Elizabeth: February 1560, 1-5

Pages 348-357

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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February 1560, 1-5

Feb. 1.
R. O.
680. Francis, Earl of Huntingdon, to the Council.
1. On 31 Jan. he sent forward from hence fourteen horsemen furnished by certain gentlemen of this county of Leicester, for the service in the north, according to a schedule enclosed. Has advertised the Duke of Norfolk of the name and furniture of each.
2. Mr. Faunt, to whom one of the Queen's letters was addressed, being deceased, one was directed instead to Robert Bruxbye, Esq., who furnished a demi-lance; Mr. Pulteney's demi-lance was not in readiness to set forward with the rest. —Ashly de la Zouche, 1 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Feb. 1.
R. O.
681. Croftes to the Duke of Norfolk.
1. Yesterday he met the Lord of Home, according to his former advertisement; but Cesford came not. After long communication Lord Home would fain remain neuter, alleging that he had not been of council in the former proceedings, and that he saw not how he could discharge himself to the Regent; nevertheless he said that he would be most advised by his friends, the Earl of Huntley and Lord Ruthven. Croftes said that Lord Ruthven would counsel him to follow the way which he himself had taken; and that the Earl of Huntley had promised to take plain part with the Congregation, which he would hardly believe. In the end he desired that he might be borne withal, while he might advise further; saying that if he could do no better, he would keep good quiet upon the Borders, and suffer his people to victual the army and serve the Congregation; and he promised that if he should be commanded to serve the Regent he will not have above twenty horse with him.
2. Croftes desired to know how the Laird of Cesford was minded, as Home and he had been together at sundry councils and that they were determined to take one course. Home admitted that they had been at sundry councils, but affirmed that they had not yet determined any thing. He wished him to take Cesford's own answer, who would be glad to speak with him, and after having come as far as Home for that purpose had been forced to return from needful business, and he would give him warning to appoint a time to confer with Croftes. Lord Home was very inquisitive if any army would enter into Scotland, but Croftes left him to his own imagination. He then desired to have knowledge of it beforehand, that he might tell the Regent that he could not resist the power of England.
3. Croftes was then advertised by sundry that the Regent had made practice both in England and Scotland for the taking of the Laird of Lethington, wherefore he should have good guard in his passage through Northumberland, as well in his lodgings as otherwise.
4. The weather has been such that no one has come from Winter on Tuesday or yesterday; but with the first passage the writer will send the Duke's letters of the 28 and 29 Jan. to the Lords and Winter. Whereas Randolph writes that the Duke of Châtellerault and his complices hope for the coming of 500 harquebusiers into Fife, the writer assures Norfolk that if it had been possible they should have been sent thither with the ships, whereas it is certain that if they had lost but one tide, they would have failed of their success which has come to pass by their arrival in the Frith. And the case so stands that if he had commodity to have embarked them, he knows not to what purpose, for the French are so far marched as, if the Congregation are not able to make them impediment, they are now near Leith. The last he heard of them was that they were within eight miles of Stirling on Friday, when the Laird of Grange overthrew their horsemen. Other bruit he hears of their coming on this side Stirling, and that the Duke is gathering to meet them, whereof he can learn nothing certain, but he has two at Edinburgh by whom he looks for advertisement.—Berwick, 1 Feb. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 1559, 1 Feb. Pp. 5.
Feb. 2.
R. O.
682. Proclamation of Francis II. and Queen Mary of Scotland.
Francis and Mary, King and Queen of Scots, to the sheriffs of Selkirk and Roxburgh, and to Patrick Runsinne, [blank] messengers. The Queen Dowager and Regent of Scotland having informed them that the English ships in the Frith have taken certain Scottish ships without any occasion given thereunto; and it being believed that an army of Englishmen are coming to Edinburgh and Leith, meaning, with the ships, to assist certain rebels against the authority of the writers, they therefore command that proclamation be made at Selkirk, Jedburgh, [blank] that their subjects, between the ages of 16 and 60, "well furnished in feir of war," shall proceed to Edinburgh with 20 days victuals to resist the said English.—Edinburgh, 2 Feb., 2 and 18 years of their reigns.
Copy, in Railton's hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Feb. 2.
R. O. Haynes, p. 235.
683. Norfolk to Cecil. (fn. 1)
1. Has received Cecil's letters of the 28 January, and perceives that the Queen thinks if the neutrals of the Merse and Lothian in Scotland were to show themselves open enemies to the French, there would need no open hostility from England; and that to compass these neutrals there should be some practice and comfort ministered to them which might profit. For answer whereof the Duke by his letter of the 26th of January informed him that the Humes and Carres of the Merse and Teviotdale, being a great part of the neutrals, upon some appearance of aid of the English to the Protestants, sought appointment at the Duke's hands, and for that purpose a day of conference was appointed between them and Croftes. The Duke has presently received a letter herein enclosed from Croftes, by which it appears what communication has passed between him and Lord Hume, (who is chief of the neutrals in the Merse,) how loath he is to come to any good point. The writer's opinion is that the only thing to make them show themselves open enemies to the French is by the open hostility of the English; without the plain show whereof, and until they shall perfectly see the entry of the English aid, they will surely sit still. And percase if they now see any alteration on the English part, it may cause them to revolt and take plain part with the French. Great practice has been used to the said neutrals both by the Protestants and also partly by the English, yet they would never be induced to show themselves enemies to the French; therefore he thinks there is no way to bring them to it, but open aid.
