Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.
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December 1559, 26-31
R. O. Knox, vi. 101. Sadler, 1. 662. No. CXC.
|502. Knox to Croftes.
|Hostages are granted with more glad will than they are required, and other things are so fully answered that the Council above shall be satisfied in all things. The bruit goes that the French have in hand some great and hasty enterprise; they have shipped much ordnance and are not very solicitous to re-enfort the decays of Leith. It is feared they will take Stirling or S. Andrews, and therefore he was sent by the Lords from Stirling to advertise him that the ships should show themselves upon the coasts. Time was never more fit, for the greater part of the French ships, which last departed from France with men, are driven towards the north. The Marquis d'Elbœuf is in their company. If any ships were to await upon their entry in the Firth they could not escape. If either Stirling or S. Andrews were taken by the French, it would be hard to remove them. 900 men arrived last, and the bruit is, fifteen ensigns are looked for. Refers him to the messenger, who last came from above, who comes by the west border.—S. Andrews, 26 Dec. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
|503. Another copy of the above.
MS. Heralds' College. Talbot Papers, E. p. 57.
|504. Cecil to the Earl of Shrewsbury.
|1. The Earl having been ordered by the Queen to put in readiness a certain number of footmen within the shire of York to be sent to Berwick, and now receiving order for the setting forth of certain horsemen, to be at Newcastle by 25 Jan., the writer lets him understand that the Queen will be satisfied if the said footmen be at Newcastle by the 22nd, or at Berwick by 25 Jan.
|2. P. S.—"The French have prested 15,000 Almains in Germany, and are arming all their ships to the seas." Signed.
|Orig., with armorial seal. Add.: To the Earl of Shrewsbury, President of the Council in the north parts. Pp. 2.
MS. Burton-Constable Sadler, 1.657. No. CLXXXVII.
|505. The Lord Treasurer to Sadler and Croftes.
|1. Has received the Treasurer of Berwick's letter, dated at Berwick, 19 Dec. 1559, containing his receipts for 3,291l. 8s. 3d., and 18,248l. 16s. 10d.
|2. In another bill it appears that the wages unpaid from July 15 to Dec. 12, amount to 12,566l. 7s., towards which Mr. Abington says there may be taken of the victualling money 4,000l. over and above the said sum of 3,291l. 8s. 3d.
|3. There now comes to them a mass of treasure which shall remain with them to serve all needs, and shall be increased for the continuance of payments. The provision for them is being shipped with as much speed as may be.— 26 Dec. 1559. Signed: Winchester.
|Orig. Add. Endd.: This letter was sent from Waltham by a joultar [?] 27 Dec., and they lay at the same until Saturday 30th, as I knew of the same. Witness, Alen Boston and John Pople.
|506. W. Maitland to Cecil.
|1. Has received his letters and thanks him for his gentleness. Considers by inspection of the writings that this matter is a crafty fetch of the. Queen Dowager, seeking by those means to stir up division in the realm, seeing the French are become so odious to the whole people. Thinks it has been in working long before "he" (fn. 1) has given Cecil any advertisement, and believes it shall prove at length that divers messages have already passed betwixt "him" and Scotland, whereof he takes some conjecture by the date of the bill of the Bishop of Caithness, viz. 23 Oct. and received, "as the Earl's letter bears," 10 Dec. "He" writes that he can do better service to the Queen than any man else in Scotland, whereof the writer sees no appearance; for if he has been equal to the Duke, what needed him to give his enemy such place and suffer himself to be driven from his native country? Knows not many will favour his course, and the fewer presently "for that he and my Lady are known enemies to the religion." Does not greatly fear this danger, though the facility of some of his friends, who now are favourers of the Congregation, may be abused by hope of his preferment, and this is the only cause that moves the Queen Dowager thus to go about this matter. The writer perceived her very busy with Gaston, who is messenger in this case, immediately before she entered into Leith. Thinks it would be well "to drive time" with him and give him no direct answer to his suit, for fear lest, upon a plain refusal of his demand, he take other resolution, and that, upon colour of conferring with him more amply upon the service he is able to do, he may be sent for. Order should be given that he depart not forth of the realm; so shall all dangers be avoided.
|2. As to his title to be second personage, finds in it many bare allegations which cannot be verified, and the whole is sufficiently answered by the sentence of divorce and Acts of Parliament, whereof the writer has delivered Cecil the copies. Wishes to send advertisement of this "propos" to the Duke and the Prior of S. Andrews that they may retain the friendship of such as might favour the Earl of Lennox, and let the Earl of Morton understand what mind the Queen Dowager bears to him and his house "anent," the earldom of Angus; but will do nothing without Cecil's leave. If Cecil finds this good, will write that some be directed to Berwick to confer with Lord Grey and others there, and that others be sent to the Princes of Germany. If he thinks this should be done, will send the packet as soon as it be ready to be sent to Sir J. Croftes.—"From Mr. Wade's house on S. Stephen's Day. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 1559, 26 Dec. Mr. Maitland Fr. [?] Knox. Pp. 3.
|507. The Army in the North.
|Queen's warrant to ......... ordering him to furnish one demi-lance for the Duke of Norfolk's army in the North, according to instructions to be delivered by Sir Ralph Roulet and Sir John Butler, Knights.—Westminster, 26 Dec., 2nd Eliz.
|Broadside, injured by damp.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 286.
|508. Killigrew and Jones to the Queen.
