Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.
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January 1560, 21-25
|608. The Queen to the Regent of Flanders.
|Requests her to grant a passport for three or four horses purchased for the Queen by Sir Thos. Challoner. Did not specially write in Barnaby Grenado's case, because she thought her Ambassador's credit was sufficient.—Westminster, [blank] Jan. 1559.
|Draft in French, with additions in English by Cecil. Endd. Pp.2.
609. Fair copy of the above.
Endd.: 21 Jan. 1559. Fr. Pp. 2.
|610. Cecil to Challoner.
|Encloses a copy of the Queen's letter to the Regent, in procuring which he has had somewhat to do. She would rather have him use his own credit than her letter; and yet rather than to fail, to use the commodity thereof.—21 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Hol., with the royal signet. Add. Endd. by Challoner. Pp. 2.
|611. Edward, Earl of Derby, to Cecil.
|The Queen's letters of the 16th Dec. (for the levying of horsemen in Lancashire and Cheshire,) and other her letters for stay of the same, as well as of the footmen that were not gone, (being about forty) came to his hands together with the Council's letters and Cecil's on 17th inst. Upon their receipt he appointed a survey of the same on 29th inst. On 21st inst., he has received the Queen's letters of the 11th inst., to cause the horsemen and footmen to be at Newcastle by 1st Feb., which is not possible, as he has advertised the Duke of Norfolk. Asks Cecil to acquaint the Council with the same.—Lathom, 21 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
|612. Croftes to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. Last night about 10 o'clock Mr. Gorge and Mr. Mallyng came into this haven from the Queen's ships, which the Duke saw before his departing hence. They brought from the Admiral the letters which herewith he sends, and also the Queen's instructions, of which he also sends the double, together with a note of their sailing from Ichyngham (?) hither, with a declaration how the ships were stranded by tempest and their boats lost; by cause whereof the Admiral could not set any man to the shore till he met with a French bark of forty tons, coming from Scotland towards France, in which bark Mr. Gorge and Mr. Mallyng came to Berwick Road, and with the cock came into the haven.
|2. After the writer had spoken with these gentlemen, considering the danger that the Protestants are in and conferring with a Scottishman, whom he showed how to bring their ships into the Frith, and to give advertisement to the Lords of their arrival, he has directed the fleet thither, and has sent a letter to the Admiral, and another to the Lords, the doubles whereof he encloses. Boats are wanted, but of these they shall have a supply in Scotland; also of victuals, of which they are yet furnished for twenty days. Other requisites are wanted, as well for these seven ships as for the rest, which he thinks to be as ill furnished as the others.—Berwick, 21 Jan. 1559.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 21 Jan. 1559. Pp. 3.
|613. Croftes to Admiral Winter.
|Has received his letters directed to the Duke, (and in his absence, to Sadler and himself,) and has sent them to his Grace with a double of the Queen's instructions. With the Duke's authority, he signifies his opinion that as wind and weather will serve, he should sail into the Frith for the impeachment of the French, according to his instructions; and after conference with the Earl of Arran, the Prior of St. Andrews, or such as they shall direct, should act to the most annoying the French, and furthering the Congregation. For this purpose he sends a letter directed to the Earl and the Prior, to be delivered to John Forett, a Scotchman, whom the writer has detained here to serve Winter's turn. In the letters Croftes has written to the effect aforesaid, and also to see Winter furnished with victuals, mariners, and other necessaries. If they require it, he is to waft and transport hither any of the nobility, or others. All things are to be done as of himself, according to his instructions, till further commandment from the Duke. Requires credence for Mr. Gorges and Mr. Malling.—Berwick, 21 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
|614. Croftes to the Earl of Arran and the Lord James.
|Part of the Queen's ships are arrived, which he trusts shall be a good furtherance to their common action. By force of weather they lack boats, mariners, and some victual; the supply whereof he has thought meeter to refer to them, considering their instant necessity, than to send them back to Newcastle for the same. Has 500 men in readiness to be sent to them, which were not able to be put into the ships for want of boats, which he will now stay till he hears from them, whether it be meeter to send them to them, or to stay them till the whole force shall come together.—Berwick, 21 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
|615. Randolph to Sadler and Croftes.
|1. If his letters of the 13th, with copies of such writings as came out of France, sent by a servant of the Laird of Wetherbourne, are come to their hands, they are not ignorant of La Marque's taking. On the 14th inst. he has been removed to Dumbarton, where there might be less recourse unto him. His treatment has been here very good; his favour from henceforth shall be as he shall deserve, where he is. Before his departure hence he made earnest suit to write to the Queen Dowager, M. d'Oysel, M. Noailles, and others. His letters being drawn and seen, it was thought good he should write only unto the Queen; Barnabye was the occasion of the others being stayed, who pretends to have more knowledge of him and his doings than any in this place. He wrote to the Queen Dowager that immediately upon the arrival of M. Rubie, sent from hence to the French Court, he was despatched in post with letters and credit to her from the King and Queen of France, and that soon after his departure from Berwick he was taken prisoner and brought to the Duke of Châtellerault. He asked her to procure his liberty by some reasonable exchange. This letter was sent to the Bishop of St. Andrews, to be delivered to the Dowager; and next day came a servant of the Bishop to the Abbot of Kilwinning, with a letter to La Marque, of which a copy is enclosed, and another to himself, complaining rather of their disobedience in taking La Marque than that his coming imported to the Queen, she having been advertised by Martigues (who had left France after La Marque) of all that the latter had to say. Yet Martigues, by La Marque's own confession, was upon the seas before he [La Marque] had left the French Court at Blois. The Bishop also wrote that little trust was to be given to the English nation, that no support was intended to come thence, that they were already retired from Berwick to Newcastle, and that they had already broken one day of appointment. The like news has he written diverse times.
|2. Before this letter of La Marque came to the Bishop's hands he sent a servant of his own, with a message from the Queen, to enquire what he was that was taken; to which the answer was, that on the 3rd or 4th inst. there was taken, four miles on this side of Berwick, a gentleman named in his letters La Marque, sent from the King in post with great credit concerning the affairs in Scotland; and that he might not escape, nor open his credit to other than the Lords, they had sent him to the castle of Dumbarton, and that he should be treated as are other Scottish prisoners in the Inch, Dunbar, and elsewhere. He is, for so young a personage, very religious, and laments very sore that he cannot hear Mass, or have wherewith to say his ordinary devotions. "He made request at his being in this town to see the order of the Common Prayers, which are the very same, or differ very little from those of England. His devotion to them was so little, or his discretion so simple, that he stood whilst other men kneeled upon their knees, with his cap upon his head, looking upon the walls; which so much discontented the congregation that one came unto him and willed him to discover his head or return to his lodging." He reports the great severity of the French King in punishing of "Lutherians," and speaks much of the favour of the King of Spain towards France. He muses not a little what moves the Lords of the Congregation to hope for succour out of England, and reports that the Queen promised the contrary out of her own mouth to Noailles and himself, he being at that time at the Court for his passport. Noailles in his letter to the Queen Dowager (whereof the writer sent a copy) writes the same. He marvels much that in these churches he finds neither altar nor image, candle nor surplice, as he says he saw in the Queen's chapel of England. He brought into this country with him three books, one as Papistical as ever was written; the 2nd of love, to recreate his troubled spirits; the 3rd, the prognostications of the venerable personage Nostradamus of this year. To day the letter sent to La Marque from the Dowager of Scotland is sent unto him; they shall be advertised of the answer.
|3. Though the arrival of Martigues and the taking of the two ships he came in are not unknown, yet the writer advertises the manner of the same. On the 13th inst. news came to the Duke that a nobleman of France, named Martigues, was landed at Leith with fifteen or eighteen gentlemen in his company; and that he came that night to Edinburgh to have presence of the Queen. There met him by the way the two Archbishops and others. His arrival was joyful to her, and his entertainment according. The next morning, the first news that was brought to Edinburgh was that one Andrew Sandes, late of Leith, had taken and led away the two ships that Martigues came in. These news abashed them very sore, as well for the loss of the ships, armour, money, and apparel, as that their enemies should so much augment their force by sea. There were therein eight jennet horses, worth above 30,000 crowns. For more certain knowledge hereof, he has written into these parts, and looks for speedy answer. It is very like that it grieved Martigues not a little, yet he cannot believe he was "so woode," as the report is here, that he rent his hair from his beard so clear as though he had been new shaven. The Queen wept very sore. "Men have opinion here that the more sorrow she hath the fatter she waxeth, which putteth us in belief that shortly, were it not that she weepeth oft, she would die for fat, seeing no other disease is able to take her out of this world."
|4. Martigues yet remains with her, the rest are yet in Fife, of whom they shall by and bye hear. The Queen, —if M. d'Oysell should return into France, and that the Marquis D'Elbœuf (when he comes) should be lieutenant, and this Martigues colonel de l'infanterie, the other captains and officers to remain as they are, and a greater number of Scottishmen to be entertained,—might be able to make some party of this nation, one against the other.
