Elizabeth: January 1560, 1-10

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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'Elizabeth: January 1560, 1-10', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560, (London, 1865) pp. 260-279. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol2/pp260-279 [accessed 5 March 2024]

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January 1560, 1-10

A.D. 1560.
Jan. 2. R. O.
547. Noailles to the Queen Regent of Scotland.
The mission of the Sieur de la Marque, the bearer of this letter, renders it necessary to send intelligence. The Queen here has charged him to tell her [the Regent] of her [Elizabeth's] desire to preserve peace between the three realms. The King has recalled him and appointed his successor, of whose arrival he is in daily expectation. Regrets that his services in her behalf have been so ineffectual.— London, 2 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Copy. Fr. P. 1.
Jan. 2.
R. O.
548. Mundt to Cecil.
1. Wrote on the 12th Dec. to the Queen through Gresham. The transmission of letters is both costly and difficult. Hopes that he will be more successful in the coming year than he has been in the past. It is likely that the Protestant States will soon hold a meeting, but the day is not yet fixed; if the Queen wishes that any thing be done with them it may be conveniently transacted when they are assembled.
2. As these meetings and conventions are attended with much expense, he reminds Cecil that on 26th July, when writing from the Diet of Augsburg, he told him that he was obliged to spend more than he received; he hopes that Cecil and Mason will be prompt to reply, lest he should weary them by his demands.
3. The Commissioners sent to Treves (as he wrote on the 5th Dec.) have just returned, and after a month's discussion, it is determined that all the citizens who are setters forth of the new religion shall be exiled, and those who refuse to remain in the old religion shall depart, having however permission to sell their goods. Fines to the amount of 3,000 pieces of gold were levied on the more wealthy, under the plea that they were promoters of sedition.—Strasburg, 2 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Jan. 3.
R. O.
549. Mundt to the Queen.
1. Has informed Cecil by two letters that the leaders of cavalry, who had served King Henry in the late war, have been assembled by some agent of the King [of France] at Coburg on the 5th Nov., and that they have again pledged their faith to King Francis and the Duke of Guise. Since then he has been warned by certain worthy men who are zealous in her service, that the Rhinegrave, having called together his captains, told them to hold themselves in readiness, for he would soon have orders from the King for the enrolment of two regiments of foot. The same persons also informed him that the French were raising cavalry in Saxony, which it was probable they would use against Scotland; and that, since the religion of England and Scotland is now the same, and the entrance into England easy from Scotland, they thought that the Queen ought to be informed of these circumstances; and that it would be well if she should urge the Protestant Electors and Princes not to suffer either horse or foot to serve the French, who were persecuting religion, and that they should forbid the same in her dominions by severe edicts. The Princes who should be chiefly advised, are the following; the Elector Palatine, and the Electors of Wurtemberg, Hesse, and Saxony.
2. Since many horsemen are being conveyed out of Lower Saxony, it would be advisable to request Duke Augustus to apply to the Dukes of Mecklenburg, Lunenburg, and Pomerania, with the maritime states, to keep their soldiers at home, nor suffer them to let themselves out for hire for the purpose of persecuting the righteous. It is probable that the German Princes will now be more willing to do so than formerly, since an embassy from the empire to demand the restitution of Metz, Verdun, and Tulle has just gone to the French King, who they expect will give nothing but fair words.
3. The embassy sent last September by the French King to the Emperor has just returned, and speaks highly of the Emperor's munificence. One of the Ambassadors asked in the Cardinal of Lorraine's name for the bishopric of Metz as if it were a fief and benefice of the empire, and he obtained it.
4. The Landgrave in a pamphlet written in German refutes those Saxon censures and accusations put forth by the heirs of John Frederick last year; this he does in a gentle and modest manner, but with freedom and decision. He disapproves of their unfriendly prejudice, and shows that they should act more moderately towards those persons who, not wantonly, but urged by the most heavy reasons, dissent from them in the matter of the Lord's Supper and other indifferent points. He also wishes that no division of the whole cause should be made on account of differing on that one article, but that they should be tolerated and not proscribed, as was formerly done with the Novatians; who, because they joined with the orthodox against the Arians, were not on that account condemned and rejected for one error and mistake, (though a grave one,) namely, that of not granting pardon to those who sinned after baptism. In the end of his writing he recommends that they should call a synod for abating or removing these differences. The writer hears that most of the Protestant Princes wish that the Protestant States should assemble for the purpose of obtaining concord and agreement in the disputed articles.
5. The Cardinal of Lorraine is said to have boasted amongst his friends that a project had been formed amongst the Kings, by which there would be no Lutheran remaining in all Germany or in France in five years. These reports and the daily punishment of the religious ought to make Kings and rulers watchful.—Strasbourg, 3 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
Jan. 4.
R. O.
550. Challoner to Cecil.
1. Having in his letter of the 15th of the last, partly touched on the Prince of Orange, Duke of Alva, and Count d'Egmont being summoned to return into France, it is certain that Orange and Egmont forthwith depart to be at Peronne on the 10th inst., as the Prince of Orange yesterday told him so. The Duke of Alva on account of the distance has longer respite, but come he must for company, because of the quarrel of Châtelet not yet restored, as in his last letters of the 28th ult. he signified. This revocation after all this long fair congé grieves them and is taken scornfully for so meagre a matter, and after the restitution of all the rest to render themselves into the French King's power for one little hold, for which they esteem their persons no equal hostages though the rigour of the words of the treaty so imports. It is not thought that they shall long there remain. It comes evil to pass for the Duke of Alva, who by voice here is said to have been created High Constable of Castile, the greatest dignity in all Spain, the old Constable of the house of Valasco being dead without children. Nevertheless it is affirmed that the King has or will bestow that dignity on his base brother, begotten by the late Emperor in Germany about the time of his wars with the Duke of Saxony; whom he makes very much of, and intends to make him a great man in Spain, the usage of which country well nigh compares bastards with legitimates.