|1. On the 18th inst. they despatched letters to her through Flanders, and do the like with these, owing to the great difficulty for any Englishman or Scotchman to go without passport hence to England. The 18th inst. one Thomas Steward, a Scotchman, coming out of the French Queen's chamber at Chamburg, was carried prisoner to Blois; which caused divers Scotchmen to depart from the Court. The cause of his taking is said to be his suit for a passport into Scotland to entreat the Congregation that his lands, which he held of the Church, might not be confiscate, whereupon was suspicion at his ascribing so much authority to the Congregation; and further that he said he wished the French Queen in heaven, as she was the cause of so much unquietness in Scotland.
|2. The Admiral of France is at this Court, and is appointed to despatch certain captains for levying men; some of whom have declared that without money no men could be had; and have refused to go forward. M. de Montpesat arrived on the 20th inst. from the Emperor; he was presented at his departure with a chain worth 1,000 crowns. He brings news that two Ambassadors are coming from the Emperor to demand Metz, Toul, and Verdun; which does not altogether like the French.
|3. After the landing of the Marquis d'Elbœuf in Scotland, Edinburgh Castle shall be besieged; and if they can take the Earl of Erskine they mean to use him for terror to the other. Which done, having two such places as Leith and Edinburgh, they mind to leave a good garrison there and convert the rest of their force towards England, thinking now they will have little to do to subdue the Scots. They are very earnest in council here for money, and with great ado have a grant for the finding of 20,000 men in the war of Scotland; which shall be sent there in the spring under the Duke d'Aumale. Count Rhingrave has sent to Strasburg to prest men to be employed in the spring.
|4. On 23rd inst. the King and the two Queens returned from Chamburg to Blois; from whence he will remove sooner than was determined to Paris, for the appeasing of the garboil there, which, if speedy order be not taken, will grow to some extremity; for which the Admiral is appointed to go to Paris before the King's coming. All posts and postmasters shall be discharged of the fees which they had of the King, (which amounted to 100,000 crowns yearly,) and for compensation shall increase the price of every post, the fourth part. Divers captains both of the land and sea are attendant at the Court, who talk much of war, and yet say they cannot receive a denier.
Killigrew and Jones to the Queen.
|5. The suspicion of the uncertain terms between her and the French King causes the writers to be noted, and others who were of their acquaintance absent themselves from them. Since the taking of Steward no Scotchman dare talk with them, and so they cannot understand things of great moment as they would. It is necessary for her to entertain some stranger secretly in this Court, who may better learn such things than they can do.
|6. There are preparing in Germany 6,000 men to be levied for service of the Earl of Arran and of the Congregation in Scotland. Of the ships sent hence into Scotland, twelve are driven back to Dieppe, and as many have arrived in Denmark. The French think the Almains shall not be able to do anything against them, being divided as they are and in dissension.
|7. There was at the Court at Chamburg an English or Scottish young gentleman, who was a good time secretly with the French King and the Duke of Guise, and had given him 1,000 crowns in reward. He departed hence to Dieppe, and it is judged that he is a spy for the French in England. One shall be sent into England, to pass to Scotland, to learn what likelihood there is of the accord between her and the Scots, and of her marriage with the Earl of Arran. The arrival of Count Helvestein in England greatly perplexes them here. There is great ado in Paris for religion, and lately another President has been killed; they preach the Word openly, and are maintained by a number in so doing. For what cause the French King departs hence in four days to two houses of the Duke of Longueville, under colour of hunting, towards Paris. Robert Steward, a Scotch gentleman, is taken at Paris for killing the President Minart; it is thought he and another of his countrymen did that enterprise.
|8. When they had written thus far, they received, on 24th inst., a letter from her Ambassador dated 17th inst., according to whose instructions they have declared to the Spanish Ambassador certain things on her behalf. To which he said it was true that forty ships passed into Scotland, and that two more have gone therewithal. He marvelled that Aymouth was not razed; and that if she letted the French from building the same, there was no breach of the treaty: As for the Frenchmen breaking with her, he thought they would not nor could not at present; but that hereafter they would as they saw time. He said that the follies of titles would breed great business and inquietness and hinder the General Council, whereof there was such need, and that he would do what he could for her service.
|9. The French are assured here that she minds to break with them, and therefore warning is given to the towns upon the sea coast to stand upon their guard and to take heed to Englishmen. The Marquis d'Elbœuf sent word to this Court that he is afraid to take this journey in hand for fear of England, and therefore he stayed at Calais.
Killigrew and Jones to the Queen.
|10. The writers have been in hand with Mr. Florence for such purpose as her Ambassador signified to them, who said that he would by the means of merchants (in case they are sequestered) do all he can to send advertisements to her. They are about to practise with some others for like purpose. The French state is so encumbered and in such necessity, that if ever there were any time of advantage over them it is now. Whatsoever is to be done against them is to be done forthwith.
|11. La Marque is to pass into Scotland as before. The slowness of his journey cannot but further her service, and therefore it would not be amiss to stay him as much as may be, for they will resolve nothing till his return. The French are very busy about the fortifications of Calais.
|12. Thus far they have written in the other letters they have despatched by way of France.
|13. On 19th inst., there happened a marvellous chance and escape to the French Queen, who, riding in hunting and following the hart of force, was in her course cast off her gelding by a bough of a tree, and with the suddenness of the fall was not able to call for help. And albeit there did follow divers gentlemen and ladies of her chamber, yet three or four of them passed over her before she was espied, and some of their horses rode so near her as her hood was trodden off. As soon as she was raised from the ground she spoke, and said that she felt no hurt, and herself began to set her hair, and dress up her head, and so returned to the Court, where she kept her chamber till the King removed. She feels no incommodity by her fall, and yet has determined to change that kind of exercise.