|5. Touching those of the Borders, the last word that came to the Duke from Lord Hume was that he would answer his request by the 20th inst., upon which occasion this bearer is sent to him. Of the Laird of Pharneherst and Sesforde there is good hope. Of the other part there is nothing more assured than the Master of Maxwell, of whose doing with Lord Dacres they are better informed than himself. Of Lords that repair to her the number is not great. The Earl of Montgomery, by the persuasion of one of his house, for private displeasure against the Duke, has gone to the Queen; his brother with all his friends came the next day to the Duke. The Earl of Casselis is also with her. The Lords Morton, Seton, and Bothwell lie still; some say the last is weary of his part. Of his sister the writer has somewhat to say, it is but a merry matter and worth the reporting. The clergy stick stiff to their tackling; they are better able to relieve the Queen with their grave counsel than with money or men, for they are readier daily to borrow than lend. Martigues makes means for money already, for that all was lost in the ship. Neither the French force nor their adherents are greatly to be doubted; for neither have they great means, nor great force of money, nor assured place where to retire to.
|6. Leith is daily repaired, which makes men think that it shall be their retiring place. Not above 500 men are there presently; in Edinburgh very few. One of the greatest stays why the castle shows not himself a friend is "a neighbour of yours; we are yet uncertain what he will do, he is now a friend that will not be an enemy." Since the arrival of the French in Fife they have had little success of so great hope as they had to have occupied the whole country as their own. Since their coming thither they have oftentimes been skirmished with, and driven to such necessity that their chief sustenance comes from Leith and other places on this side the water, and very scarcely. Of the manner of the taking of Burnt Island they have surely heard. The company of the Earl of Arran and the Lord James since that time has hemmed them in so strait that neither have they prevailed in their purpose nor can get whereupon to live. They lie, for the most part, at Kinghorn, Kircaldy, and places thereabout.
|7. The French were so much offended with the Laird of Grange that they have burnt a fair house of his and spoiled all that was nigh it; the next day he slew an ensign of theirs and took fifteen or eighteen of his company. Since that time above 300, intending some enterprise, went from their company so far that they scarce had time to retire.
|8. The two Lords lie still within three miles with 2,000 foot and horsemen, besides the country at all times where need shall be. They have sent back their artillery to Leith, which argues their retreat. At Stirling there are 300 Frenchmen, and with them it is thought there are about 3,000. Has not heard of many Scottishmen that have taken their part. It is said that the Lord Robert and the Abbot of Dumfermling are with them; it is now seven days since they heard from them and look daily for some to come from thence. The last certain news he heard was the enclosed letter, which he sends to show how needful it is that expedition were used. God forbid that so good opportunity should be omitted. Men are so brought in suspicion that were it not that he is here present, he knows not how much they would be cumbered. He has travailed that way with his pen for their comfort, and daily labours here with his tongue until his brains do ache.
|9. They have been advertised, he is sure, of the Earl of Huntley's promise that he is now willing to declare himself; it has greatly comforted many here. A good wise gentleman of these parts thought that the intent of the French was to fortify the Burnt Island, for the commodity of the haven lying over against Leith; but he himself sees no place there for the purpose, for it is diverse ways subject to the cannon, and the mould is unfit to fortify with; and every other place about the coast is as unfit to fortify as that, until St. Andrews, where he is sure they cannot in any short time make any effective work. The most that he fears is that the French may get the Lord of Erskine (fn. 1) to their devotion. In further talk the said gentleman said that three years since the Queen herself was in communication with him, being of that country, of a place not far from Ayr called "the Trvyne," (fn. 2) lying hard upon the sea, so commodious that the like was not to be found upon the west seas. The writer advertises them hereof, if it be hereafter at any time intended to bring out of France and land any force on that coast. Trusts before long to have occasion to see the place. Dumbarton is both sufficiently defended by nature, and is provisioned for six months at the least. He is promised very shortly to see the place and to commune with La Marque, who is very like to keep his Easter there, if he will disclose no part of his secrets. He sends the copy of a proclamation made at Edinburgh on the 14th inst. It was reported here, before the proclamation came, that the style was "King and Queen of France, Scotland, England, and Ireland." It is reported that a herald is sent to "the Duke of Northefolde" to complain that La Marque was taken on English ground. His own letter to the Dowager specifies the contrary, for whereas he had first written in his letter these words "à l'issue de Barwick," after examination they were changed into "trois ou quartre milles deca Barwick."
|10. It has been reported here that Lord Dacres, Warden of the West Borders, has made proclamation that it is lawful for Scottishmen to come to Carlisle without safe-conduct, and that the Master of Maxwell has done the same at Dumfries. Also that there has been communication for reformation upon those Borders; it is here heartily desired that it were so. Alexander Armstrong has promised his service to the Duke, with as many of his friends as he can make, what way soever the Duke list to employ him.
|11. He finds here all men in great readiness and forwardness. They attend only upon the last messenger sent away, and muse very much upon his long abode. They chiefly desire that the ships were arrived; or that at the least there were three or four in the Frith, to comfort those that yet stand in suspense, and also to join with such ships as the Queen Dowager is now preparing forth. It is said here that Andrew Sandes took also another ship between Leith and Dundee.
|12. La Marque reports that Martigues departed out of France with 2,000 soldiers and eighteen ships; the greatest amount that can be made of them is six, and 300 soldiers; also that the Marquis d'Elbœuf was departed out of Calais before he came there with six sail, which was supposed to be the whole power that could be spared until next summer. Nothing therefore is so expedient as speed, according to the old saying, "Semper nocet differre paratis." He would like to have written something contained in this letter in other sort than he has, but left his "artography with 8, who sent me another than I looked for;" but the bearer may be trusted, and is the surest messenger by whom he may understand their pleasures. Requests that these letters, with the enclosed, may be sent as they know.—Glasgow, 21 Jan. 1559. Signed: T. R.
|13. P. S.—The Lords here are very desirous to know who is the Warden of the East Marches.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: Mr. Randall. Pp. 9.
|616. Gui Opeyat (?) to the Queen Regent of Scotland.
|1. Captain Robin Ladre has come to Dunbar, and has requested him to inform her that he embarked in a ship laden with salt, which lay off Eymouth [?]. (fn. 3) The English asked him how many soldiers there were in Inchkeith, where he believes they intend to land. There is one ship carrying thirteen cannons, and in another there are 500 soldiers. Today eight of a considerable size have passed the Isle of May towards Inchkeith.—Dunbar, 21 Jan. Signed.
|2. P. S.—Thirteen ships are in company, and fourteen are to follow. The Duke of Northumberland has arrived at Berwick, and Lord Dacres has returned to Newcastle [?] and imagines that he will be appointed Marshal of the foot soldiers.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Fr. Pp. 2.
|617. Gresham to Cecil.
|1. By letters of 16 and 18 inst. he has signified of such sums of money as he had taken up upon interest, as also of the proclamation that all passports heretofore granted by the King, the Duke of Savoy, and the Regent that now is, should be no longer in value than the 31st inst. Likewise of the arrest in Zealand by the "Reutmaister" and the Bailey of Flushing of such armour, etc. as the Queen had laden in diverse ships. There is now no other communication but that the Bishop of Rome has excommunicated England and Scotland, and that the French have given the Scots a great overthrow. Hereupon these men and diverse other Dutch cast the worse of England, so that since his letter of the 16th he has had no bargains offered. Here is very large talk of the Queen's estate, and the weakness of England, which comes in very ill time for the accomplishment of the rest of his affairs.
|2. He heard nothing of Jaspar Groper, who has been at Brussels ever since, which makes him suspect "a keeps himself out of the way by the reason of this overthwart news." Sends enclosed a perfect note of such bargains as he has made. Is also agreed for the bond of George Spangenburgger.
|3. By reason of the arrest in Zealand he has sent his factor down for the release of them, and has himself stayed from going to Brussels for his presentation there to the Regent. On the 21st inst. at 5 o'clock at night he [the factor] arrived out of Zealand, where he has released the ships. The officers there said they were the head and were above those of Antwerp, and that there was no passport out for so great a quantity, marvelling what the Queen meant to arm in such sort as she has done since she came to the crown; and if she meant to have any wars with this country it would be a rod to whip themselves. They marvelled what the King and Council meant to grant any such passport. Since his factor's departure into Zealand the writer has shipped all such harness and other munitions as were here in readiness, of which he sends enclosed a perfect invoice, and assures Cecil it is the goodliest preparation that ever went hence for England at one time, being about to the value of 14,000l. or 15,000l.
|4. For the despatch of the ships in Zealand he has this day again sent down his factor, Richard Clough, with the Queen's captain, Mr. Dryver; "a is both wise and very circumspect." He himself will not stir from hence to Brussels till the return of his factor out of Zealand. As for the munition, that cannot be shipped hence after the last of this month. He has already given order to see it transported from Handborrow, where the Queen has already shipped 100,000 weight of saltpeter, 100,000 weight of sulphur, 3,000 daggs, 3,000 corriers and 3,000 handguns. Suspecting the Court here will have no more copper transported to England for fear we should make too much ordnance, he has bought 100,000 weight more, which costs 53s. 4d. sterling per cwt. It shall be shipped while the old passport stands in force. Wishes he could persuade the Queen to make out of hand thirty or forty cannon, (wherein there is no loss but the fashion,) what a terror they would be to the enemy he leaves it to Cecil's judgment.
