with him, but as it would avail nothing, he will be patient. And if they mean to retain him in this country they must have consideration of him, lest he beggar himself in the service. His horse meat would eat up half of his entertainment. And, as Lord Grey is to have the East wardenry, the writer thinks they will do his Lordship wrong, if he have not the name of both wardenries, so as he have a sufficient deputy for the Middle Marches.
2. If they will really follow up these things against the French, he wishes they had been more forward in time, and begs that money and victuals may be sent speedily, and not trust too much to the Lord Treasurer's fair words. The Queen is in debt here 12,000l., and the Treasurer has not one penny left, whereof the soldiers much complain.—Berwick, 19 Dec. 1559. Signed.
3. P. S.—Yesterday eleven sail passed, whom they think here are French.
Orig., in Sadler's hol. Add. by Railton, slightly torn at bottom. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 19.
MS. Burton-Constable.
456. Another copy of the above.
Signed, with armorial seal. Add.
Dec. 20.
B.M. MS. Reg. 13 B. 1. 24.
457. The Queen to Frederic, Palatine of the Rhine.
Among the letters, she has received since her accession to the throne, none are more acceptable than those which he has sent to her. She sends Dr. Mont, her agent in Germany, to communicate to him certain matters in which she is interested.—Westminster, 20 Dec. 1559.
Copy, in Ascham's hand. Lat. Letter-book.
Dec. 20.
B.M. MS. Reg. 13 B. 1. 24.
458. The Queen to Christopher, Duke of Wurtemberg.
His letters to her are always acceptable and she will take care to respond to the feelings which they express. She has commissioned Dr. Christopher Mont to open to him certain affairs in her name.—Westminster, 20 Dec. 1559.
Copy, in Ascham's hand. Lat. Letter-book.
Dec. 20.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 647. No. CLXXXII.
459. The Earl of Arran and Lord James to Sadler and Croftes.
Robert Malvile came to them at S. Andrews on the 15th, whom they sent on to the Duke and Council with diligence, and have desired them to convene a meeting at Stirling on the 21st, when they will satisfy all such things as the Laird of Lethington requires in his Articles, which they will thereafter send with all possible diligence unto him. They write at present because of the daily incoming of the French, which puts the towns on the coast of Fife in fear. They intend to take some other part of the country and fortify it, and look for further support. The writers therefore think the ships which are to keep the Frith should be hasted unto them.
2. The Lords that were neutral do not now come near the Dowager, but are now ready to join them, when they see them supported by the English. The Council resident at S. Andrews has been to Dundee, and there taken such order with the Barons of Angus, Mearns, and Strathern as was taken by them in Cowpar for Fife. The writers have also directed letters throughout the country by their authority, which are duly obeyed. They have put contentment between sundry gentlemen that were at variance. They have arrested five ships with wine at Dundee for the army, and have sent to the northland for victuals for the ships, and are now lying on the coast foreanenst Leith to resist the invasion of the French. And as Robert Malvile is to come by Carlisle, the writers would have Sadler and Croftes write to Lord Dacres to further him as much as possible.—Kinghorn, 20 Dec. 1559. Signed.
3. P.S.—Since writing the above they are advertised surely by the Council in the west that the Queen Dowager has "dressit" the Earl of Lennox to come home to his own country, and promised him both his own lands and the earldom of Angus, whereunto he has agreed, as they are credibly informed. They therefore request that Sadler and Croftes will cause order to be taken that he be stopped of his journey.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp 3.
Dec. 20.
MS. Burton-Constable.
460. Another copy of the above.
Dec. 20.
R. O.
461. The Earl of Arran and Lord James to Cecil.
A copy of the previous letter addressed by them to Sadler and Croftes, with a few unimportant verbal differences. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Dec. 20.
R. O.
462. The Rhinegrave to Challoner.
1. The horses which he told Granada he intended to present to the Queen of England were sent on to Rheims two months ago, where one of them fell lame from a nail in his hock; and the person who had charge of them remained there seven weeks trying to cure them, but being unable to do so has returned to him. The Rhinegrave has therefore substituted a Turkish horse in its place. Begs that Challoner will make his excuses for the delay to the Queen. The horses consist of a Spanish horse, another good stepper, and an ambling Turkish horse; he sends also a good serviceable horse, but as it is blind in one eye from a pistol shot he does not intend it for Her Majesty. Desires that Challoner will take charge of the horses and forward his letters to Granada and Lord Cliton [Clinton].
2. It is rumoured in Lorraine that the French have gained a victory over a great number of the Scots, with 1,000 or 1,200 harquebussiers. Asks for intelligence of what passes. Desires him to take care of the horses, in order that they may be delivered to the Queen in good condition.—20 Dec. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Challoner: 20 Dec., from the Rhinegrave, received by a servant of his own, 3 January 1559. Fr. Pp. 4.