|14. Divers merchants from Almain are here to demand payment of money lent to the late King, and also certain other merchants from Lubeck to sue for the renovation of their privileges, which is granted. Bourg was not executed till about the 20th inst. Before his death he made such an oration to the Lords of the Parliament as moved them to tears. On 21st a postilion was slain in a thicket near the Court, who came from Paris with information against more than 100 of the Congregation.
|15. M. de Deffend delivered them her letters, with a schedule of such hostages as the French Ambassador in London has named. His coming has amazed them here. He has brought advertisements of men of war sent into the north, of twenty ships upon the sea, of the taking of two of their ships sent into Scotland with men and victual, and that undoubtedly she wishes to break with them. For this they are altogether unprovided, as well for men as money. It is time to provide for men to give her intelligence, whereof there are presently about this Court such as she knows best for that purpose; wherefore they ask her to give entertainment to them, which if not done in time they will perhaps absent them selves from the Court for religion's sake, and so shall the commodity of intelligence be lost.—Blois, 27 Dec. 1559, at night. Signed.
|Orig., with seal. Considerable portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 11.
509. Decipher of the ciphered portions of the preceding.
Endd. Pp. 4.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 78.
510. Another copy of the preceding.
|511. Knolles to Cecil.
|1. At seven o'clock in the morning this day he came into Harwich, and at nine (after having tarried together with Sir Thomas Smith in the Duke's hall more than half an hour,) he was admitted into the Duke's presence, who, sitting in a chair without moving himself, offered his hand (as it seemed) to kiss. The writer had been otherwise brought up than to kiss the hands of any subject other than of the parentage of his Prince. After having with reverence kissed his own hand, the writer joined his hand with the Duke's, after the manner of their own native country. The Queen's message he received very thankfully, but said he would take a time to deliberate upon her letters. All that the writer spoke in declaring how much she rejoiced that he had escaped the perils of the seas, he interpreted ever as lovers do, applying it altogether for a testimony of her liking of his ambassade, wherein he tarried so much that the writer was marvellously perplexed, fearing that upon occasion of his words the Duke would take hold towards a promise of some inconveniency. Wherefore, after he had ended his tale, the writer told him that it was the manner of the Queen, when any suitable Prince came hither, to receive them most thankfully; whereunto, when he replied nothing, the writer took his departure.
|2. After dinner my Lord of Oxford had him forth on hawking, killing in his sight both pheasant and partridge, wherein he seemed to take great pleasure. The writer asking whether he should say anything on his behalf to the Queen; the Duke answered that he intended to write to her. When asked when he intended to take his journey towards London, the Duke answered that his horses were much impaired through the noisesomeness of the seas, but after four or five days he should be ready to go. Excuses his own detention. —Harwich, 27 Dec. Signed.
|3. P.S.—The Duke plainly declared to my Lord and Sir T. Smith that if the pilots of the town would have conducted forth his ships he would have gone by water yesterday, or when the wind served, and that his mind was to go by water. He is yet so uncertain that no sure determination can be sent.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 4.
|512. The Queen to Sir Ralph Rowlet and Sir John Butler.
|1. They shall raise in the county of Hertford twenty-seven horsemen, whereof part are to be demi-lances and the rest armed with corslets and pistols, and with all speed to send them to Newcastle, observing the following instructions:—
|2. They shall use all possible speed in sending to the parties named in "a Calendar," herewith sent, and cause the horsemen to be at Newcastle before Jan. 28. (fn. 2)
|3. If any be dead, or so decayed that they are not able to furnish what they are appointed, she sends letters under her signet not filled up, which they are to send as they see cause, taking good remembrance to charge such as by the Statute 33 Hen. 8., are charged to find great horses, either by the rate of their lands, or the apparelling their wives with French hoods. If any one of those appointed has removed his habitation, then they are to send the letters either to the man or to the Sheriff of his shire.
|4. If any have not sufficient horse for a demi-lance, but have a good strong gelding, able to carry a man with a corslet, and a boar spear or javelin with a pistolet, they shall make choice thereof at their discretion.
|5. If some have not their armour ready, then rather than delay they shall send the men with their horses to Newcastle, where they will find armour upon reasonable price; viz., a demi-lance at 53s. 4d., a corslet at 30s., a lance staff 3s. 4d., and a pistolet complete at 16s. 8d. They shall give order to those appointed, to deliver money for the same to their horsemen. They are also to assure them that the Queen has taken such order with the Duke of Norfolk, that every person sent forth shall have his horse, his armour, and weapons well preserved and returned, if in service they be not lost.
|6. They shall not lessen, but rather advance, the number of twenty-seven horsemen, using the letters not filled up. At least one third shall be demi-lances. They shall advertise both her and the Duke of Norfolk of their doings. They shall use the help of the Sheriff.—Westminster, 27 Dec. 1559. Signed by the Queen.
|Orig., with signet. Add: To Sir Ralph Rowlet and Sir John Butler, Knights, Hertford. Pp. 4.
|513. Calendar referred to in the preceding document, containing the names of twenty-six persons in co. Hertford who are required to furnish horsemen.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 665. No. CXCII.
|514. Randolph to Sadler.
|Arrived on the 25th at Glasgow. His misfortunes have been so great in the journey that he is destitute of aid from one of his arms, by reason of a flux of humours descended into it, and is grieved with a burning fever. If God in this service call him to His mercy, he desires no better end. Finds the Lords of the Congregation very willing to satisfy the Queen's requests. All demands made unto them by him are granted. Six of the hostages, which she shall choose of twelve, shall be with them upon the return of Robert Melvin, now on his journey towards the Court, and the bearer of this letter. He escaped so hardly the last time he came from Sadler that he will not adventure that way again. News is that 2,500 French make towards Stirling, either to possess the castle or to get further into Fife. While he is writing this he learns that the Lords now intend to keep their Christmas at Glasgow. Advises that this be provided for.—Glasgow, 27 Dec. 1559. Signed.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 663. No. CXCI.