|5. Some noblemen in this country make their reckoning that they wholly know the force and strength of England He wishes some order were taken through all the realm in all good towns to train up our men every holiday to all weapons, and specially the corrier, handgun, and dagg; for these are the weapons that are now used and feared. "And if this were put presently in use, and good captains appointed to train them up, the news of that once spread throughout all Christendom would be terrible; for they all say we have men enow, if they were armed and trained to the wars that be now raised." He does not like the proceedings of this country towards the realm.
|6. Requests that two or three men of war may come over into Zealand to waft over what will be ready by the last of the month, which will amount to 4,000l. or 5,000l. The ships of war that are here must away, because all the victuals are spent.
|7. As he was writing, news has arrived that Clayshe Johnsson, a hoy of Antwerp, was sunk in Zealand by a great hulk, wherein the Queen has laden thirteen puncheons of brimstone, weighing 13,000 weight; which being perceived by the Queen's ships of war, they manned out the boats and ships and saved the most of the goods.
|8. On the 21st inst. arrived here the Emperor's Ambassador, M. Prynard, who speaks much honour of the Queen. The writer dined with him, and perceived that there is nothing concluded of marriage between her and Don Carrollo. "All nations like and hold with that marriage, both Protestants and Papists, as they term them. For they all say that marriage will both augment her estate and keep her and her realm in peace for ever, if it please God to send them any issue."
|9. The French King brings at the least 20,000 footmen in Germany, and he has taken up at Lyons as much money at interest as he can get. He attempted here, but did little prevail. The writer learns from Mr. Hogan that this is much spoken of at the Court and by the Conte de Feria.
|10. He desires to know what order the Queen will have taken for the money which shall come into his hands. Trusts Cecil has concluded with the merchants adventurers and staplers, for that is the secret way, and he must use them as subjects, "nollens, vollens."
|11. P. S.—The exchange passes at 22s. 4d. Great store of money, and few take for England. Recommendations to Sir T. Pary.—Antwerp, 22 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 7.
|618. Gresham's Invoice.
|1. 'Shipped, 23 Dec. 1559, the goods following: 900 plates of copper, 708 corslets, 1,045 corriers and hagbutts, and 13,971 lbs. of fine powder.
|2. Shipped, 15 Jan. 1559, 672 corslets, 1,365 morrions, 1,125 plates of copper, 11 dozen of splints, and 10 dozen of skulls.
|3. Shipped, 22 Jan. 1559, 1,125 plates of copper, 950 corslets, 443 daggs, 30 shirts of mail, 411 corriers, 265 hagbutts, 700 pike heads, 2,000 lbs. weight of saltpeter, 451 corslets, 296 morrions, and 350 hackbutts.
|Endd.: The general invoice of all such armour and ammunitions as is presently ready to depart out of Zealand with this conduyte. Pp. 4.
|619. Gresham's Invoice.
|"Armour and munition, laden 22 Jan. at Barow, in five ships of England," viz., 558 corslets, 750 Dutch harness, 386 murrions, 443 daggs, 2,176 lb. saltpeter, 411 corriers, 745 hagbutts, 1 chest of pikeheads, and 1,125 plates of copper. Signed by Gresham. Pp. 2.
|620. The Queen's Debts in Flanders.
|1. "A brief note of all the Queen's debts that be owing in the city of Antwerp."
|2. Sum total paid, 135, 125l. 8d.
|3. Sum total received, 87,005l. 16s. 8d.
|4. Difference, due to Gresham, 18,189l. 4s.
|5. The charges for the transportation of the armour and munitions have to be considered, as likewise his diets. Gresham also gives a list of the armour and copper shipped from Antwerp on the 13 November.
|Endd. by Cecil: Jan. 1559. Pp. 4.
R. O. Haynes, p. 227.
|621. Norfolk and Sadler to Cecil. (fn. 4)
|1. Upon the Duke's arrival here yesternight from Berwick, he found one Holstock, captain of the Swallow, by whom he understands that upon Sunday the 14th inst., in the morning, Mr. Winter (with fourteen ships of war, and seven others loaden with munition, armour and artillery,) was at Leestoffe Road. The same night Mr. Winter took to sea twelve of the ships, leaving of the fourteen two to be "wafters" of the said seven charged with munition; and upon the Monday morning following he was thwart upon Flamborough Head, and from thence by force of weather were put the same night into Humber mouth. Upon Tuesday they went to sea again, and came together to Flamborough that night, and were there put asunder by violence of the weather. Upon Friday morning last the said Holstock in the Swallow and two others (the Falcon and the Jerfalcon) came into Tynemouth. Winter with seven ships were upon Thursday night last thwart upon Bamburgh Castle, and upon Saturday last the writer saw them afore Berwick. He had given order to Crofts (before coming here) to embark 500 or 600 arquebusiers for the reinforcement of the navy, and to aid the Protestants, and also for the instruction of Winter, how to behave himself upon his arrival in the Frith. He has written to Winter and sent him some instructions in writing by Holstock, the copy of which he sends.
|2. P. S.—He has received letters from Croftes and Winter, which he sends. He will give orders for supplying the navy, and for furnishing and reinforcing the said arquebusiers with all expedition. He has heard nothing of the ships with the grain, of which there will be a great lack if it does not arrive shortly, for if they lack victuals it will hinder the whole service. Also he has not received his commission of Oyer and Determiner, which was promised.
|3. As he was about to sign the above, there arrived here other letters from Croftes with a packet from Randall, alias Barnaby, containing his letters to Croftes and Sadler, with copies of such letters as La Marque brought with him into Scotland; all of which he forwards. (fn. 5) —Newcastle, 22 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig., in Sadler's hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
|622. Croftes to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. Has received on the 22nd his letter dated at Alnwick on the 20th Jan., and trusts that the Duke has received the doubles of such letters as the writer has sent to the Admiral and the Lords of the Congregation. Seeing the ships wanted boats to embark the soldiers, he thought it not meet to stay them, but directed them into the Frith; having consideration by conference with Gorge and Malling, and the Scotchman, who remained here to bring the ships into the Frith, that the want of boats and mariners might be furnished by the Protestants. He thought it not good to omit the comfort the sight of the ships would be to their friends. Believes there will be no occasion to send soldiers into Fife; but therein he will do as he has advertisement from thence.
|2. Last night Lord John of Coldingham declared to him that both on Friday and Saturday the French were sending their ordnance back from Fife to Leith, and have brought thither the two ensigns which were at Stirling, and they mind all to come out of Fife, wherein more haste will be made upon the sight of the English ships, which are gone this day into the Frith. With the first wind he looks to hear from them and the Lords.
|3. One Logan, a Scotchman, (an adventurer by sea, and a friend to the Congregation,) who has left certain prizes in Portsmouth, and come to Berwick over land, desiring that his ships and servants might safely repair into the English havens, and he would repair unto the Lords of the Congregation. Croftes assured him that he should have favour, and now he and others are preparing five ships to impeach the French, one of which has come to Holy Island, and the Lord Admiral's officers and Clavering are about to stay her. He desires that in Sadler's absence authority may be granted him to have consideration about this ship, and others as be friendly.—Berwick, 22 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
|623. The Duke of Norfolk's Instructions for Admiral Winter.
|1. To receive of Croftes 500 or 600 arquebusiers, to embark them at Berwick, and then to haste with the navy into the Frith with all speed possible.
|2. When he arrives there he shall, with the advice of the Earl of Arran and the Lord James, Commendator of S. Andrews, endeavour himself to aid them and others, the Queen's friends, there against their enemies; to whom he shall do all the annoyance he may, with the safety of his charge.
|3. By the advice of the Queen's said friends he shall land the said arquebusiers, and as many more as may be conveniently spared out of the ships, for their aid against their enemies, the French, and their partakers.
|4. He shall impeach the landing and entering into the Frith of the Marquis d'Elbœuf, or any other French succours and forces.
|5. Because the French lie on both sides of the Frith and in Inchkeith, he shall keep good watch, to prevent such dangers as may be attempted by them and their partakers, for the damage of the Queen's ships.
|6. He shall aid the Queen's said friends and annoy their enemies, specially the French, without giving any desperate adventure; and this he must seem to do of his own head, as if he had no commission of the Queen or of the Duke of Norfolk. And that the Queen's friends may be the sooner comforted, the Duke thinks it not amiss that either the said Winter himself, or some of the captains, do forthwith show themselves in the Frith, leaving the rest behind to receive the said 500 or 600 arquebusiers to follow. Signed.
|Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd.: My Lady Tyrwytt, 23 Jan. Pp. 2.