2. What he wrote of the French preparations in Germany has been confirmed by letters from thence.
3. Duke William of Saxony, son of Hans Frederick Duke of Mecklenburg, and the Count of Oldenburg, pensioners to the French, are now about to levy swartrutters and lansknights in Saxony. That country and the Hanse States would be looked to, as the French pensioners of late have had their pensions in Germany renewed by the French.
4. The King of Denmark will not lean to France, because of the Duke of Lorraine's title. The French threaten him as they do England, and he likes not their levying men of war under his nose and stands on his guard. If Denmark and the Esterlings were our fast friends it would be a good point of the wind won. The King and States of Poland, considering he has no children, are now in parliament touching the succession; it is thought that one of the Emperor's younger sons shall be declared successor, with the marriage of the King's sister. And if Charles's suit proceed not the one way it shall be turned the other, for the second brother's mind is not inclined to marriage. This he heard from one who showed him his letters.
5. The rigour of the Spanish Inquisition is much reproved in Germany, and breeds grudge in the Dutch mind.
6. The Venetians at present are in a jealous and double way about their holds in Lombardy, fearing lest the King Catholic in this deep peace with France make some repetition in the right of the Dutch on Milan. The Grissons also fear the like. Chiefly the world rests in expectation what will ensue on this side. A small accident in Sicily has bred a great quarrel between the Spaniards and Genoese, enough to mar all the enterprise of Tripoli, the "platt" whereof with sundry Italian and Romish advices he encloses; as also a pretty confession of the Cardinal of Augusta against Cardinal Medeghin, for which the former is much blamed.
7. The Spanish garrisons here are not yet cassed, and it is thought shall not yet be. The King Catholic has compounded with his folks in the Indies to have inheritance in their things there after the nature of feodum masculinum, paying but half the rent they were wont to do, but giving him 8,000,000 out of hand; and for the quits and behoof of his merchants he looks for as much more.
8. After these wars achieved, there is plenty of money stirring in Antwerp at eight and seven per cent., where they are sure of a good man; for they choke each others market. If war should be divulged, the interest will suddenly rise, and a fortnight or less much imports. The passages in England being stopped, on New Year's Day last came out of England to the Count de Feria, a servant of Luis de Paz, and a man named Sawl, and in a Flemish hoy a servant of the postmaster's in London. "This is a goodly passage stopped."— Brussels, 4 Jan. 1559.
9. P. S.—Upon occasion of a letter written to him by some merchants at Barrow (which he sends enclosed) he wrote back to them to signify so much to the Queen before they suffered their ships now freighted for England to depart; to the end they might have wafters sent them, or might have further knowledge of her pleasure.
Draft, corrected by Challoner, and endd. by him. M. to Mr. Secretary. Sent by Mr. Chester's servant to Mr. Fitzwilliams to send into England.
Pp. 4.
Jan. 4.
551. Challoner to Fitzwilliams.
Has received his letter of the 3rd. Considering the suspect times and the proceedings of the French, having such a navy and in such order as he writes of in Zealand, his advice is that none of the vessels freighted with English goods be suffered to leave the coast for England before he has signified to the Queen and her Council, that they may send over wafters or otherwise. Reminds him how he was served at the first breach of the war with France, in Queen Mary's time, to his great losses and shame, for want of circumspection, which ought now to serve him as an example in the present case; not that he affirms that wars are open, but he nothing likes these the preludes, wherefore would have him stand upon his guard. Does not think the Lords of the Council would grant his request to cause the Breton fleet in Zealand to be stayed for a tide or two behind his [Fitzwilliams']; and if they did, the French would not obey the arrest, but take their advantage; nevertheless he will speak herein as he shall be commanded by the Queen. And as this is too much for the writer to do without commission, (viz. to commit the fleet to the adventure,) Challoner wishes him to signify thus much to the Queen, whereupon he may receive an immediate answer. Has written to the Queen.—Brussels, 4 Jan. 1559.
Copy. Endd. by Challoner: M. to Fitzwilliams, the Governor's deputy. Pp. 3.
Jan. 6.
R. O. Forbes, 1.222.
552. Killigrew and Jones to the Queen. (fn. 1)
1. On 3rd inst. they supped with the Spanish Ambassador, who told him of the being of the Marshal St. André with him on behalf of the Queen Mother, with message, that if there was anything he wanted he was to send to her. The Marshal reminded the Ambassador of his good entreating in Spain, and then talked of the peace, which he said was not to the satisfaction of everybody. The Ambassador also declared the bruits of the garboils at Paris, Gascony, Lyons, and other places; and that as soon as the King was at Paris, those of other places for the cause of religion will stir. The Marshal also spoke of the Queen arming; to which the Ambassador replied that she had reason, when not only did they bear her arms, but such numbers are sent into Scotland and fortifications at Aymouth minded to be made, contrary to the treaty, and her style also adopted. "We have the right in us," said the Marshal "as the title appertains to the French Queen," and began to say that the Queen of England was illegitimate, The Ambassador defended her; and then said that if they built at Aymouth there would be some broken heads about the letting of it, the which the French would make occasion for war. Here the Marshal said that the King meant not to break, nor thought upon any war. This was the effect of their talk. The Ambassador thought the Marshal's coming was to make the matter appear good to the King of Spain, and if England did break, the fault was not theirs. He told them that "his master thought that the Pope being basse, the Princes should constrain him to a General Council."