|515. John Preston and Others to the Earl of Northumberland.
|John Preston, William Ker, Edward Lytil, and Herbert Maxwell, baillies of the burgh of Edinburgh, having been informed by George Hopper, merchant of their burgh, that on the 7 September last past he constituted David Strang his lawful factor and attorney in and to a safe conduct granted to his factors and attorneys by the Queen of England; and that in the month of October the said David was stayed by the Earl, or his deputies, until he found caution in 130l. that he, or the said George Hopper, would bring to Tynemouth Castle before Candlemas a sufficient record that he was the true attorney to the said George. They have according sworn Mr. Alexander Sym, advocate, John Sym, Thomas Davidson and William Paterson, notaries public, and witnesses contained in the said letter of factory; who have sworn that the said David Strang was constituted attorney for the said George Hopper in their presence upon the 7 Sept. aforesaid.—Edinburgh, 27 Dec. 1559. Signed: Witnessed by William Stewart, notary public.
|516. Challoner to Cecil.
|1. Since Cecil's letter of the 14th (received here the 21st from the Bishop of Aquila's servant), the writer has not heard otherwise aught out of England; which makes him the more suspended, as Cecil's letter purported that the writer should ere this have heard from thence.
|2. Wrote to him on the 15th stating that St. Quentin and Haen should be restored to the French on the 21st, only Chastelet resting undelivered, because the French on their part have not as yet restored a small pyle or castle, appertaining to these men, between Mazières and Luxelbourg [sic], taken during the last wars, whereupon some dispute has risen on either side. When the French Ambassador complained of the slow restitution of Le Chastelet, he was answered by M. d'Arras that by the treaty they had two months respite to commence their delivery on this side, after the French had made entire delivery of all manner of pieces, amongst the which the said castle of Mazières and certain others (objecting also, as the writer was informed, some in Scotland), not being delivered, nor fully cleared, according to the treaty, the French had no cause to complain. But it is thought that both the Chastelet and the other hold shall shortly pass; as, for so small a matter, neither part would gladly make a new question. The Spanish garrisons withdrawn from those rendered pieces, (although the French made instance to have them newly retained in their solde), are to remain in other garrisons upon these frontiers, viz., at Arras, Marienburg, Philippeville, and Thionville, not otherwise cassed. For seeing the French army so fast and in so great numbers, these men think good to stand upon their better guard, least disfurniture might provoke some enterprise. By stealth, divers of them, under colour of returning to their country, escape to the French, allured by the great wages. In case they should be wholly cassed and discharged here, it were good to be considered whether the Queen will be served of any of them. Thinks the soldiers would more willingly take the Red Cross than the White; and cannot judge these men so mad as to put twigs to the rod to beat their own breeches.
|3. Having conference with one here of the most esteemed sort, it appeared to him that now these men begin to take a feeling in the matter and would be loath we should have the worst end of the staff, howsoever they seem offended for the rest, for it touches their freehold. Will declare more at his coming over, which he daily expects. War between England and France in every man's mouth here is counted certain. The French not only levy great numbers of lance knights in Germany for Scotland, but also are preparing 4,000 horsemen, swartrutters, "which, though it should prove but half the number, by Saint Mary is a shrew, unless we also be furnished with the like." As the wars go now, the swartrutters bear all the bruit, and not without cause, where experience teaches both French and Burgundians to leave their lances and now to trust to the service of the dagge. Thinks it is high time to prepare for our parts to be served with horsemen and footmen out of Germany, where the reputation of wars' discipline remains; for sure as we want not men of our own, so yet we had need of some old soldiers whose discipline and experience might be a lesson to train young beginners. Verily, he supposes our light horsemen of the borders, and generally all our horsemen, with some exercise and discipline, would become as good swartrutters as any other nation; and that 1,500 or 2,000 Almain swartrutters joined to the borderers would prove a firm shield to the frontiers for this next summer, seeing we must look to be assailed with the self weapon. The French for the last two months have slyly gone about their preparations, and purpose to give the first blow. Diligent and often advice from sundry parts of Germany has not, he trusts, been omitted, what and how far forth the French preparations there are advanced; as thereby much wages may be spared and much peril prevented. Oftentimes 1,000 crowns that way bestowed saves 2,000 crowns, and deludes the enemy. It is now in vain to think of sparing, or how to pull a billet from the fire, but rather how more wood may be found to lay "on loads;" for if soldiers despair not of their pay, we are rich enough to defend our own from the French; but beware of a penny spared out of season, which will not be redeemed with a pound. One of our best advantages is that our neighbours are not much aforehand, no more than we. Whilst two cocks fight, beware that the still cock, looking on and taking breath, when he seeth them tired do not set upon both; for these men tanquam spectatores, quicquid alteri adimitur, suo deputabunt lucro. Yea, in the meantime, touching powder, armour, and munition, whereof afore they seemed so scrupulous towards us, now they will be content to seem less circumspect, and wink thereat; so he trusts Cecil will use all the covertness that may be in conveyance by smaller portions.
|4. A merchant at Antwerp, one whom Mr. Gresham knows, offered him to serve the Queen with 3,000 or 4,000 corslets and weapons appertaining, to arm therewith so many soldiers in Germany in case the Queen minds to levy such; and for his payment to stand to the soldiers as their wages monthly should be due, provided the Queen in the meantime gave her word for surety. Thinks this no evil bargain, and begs him to consider it; as this merchant has sufficient credit, and served the King after like sort at St. Quentin's. If war be, he understands the Esterlings look to have adoing with England; they have long laid in wait since the first breach; their country has much commodity to do us pleasure or displeasure. Wishes they were made friends upon equal privileges with our own merchants, so that they might have such issue open for our traffic, as all that coast up to Dantzic, which would serve for all our trade.—Brussels, 28 Dec. 1559.