|624. Robert Throckmorton and Thomas Lucy to the Council.
|They have received on Sunday last, 21st inst., the Queen's letters and theirs for the setting forth of horsemen for the service in the north. They have delivered the letters according to their directions, and taken steps for the accomplishment of their commission. They expect to furnish in this shire twenty apt men, well horsed and armed, or with money to provide their armour at Newcastle, whereof in demi-lances, seven, and the rest for corslets, who shall advance from hence upon Friday next.—Warwick, 22 Jan. Signed.
|Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
|625. Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury, to Cecil.
|1. The demi-lances and others to be furnished with corslets and pistolets in this county, amounting to sixty at the least, will be viewed on 31st inst. at York. There is a want of armour and weapons, for the supply of which they offer ready money, but they cannot be furnished in this country. The greatest lack is steel saddles, which none can make here. Some supply the want with southern tub saddles. They are right willing to serve the Queen, though it be chargeable.
|2. Has now received the Queen's letters of the 11th inst., that the troops may be at Newcastle by 1 Feb., which by no means can they perform. He trusts, however, that by 31st inst. they will be ready to be viewed, and will set forward the next day, so as to be at Newcastle either on 3rd or 4th Feb. They expect to receive supply of armour there for their ready money.
|3. Wishing to repair to London, he has appointed as the Vice-President, [of the Council of the North,] Sir Thomas Gargrave. Is now returning to his own house at Sheffield.— Ferrybridge, 22 Jan. 1559.
|4. P. S.—Requests that his other letters may be delivered to the Queen.
|Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
|626. Jean du Faultrey to his Brother.
|1. Regrets that he has not sooner been informed of his brother's misfortunes, and that he is unable to send him anything in safety. If he will inform the writer how he can forward what is required, it shall be done. He has moved to his present position in order to be near the Queen and Mgr. d'Amiens, but he does not think it will be for long. To-day they have had notice of the sighting of eight vessels, but it is not yet known whether they are French or English. May God grant that they are the ships of the Marquis.—Edinburgh, 22 Jan. 1559.
|2. P. S.—He does not write to M. d'Oisel, having nothing else to say to him, but desires to be remembered, and to the Seignor de Surriennaulx. M. Hamelyn is here, and the writer and the other Frenchman are helping him to pass the dull season.—Edinburgh, 22 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|3. P. S.—Sends a message to [M. de] Thouars respecting his "bandes."
|Orig. Hol. Add. Fr. Pp. 2.
|627. Jean du Faultrey to D'Oysel.
|1. The Regent has received this day divers notices of the approach of eight vessels which have been seen opposite Dunbar steering towards the Isle of May. Some persons thought them French, others English. The Queen was also informed that M. de Coldingham having sent off a boat to find out who they were, it was not allowed to approach. At the command of Mgr. d'Amiens he encloses the advices which the Regent has received this evening; more definite intelligence is expected to morrow. She has sent an express to North Berwick for further information. D'Agnolles thinks that if they are English, they have come for the purpose of thwarting D'Oysel's enterprise. The Regent is sure in this case that D'Oysel and De la Brosse will know what to do with both their vessels of war and their victuallers. Captain Maurigeau at Dunbar complains of the want of victuals and other necessaries. Will speak to-morrow morning with Captain Seriac so that he may assist those of Brochsemouth who have offered to day to aid the Regent.—Edinburgh, 22 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|2. P. S.—Has opened this letter to say that the Queen having received the intelligence forwarded by the Bishop of Amiens to D'Oysel, has sent twelve or fifteen soldiers to the island [Inchkeith], and has warned the Governor to be on his guard.
|Orig. Add. Fr. Pp. 2.
|628. Mundt to Cecil.
|1. On the 20th inst. he received the Queen's letters with two others addressed to certain Princes, and learnt also from Cecil what was the state of affairs in the neighbouring kingdom; and as the saying is, "Happy is he whom others' dangers makes cautious." They must remain firm.
|2. There is no enrolment of soldiers in these parts. The Rhinegrave has lately returned from France, but nothing new has arisen from his return. It will be well to warn the Princes of their duty and of the common danger. And since the greater part of the cavalry is raised about Saxony, the writer thinks it will be well to visit the Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave. If he can find an opportunity he will himself confer with the Landgrave on the tumults and perils of the times, for he is wont to look further forward than others, and Henry VIII. was accustomed to treat him most familiarly. As yet the writer has advisedly abstained from visiting him, for lately, at Augsburg, he learnt from his Commissary that the Landgrave wished that his middle son should be recommended to the Queen. The writer will go to these Princes as soon as possible. Thanks the Queen for her liberality.—Strasbourg, 23 Jan. 1560. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
|629. Instructions for Montague and Chamberlain sent to the King of Spain. (fn. 6)
|1. They shall explain why Sir Thomas Challoner did not accompany the King into Spain, as has been by the Queen heretofore imparted to the Count de Feria and the Bishop of Aquila. She now sends Montague and Chamberlain to make a just declaration of her whole state, and therein to require the King's advice as regards the purposes and proceedings of France against her realm.
|2. Passing over the quarrels and calumniations made at Cateau Cambresis, and the French practices with Pope Paul IV. against her right to the crown of England, (in both of which she thanks Philip for his earnest and brotherly friendship,) she now speaks of their device to conjoin the arms of England with those of the Queen of Scots, now Queen of France; which being shown to the Constable, he imputed these matters to the house of Guise, declaring himself to have been no doer nor counseller in that marriage of Scotland. As soon as the house of Guise obtained the rule in France, was added to the arms the usage of the style of England and Ireland, openly in towns and privately in commissions sent into Scotland, with seals, containing both the arms and style of England and Ireland. Nor have they, for all their poverty grown in their last wars, stayed at words, but have entered upon the invasion of England by means of Scotland; where the Queen's mother has stirred up such a controversy with the nobility, that the French have transported thither men of war and warlike munitions, meaning that the crown thereof shall perpetually remain with the crown of France.
|3. The Queen of England now finds the French utterly without faith where their gain may take place; and their doings are so increased as they are in great forwardness to make a full conquest of Scotland, meaning thereby to invade England. She is now forced to awake and regard her own danger; and (to confess the truth to her good brother) she is not willing that the French should make too great hoste in this their conquest. She has therefore caused the nobility of Scotland, upon suit made to her, to receive some small comfort by certain of her ministers upon her frontier, whereby the hasty furiousness of the French has been somewhat retarded, yet they have not been impeached from their enterprise; and unless some further force than the Scots can make be employed, they will very shortly subdue the whole realm of Scotland. Yet, with a small power, partly by sea and partly by land, she can, at the outset, do more with 1,000 men to hinder them than she shall be able after three or four months with 5,000 or 6,000.
|4. The greater part of the nobility of Scotland have presently sent to the Queen a request, under all their hands and seals, to have compassion of the calamity of that realm, and to take the liberty thereof into her protection; in respect whereof they offer that they will never invade England by procurement of France. For performance thereof they offer twelve hostages, being the sons or brethren of the most principal of the land; whereof six at one time and six at another shall continue in England as long as the Queen of Scots shall remain married to the French King.
|5. To this point the Queen and all her Council, with diverse others of the wisest of this realm, are forced to give ear, and she finds no reason to stay her but this one, (which must needs concern her good brother, if the French increase their monarchy on this wise,) viz., that she would most gladly have had the allowance of her doings by her good brother. She would not be satisfied without imparting the same to the Bishop of Aquila, who will certify the King hereof. But in the meantime it has become necessary, for the defence of the realm, to arm some convenient force, for which purpose she has appointed the Duke of Norfolk her LieutenantGeneral.
|6. The King will perceive how far matters are passed, and in what difficult terms they now stand, seeing that only by force, or hostility, will the French forbear their purpose against this realm. Of two evils it seemed the lesser to impeach the same at the outset.
|7. The Ambassadors shall say, in conclusion, that the Queen is determined to refer to her good brother's wisdom and friendship her further proceedings against the French in Scotland, so as the French King will forbear to seek the conquest of that realm and the invasion of England; to the sure performance of which if Philip may anywise persuade the French King, she will be most willing to remit to her good brother's order any advantage that God may otherwise give her to the detriment of France. And in this part she is best content to accept him as a judge. If the French will not give ear to these motions, then she refers the consideration of the whole to his wisdom; doubting not but he will give order forthwith that the French shall have no direct aid by ships, men, victual, or munition out of the Low Countries, to damage either Scotland or England. And so the Ambassadors shall end their speech, which they may abridge or modify, provided they attend to the following heads.
|8. To give most hearty commendations; to show her desire to have an Ambassador rather in Spain than in the Low Countries; to impart the state of her causes with the French; to begin with their proceedings at Cateau Cambresis and Rome; their taking the arms and style of England; and the sending of the Duke of Norfolk to Berwick.