2. The Ambassador further told them that he had signified the whole of this discourse to his master; and wished that, if the Queen minded to break, the same might be done in order, and that some man of knowledge might be sent here to demand reason at the Frenchmen's hands; so that it might appear the French did injury, though they offered no force. He said that it would not be generally liked if the Queen took upon her the defence of Scotland, as the people were men of no valour; that if the English fall to composition with them and they hereafter dislike the matter, they themselves will be the first that will make the gate open for the French to enter into England, and be the greatest enemies she has; and that it was far more honourable if her own cause moved her to take the commodity now it is offered than in taking up the defence of a people whereof there is so small account to be made by making war for their cause.
3. The Ambassador further said that if the matter of her marriage be concluded between her and Charles of Austria, it were not amiss to send over here upon the arrival of the Emperor's Ambassador; or if she marries with Scotland it were better for it to be known and ended, as she would then know her friends from her foes. He added that if she married the Emperor's son, he will not enter into the quarrel of Scotland. They answered that the Queen was minded to stand upon her defence.
4. Cardinal Medici is elected Pope, with the support of the Duke of Florence; he is judged to be more Spanish than French. The evil entreating of the Scotchmen here increases, and the keys of the court gates are taken from them. The ordinance of the posts, of which they wrote lately, is broken. The grand Prior arrived here the 4th inst. from Rome. It is said that the Marquis d'Elbœuf departed from Calais on 29th ult. and is judged to have arrived in Scotland.
5. The great bruit of war is somewhat ceased; the small account they make here of her force causes them to be careless of the same. The French practise all they can to levy men in Germany, to make provision of money, and to entertain their captains and soldiers, and pay no money to any but such as mind to employ in their wars.
6. The French King, on 5th inst., has removed to Marchenoir, the Duke of Longueville's house, thence to Châteaudun, and in four or five days returns to Blois. By divers late ordinances of Parliament his revenue is increased about 2,000,000 of francs. As soon as they are able, the French mind to be busy with England, although presently they have not one denier in store. An Ambassador is on his way to this Court from Turkey or Algiers. Rickrolf, son of old Rickrolf, a colonel of Almain, is here to sue for his father's pension, which is granted.
7. The King minds to send shortly to the new Pope for renewing the league between the late Pope, the Spanish King and himself, for suppressing religion; the end whereof was to constrain the Protestants to receive the Pope's authority and religion, and to call a General Council. II Cavalliero de la Cieva, appointed Ambassador in England, is ordered to depart. M. Jarnac is despatched hence into Normandy to prepare against all sudden attempts, and also for the conveyance of the Duke d'Aumale into Scotland.
8. They enclose a copy of the order of the receiving of the Queen Catholic into Spain, together with an extract of the receiving of the King of Spain. On 5th inst. Marshal Termes was ordered to repair to Court. There is a report that her ships have taken two French ships sent into Scotland with treasure.—Blois, 6 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.
Jan. 6.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 297.
553. Killigrew and Jones to Cecil.
1. On the 27th Dec. they despatched two letters of the same date to the Queen, one by the way of Dieppe, by Baynard, and the other by that of Flanders, directed to Challoner. The late rumours of the Queen's great preparation to the sea and Berwick have caused many of their familiars to absent themselves, whereby the commodity for learning anything is taken away. The low ebb whereat these men stay, causes them to use all their means to persuade the King of Spain to think well of their doings, and that they mean simply, because they are not able to put in effect as much of their malice as they would. For this purpose they mind to change all such of their Ambassadors as were of the Constable's appointing.
2. La Cieva departs for England in two or three days, by whom they will write a few lines unto him and Throckmorton. Noailles' servant arrived on the 4th inst., who told them that the castle of Edinburgh was rendered into the Queen Dowager's hand. The Duchess of Guise is brought to bed of a boy. Upon the Pope's election the state of things is like to be altered, and many practices to be put in "ure" by the French and others for matter of religion. It is necessary that some man should be sent here for the Queen's service, or else such as may be thought meet to be used on this side for intelligence be entertained. The writers are already suspected, and would be sorry that anything of importance should escape the Queen's knowledge.—Blois, 6 Jan 1559. Signed.
3. P. S.—After they had sealed the Queen's letter, the Ambassador of Spain sent for them to dinner; and told them that De la Cievre (whom they have misnamed Cieva) had just taken his leave, and had declared that the French King, minding to continue the amity with England, had appointed him his Ambassador to reside there; and that the rumours which had troubled the King and his Council originated with Noailles, who was not contented to be so soon revoked, and therefore wished to cause a broil; and his master, wishing to preserve the amity, liked to change him from thence. La Cievre also had said that the rumours were not so great as was said, and that the Queen's preparations were not so great as was bruited; that she had but five ships on the sea and would shortly have three more, wherein she did wisely, and praised her wisdom. That the King here was assured she would not break, as two French ships at Dover were taken and released; and that the French Ambassador there, requesting passport to send over hither, was blamed much by the Queen for so doing, who assured him that she meant nothing but peace. He also told the Ambassador that Lord Paget should be sent into Spain to inform the King there of the state of things; that Edinburgh was by Lord Erskine delivered into the Queen Dowager's hands; and that the Earl of Arran had submitted himself as the Queen of England's subject, who with the rest of the Congregation had accorded to give her the four best forts in Scotland, and 30,000 crowns in revenue. This was the effect of Cievre's conversation with the Ambassador.
4. The writers hope that the Queen will not be abused by fair weather; and that more credit be not given to the French than the reason of her own affairs leads her to. For either they dissemble to win time, or else all men here are deceived; as the only discourse they hear is that the French mean with all their force to be busy with England as soon as ever they shall have anything in their purses to begin withal. Signed.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Jan. 6.