|5. P. S.—Encloses a packet just arrived from France by one of M. d'Arras' secretaries, which is another packet from his brother, Ambassador in France; also the latest Italian advices, which are worth the reading. Few news arrive from Spain. The Marquis d'Elbœuf lies at Calais with ten ensigns ready to pass into Scotland. He is named general, but thinks M. de Guise himself will eventually be. Yesterday the writer heard the King's ships here were being rigged and trimmed in Zealand; for what purpose he knows not, but will send to know further the certainty. The Emperor plainly refused the French leave of passage for their swartrutters, unless they restore Metz and other imperial towns by them obtained. Prays God this prove true. Of their attempt to have that number of swartrutters the writer was told by one of the skilfullest here. Signed.
|Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 9. Copy of the preceding, with a few corrections by Challoner. Endd. by Challoner: Sent by Jones. Pp. 7.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 667. No. CXCIV.
|517. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
|1. Have heard from Ormeston that the Queen Dowager, hearing that the Queen has refused to aid the Scots unless they give her hostages for the performance of such conditions as she requires, intends so to disturb the Protestants that they shall not have leisure to consider these conditions. For this purpose she has sent 1,800 French and Scotch to Stirling, of whom the Earl Bothwell is the leader, and on the way they will take the spoil of the Duke's house, called Thylagh [Kinneil ?] near Linlithgow. The Protestants make what preparations they can; but if the Queen's ships were on the Frith it would much alter the determination of the French, and cause them to retire in haste to Leith.
|2. Sir Francis Leke, Sir Jervais Clyfton, Mr. Fairfax, and George Dakins are arrived here; Sir Tho. Gerard and the rest will be here out of hand. Beseech him to remember that the Treasurer is in debt 12,000l., and the bands now coming will look for payment.—28 Dec. 1559.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 666. No. CXCIII.
|518. The Earl of Arran and the Lord James to Sadler and Croftes.
|The writers have received on the 26th the writing of Sadler and Croftes dated the 21st, from Berwick. Wrote their opinions touching Robert Melwin's desires "what dress should be found thereof with the Council," or ever the Council assembled. It has taken effect, albeit the storm of weather has stopped it. At the departing of the writers from Stirling (where they convened suddenly for the despatch of Robert Melwin), the French came thither with their whole power, as they suppose, to cut the bridges; but the English ships being once in the Frith, this would be of little advantage to them. The French purpose [to advance] along this coast side of Fife, for stop whereof the writers are presently lying here, and hope to cut their way. They most earnestly desire Sadler and Croftes to hasten the coming of the same into the Frith. They shall want no furniture of vivers. Have sent them a double of the commission to the Council, to be sent on to Lethington after being read. Robert Melwin has departed with the original already, straight to the Court. Are assured that Randolph has come safely to the Duke at Glasgow.—Kinghorn, 28 Dec. 1559. Signed: James Hamilton, . . . . . . . , (fn. 3) James Stewart.
|Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 28 Dec. 1559, Co. Arran, L. James to Sir R. Sadler. Pp. 2.
|519. Another copy of the above.
|520. The French Conquest of Scotland.
|"An argument made in a conference had in Mr. Treasurer's chamber in the presence of him, the Secretary, Mr. Cave, and Mr. Sackvill, 28 Dec."
|For any reason which he has yet heard the writer cannot think otherwise than that the Queen should prevent the French possession and conquest of Scotland. If they should gain a battle, with a force of Almains, in the north part of this realm, we must offer another; or else the realm, having no fortresses in these parts, must be in danger to be lost. The small number of captains and good men of war, (whereof no small part will be lost in the first,) the discomfiture of the hearts of the common people, and the hollow and discontented hearts in sundry parts of this realm, these, with diverse other reasons, make him earnest to think that it is the surest counsel for the Queen to prevent this danger of the French and to impeach their conquest of Scotland.
|Orig. Cecil's hol. Endd. by Cecil: Sententia de re Scotica, 1559. Pp. 2.
|521. The Queen to Lord Cobham. (fn. 4)
|The French Ambassador resident here, having requested passage both for certain of his own men, and also for sundry other Frenchmen remaining at Dover and Rye, and further that the French ships lately stayed at Dover might be set at liberty, she warrants Lord Cobham, as Warden of the Five Ports, to allow the same.—Westminster, 29 Dec., 2 Eliz.
|With the Queen's signature and signet. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 291.
|522. Jones and Killigrew to Cecil.
|1. Mr. Florence, James Melvin, Portonary, and Clark are such as are to be remembered for his purpose; and Parry, the Irishman, desires to be answered. Scotchmen here are greatly suspected. "We are looked upon, but not outfaced." The Cardinal of Lorraine has lately been at an abbey of his by Tours, some say to make some conjuration, because of the rumour that the Duke of Guise's death and his were sworn.
|2. Have written to the Queen and him touching the hostages, and delivered their letters to De l'Aubespine. He should consider how near the sea coast some of them dwell. They sent Baynard over on 27th inst. with a despatch; prays him to have an eye on him and keep him there. Refers him to the Queen's letter.—Blois, 29 Dec. 1559. Signed.
|Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
B. M. Sloane, 4135. 90.
523. Another copy of the above.
|1560. Jan. 6.
B. M. Harl. 293. 121.
|524. Instructions to Throckmorton. (fn. 5)
|"Instructions given by the Queen to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, Knt., her Ambassador with the French King, 30 Dec. 1559."
|1. Returning to the French King, he shall deliver his letters and apologize for his absence, occasioned by sickness of his wife.