|9. Though the Queen would be well content that speech of the confirmation of the treaty might arise rather of the King than of her Ambassadors, yet if they shall see it meet they shall make mention thereof themselves. If they see any motion and determination in the King in this matter, they shall not seem to note it, but shall pass it over, and with speed advise at good length. For this purpose they shall have with them one of her couriers, whom they shall procure for more surety to come by land through France, if they can so devise it, and so to Brussels. They shall also write by some other that may come by sea. If the courier cannot come by France, they shall (besides their writing by sea) procure their letters to be included in a packet to M. Chantoney.
|10. They shall travail to have some assurance of the King's goodwill against the defence of the French King's malice to this realm. "And for that Her Majesty knoweth not with what severity they shall be occasioned to use the ceremonies of the Church in Spain, being contrary to the use of the Church of England, like as she wisheth that they might live in liberty from offence, as other Ambassadors do here, so yet if the said Ambassadors shall find no such licence nor grace, but shall see any danger to the contrary, she is pleased to remit all pains and censures of her laws, either ecclesiastical or temporal, for all things to be done by them, whereunto they shall be occasioned for avoiding of danger; and yet doubteth not in the consideration of any one of them but that they will not willingly herein commit anything against the usage and laws of this realm."
|11. Convenient answers to objections to parcels of these instructions shall appear in another memorial.
|Draft, corrected by Cecil; sections 9, 10, and 11 in his hol. Partly injured by damp. Endd.: The first copy; void, 1559. Pp. 24.
|630. Void Instructions for Montague and Chamberlain. (fn. 7)
|1. If the King mislike that Challoner came not with him into Spain, it may be said truly that the Queen commanded him to do that which he should perceive most likely to content the King. The King willed him to remain there, where most occasion should be given to treat of matters betwixt the two countries.
|2. If it shall appear that he looked that this embassy should have been sooner there, it may be answered, if they shall indeed be hindered by the seas, as the very case shall require; but if they be not retarded thereby, then it may be said that the Queen deferred sending from time to time upon the sight of the doubtful proceeding of the French; for that it was thought necessary to see the assured likelihood of their doings, which now lately appeared so manifest, as there needed no longer forbearing to judge of them.
|3. If the King, or any other, seem to allege matter in excuse of the French being necessarily occasioned to chastise such as were disobedient, and specially in matters of religion, it may be answered, that it is manifest that the principal contention is not for religion, nor other disobedience; for all the last summer, when the Queen Dowager sought to apprehend the Lord James, and the Earl of Argyll, against whom she made a pretence of religion, the Duke of Châtellerault (who was before Governor) and showed himself a most manifest friend to her, and was the greatest stay that she had, whereby he came into great offence with others of the nobility, until he and his friends perceived to what end her proceedings tended, by bringing in daily of greater power and by fortifying of divers port towns, and labouring to get into her hands the castle of Edinburgh, which was by Act of Parliament left in the custody of a Baron of the realm. Yet he laboured that the Dowager should forbear to break the covenants made between France and Scotland upon the marriage. And when by no means would she give ear thereto, he and the chief nobility of Scotland assembled themselves to withstand the conquest of the country, and see that it should remain in lawful obedience to their Queen, whereunto they submit themselves. (fn. 8)
|4. If any mention be made by them by which it would appear that the King Catholic would have the treaties of peace made between the Emperor Charles and King Henry ratified or renewed, they shall show themselves ready thereto, and say that the Queen has been, since her coming to the kingdom, always ready to have the ancient leagues newly ratified; and that if the King will appoint commissioners she will send to perform the same. If it shall seem convenient to be done there, the said Ambassadors shall say that they know so well the Queen's disposition bent thereunto, that although she has not associated with them any of knowledge and experience to treat thereupon, yet considering the matter requires only good will and conformity, they will perform the same.
|5. If it shall appear that any new matter is moved more to the benefit of the King Catholic than of the Queen, they shall not proceed, declaring that their commission serves not to alter any part; for if their authority were such, they might well move to have that part of the treaty altered or qualified wherein mention is made of Calais, and all the territories on that side of the sea, which whilst they be in the hands of the French, require no aid of the King; but because the Queen hopes that he will hereafter bestow his friendship to the restitution of the same to the crown of England, if it should be denied in time convenient, she is pleased to approve the former treaty as it has been passed heretofore.
|6. They shall consider the sixth article of the treaty, by which, if the French invade England, although it may be said that they were provoked by England, yet the King ought to give aid, and in like case reciprocally of the other part.
|7. They shall also consider the tenth article, which concerns English books to be sold or printed in the King's countries, and Dutch books in England; forasmuch as there is no use of Dutch books in England for any of the Queen's subjects, the same article may pass without alteration.
|8. The 11th article, touching the intercourse; the Ambassadors shall pass that, for that nothing is in the same hurtful to the Queen's subjects, but beneficial.
|9. They are to say that, although the Queen considers the former leagues between the Emperor Charles and Henry VIII., sufficient to bind her, yet she sees that it will be a great satisfaction to both their subjects that the said leagues should be confirmed at the present time, which also might perchance give occasion to others to forbear their attempts.
|10. If the King should think it meeter that the treaties should be concluded in the Low Countries, then the Ambassadors shall not show any misliking thereof, but shall rather choose the conclusion thereof in Spain in respect of speed, and for no other.
|11. The said Ambassadors shall well consider the article wherein they are appointed to show the Queen's disposition to refer to the said King's wisdom her further proceedings in Scotland, that in no wise do they vary from the words of the said article, that the Queen may be well assured that the French King will withdraw his forces out of Scotland, and his claims to the crown of England, which doing, she will always be advised by her good brother to anything that may tend to the weal of common peace. And if the Ambassadors shall see it not inconvenient, they may declare that the Queen has no small cause to regard the state of Scotland, that it be not knit to the crown of France, for that the superiority over the crown of Scotland of right belongs to England, and as manifestly appertains thereto as any part of the Queen's other countries, of Wales, Cornwall, or Lancaster.
|Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. by him: 23 Jan. 1559. Void. Addition to my Lord Montague's and Sir T. Chamberlain's instructions. (fn. 9) Pp. 7.
|631. Memorial for Montague and Chamberlain. (fn. 10)
|"A memorial for their better instruction how they shall best comprise and form the confirmation of the treaty of 1542 with the esclairishment thereof, dated 1542."
|The 6th, 13th, 24th, articles to be altered; the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, to be left out. Where Calais and Guines are mentioned in the said treaty, it shall be added that though they are not presently in the Queen's posses- sion, they will be restored by the French in seven years.— Jan. 1559.
|Draft, with many corrections and additions by Cecil, and dated by him, Jan. 1559. Endd. Lat. and Eng. Pp. 8.
|632. Cecil's Memoranda for Lord Montague.
|1. Two commissions for the Viscount and Mr. Chamberlain for post horses, carriages, ships, etc.
|2. Letters of credit to King Philip, his sister, and his wife.
|3. [Letters to some noblemen there.] (fn. 11)
|4. Instructions, three:
|5. A commission for the treaty.
|6. Copies of the French treaty.
|7. A breviat of the Scotch matter.
|8. A cipher.
|9. A courier.
|10. A commission to serve for any one to come by sea into England.
|11. Letters of credit for money in Spain.
|12. Chamberlain's "suyte" 40l lands.—M. D. Kern.
|13. To know how long they shall tarry, and who shall come away first.
|Cecil's hol., and endd. by him. Pp. 2.
|633. The Queen's Embassy into Spain.
|"A note of matters to be declared to the Spanish Ambassador, to the intent he may impart the same beforehand by a courier to his master, until the Queen's Ambassador may come thither."
|1. The Queen means to send an embassy into Spain by sea, as it may not conveniently pass through France, for doubt of the French misliking thereof, which is both perilous and long; she has therefore thought meet to impart certain points of her embassy to the said Ambassador, that he may signify to his master with all speed. The points to be declared are these:
|2. The King of France by instigation of the house of Guise, means to invade England by way of Scotland; for which purpose he has already sent into Scotland great mass of provisions and munition, and has in Normandy and Picardy all his ships, and also merchantmen of all other nations, freighting with victual and men, and his soldiers are taken out of all his towns and forts for the same purpose. D'Elbœuf and Martigues are already come from the Court to pass into Scotland; the Duc d'Aumale is appointed to follow. The Rhinegrave is in Almaine and has prested 5,000 Almains; Ryffenberg, Rockendolf, and the young Landgrave van Hess have also prested betwixt them 9,000 Almains. Baron de la Garde has put in order all the galleys at Marseilles, to bring them about Spain into these narrow seas as soon as possible. There are also in making for the French King certain new ships with oars, called row-barges.
|3. All these preparations for a great war are coloured with the troubles in Scotland, though 3,000 soldiers there with the Queen have driven away and dispersed all the Scots; and with 3,000 more they might be sure to reduce them all to their wills.
|4. Comparing these things together, it is manifest that the French make their account to be monarchs of Christendom; and to begin therein they have made their peace with King Philip and the Duke of Savoy, whereby they might apply all their force against England; and so they take occasion whilst the Queen lives, to make an easy conquest of Scotland, which thing will not prove a month's work.