554. Challoner to the Queen.
1. On the 5th inst. by extraordinary post came certain advice to this Court of the election as Pope of Cardinal Medicis, alias Medeghino, brother of the late Marquis of Marignan, who is very hard favoured, but wise and learned; of profession a lawyer, and a great friend to the Duke of Florence. He is wholly at King Philip's devotion, through whom it is judged he obtained the place, and by consequence it is looked that during his papacy he should wholly show himself a Philipist. He has taken the name of Innocentius. If she has read a pasquil among others sent by him, written under the name of Concino, the Duke of Florence's secretary, and the confession of the Cardinal of Augusta touching the words of the Cardinal of Medeghino in private conference, she will see what judgment those at Rome had of his inclination before his election. But the rule does not hold amongst them that the Pope should persist in the same mind he was of as Cardinal; therefore what innocent medicines this Medeghino will henceforth minister, time will discover. If he continue a Philipist it will be no small "accrue" to King Philip's greatness, already to most men suspected. (fn. 2)
2. In his letter to her of the 23rd of August last, he told her how, at Flushing, and afterwards at Antwerp, through Mr. Bernardine Grenade's means, he spoke with the Rhinegrave, and also what he conceived of his mind from his words; (fn. 3) on which point he has received from her no answer. (fn. 4) And whereas he has also written touching the intended sending of the Rhinegrave into Scotland in the French service, he trusts that she will understand that it is his duty to inform her of everything he learns either from M. d'Arras or otherwise. So it is that yesterday, by a servant of the Rhinegrave's, he received a letter from him, written of his own hand, of which he encloses a copy; whereby she may see how he discharges his promises to Grenade of sending her a present of two horses. He has sent three, requesting him [Challoner] to forward them to her. Having read this letter he was perplexed, by reason of his [the Rhinegrave's] preparations for the service of France, what to answer, but thought it best as there was no open war yet to entertain his present till he knew her pleasure, a copy of which answer he sends herewith. The three horses "stand at inn" here, waiting for her acceptance or refusal. In case she accepts them (being in very deed a present meet for a Queen), he trusts his overmuch scrupulosity shall not be blamed. If not, the excuse of the passports not obtained and others will serve to send him back his horses, with the loss only of 30 ducats given to the bringers and the horse meat; wherein what he does may be imputed only to himself.
3. As he formerly wrote that he thought the Rhinegrave was a man discontented as not being well used at the French King's hands, so he has learnt from his servant that he has lived retired ever since the King's coronation at a fair house of his own building, upon the Moselle, near Nancy in Lorraine, sixty-three leagues hence.
4. This servant upon his drink (for he made him to be well plied) confessed to him that his master, being lately written for by the French King to repair to Court to serve Scotland, answered that he would first be payed the arrears of his pension. The writer knows the same by means of another in this town, to whom he [the Rhinegrave] wrote as much in effect, saying that he was afraid that he could not be well shift of it; but whether on account of his unpaid pension or otherwise, he cannot tell. It were a point of moment and ability if he could be withdrawn from the French King's service, being such a principal colonel as well for the luck he has had against our nation as for his skill in the Scottish wars. He is of the French Order, and has lands by his wife in France, and a large pension from them. If he never stirred his foot from hence in this matter he were worth a round pension secretly from her to sit still, for so should the French King's best soldier be laid in dock, both without reproof to him and without dread on our side of nourishing a snake in our bosom. In case she wished it, the writer could find means (by some secret way picked out here for the nones) to learn quickly what he does at home, and what bruit goes of his doings; for it is not so far off to his dwelling place. Begs her to signify her pleasure speedily.
5. Touching the Spanish and Dutch captains, pensioners to King Philip to serve him if wars ensue, (as here they hold it well nigh certain) he wots not how they are to be trusted. "But one thing I understand, that suspicion and jealousy between France and us hath on both sides well advanced the matter hitherto, which these men mislike no whit." The packet sent herewith this day, M. d'Arras sent unto him coming out of France.— Brussels, 6 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6
Jan. 6.
R. O.
555. Draft of the above. Hol. Endd. by Challoner: M. to the Queen, 6 Jan. Sent by Clough. Rhinegrave. Pp. 11.
Jan. 6.
556. Challoner to Clough.
The packet sent herewith is of great importance, with letters out of France to the Queen, so if any trusty Englishman is departing from Antwerp to London out of hand, Clough shall send it in another cover addressed to the Secretary, or his master, if he be not come away. If there be not, he is to have it conveyed by an express messenger, either along seas or to Dunkirk; with orders that if the French board the vessel he goes in, seeing none other remedy, he is to tie the packet to a stone and throw it overboard. The writer would send one of his own folk, but three lately sent into England are not yet returned. Will pay the charge of the carriage of this packet at his coming to Antwerp. Looks long for his master's coming, whom he hears is to be his [Challoner's] successor.—Brussels, 6 Jan. 1559.
Copy. Endd. by Challoner: M. to Richard Clough. Pp. 2.
Jan. 6.
557. Challoner to Cecil.
Things written presently to the Queen he will not double unto him, but beseeches him to despatch a speedy answer, and to deliver his letters to the Lord Admiral and Grenado. Has received no letter from him since the 13th of the last. Has heard nothing of Mr. Gresham's coming over, of whom at Antwerp they make reckoning, as the passage is not so stopped but that to sundry other are letters passed. He only rests void. Will furnish him with these prognostications for the new year. News out of Spain he hears none; it is much marvelled that four or five express couriers sent there have not returned. The Council keep their affairs very close. It were good the Queen heard oftener from thence. If she would bestow upon one for France, (and this man he knows is able to serve the turn) 200 Δ a year, perchance he would find means that she should have both frequent and certain news from hence. He says 200 Δ, till some other prebend in England might stop that charge.—6 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Jan. 6.