Instructions to Throgmorton.
|2. It being understood that there should be a change in the [French] hostages, he shall inquire as to the estate and conditions of the same personages, so that she might return her allowance or disallowance. Yet, since this matter has been longer protracted than was requisite, she gives him authority to allow the same in her name. He shall ascertain the qualities and degrees, and specially the value of the livelihood of the persons named; and if any of insufficient livelihood be named, he shall rather pretend an ignorance thereof than otherwise, and find means to have some other in place. She would be content to have the Vidame d'Amiens, rather than any other, "and the rest like him in valour."
|3. Because the sending of the Duke of Norfolk to the north, as her Lieutenant, and of certain ships with victual and munition to Berwick will not be unknown; she informs him of the whole. She has long intended sending the Duke to the north parts as her Lieutenant for governance of the same, ready to answer all wants that might happen, now that the realm of Scotland is in arms. It was also necessary to reinforce Berwick, considering the new fortifications there, which require more ordnance; and to do the like for the other castles and bulwarks both upon the sea coast and frontiers. Occasions to do this are given her by the proceedings of the French, both in Scotland, in France, and on the seas between the two realms. She prefers her surety before charges, but would wish that no such occasions were given her.
|4. If the King, or any of his Council of special authority, shall require to understand what the occasions of doubt are, he shall say that these are better known to them there than need the rehearsal; and it would appear that there are many more known to themselves than can come to her knowledge. Did she not regard them, there would be in her great lack of consideration, and so he may defer the matter, as things not needful to be shown by him. After some pause he may say indirectly that the world is not ignorant of the great injuries offered to her in France, by taking her arms, style, and title, so many manner of ways; by using seals and commissions into Scotland at this present, with the arms of England, and the style of England and Ireland. These are outward arguments of inward meanings. Matters of more present importance have followed, viz., hostile preparations sent with all this haste towards the northern parts by Scotland, so that there cannot be any excuse or pretence made, but that she is compelled to put her realm in strength and defence. He shall show the continual sending of men of war, victual, ammunition, treasure, and all things requisite for great wars, into Scotland; the matter of that country in no wise requiring a fourth part of this preparation. Either by granting the nobility their liberty to remain in their due obedience with preservation of the liberties of the realm, all the troubles may be stayed; or else with a mean power they may be soon reduced to good order, as appears by the Queen Dowager with a small number having of late defeated the whole power of the Scots, driving them from Edinburgh, and has dispersed them, so as the more part of the realm remains already at her devotion, without any disturbance.
|5. If they shall reply that they must needs chastise their rebels, and that they will be sure and double their force more than seems needful, he may say that whether they are rebels or no he cannot much dispute, but this he has heard, that the nobility of Scotland have declared their estate to her ministers upon the borders, and plainly showed that their standing at their defence has been but to preserve the crown and dignity of the realm for their Queen, being married out of the realm, and having, as yet, no issue; and that the Queen Dowager there seeks nothing more than by force to have the strength of the realm in her hands, out of the possession of such as had the same committed to them by Act of Parliament for the use of the Queen and the realm; and further also the extirpation of the nobility there; and that she has so oppressed the realm by violation of their liberties and impoverishing of the people. They have con sequently been forced to assemble themselves as the principal states of the realm, and to see to the governance of the same for the use of their Queen and the commonwealth of the realm jointly.
|6. All which things he may say she has heard of, in such sort as they have made means that she would take the protection of that realm into her hands to this only end, that it be not conquered. Whereunto although in honour she might have regard, yet hitherto she has forborne to intermeddle therein, and so would gladly continue, were it not for such injurious attempts as have already been shown in France, especially if Scotland be conquered, as is now meant, by the men of war that are occupied with besieging Edinburgh Castle, and by the daily increase of their power in Scotland.
|7. He shall always conclude and hold her determination that she is most sorry for these occasions, and would gladly know how Scotland might be quietly governed to the use of the Queen and the countrymen of the kingdom in such estate as it has been, and so consequently England might rest in some certainty of quiet and peace.
|8. Finally, if they shall ask whether she means to aid the Scots or no, he may assure them that at his departure hence no such thing was meant; but this he thinks of himself, that if any such attempt be made by the French there as shall appear dangerous to the town of Berwick, or the frontiers, her ministers will see well to their charge, and prevent also that which shall be thought over dangerous to the said town and frontiers.
|Draft, in Cecil's hol. Pp. 6.
|525. Another copy of the preceding. Signed by the Queen at the beginning and end.
|Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.
B. M. Calig. E. v. 60.
526. Another copy of the preceding.
Transcript by Cotton's copyist. Much injured by fire. Pp. 4.
R. O. 171 B.
527. Another copy of the above.
MS. Hatfield House, Haynes, p. 217.