|5. Besides, they have quartered the arms of England with France and Scotland, which they have published at their jousts in sundry towns; and to despite the Queen have served her Ambassador with plate on which the said arms are graven. They have caused seals to be made with not only the arms, but also the style and title of the realms of England and Ireland, adjoining the same to France and Scotland. One they have sent into Scotland, which is there as yet suppressed; but of that in France the print is to be shown.
|6. Besides this, the young Queen advances by words her title to England. To this end they have manifested themselves in many ways; as in their pursuit at Rome; in their device to deliver a confirmation of the last peace made with King Philip by the King when Dauphin, writing himself King of England and Scotland. Moreover, it is certainly advertised out of France by Italians and Frenchmen that they are fully determined to invade England by way of Scotland, and otherwise, with all the force they may. Hereupon the Queen has good cause not to neglect these things, which, if they should not be foreseen, would put this realm in danger; therefore she would have advice from her good brother, to whom this matter presently belongs in the right of his countries of Flanders, Zealand, Holland, Brabant, and the rest of the house of Burgundy.
|7. To provide a convenient remedy to retard their purposes, the Queen is determined to put her navy in readiness, to plant her frontiers upon Scotland with soldiers, and to furnish her town of Berwick more largely with men and victual, because it is not fully fortified.
|8. Likewise all her country northwise shall be put in readiness against any sudden attempt, and the Duke of Norfolk placed there as Lieutenant-General. The town of Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight shall also be furnished with men and victual, and the whole sea coast put in strength. All which things are very chargeable and like to increase, unless the French be stayed from sending into Scotland.
Instructions for Spain.
|9. The conclusion is, upon the King's good consideration to give such advice as to him shall be thought meet, and to add such help as the case requires.
|Copy, in Cecil's hol. Injured by damp. Endd.: 1559. Pp. 5.
|634. The Earl of Lennox to the Privy Council.
|1. Is sorry to perceive by their letters of the 21st that his servant Nesbet's lewd handling of himself should be the occasion of his own punishment and the hindrance of the writer's suit. Assures them that Nesbet had but in charge the suing forth of the Duke's licence, according to his humble petition; and desires them, as the poor man has perhaps overshot himself in words more than his knowledge was, and considering the service that he [the writer] has done to the Queen's progenitors, that his servant may be set at liberty.
|2. He desires also to know the Queen's pleasure in his former petition for licence to "travais" in his affairs in Scotland; hoping that she will consider his wealth and great loss in this case, as her progenitors have done heretofore. Sends his wife's commendations to their Lordships, with thanks for their remembrance of her.—Setrington, 23 Jan. Signed.
|Orig., with seal. Add. Endd.: To Mr. Secretary, 23 Jan. 1559. Pp. 3.
R. O. Haynes, p. 228.
|635. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 12)
|1. In his general letter the ordinary matters here have been sufficiently remembered. The situation of Berwick is marvellously unapt to be fortified without great pain, travail, and industry; that which is begun has proceeded with great diligence, and is supposed by those wiser than himself to be as much as any man with so little charge could bring to pass, in which he thinks Mr. Lee has done his part. The thing, though it be never so chargeable, is now to finish, or else it were better it was never begun; for the lack of perfecting, if the town were presently to be defended, it would for want thereof rather be an annoyance to the defender, than any strength or succour. Yet if the enemy should prevail, it would be a marvellous forwardness for the strengthening thereof, which in small time by them might be so wrought, that, ere the English should get the same again, it would cost many a broken head.
|2. As Croftes, and men of great experience here, dare not give their opinions, he wishes that if there be any about the Court or elsewhere that has more skill in fortifications, he should be sent hither; as there are disputes, with good reasons on both sides, whether it would be more expedient to have that side of the old town, next the Haven, cut away, wherein consist all the Queen's store-houses and the best houses of the town, or to fortify the old wall and save the houses. The reasons of both sides are so great that he can judge nothing. The time of year draws on that it must needs be agreed upon which will be best to be done, and Sir R. Lee for his own sake "would call fast enough upon Cecil."—From the cold walls of Newcastle, 23 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 697. No. CCXIX.
|636. The Earl of Arran to Randolph. (fn. 13)
|Although he has written at length to his father [the Duke of Châtellerault] yet he sends this to advertise Randolph that the "chippis" [ships], to the number of nine or ten, arrived yesterday in the Frith, and the rest follow. The Lord James's servant, John of Forret, (who was retained to convey them to the Frith,) came "to us" this morning at 2 o'clock, and now he is directed to them again with their mind. What Randolph has advertised the writer of the treatment of the English ships shall not be forgotten. He refers all else to his father's writing.—Cupar, 23 inst., 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Endd.: Earl Arran, 23 Jan. 1559. Pp. 2.
|637. Money for Scotland.
|Receipt given by Sir George Howard for 300l., sent into the north parts, to Roger Alford.—23 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig. Endd. Pp. 2.
|638. The Bishop of Amiens to De la Brosse and D'Oysel.
|1. Last evening the information reached the Queen which she commanded him to forward to them; it is only intended to cause them to make a diversion of their forces, and has been in circulation for the last three or four days. At midnight two soldiers arrived from Dunbar, who brought the enclosed letter, and who complained that since yesterday they had been without butcher meat, but they have flour and wine; how much however the writer does not know. There is no cause for fear. De Brossemont has offered to supply them with flesh and other commodities, as he shall be directed.
|2. They have no certain intelligence as to the number of the ships, nor whether they are English or not; he thinks they are intended to keep the people on the side of the rebels, that this is their only object, and that they will give them no more active aid. Yesterday the Queen sent twelve or fifteen soldiers to Inchkeith with provisions. The herald informs him that there are no armed preparations upon the land. There are so many reports current that no one knows what to believe. Some say there are eight ship s, others fourteen. The writer was at first inclined to believe, that it was the Marquis, but the soldiers say that Robin Lader states that they are English, and that he was on board of them. If they really are English vessels, La Brosse and D'Oysel should consider whether or not the Queen ought to send a despatch to the Queen of England, asking whether she intends aiding the rebels, and on the receipt of her answer the King should be informed of it, that he may understand upon what grounds the peace is violated.
|3. The Queen forgets nothing that may tend to the furtherance of their expedition and for the safety of Leith, where good watch is kept. La Brosse and D'Oysel will also consider whether it would not be advisable (having respect to the safe conduct of the Marquis,) to send to the Ambassador, they having already written to the Duke of Norfolk, who has given them no answer in writing, but only said to the herald that he believed his mistress would not violate her promise.— Edinburgh, 23 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|4. P. S.—This letter has already been once upon the sea, but could not cross in consequence of the enemy's vessels, and continued with the writer until the morning of Jan. 24, when he delivered it to the present bearer, a servant of M. Villemor. He will only add that, having observed some of these vessels chasing some of theirs along the coast, he has despatched twenty-five hackbutters to assist them. To-day the Queen will speak with all the serjeants who are here, to ascertain what forces they can muster, with the view of attacking the vessels.
|Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 4.
|639. M. De Villemore to M. Lissiet.
|He intended having gone across, but his sickness has prevented him. He sends Jehan a Fenton, for whom and for the writer's hackney he asks lodging. As soon as he has recovered he will come to see him. Asks where he is likely to be found. The bearer will tell him all the news.—Edinburgh, 23 Jan. Signed.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Fr. Pp. 2.
|640. Challoner to Cecil.
|1. Encloses the fifth packet, which he has obtained out of France by M. d'Arras' means. Sends also the latest Italian advices, whereby he may perceive that the Pope is not unfurnished of kinsmen. Cardinal Morone bears a great stroke with him. It is bruited that he means a General Council out of hand, and that he should be well given to reform things. He has showed much good demonstration towards the Emperor, admitted his Ambassador, approved his election, and will (as they say) refer it to the Emperor's choice, that if the empeach be too great for him to come into Italy, he will send two Legates into Germany with power to crown him there, which is a great favour to his affairs. And whereas Morone, late in prison for suspicion of heresy, is now in such favour with this Pope, whom on the other side the Cardinal of Augusta so lately in conclave appeached of certain words spoken, as if he would condescend to the Communion under both kinds, and priests' marriages, if ever he were made Pope, so added hereunto this voice, that he intends a General Council, it makes it doubtful what to hope of him. King Philip makes great account to prevail by this Pope in all his affairs.
|2. M. d'Arras reports the great marriage to have taken accomplishment at Guadalajar on the 20th inst. with pomp above measure, even to the clothing of sixty shepherds by one great man in cloth of gold. The French train, like wise folks, bear the dole. The Inquisition, like the hangman, shall shut up the tail of the feast with more than 100 carbonades. Guttiero Lopes de Padilla is banished the Court with certain others for outrageous great game at dice. Three silver mines in Spain of incredible yield are newly discovered. The Spanish garrisons here, about the beginning of March next or sooner, pass hence (as they say) into Barbary.