558. Copy of above.
Endd.: M. to Mr. Secretary, 6 Jan. 1559, sent by Clough. Pp. 2.
Jan. 6.
559. The Earl of Shrewsbury to the Lords of the Privy Council.
Has this day received the Queen's letter of Dec. 26th for the setting forth of certain horsemen to be on the frontiers of the north before the 28 inst.; and also another of the last of Dec. that such footmen as were not past already with the said horsemen should be put in readiness, but not proceed until further warning from her or the Duke of Norfolk. In reply he states that the last part of the footmen appointed of Yorkshire departed northward before Christmas Day, and for the horsemen ready furniture shall be appointed. Although the Queen looks to have furnished as demi-lances and others with corslets and pistolets fifty-nine or above, he has received in the packet only fifty-seven letters, whereof five were blank not endorsed, with other defaults specified in a schedule enclosed. Requests that letters undirected be sent, which he will cause to be endorsed to fit persons. Intends within two days to repair to York.—Sheffield, 6 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
[Jan. 6.]
560. Schedule referred to in the previous letter.
Endd. Pp. 2. P. 1.
Jan. 6.
561. John Maxwell to Lord Dacre.
Has spoke with the Laird of Drumlangrik on the 6th January "at twelve hours," and finding him of mind never to join himself to the French, and thinking that his answer will be reasonable as to what he will do in this great and common cause, he desires Dacre to take order that none of England trouble his lands until they may have his answer.—Dumfries, 6 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Copy. Add.
Jan. 6.
R. O.
562. John Maxwell to Lord Dacre.
1. According to his promise of the 4th inst. the writer has had some gentlemen of this country before him, to know whether they would be of their party "in this cause that is pretended to God's glory and commonwealth of their realms." And presently these have granted to adjoin themselves unto the same, besides the Lord Maxwell, his brother's son's heritage and his own. The towns of Dumfries, Annan, and Loch Maben; his baillies of the abbacies of Holywood, Lynclowden, Newabbey, Dundrennan, and Tungland; the Lairds of Anisfield, Cockquill, Holmends, Lord Carlill, and the Laird of Johnstone; and promised that the whole surname should do so too. But they are of small credit, a number of inconstant and broken men. Wishes that the order of them should be taken by Dacre, or some one whom he would appoint; and also for the whole countries of Annandale, Eskdale, Ewisdale, because the number is great and the people inconstant. Whatever order he would take with them, the writer will join thereto both in will and labour. Though he may have what promises he pleases, their inconstantness fears him. He believes that the Lairds of Lage, Closeburn, and Kirkmichael will adjoin themselves in two or three days with many others.— Dumfries, 6 Jan. 1559. Signed.
2. P. S.—Requests Dacre's order that the Grahams and Sandes ride not upon "Crawford John, Lessmahagow, Lamertoun, which lands pertain to my Lord Duke."—
Copy. Add.
[Jan. 6.]
R. O.
563. The Lord James to Alexander Armstrong of Morton.
These are the names of my Lord Duke's well wishers and partakers, who will defend the liberty of Scotland and set forward Christ's word: The barony of Crawford John, pertaining to his cousin Sir John Hamilton; the Laird of Lamertoun, with his friends and servants. The Laird of Annastoun and the tutor of Symontown; the Lairds of Bakbee, Coutermains, and John Mynzies of Cowterwater; the Lairds of Corhouse, Stanebyre, Lee, Bonnytown, Cleghorne, Carmichell, Gerresned, Bestoun, with the whole town of Lauder; the Lairds of Menle, appertaining to the Laird of Cunningham Head, the Laird of Bakner with the rest of the Barons of Lesmahago appertaining to the Duke, the Lairds and Barons of Evendale and Steynehouse; the Lairds of Milton and Calderwood with the barony of Mawleslee, the Lairds of Cromnachan, Dalzel, Carfin (younger and elder), and Kneland; "the guidman of Dasert, the guidman of the Gowan, and the Lairds of Killismuir." Signed: James.
Copy. Add.: To my traist friend and father, Alexander Armestrange of Morton.
Jan. 7.
R. O.
564. Challoner to Cecil.
1. After the despatch of his other letters, late yesterday evening came to him a Spanish captain, a man of a good sort, who had served King Henry VIII in England, who told him that he had received letters out of France from a Spaniard of his acquaintance there, who has good practice in that Court, that the French by the middle or end of March next, (sending always in the mean time dispersed small bodies of soldiers into Scotland,) intended to attempt Berwick by surprise. This enterprise they had great hopes would succeed by means of such intelligence and treaty as they had with traitors, both within and without the town, and who were of such quality as their ability might match their malice. He came to tell him at that unfit season of the night that he might not be noted. He also spoke of another enterprise the French purposed against Newcastle; he therefore advertises the Queen of it with all good speed. Possibly this man came not of his own head, but so willed by some of the Council here, who in like cases are oftentimes wont to speak by a third person. If Berwick and the Isle of Wight are well guarded from treason, he passes the less what the French shall work by main force.
2. One of the N [the Rhinegrave's] three horses remained at Namur, having hurt his foot through fault of the bringers, and will not be able to remove for three weeks, and is a fair Turkish dapple grey. The said N [Rhingrave] has been in anger and displeasure with the Cardinal of Lorraine, and is not yet reconciled.
3. The French endeavour to levy money by "emprest" out of Spain and Italy, and the Genevois are much solicited by them.
4. On Friday last, at Namur a proclamation was made that no soldiers, armour, or victuals should pass out of the Low Countries for the service or aid of either France or England. Begs to know speedily the Queen's pleasure about the aforesaid three horses. Sends a letter of request to the Regent for their passports, not making mention of how he came by them; for the Regent looked for a like letter in Grenado's case, who sped the worse for being without it.