Dec. 20.
R. O.
463. Instructions for Gresham.
"Instructions given by the Queen to Thomas Gresham, Esq., her agent in Flanders, being presently sent over the sea both to Antwerp and to Bruxelles for these things ensuing."
1. He shall repair to Antwerp, and there borrow 200,000l., for one year, the whole to be transported into England except 7,000l, or 8,000l., to be by exchange made to certain parts in Almain towards the sea coast, and in Lower Saxony, for pressing of Almains into this realm, upon any occasion chancing. In this matter, that the interest may be low, he shall secretly signify to the bankers that he thinks certainly she means herewith to reform her base coin, which matter he shall require to be secretly kept.
2. He shall consider at Antwerp the state of her provisions for armour, powder, munition, etc., and hasten the transportation thereof, according to his former instructions. And because inquisition is lately made in the Custom houses there by order of the Regent, what armour and munition has been passed to the Queen's use, whereby there may be difficulty for the quiet passing of the rest, he may distribute rewards to the officers, for their favour, in the sum of 500 crowns.
3. He shall then repair to Brussels with her letters to her Ambassador there, and shall proceed with him to deliver her other letters of credence to the Regent for himself. The Queen, meaning to have an Ambassador resident in Spain, intends to revoke hers from Brussels and send him into Spain; and while he [Gresham] remains in her affairs there, he shall have commission to communicate with the Regent. Having written to her Ambassador thereupon, she wishes Gresham to confer with him.
4. If he finds occasion to speak with the Regent for permission of sending away provisions, being so prevented as without speech to her he cannot remedy the matter, he shall cause her Ambassador to move it when they both are there.
5. As soon as he has come to Antwerp and considered the state of things there among the bankers, he shall certify what hope there is of his obtaining any great sums of money, so that she may resolve how to proceed further.
6. He shall also put over the money due in February next either for six or twelve months, and shall send to Christopher Mundt at Strasburg, 50l. sterling by exchange in way of reward.
7. Finally, he shall make provision of 500 shirts of mail, and hasten the transportation of her armour and powder.
Endd.: Instructions for Mr. Gresham, 20 Decembris, 1559. Pp. 4.
Dec. 20.
R. O. 171 B.
464. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec 21.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 650. No. CLXXXIV.
465. The Privy Council to Sadler and Croftes.
Direct that the band of William Drury gent., (having of late charge at Berwick, and now stayed here for certain disorders,) who are furnished with armour provided by himself, shall keep the same well, and that Sadler and Croftes shall give order to the Treasurer to defalk, upon payment, such imprests as the said Drury is charged withal.—Westminster, 21 Dec. 1559. Signed: Bacon, C. S., F. Clynton, E. Rogers, W. Northt., W. Howard, W. Cecil.


  • 1. Speech of Chancellor Bacon upon affording Aid to Scotland.
    B. M. Harl. 253, 83 b.
    "A speech delivered by the Lord Keeper Bacon about ten days before Christmas A.D. 1559, at the Council board, concerning an aid required by the Scots for the removing of the French out of Scotland."
    1. The question is, "Whether it be necessary for the surety of the Queen and for the commonwealth of our country to assist, openly and presently, the nobility of Scotland and their adherents to expel the French, or no?" The greater number of the Council think it necessary. In his opinion assistance should not be openly and presently granted them, nor yet utterly denied them, but rather that they be "fed and fooded forth" with answers and doings full of good hope, whereby war with France may be deferred to be begun by the English, and also the succours that may grow by the friendship of the Scots may be conserved. The reasons are these.
    2. He thinks that England is not able, presently and openly, to maintain war with France, because of the weakness and want that he sees this realm is in for want of money, men, and friends. It is well known to them all that the Queen has not sufficient money to uphold her own estate as is beseeming in time of peace, and to pay her debts within the realm and without, unless the days of payment are prolonged by giving great interest. More is owing this day by 60,000l. than there is wherewith to pay. The most part of the nobility are bare and needy, the gentlemen and commons are as unable to bear their burden as the rest, and the poverty of the spirituality can yield nothing. As for men, by the report of the yeomen and husbandmen the people in all the country is become so few and scant that with much ado can they find enough to till the earth. To make provision for foreign soldiers without money is impossible, besides the danger of receiving many strangers into this land. As for friends, it is well known that the Queen "stands post alone,"* without promise of assistance from any Prince or State of Europe, saving certain of the nobility of Scotland, whose power is so small that they cannot expel the French, who amount only to 3,000 men. None of the Scots either will or can abide in arms above thirty days except they are entertained as hired soldiers, which these nobles (God knoweth!) are altogether unable to do.