|3. It is said eight days past that Tripoli is won within three days' approach. This news is not yet confirmed out of Italy, yet the Count of Feria affirms it for true.
|4. He has spoken with the Regent and M. d'Arras, upon occasion of Sir T. Gresham's letters, that the Queen's provisions arrived in Zealand were staid, but has heard since that they are released. M. d'Arras told him he understood that by occasion of the letters which he [Challoner] wrote, (meaning belike those of the 6th Dec.,) the Queen should be offended, for he said; "I marvel how this cometh about, for either the Queen hath made some demonstration thereof to the Ambassador, or else there is some that tell tales out of school."
|5. In France they continue their preparations. "Consider who can hold out longer at the arms' end, for thereupon they make their reckoning, if guile in the meantime work no surprise." Hears much of their finesses and far fetches. Argus had need to watch them, for they sleep not at all. Therefore not only for this year's work but for many more, devices must be thought upon both to arm abundantly and to pay plenteously, "for money maketh all. Mary, if possibly wars might be 'protealed' for a season till the money field were better tilled, thick sowed, and well come up, it were a great fordeale to be ever aforehand; for whoso hath money, men, and weapons shall well sit at rest whatsoever quarrel is picked."
|6. Sir Thomas Gresham as yet for his other business keeps Antwerp. The Baron Priner here arrived yesternight late, and goes away to-morrow by post. The voice here a season was "breem" of Don Carlos, now again it quails. The writer neither understands ought or can answer ought to such here as are inquisitive. "Ye know the nature of occasion; Si ille sit qui venturus est; but we here say, that Modicum, et non videbitis," for even now the matter of Polonie is in treaty. If one were better, nobler, or worthier than the rest in the whole world, him would I prefer, without particular affection. Loss of time now runs more precious than gold. I must confess that Sat cito si sat bene, but undique premimur angustiis." If hitherto Cecil has found these men cold, he assures him he will find them colder. Of the Megarensians was made no account.—Brussels, 24 Jan. 1559.
|Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
|641. Copy of the above.
|Endd. by Challoner: Sent by Sir Thomas Gresham. Pp. 3.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 307.
|642. Throckmorton to Cecil.
|1. Has arrived at Dover this morning. As soon as the wind will serve he will cross over. At Gravesend he found Protestant, the French courier, and at Canterbury he overtook Combes, the French Ambassador's man, who says he goes to Rouen and Dieppe for merchandise's sake, but the writer leaves Cecil to consider the likelihood of such errand.
|2. By the way he had some talk with Protestant, who told him that Martigues had been all this missing time in the north isles of Orkney, and that he is now safely arrived in Scotland with his eight ensigns of footmen; one ship, however, before she could land all, there rose such a storm that she could discharge but 120, and then was driven away and supposed to be lost. The captain of this company was one Grinel, but he was ashore.
|3. He said that, Martigues being landed, one of the Queen's rebels (as Protestant termed him) came at night and cut the cable and took away the ship with him, in which there was nothing but her common equipage. The French seek to drive the Scots out of Fife, and for that purpose mind to build a fort betwixt St. Andrews and Glincorne. The Scots lost 120 men at this last conflict, and the French but three. The Queen Dowager is somewhat better recovered, and all her study is to get to her the Prior of St. Andrews and Kirkcaldy, whom she weigheth more than a great many of the rest. Coming out of Scotland, Protestant saw at Northallerton Bonneus and a servant of Liddington's, and the Lord Willoughby was in their company; and he thought that their coming was to require aid of the Queen against France. La Marque was taken within the limits of Scotland, but for that they who took him came galloping from the English border, they judge that they are some of Berwick, though La Marque was carried to the Duke of Châtellerault.
|4. The writer has heard at this town, from a French gentleman named La Croix, that the French King has been of late very sick, but was now well recovered.
|5. If any assault be made by the English upon the French, he begs that the Queen will write what is to be done or said to the French by him upon knowledge of the same. He wishes that upon any such message coming to him the ports were stayed universally for at least two days, that the courier might be with him before any other might pass over; for the ports being open, the French shall have knowledge before him and the Queen's letters shall be stayed before they come to him. Has written somewhat of other things in his letter to the Lord Admiral, to which he refers Cecil.—Dover, Wednesday, 24 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig., with armorial seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
R. O. Haynes, p. 230.
|643. Norfolk and Sadler to Cecil. (fn. 14)
|1. The Duke has received his letter of the 20th Jan. and others that were sent by the Council. By the former he understands that the arrival of the horsemen by the 5th Feb. is doubtful, and how glad the Queen would be if the Scots would expel the French without her open aid, and that some put doubts whether this controversy between the French and Scotch be not a train to entrap the English.
|2. Herein to say his opinion, he is sorry that any time should be lost; but considering that it is requisite to provide carriages and draught horses for great ordnance (for which he has already provided in Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire and other places adjacent) and that he must have time to confer with such of the Scottish nobility as he looks for to repair to Berwick or Carlisle, he judges therefore that if the horsemen arrive by the 10th Feb. they will be in good time to serve the purpose.
|3. To the second, how the Scotch may be able to expel the French by themselves, Cecil has had experience; for if they could have done it with their own power they would not have required our aid. Wherefore, considering how far the Queen has proceeded with them, and the hope they have in the aid which has been promised them, the Duke cannot see how the same can now be staid without some dishonour and also great danger to both these realms.
|4. To the third, he sees no reason to maintain the same. The enmity between the French and the Protestants is so manifest and confirmed by the shedding of their blood on both sides, that he cannot judge they can have any such train to entrap us. Finally, whether the French purpose to repair to St. Andrews or return to Leith he is not certain; but it is thought impossible for them to keep both. Some conjecture that they will return to Leith, as Cecil will perceive by a letter written to him on the 22nd inst. from Croftes, a copy of which he sends.
|5. He thinks that upon the arrival of the ships in the Frith the French determination will appear, and then he [Cecil] will better resolve what is to be done in sending aid either by land or sea; for if the French remain in Fife they cannot be annoyed by the English except by sea, and in that case he cannot tell what is to be done to Leith. For though it were easy to surprise it, the French being in Fife, yet he sees not what to do with it, for he has heard it is not to be fortified and made strong without a long time and an exceeding charge; and yet some think it cannot be made strong. He thinks it not expedient that they should seem to go about to occupy any part of Scotland, lest the Scots should mislike and fear their conquest as they now do the French, whereby they might cause their friends to become utter enemies.
|6. He will have regard to the matter concerning the Earl of Lenox.
|7. While writing, he has received a packet of letters from Croftes, addressed from Arran and the Lord James, amongst which is one directed to Croftes and Sadler in cipher; which being deciphered, he sends with the others. It seems that Arran and Lord James had in former letters advertised Sadler and Croftes of some enterprise intended by them, which letters have not come to their hands.—Newcastle, 24 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|Orig., in Railton's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
|644. Throckmorton to Cecil.
|1. Finding the wind S.W. this morning at 2 o'clock, he passed over to Calais and arrived there by 10 this Thursday forenoon in a bark of Anderson's, and will forthwith continue his journey by post.
|2. Wrote to the Admiral yesterday that there were barely sufficient ships in this haven than simply to guard it. Two French empty ships have just arrived from Scotland three days out; they have seen no other ships. There is a rumour of the defeating of two Scotch ensigns.—Calais, Thursday, 11 o'clock, 25 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|3. P. S.—He thought to enclose herein a letter which he has received; but deemed it better to send it by the person mentioned in it, as his credentials.
|Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
|645. Admiral Winter to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. On the 22nd inst. arrived at the May at night, and set on land on the Fife side the Scot John Farrat, whom Croftes commended to him, and delivered to him the letter which the Duke sent to the writer directed to the Earl of Arran and the Lord James, and also a bill of such things as the navy stands in need of, the copy whereof he sends herewith; but as yet he has heard nothing from them.
|2. The 23rd being very calm, they drove up the Frith with the tide, and half way between the May and Inchkeith descried two ships, a hoy, and divers barks hard a board shore off the Fife side, near a village called Dysart, towards whom they directed themselves all they could; and in their going there came aboard in a small boat two Scotch gentlemen, one called Robert Kirkcaude and the other Hamilton, who declared that the French camp, being 3,000 men, had lodged three days in the said village of Dysart, and were departed that morning to go to St. Andrews, and that the vessels descried were their ships of war and barks laden with their victuals, munitions, and ordnance; and that if they passed by the fleet and recovered St. Andrews, great evil would grow to the Lords of the Congregation; but if they were defeated, the purpose of the French would be quite overthrown and their camp put into great extremity, for wherever they came along the coast, the men, women, and children fled, leaving no kind of victual to succour them. They said also that the ordnance, ammunition, and tools wherewith they should have won the castle of St. Andrews were in a hoy amongst the said vessels.
|3. On hearing this, although he did as much as a man might do with ships without boats before, then was he more careful and took two of their vessels of war; the captain of one was Fernando Santandero, a Spaniard, and of the other James Cullen, gent., the hoy laden with their ordnance and munitions and part of their barks laden with victuals, and ran the rest aground on Fife side, where they were destroyed by the Scots; as the bearer hereof shall inform him more fully.