5. Touching the "party" of whom he wrote as a meet man for the Queen's service in France, he takes him to be much to the purpose both for skill and acquaintance. Under colour of being with the Venetian Ambassador there, he may always address his letters to Antwerp, weekly to be sent over to him [Cecil]. "If ye like the practice, let me alone with the rest:" will give him a cipher before he leaves. 200 ducats were well bestowed for a year's proof at this time. The man has a good head for the purpose; if this please the Queen he should be encouraged with hopes of better reward, viz., a benefice.
6. Desires to know whether his letters, viz. of the 1, 6, 15, and 28 ult., and the 4 and 6 inst., have arrived. Has not heard of Mr. Gresham; sed quando?—Brussels, 7 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
Jan. 8.
R. O.
565. The Earl of Arran and the Lord James to Sadler and Croftes. (fn. 5)
1. These whole ten or twelve days the writers have been "continually impeschit and travailled with the Franches, and the whole country fasched and superexpended." They have been constrained to retire to Saint Andrews to take some refreshing. Their adversaries followed, and have arrived at Kinghorn and Kircaldy, which caused the writers to assemble and move towards them to Couper; where, remaining themselves with the footmen, upon the assembling of their brethren they sent forward their horsemen to Kinghorn. The inhabitants, provoked by some that skirmished, rashly meddled with the adversary before the full arrival of the Scottish horse, in company of whom was Lord Sutherland, directed to the writers by Lord Huntley, with assurance of his good mind and full assistance towards the common action. Lord Sutherland, having arrived in the time of the skirmish, is shot in the left arm. The Scotch being of no power, were repulsed with equal slaughter (which is very small); the enemy, however, has occupied Kinghorn, Kircaldy, and Dysart.
2. The writers apprehend that they will be compelled either to jeopard a battle, which is very hazardous, or to abandon Fife for a season. They have oft desired the arrival of the English ships, which would have "rayd" this whole business, and granted the writers opportunity of provision. Sadler and Croftes will consider the necessity of the matter, and provide what is most able to relieve their friends.—Couper, in Fife, 8 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
Jan. 8.
R. O.
566. Charges at Berwick.
Receipt for 4,000l. received from Roger Alford to be conveyed to Berwick, signed by Valentine Brown. 8 Jan. 1559.
Orig., with seal. Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 9.
R. O.
567. Instructions from the Queen to Throckmorton. (fn. 6)
1. For the furtherance of her service Throckmorton shall procure James Melvyn to be placed by the Constable with the Palsgrave, and give him in reward 100 crowns, and promise a pension of 200 crowns per annum. He shall also procure Florence Diaceto to return hither, and promise him [blank] hundred crowns in pension.
2. He shall comfort H. Dudley to go into Scotland, and give him in reward 100 crowns.
3. In these things he shall use his discretion either to follow or forbear these instructions, as shall seem most profitable for her service.—9 Jan. 1559.
Orig. in Cecil's hol., and endd. by him: An addition to the former instructions given to Sir N. Throckmorton, upon his second return, Jan. 1559.
Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 9.
R. O.
568. De la Brosse to the Duke of Norfolk.
The Queen of England having sent the writer a passport, he forwards it by the bearer for inspection. It being commonly reported here that the Queen of England has sent him [the Duke] as her lieutenant-general to attack the French and favour the rebels of this kingdom, (which however he cannot believe,) the writer assures him that the French upon their part will do nothing contrary to the treaty of peace lately concluded between their respective realms. He asks to know whether he may return in safety according to his passport.— At the palace of Lislebourg [Edinburgh], 9 Jan. 1559. Signed: De la Brosse.
Orig. Add. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 10.
R. O.
569. Killigrew and Jones to Cecil.
1. They sent letters on the 6th inst. to him and the Queen by the way of Flanders. The Venetian Ambassador has declared, in the absence of the English Ambassador, that on account of the exclusion of the French from Italy, a gentleman of Urbino, named II Signor conte Hannibal, who has long served the French King, and who was skilled in fortification, is desirous of serving the Queen, and will be able to conduct a number of Italian horse and foot into her service. They have therefore delivered certain letters to the said Count, addressed to Cecil. He will shortly depart by way of Flanders, so that his forsaking the King's service might not be known. The said Count's discontentment was by occasion of Cievre's secretary, who was his great friend, going into England, which it is well to remember, so that he may not be as much harm one way as good another way. He has been before in England with Don Ferrante Gonzago, in the time of Henry VIII.
2. Touching Portonary, seeing it is ordered that no pension for things past be paid for twelve months, and that he was promised payment this month, he will most likely be unable to leave Paris from want of money.
3. It is reported here that the Queen is minded to besiege Leith, and that she has sent ordnance to Berwick, and made ready 12,000 men, and has certain ships upon the seas. These rumours are brought by persons who pass to and fro; if there is any truth in them it will not be amiss to stop the passages, which will give the French more occasion to doubt when they can hear nothing for certain of what is going on, on the other side. They refer to the Queen's letters.—Blois, 10 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig., portions in cipher, deciphered. Add., with armorial seal. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Jan. 10.
R. O.
570. Killigrew and Jones to Cecil.
They recommend the bearer, Count Hannibal, of Urbino, for his skill in fortification, experience in the French wars in Italy, and ability to raise soldiers in Italy in event of war. — Blois, 10 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Jan. 10.
R. O.
571. W. Maitland to Cecil.
1. Cecil may perceive by his letters what service the show of his ships presently on the Scottish coast was able to do, and what inconvenients may ensue by long drift of time. Prays to know the Queen's mind, and that command be sent to the ships to make haste as wind and weather will serve. Expects she will not alter her former resolution.