|528. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. Advertises him as follows. Until the horsemen arrive at Newcastle, he cannot well take in hand any exploit into Scotland; it was thought that they would be ready by 25th Jan. next, but now it will be the 30th before they can arrive at Newcastle. Orders have been given to certain shires, from whence the footmen should be sent thither, that as many as are not yet sent should not depart before such convenient time, as they may be upon the frontier about the same time. Those that are gone are to be laid in several bands and places so far within the land that they may be victualled without the expense of such victual as is provided nigh the border, and yet be ready at some convenient place near the frontier by the 30th Jan. In the meantime the men shall be trained and taught to use their weapons. As for money to prest to them beforehand, for their provision and payment for their victuals, although Valentine Brown is ready to depart, yet, considering the carriage of the treasure this winter will take some longer time, she advises him to borrow 700l. or 800l. of some Newcastle merchants, for fifteen days at most; or else let the Treasurer of Berwick, if he can possibly forbear in some payment at Berwick, imprest a like sum to the captains of the footmen. In the meantime he is to confer with Sir Ralph Sadler, whether it shall not be sufficient aid to the Scots if her ships lie in the Frith, and prevent the entry of French succours; which they shall do rather of themselves than to declare any open hostility. And for further aid upon land, some good English captains are secretly to depart, to lead their men, and some vessel fraught with powder, small field ordnance, and shot, to be colourably taken by the Scotchmen in the Frith, either on Lothian side or Fife side, and some gunners also, by the like colour; and they are to give them such further aid as may serve their turn to expel the French, and yet not to have any open hostility shown on her part at first; as although the French give her just occasion, yet certain respects cause her to forbear for one or two months.
|2. This conference need not delay the preparation of things accorded upon. The day of assembling being prolonged, he is not to take into pay any more officers or soldiers than may be requisite to put things into order for that day. The Council orders that Sir G. Howard, and the rest, who ought to depart home, shall not make such haste, but be there about 25th January. When service begins it is very chargeable, so it is meet it be not overcharged before. William Wynter at his departure had not his full complement of men, and some may hap to be sick; he is to give order that the lack may be supplied upon that shore near Berwick; and also so "to use his doings in impeaching of French succours, as the same may appear to come of himself, and not by any direction."
|3. P. S.—Since the writing hereof, she has commanded the horsemen and footmen that have not departed to be rather put in readiness to set forward upon a warning from her or Norfolk, than upon a certain day. Desires first to hear from him of the state of things there, and of the arrival of victual and munition which was sent by ship. This last order he shall perceive by a copy of such second letters as are sent to several shires.
|Draft by Cecil.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 668. No. CXCV.
|529. Cecil to Sadler.
|1. Before these letters reach him he hopes that Norfolk will be with them, who will send for Sadler. The Duke will execute his commission discreetly, honourably, and peacefully. One notable quality he has, that he will do nothing of any moment in his private causes but upon advice, which property shall be most convenient for this charge. There is some contrariety amongst Councillors regarding the Scotch affairs. Most of them like a speedy and effectual empeachment; a few others would have ready everything, but to defer hostilities. Nevertheless it is agreed to make all things ready by sea and land.
|2. Yesterday morning the Marquis du Bœuff had not left Calais. He has treasure and certain ships, but not of any great strength. Knows not what he will do now, knowing the departure of the English ships. The packet enclosed is from Lord Ledington.—From the Court, 30 Dec. 1559. Signed.
|Orig., with armorial seal. Add.
|530. The Queen to the King of France.
|Her Ambassador Throckmorton having been compelled for his business to return home, has been detained by the long and dangerous illness of his wife. Being now about to return he has prayed her to ask the King to excuse his long absence. —London, last of Dec. 1559. Signed: La vostre bonne soeur et cousine, Elizabeth R.
|Orig. Broadside. Endd. by Cecil: 20 January. Fr.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 669. No. CXCVI.
|531. The Queen to Sadler.
|Has found his knowledge so good in the north, that she has particularly recommended him to the Duke of Norfolk, to whom she earnestly requires him to give such counsel as he shall see meet. The Duke having made request that Sadler should remain with him, she has given order to the said Duke for his entertainment.—Westminster, 31 Dec. 2 Eliz. Signed.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 672. No. CXCIX.
|532. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to Sadler and Croftes.
|Writes to them in favour of certain merchants of Edinburgh, who on 29th Oct. last were spoiled of their ship and goods by Thomas Clavering and others, inhabitants of Scremerston, Cheswick, and Goswick.—Edinburgh, 31 Dec. 1559. Signed: La bien vostre, Marie R.
|Orig., with armorial seal. Add.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 673. No. CC.
|533. The Queen Dowager of Scotland to Sadler.
|In the ship named the Bonaventure, seized by Clavering, the bearer, William Kerr, the elder, burgess of Edinburgh, had divers costly wares; whom she recommends.—Edinburgh, 31 Dec. 1559. Signed: La bien vostre, Marie R.
|Orig., with armorial seal. Add.
MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1. 671. No. CXCVIII.
|534. Sadler and Croftes to the Earl of Arran and Lord James.
|Have despatched to the Court their letters to Cecil and Lord Lidington. The English ships have been on the seas ten or twelve days, and as soon as wind permits, will arrive in the Frith.
|The Marquis d'Elbœuf being at Calais ready to take the seas, hearing of the setting forth of the English ships returned to Paris; they think he will not hasten to Scotland unless he sees that he may pass in safety. They hear that the French have left Edinburgh and Leith, and trust that the Scots will provide that they [the French] when going to Stirling will have ill success in their journey. They need not fear for Lennox, who will be kept well enough out of Scotland. Norfolk and Lord Gray will be at Berwick within five or six days with a good power to take their part.—31 Dec. 1559.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 670. No. CXCVII.
|535. Sadler and Croftes to Cecil.
|1. They send letters from Arran and Lord James to them with a letter from Knox, and others to Cecil and Lidington. As they wrote on 28 inst., they hear by common bruit that the French and Scotch have gone from Leith and Edinburgh towards Stirling, and that the Protestants are assembled to resist them; and also know certainly that they have passed Linlithgow, and hear that they have not left more than two or three ensigns at Leith.
|2. They have advised the Earl of Arran and Lord James for their comfort, that the ships have been on the seas ten or twelve days, and will be in the Frith when weather permits, and also that the Marquis d'Elbœuf is yet in France.