|4. There are not in Leith 600 men, and those on Fife side will not be able to come back to Leith these four or five days. He has heard from Kinghorn that the country gathers courage from the arrival of the ships marvellously. The neuters have become partakers, and the favourers of the French desire the Congregation to receive them. It is thought that the French will be fought before they come to Stirling Bridge; they cannot pass any other way, as Winter will keep the passages between this place and Leith, and the passage at Queen's ferry. This opportunity should be taken, for if the Frenchmen recover Leith again they have there great store of victual.
|5. He thinks that the Scots of the Congregation in Fife might hinder the French from marching as much in two days as otherwise they might in one; but doubts whether they will be able to overthrow them, having no order amongst them. Any succours coming from France, the wind being between S. and S.W., can land at Eyemouth, and the English fleet cannot help it, lying on this side St. Abbs Head. This must be remedied there. Prays the Duke to place a small bark at Fern Islands, so that if they descry any ships bound this way they may hasten to give his ships warning, who are now dispersed keeping the passage; the appointment of one of his own ships would weaken him. Would be glad to understand what is become of the other ships in his company. If any are riding off Holy Island, or in Coldingham Bay, they forget their duty, for the wind has been more favourable for them to come to him than it was for him to get hither. Desires that order to relieve them with 300 mariners may be taken by Geoffry Vaughan, who remains at Newcastle, being appointed by the Lord Admiral to serve in such matters.
|6. Last night came on board Snowdon, the herald, with a trumpet, from the Regent, to know whether he came as enemy or otherwise. He answered that he was sent to conduct divers ships laden with ordnance, armour and munitions to Berwick; and as there was no sure place for him to tarry whilst they discharged, he had determined to seek hither, for the better safety of the Queen's fleet, supposing he should have received good and friendly entertainment; but as he was coming into Leith Roads, the French ports at Inchkeith, Leith, and Burnt Island, shot at him many cruel shot of cannon and culverin, and showed all their force. Being therewith moved, and hearing of their great cruelty against the Congregation and the captivity which Scotland is like to fall into, he determined with himself to give all the aid he might unto the Congregation, and to let the French from their wicked practices towards the said realm, whereof the Queen his mistress was nothing privy.
|7. Whilst writing this they saw the French on Fife side march back again towards Stirling; and observed those on Burnt Island (who had two pieces of brass and certain iron ordnance,) how they overcharged their pieces to break them, because they could not carry them away, and after set a fire all their powder, and so departed to their camp.
8. Sends herewith certain letters taken from one of the men
taken in the French victuallers.—"The Lion," in Burnt Island
Road, 25 Jan. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 26 Jan. 1559. Pp. 6.
|646. Winter's Memoranda.
|Copy of a bill of such things as the ships stand in need of, sent to the Earl of Arran and the Lord James.
|1. Some village or two near the Frith to be appointed to relieve the sick men, for which reasonable money will be paid.
|2. Seven or eight pilots to carry the ships up the Frith, or to Dundee, if the weather force them.
|3. Fourteen fisher boats of reasonable burden to fetch their water, land their men, etc.
|4. Provisions of victuals to be gathered to the waterside.
|5. To know what shall be done with the two barks he has stayed, one being a Frenchman and the other a Scot, bound from Leith to Dieppe.
|6. Some small barks to be appointed from Dundee, as Andrew Sandes, or Wytte, to chase small vessels bound from Leith for France.
|647. Croftes to the Duke of Norfolk.
|1. On Monday last Lord Hume sent a servant to the writer to know when they might meet; Croftes desired that it might be shortly, and this day word was sent that he with the Laird of Cessford and others would meet him on Wednesday next at the "Bound Road." Will advertise the Duke in what mind he finds them. Thinks they would fain sit still and keep good quiet upon the Borders, victual the English army, and let slip all their sons and young gentlemen to attend upon the Duke; but he will press them further.
|2. He understands from the messenger that on Tuesday about 11 o'clock the ships were betwixt Inchkeith and Fife, and shot was freely spent betwixt them and the island. The country of Fife has taken such great comfort by the ships that divers take new courage and assemble very fast. The French are daily skirmished with, are in great penury of victual, and would fain come over the water, but have not past eight boats. Since the two ensigns of French foot are come from Stirling, the Duke has come to Linlithgow and taken up all the boats from Queensferry to Stirling. (fn. 15) If the French seek to come over at Stirling he is minded to break the bridge before them.—Berwick, 25 Jan. 1559. Signed.
|3. P.S.—It is said that the Duke will be at Edinburgh this night, which seems rather to come from the fear of the Dowager's faction than otherwise. The bishops and priests who counselled the French to go into Fife, are greatly perplexed with the ill success of the enterprise.
|Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 693. No. CCXVII.
|648. Randolph to Sadler and Croftes. (fn. 16)
|1. On the 23rd (fn. 17) inst. there arrived the Laird of Brimstone, having been very sore troubled by the way for the sore and dangerous travelling at this time. His arrival and news gave no small comfort to the Duke and the rest of the Lords, who before thought very long to hear some comfortable tidings from their friends. Before his arrival, the Master of Maxwell had sent from Dumfries into Fife to the Earl of Arran and Lord James to advertise them of his coming, and of as much as might conveniently be written or committed to the credit of the bearer.
|2. The Lords this day (viz., the 24th,) having considered how much they are bound to the Queen, have required the writer to signify to Sadler and Croftes that they consider themselves bound ever to serve her and to requite their goodwill. There came this day a letter from the Lords in Fife to the Lords here, advertising them that their friends there daily leave them, being constrained to seek some rest for themselves and their horses; that their enemies grew daily strong upon them, and that they were fain to give place to them and retire to Cupar, and leave their enemies more at liberty; wherefore they required the Duke and the other Lords to repair unto them with such force as they are able with all expedition.
|3. It is therefore determined with all speed to prepare themselves thitherward with what power they are able to make. Their convention will be in this town on Sunday next, and on Monday they determine to set forward towards Stirling, where they understand are only 300 Frenchmen. Of the castle they have no suspicion. They see that necessity now forces them thus to do and to break all other determination, until they see what will become of this present cumber. They have no small hope of the sending of those 500 men into Fife that they are informed of, and desire great expedition to be used therein. Randolph assures them that their need requires no less, and that it is also very expedient that there were some ships in the Frith to encounter those of the French there, who always following them on their march upon the coast, annoy more the Scots than the French skirmishing on land; besides they have no victuals, but such as are brought by sea.
|4. It cannot yet be devised what their determination is, but only to weary the other out of the field. If their purpose be to take St. Andrews, if there be no impeachment to be made to them before they come there, he had rather that they should attempt to fortify it than return towards Leith; the one being already in good fortification, and the other to be begun. Cannot see how the French shall return to Leith by sea, if means be made for ships to lie about Burnt Island, Kirkaldy, and other places, to stop their passage; and to return by Stirling, the way is long, and as he thinks something is intended against their coming.
5. Touching the sending of any nobleman to confer of these
affairs with the Duke of Norfolk, the Lords find it very good,
but can resolve nothing thereof until their meeting. The
hostages are all ready; and they desire rather that the names of
those may be sent whom it pleases the Queen to choose than
to send the whole twelve. Has travailed earnestly with the
Duke to send his second son, Lord Arbroath; the matter
stands in suspense until the meeting with the Earl of Arran;
the young gentleman desires it very much himself. Sees no
impediment thereunto, "nisi quod pater sit aliquanto ad rem
avidior." If they think it will serve to greater purpose to
have him rather than the youngest, he does not doubt but
that it will be granted. Doubts not but that his letters of
the 22nd are come to their hands. Barnabie has obtained
leave to speak to La Marque, and that he shall not depart but
upon such terms as he shall find convenient, wherefore he
desires their advice.—Glasgow, 25 Jan. Signed: Tho. R.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 696. No. CCXVIII.
|649. Randolph to Sadler.
After ending his other letters, he received the enclosed
letters from the Earl of Arran, whereby Croftes may judge
what comfort he and the rest receive by the arrival of the
ships. The Duke's purpose towards Stirling continues, except
that those in Fife do stay the same, by reason of meeting
with their friends when the time shall be. It is thought that
the Dowager will be received into the castle of Edinburgh,
with only her household servants and gentlewomen. Whereas
she has written to many Lords and gentlemen to be in readiness they have absented themselves of purpose, as Lord
Morton, on whose door her letters were fixed because no man
would receive them. Understands that her party of Scottish
men is not likely to be very great. Her force by sea is very
small. Has heard that a fair ship was brought into a little
haven at Kenele, and neither money nor wares found in her,
nor no man knew to whom she belonged. The Duke has
sent, because the town is his, to inquire further how she came
there.—25 Jan. at 10 o'clock. Signed: T. R.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 25 Jan. 1559. Mr. Randall to Sir James Croftes. Pp. 2.