2. He looks daily for the Lords to appoint a time to receive their pledges, and for some of them to repair to confer with him touching the intended journey to Leith; it is now necessary to resolve what shall be done in this behalf, whereof he requires to be advertised.
3. He doubts not but that Cecil considers what charge the Queen sustains here at present; for, besides the garrison of Berwick, the whole number of 4,000, levied for the said journey, has arrived, a great part whereof has been here since Christmas, so some of them have already consumed six weeks' and others a month's wages. Yesterday and to-day many of the horsemen have arrived, made out of sundry shires of the realm, and they hear others are daily coming hither, so the charge will shortly consume the treasure without any fruit of service, if a certain resolution is not made.—Newcastle, 2 Feb. 1559.
4. P. S.—He perceives by letters received from the Lords of the Council, that they would that he [the writer] should relieve Winter with money, which he will not fail to do as his necessity shall require the same; trusting that Cecil will consider it was no part of the appointment taken with him, at his coming from Court. Signed.
Orig., in Sadler's hol. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Feb. 2.
R. O.
684. Francis Edwards to Cecil.
Since his coming to this town he has learnt from certain French that great warlike preparations are made at Dieppe, but he cannot learn the exact number of ships or men which M. d'Albœuf is to take with him. It is supposed that he will take eight or ten sail of the best ships, and 1,500 or more men to be raised about Boulogne, Montreuil, and Abbeville for the more speed. The French are rigging all their ships throughout the coast of Normandy, the most part to go a fishing, if they may be suffered, but they fear they shall be stayed at home. The Marquis d'Albœuf is lodged in the writer's lodging at D. "I shall answer him as ye know, and gratify him with the same, if he asks any news." He intends to take passage to-night, as there has been no wind before. A French ship from Guinea has come to the Camber, having there lost her captain and 14 men on the coast, which left only five men to bring her home: she brought one ton of grains, 500 elephants' teeth, and five ounces of gold; they could bring no more on account of the death of their men. —Rye, 2 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Feb. 4.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 316.
685. Throckmorton to the Council.
1. He arrived here on Monday, 29th ult., where he has remained till now.
2. On the way between Boulogne and Montreuil, at Neufchatel, he met M. de Sevre, sent from the French King to raise the siege of Noailles, yet Ambassador by the Queen, with whom he had some communication for half or three quarters of an hour. He warns them to guard against these men's disguisings and fawnings, which we have bought so dear. They should know that the enchanter is come on the land and will not fail to apply his whole power to work that which no man in Europe can handle more cunningly. Has touched him already as time and place would permit to their secretary; but now knows more of him. He has been trained in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Almain, and all other places where experience is to be learned. He knows Scotland as well as the countrymen; and England is not unknown to him. He speaks many tongues, and has by experience and judgment bridled his nature. He seems no more malicious nor suspicious than if he never dealt with any that are touched therewith. He is kept in store as a select vessel, to be employed in such a time as this is, to be a maker of a dissembled friendship and a soon broken peace.
3. Warns them against the men who now rule France, whom they have felt to their smart. At present the French have to bestir themselves for the good and quiet of their own country; as the factions in religion are springing up everywhere, and they have also to deal with the Ambassadors of the empire, and are not able to embark any Almains for their purpose, they must now employ all their wits to speak fair and so to win time till the brunt be overthrown, and their coffers in better case. Doubts not but that the Ambassador comes to the Queen with good offers, in words, to the effect that the King will revoke his forces out of Scotland, leaving there not more than 400 men, and all that is done shall be forgotten, and all displeasures pardoned; and so they shall become great friends. But when peace is restored, her ships laid up, and all the precautions put away; those 400 men in Scotland will be able to do more annoyance than great powers can do now as things stand. Unless the Queen has an equal party in Scotland as the French, she will have in a few years as dangerous an estate as any in Europe.
4. The remedy whereunto is, that now as the time serves he hopes the Queen will beat the iron while it is hot, and show her greatness; and he trusts that they will not be persuaded by the fair flatterings and sweet language of this minister, which are only to gain time and to work their wills with better opportunity and the greater danger of England. Advises them only from the jealousy of these men's double dealings and his loathfulness to see England circumvented with craft under colour of friendship.
5. It is advertised here from the Queen Dowager of Scotland and the principal ministers of the French there, that the Earl of Arran, the Prior of St. Andrews, the Earl of Argyle, the Lord of Grange, Lethington, Boneus and four or five more, are the only upholders of the rebellion. Therefore she counsels that the breach with England be avoided at present, not doubting hereafter that those few who are rebels shall be taught to know themselves; then France will be better able to do what they mean, and England less able to defend itself or aid others. There is a lewd discourse of the Queen of England, and of what is to take place in England shortly. The Vidame de Chartres died at his house at La Ferté, twenty-four leagues from Paris.—Paris, 4 Feb. 1559. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher, deciphered by Cecil, and endd. by his secretary. On the back is this memorandum: Passport for John Arden, Gent. Pp. 8.