|[3. They have tried to learn what the French intend in their journey to Stirling, and as they hear will advertise.
|4. P. S.—They are advertised by one of their spies that Sarlabois is in Stirling with 1,200 French, and D'Oysel in Linlithgow with 1,400, and that the Protestants have assembled a power to defeat them.] (fn. 7) —Berwick, 31 Dec. 1559. (fn. 8) Signed.
|Orig. in Sadler's hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
|536. Another copy of the above. Omitting the concluding sentences and the P. S.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 674. No. CCI.
|537. Randolph to Sadler and Croftes.
|1. His griefs have been such that he could not write. On the 24 inst. there departed from Leith towards Stirling thirteen ensigns of French; their true intentions cannot be learnt either by any espial the Lords have, or of any prisoners that have been taken scattering by the way between Linlithgow and Stirling. Some suspect they will come to Glasgow where the Duke is, and they are therefore diligently watched. M. Dosell being as far as Linlithgow was suddenly sent back to Edinburgh, the cause whereof is not known; some think it the arrival of more French at Leith; others the appearance of the English ships in the Frith; others the little hope he has of taking Stirling Castle, for Lord Erskine has said that if they attempt it he will shoot at the Queen at Holyrood.
|2. He writes for certain that there are at Stirling five ensigns, of which Sarlabois has charge, in Linlithgow eight, and 4,000 in Leith and Edinburgh. The Earl of Arran and Lord James are at Dunfermline, Burnt Island, and about Fife, to be ready to withstand the French. The Lords will be ready to meet the English with their troops upon eight days warning at Colbornspath by the 10th Jan. They think it best that the cannons be landed at Aberladie, than to be drawn from Berwick. They do not mistrust lack of cattle or victuals for the army when they arrive. Twelve hostages, (wherein the greatest doubt was made,) are granted; six to be sent to Berwick before the English enter, and six to be sent by exchange hereafter.
|3. Provision is made for thirty days, after which the Lords will remain with their friends and servants, 1,000 footmen, and 200 soldiers, as long as the English camp is in those parts. This bearer is sent from the Duke to know their advice touching the Humes, Fernihurst, and Cessford, and the other borderers. Touching the Lord Maxwell he can best report in what readiness he is, and how well he serves this cause. Refers to the bearer, a kinsman of the Duke. His desire is to buy some handsome gelding to do service upon. —Glasgow, 31 Dec. 1559. Signed: Thos. Barnabye.
|Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Mr. Randall. Pp. 4.
|538. Another copy of the above.
|539. Munitions from Flanders.
|Proclamation by Philip II., forbidding the exportation from his realms of any armour or other munitions of war, since, in consequence of the late wars, the supply at home is very scanty.—Brussels, 31 Dec. 1559.
|Endd.: 31 Jan. 1559. Fr. Pp. 4.
B. M. Reg. 13 B. 1. 24 b.
|540. The Queen to the Senate of Lubec, and Others.
|She has received their letters of 30 Aug., and her Councillors, having deliberated thereupon, have returned her answer as well to them by the bearer as to the Teutonic Hanse in London. She thanks them for their willingness to have the matters at issue between them discussed in London, and has given directions that this should be done. In token of her regard for them she agrees to their request that in the meantime trade should be carried on between England and them as heretofore, and hopes that such ulterior arrangements shall be entered into as will tend to the settlement of all previous disputes.—Westminster, prid. cal. Jan. 1559.
|Add.: To the Consuls and Senators of the imperial cities of Lubec, and the other confederate cities of the Teutonic Hanse.
B. M. Reg. 13 B. 1. 25.
|541. The Queen to Albert, Duke of Prussia.
|She is gratified that her acceptance of eight falcons, sent by him last year to her late sister, has afforded him satisfaction, and she has now again to thank him for other eight, which accompanied his letters of 26 October last. She will be pleased to evince her goodwill.—Westminster, prid. cal. Jan.
|542. Ships for the Expedition into Scotland.
|For the Admiral, the great carrick of 700 tons, Captain Sorres. Le Claude, 500 tons, Guilliame de Sannes. La Venteureuse, 300 tons. Le St. Jehan, 300 tons.
|Fr. P. 1.
|543. N. N. to . . . . . .
|Sends along with the present letters a part of the answer brought by the writer from N. which neither "Dominus N." nor "Do. N.," thought should be sent sooner, although he had returned here some time ago. They both thought that they should have received a message from the person addressed expressive of his wishes; which not being the case, the writer did not think it good to retain the letters longer. The King of Navarre by God's blessing is well, and it is hoped he will speedily send an answer to them. The Guises are the chief opponents of his rights. To him belongs the care of the King here, who will not attain his sixteenth year until the month of February; which could he obtain, there would be good hope that the realm of France would be more happily governed. Under this King, by the instigation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, some pious people have been burnt at Paris after the death of the late King. The whole of Aquitain and Normandy is in good heart, and could easily be excited to action if they perceived any movement elsewhere. Requests to be informed where he [the person addressed] is to be found, in case it be necessary to communicate with him.— "Celsitudini tuæ addictissimus N. N."
|Orig. (in a German hand). Lat. Pp. 2.
|544. The Scottish Guard in France.
|"The payment ordinary of the archers of the King of France's guard, Scottishmen, and of the twenty-four that keep his body, and of the captains who have charge of the said guard."
|The guard consisted of the principal captain, the lieutenant and the ensign, the mareschal de logez, three commis, eighty archers of the guard, twenty-four archers of the corps, the pay of whom amounts annually to 51,800 francs, or 6,475l. sterling.
|"Your Lordship shall understand that this ordinary pay has been made since the decease of King Henry of France."
|Orig., in a Scottish hand. P. 1.