2. By his late advertisements the writer has given the noblemen such comfort of aid, that if it shall not shortly appear, his credit is like to be in hazard; and they driven from hope to despair. The proceedings of the French presently are as of desperate men, tempting fortune and putting all in hazard; and wisdom requires of our men to temper themselves, and not to commit the whole to fortune. If they follow good advice they will conserve their forces until they know the Queen's final resolution; but if they are destitute of help, the last refuge is to assay fortune, and either obtain victory in battle or else die honestly in the field. Wishes to know the Queen's deliberation before the French grow too strong.— 10 Jan. 1559.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: L. Ledyngton. Pp. 2.
Jan. 10.
R. O. Haynes. p. 220.
572. The Duke of Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 7)
1. He has received the Queen's letters of the 30th December and Cecil's of the last of the same, whereby he perceives the Queen's determination for the stay of the number of horsemen and footmen for a time, and for such as were on their way to this frontier, that he shall take order to lay them in several places, that they may be victualled without expense of such victual as is provided near the borders.
2. Before he arrived here, 1,600 footmen of the first appointed number had passed this town and were placed in divers towns and villages in Northumberland, where they are victualled without spending her provision. It is not convenient to draw them back again, so as to avoid such bruits as may arise thereof. Others that have arrived since, he has placed hereabouts, and has given orders to the captains to have them taught the use of their weapons. As for the money to prest them beforehand for provision and payment of victual, the Treasurer of Berwick has none in hand, and scarcely sufficient to pay the garrison of Berwick for what was due the 25th July last, which he paid them before the writer arrived. The Duke has borrowed of the merchants of this town 500l., to be repaid in ten days, in which he hopes that his credit here be not impaired. Being restrained by his instructions from employing any of the treasure brought by Valentine Brown upon the garrisons of Berwick, there being no less than 9,000l. or 10,000l., due to them, he must say his opinion; viz., that if the intended exploit into Scotland takes place, the service of the said garrison is most necessary; they are well trained and mostly old soldiers, and most skilful, especially for "the harquebuserie" and pike, as there be no better. He is sure that if Lord Grey has his choice he will not leave them behind; in which case they must be paid, to provide for necessaries and their victuals, as they can get no credit.
3. Having conferred with Sir Ralph Sadler touching the aid of the Scots for the expulsion of the French, it seems to the writer that some alteration may follow of their former purposes by reason of the French abandoning Edinburgh, and seeming to make little account of Leith, having left not past two or three ensigns there, and having now left Stirling, and entered Fife, as will be seen by a letter of Sir James Croftes sent to Sir Ralph (fn. 8) since he came here. So, until it appears what the French intend, it is hard to devise how she may best aid the Scots. If the navy had arrived (of which he knows nothing) in the Frith, it would give them great aid and comfort, especially at this time, both in the impeachment of the French succours, and otherwise if they be furnished as they may set some convenient number on land. It appears the Protestants wholly depend upon the English succour as the only means to cause all such as be neutral to take plain part with them. It will appear shortly what the French intend to do in Fife. (fn. 9) It is thought here that if they return to Leith, the intended exploit by land is the best aid that can be given to the Protestants; so if the French be able to plant themselves on the other side of the Frith, and to abide there, he cannot see but that the best and only way to aid them would be by sea. How the ministering of aid to them in the manner devised in the Queen's letter can be sufficient, or so coloured that it shall not be taken for a plain breach of peace, and seem to be open hostility, (especially when her ships shall lie in the Frith to annoy the French and impeach their landing, though it seem done of themselves,) he doubts not but that he [Cecil] will be able to judge.
4. Hitherto no victual nor munition has arrived here; he wishes Cecil to send a schedule of the prices of the armour and munition, so that the writer may know how the same shall be sold to the soldiers. He [Cecil] will understand by the letters of the said Sir James, how La Marque is "distressed" by certain Scotchmen, and carried to the Duke of Châtellerault; whereof the writer takes no great care.
5. P. S.—Finding this town and country far out of order in matters of religion and the altars standing still in the churches, contrary to the Queen's proceedings, he advises Cecil to procure her commission for the Dean of Durham and others to have these things reformed, in such sort as shall answer to the advancement of God's true religion and the confirmation of the Queen's godly zeal thereunto.
6. Sir F. Leeke is appointed to serve here with a band of 300 soldiers, (a man of good will to do service, and of experience in this country,) the writer would be well pleased to use him if he could obtain the Queen's licence. (fn. 10) Finds great ease by Sadler's presence, as well for his great experience and counsel in the Queen's affairs as for the perfect and great friendship he finds in him. Mr. John Fitzwilliams when he comes shall not be unwelcome.—Newcastle, 10 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
[Jan. 10.]
R. O.
573. Demesnes and Tithes of Tynemouth.
1. Commodity of the demesnes and tithes appertaining unto Tynemouth, which Sir Francis Leek had by lease; of the yearly rent of 163l. 1s. 5d.
2. Several pastures called Flatworth closes, which may continually well keep 2,000 sheep, besides as many beeves and muttons as a baron can conveniently spend in a year in his house, and may very well also keep ten geldings and sixty milch kine.
3. The tithe corn and grain of several parsonages, parcel of the same lease, which will easily discharge the whole yearly rent at the rate of 5s. the quarter.
4. The tithe fishing of Shields, amounting to 30l., by year.
5. There are eight salt pans, parcel of the same lease, very profitable.
6. Coquet Island is incident to the castle of Tynemouth, but is not contained in the lease.
7. All the demesnes, as well arable land as pasturages, of Tynemouth are omitted; Flatworth only excepted.
8. There is within the same lease one coal-pit at Benwell, at the yearly rate of 5l. 6s. 8d., whereas all the Queen's tenants at Benwell do yearly pay 20l. for every coal-pit there.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.