    3. Other matters also move him to have an abstinence from war; one is the number of persons of honour and understanding in this realm that are discontented, which perchance could easily be persuaded to have an alteration; plainly to speak, not men to be trusted. They are of two kinds; the greatest are those that mislike the government for religion's sake, whereof the number is not small, nor their understanding gross or feeble; the second are they who take themselves to have had their credit or living decayed. These he leaves their Lordships to think of, who in times past knew some of them as fellows in council with them. The greater part of all the realm is unwilling to make a war of invasion. The scarcity of men makes the farmer fear that for want of sufficient help he should not be able to make profit of his ground, which the landlord sees as well as the farmer. The merchant is unwilling, for war destroys his travail.
    4. Another reason is the doubtfulness of the cause of war and the appearance of injustice that it bears. A war that carries the visor of injustice is like to breed a quarrel in the breasts of foreign Princes. To join with the Scots to expel the French is to join with the subject against the Sovereign, and that is injustice. To be the first breaker of a league agreed upon is injustice. To these there may be answers, but we should not begin wars first and enforce arguments afterwards; therefore we should forbear for a time to make any war.
    5. There are also impediments abroad by the strength of the enemy. The kingdom of France is four times as large as the realm of England, the men four times as many, and the revenue four times as much, and it has better credit. France is full of expert captains and old soldiers, and besides its own troops it may entertain as many Almains as it is able to hire. It has the friendship of most of the Princes of Europe. It has left all its other quarrels that it may have to do with Scotland and England. "He who remembers how the Spaniard is given in religion, and what good-will they bear to us for the shrewd opinion. that we had here of them, and also what offence may grow in King Philip's breast if his suit take not, and what an apt occasion he may take to force his suit to take effect by joining with the French, and therewith what goodly things the French hath to tempt King Philip with, may not be doubtful of the Spaniards' succour to the French in this quarrel. But admitting all these conjectures should fail, yet doubt is there none but the Bishop of Rome, for the recovery of such profits as he by usurpation for Annates and such like challengeth, will both with men and money and all manner of Romish practices assist him and further his cause to the uttermost." Little help of ships is to be expected from the Esterlings, "with whom we have stood in terms long for their liberties," who have of long time found very little, while it is in aid by water that the French have most need of, and the English most cause to fear. "Whence is evident enough, how unable we are at this present to maintain this matter."
    6. If it be said that this is a war of necessity, for it is certain that France under pretence of repressing a rebellion in Scotland seeks the conquest of England, that it is easier to hinder their landing than their marching when landed, and that we can expel those already landed if the thing be presently executed; to these objections he answers, that an abstinence of war for a time were the safest way. It is not true that everything that is meant to be done ought presently to be done, as though time had nothing to do in doing. We must see that when we begin we are well able to perform it.
    7. His conclusion is, "I think verily for the respects above remembered, that hostility and war that we shall enter strait into with the French, we shall not be able, as our condition now standeth, to sustain and endure." And his advice is, "Aid the Scots secretly by all the ways and means you can this summer, whereby you shall both conserve their amity and also make them the better able to annoy the French; which shall be their enfeebling, and therefore our strengthening. And as for any war that France will begin to make upon us before summer come a year, you shall not need to be doubtful of, by which time it is very probable that, the matter being wisely looked into, we shall by reason of our strength, by that time increased and their's decreased, be more able to drive the French out of Scotland, and from thenceforth to keep them, with the help of the Scots, out of the whole island, than now we be."
    8. The French are not able before summer come twelve months to conquer Scotland, although no assistance were given by us, and therefore before that time will not invade England. During that time money, men, and friends may be sufficiently provided, the factions in this realm either may be much better compounded or the suspected part much weakened; the enemy will have consumed his men, his money, his victuals, and his munition, and Scotland will be much destroyed. "Also in that time no man knows what may happen to the French Queen, being a very sick woman, or whether the house of Guise (the chief upholders in this quarrel) shall continue their favour and governance above the King, or whether our Sovereign shall by that time so match herself in marriage as it shall do much to the ending of that controversy." He therefore concludes as he said at the beginning.
    Pp. 18.
    Dec. 15.
    B. M. Harl. 398. 8 b.
    Another copy of the above. Pp. 17.
    * In MS. Harl. 398, "stands post about."
  • 2. This clause is an addition between the lines.
  • 3. The following passage occurs in the draft, but is cancelled: "But if he shall perceive that he cannot make any great notorious defeat of them, he shall then forbear until he may receive further advice from Sir R. Sadler or Sir James Croftes, or from the Lord Grey, or the Duke of Norfolk, the Lieutenant of the North, whose advices he shall follow. And yet he shall omit no occasion whereby either any Frenchman, or their friends the Scottish French, shall either go out or come into the Frith."
  • 4. These words are added between the lines.