  • 1. Noailles to Francis II.
    Jan. 2.
    MS. Paris, Angl. Reg. xiii. 685. Teulet, 1. 393.
    1. La Marque arrived here on 31st ult. The writer, upon the perusal of the despatches brought by him, sent immediately to demand an audience with the Queen, which was fixed for the morrow at 2 p.m. At that hour Noailles and La Marque found her in the chamber of presence, where there was a ball. She received them pleasantly, immediately recognized La Marque, whom she addressed by name, and asked him for news of Francis. La Marque presented his letters, which she read attentively, and afterwards he explained his credit, which consisted, in the first place, of the cause of his journey. She said she was very sorry to hear of the illness of the Queen Regent, and asked whether they had any secret intelligence of her. La Marque answered that according to the last despatch received by Francis she was in extreme danger; so much so that the King, the Queen, her mother and brothers, were in the greatest anxiety until his return. Noailles confirmed the report from other sources. Elizabeth said she was well aware that the Dowager had for long been subject to frequent attacks of illness, and that the anxiety and annoyance to which she was exposed would probably warrant the reports now current.
    2. La Marque next spoke of the Queen's unfavourable impression as to the despatch of the ships and troops from France to Scotland, and assured her that it ought not in any way to be construed into an act of hostility towards England. She willingly accepted these assurances, and said what she had done was only by way of ordinary precaution. La Marque answered that Francis was fully persuaded of her friendship, and that consequently he [the speaker] was the more surprised at finding the ports closed, and that a French vessel laden with corn for Scotland, had been arrested at Dover. He had also heard the English speak of being about to declare war, a thing quite unexpected by the French.
    3. Noailles had requested La Marque to use this language in order that he might notice her countenance, he having already spoken to the same effect in an audience which he had with her on 26th ult., on which occasion, she, as previously, had affirmed that this had been done without her knowledge; and that immediately upon the complaint of Noailles, she had sent to inquire into the matter and to provide a remedy. Francis ought not, she said, to doubt her friendship in consequence of such a trifle. The King may hence perceive how fairly she spoke on this occasion. He does not know how to reconcile her words with her actions, for her fleet is being prepared and amounts to fifteen or sixteen armed ships. The writer will make further inquiries.
    4. At the end of the interview she asked La Marque to convey her most affectionate recommendations to the Queen Regent, and to assure her that if her prayers for her good health and prosperity could prevail with God they should not be wanting. She then asked for a chair and sat down, and summoned the Duke of Finland and Noailles, with whom she talked on indifferent matters. She then retired into her chamber, saying that she would cause La Marque's passport to be expedited.—London, 2 Jan. 1559.
  • 2. The draft here contains the following passage, which is cancelled:—"It may further like your Highness to understand that yesterday I received a letter from the Rhinegrave, written of his own hand, by a servant of his own."
  • 3. "Looking perhaps I should have ministered some words of offer unto him." —Cancelled in the draft.
  • 4. "What I have also heard touching the said Rhinegrave's appointment to serve the French this summer in Scotland, I have also."—Draft, cancelled.
  • 5. An abstract of this letter occurs among the Sadler papers at Burton-Constable, and is printed 1. 684, No. CCVIII.
  • 6. Another copy of these Instructions is contained in the Cott. M.S. Cal. E.V. 62, but it is much injured by fire.
  • 7. Another copy occurs at Hatfield House in the Duke of Norfolk's letter-book.
  • 8. In a P. S. written on the following day the Duke again refers to this letter, and adds that it would be good, in his opinion, to comfort Arran and the Lord James with a convenient sum of money until the ships arrive, and that he has licensed Sadler to go from Newcastle to Berwick for the accomplishment of the same. See Haynes, p. 222.
  • 9. D'Oysel to Noailles.
    Jan. 9.
    MS. Paris, Angl. Reg. xiv. 341. Teulet, 1. 404.
    Upon Christmas eve, Villeparisis, (by the advice of the Queen, La Brosse, and the Bishop of Amiens, who are here as Her Majesty's Council) despatched Sarlaboz with five ensigns of foot to march direct to Stirling; and the next day Villeparisis himself followed them with eight ensigns of foot, all the cavalry which are here and certain pieces of artillery, expecting to find there the Duke of Châtellerault, the Earls of Arran, Argyle, and Glencarne, the Prior of St. Andrews, the Lord Rusvey [Ruthven] and their accomplices, who have met there to pass their Christmas and to transact certain matters of business. But they, being informed of the march as well of Villeparisis as of Sarlaboz, broke up forth with, and the Duke departed on the midnight of Christmas. In consequence of the bad weather Villeparisis caused the troops to remain there for some days, and having collected all his forces at Stirling, he directed them to cross the river by the bridge there, thus avoiding the necessity of embarking his troops, which otherwise he must have done. The united body under the command of Sarlaboz then marched into Fife, on the opposite side of the river, where the rebels are in greatest force. Villeparisis, being informed of this advance, caused from 300 to 400 foot soldiers to embark at Leith on last Sunday, 7th January. On their landing they had time to effect a junction with the cavalry of Villeparisis, (which Sarlaboz had sent down along with some mounted harquebusiers,) before they were charged by the enemy, who amounted to 1,500 or 1,600 men. At the beginning the Scotch pretended that they would fight, but finding themselves sharply attacked by the little troop of Frenchmen they began to waver, which being noticed by the French, they charged more resolutely than before. The Scotch were put to flight, two ensigns were taken, and they lost, between prisoners and wounded, at least 400 or 500 men. The survivors fled without looking behind them. Not one could have escaped if the French had possessed cavalry.
  • 10. So far the letter is in the writing of Railton, the remainder is in the Duke's hand.