Feb. 4.
R.O. Forbes, 1. 320.
686. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Refers him to his letters to the Queen and the Council, but writes to himself upon a matter whereon he [Throckmorton] is somewhat perplexed, and (to be plain) somewhat afraid. Advises him to bethink what is to be done if the Emperor and Kings of France and Spain admit the Pope's conditions for the General Council; and that the Queen should be truly advertised whether the Kings of Denmark, Sweden, and Poland, and the Protestant Princes, will send their Legates thither, and whether the Queen will send any legation thither. Though many Bishops and Deans be sent there, they need not be very chargeable to the Queen, nor need they carry great train nor use great pomp. It would then also be convenient for the Queen to send a distinct embassade to the Emperor and the empire. If the Bishop of Canterbury be not appointed chief in commission, he recommends the Earl of Sussex; and thinks Wotton, Sir Anthony Cooke, and Sir William Pickering are not to be forgotten. The Bishop of London is fit for this journey, and he also recommends Mr. Pylkington to be bishoped and sent also; who, besides the substance of learning, wherein he is noted comparable to any of ours, is in circumstances and ecclesiastical policy a wise man, and will in time prove a very wise man. Thinks he has good choice of canonists and civilians for "the legacie;" as Sir Thomas Smythe, Mr. Haddon, and Dr. Weston. Hopes to recover into his hands a discourse lately sent forth of England to the Duke of Guise, in Italian, whereby appears boldness, lewdness, and malice. Requires Cecil's advice whether if he were to send it to the Queen she would be displeased, or without any more ado conceal it.
2. He recommends them to show more than ordinary favour to James Hamilton, a near kinsman of the Earl of Arran, and lately displaced from his lieutenancy of the earl's band, who minds to pass into Scotland. Also to give a passport to his servant, Alexander Hume, who brings forth from this country four great horses of the Earl of Arran, to be conveyed to him.
3. He sends by the bearer to him and Mr. Wotton the story of the Acts of the Apostles, written by one of them named Abdyas. The antiquity he suspects. Reminds him of his revocation; and as this Prince has changed his Ambassador, so charity, reason, and policy call Cecil so to do. There is a watchword given to him that some one about Cecil, in very good trust and such as has to do with deciphering, is an instrument for the French. Prays that, during his abode here, some about Cecil write to him from time to time how things pass.—Paris, [blank] Feb. Signed.
4. P. S.—Cecil may send to him some time by Flanders and some time by the French Ambassador's packet. His minister in Flanders must always direct the packet to M. de Shantonett, the Spanish Ambassador in this Court. He has charged this bearer to learn at Dieppe what he can concerning the Marquis d'Elbœut's embarking, the number of his ships and men, and the time of his departing thence; and to declare the same to Cecil and the Lord Admiral on his arrival.
Orig. Hol. Portions in cipher, deciphered by Cecil. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 4 Feb. 1559. Pp. 4.
Feb. 4.
R. O. Sadler, 1. 699. No. CCXXI.
687. Randolph to [Sadler and Croftes]. (fn. 2)
1. Immediately upon the arrival of Brimston unto the Duke here, he was sent to the Earl of Arran and Lord James in Fife, who, hearing that the Duke of Norfolk desires to meet with some of these noblemen, Arran came in haste to Glasgow, to consult with the Lords, who have devised to send Lord James, the Master of Maxwell, Lord Ruthven, and Mr. Henry Balnaves. But as the persons require time to prepare, the writer therefore prays Sadler and Croftes to give knowledge of this to the Duke of Norfolk; whom the Lords beg to appoint some day and place of meeting after the 20th, before which day they cannot be in readiness.
2. As the last messenger whom the writer sent to them with his letters of the 22nd has not returned, he knows not what can have become of him. Since then he has written on the 25th, and sent his letter by Carlisle into Newcastle or Berwick.
3. The French have retired out of Fife with great loss. The arrival of the ships has encouraged many to take part that before lay by, and in Fife all gentlemen of power, who took open part with the French, such as the Lord of Wymes, Lord Bawerie, Syfeld, Bagonye, and others, have given pledges never to stand against the Congregation. This has been Lord James' action. Lord Grange's house is clean overthrown, and the custody of Burnt Island given him by the Lords. The French have burnt divers houses, and use great cruelty; at Stirling they remained, returning, but one day, and left there four ensigns. Word is come to-day that they go towards Edinburgh. They have burnt a house of the Duke's at Kenele; there was slain by those who kept the house one gentleman and two soldiers. The Duke's men took that day among the French a faithful and painful chaplain of the Bishop of S. Andrews, Sir Andrew Oliphant, who accompanied them by the command of his lord. He had a bill from the Bishop naming those to be saved in the spoiling of Fife, a copy of which is sent to Lord James, that the Bishop's friends may be known, and himself imprisoned at Glasgow. It is always doubted that the Dowager will be received into Edinburgh Castle by Lord Erskine, notwithstanding the late controversies between him and the French in Leith. It is said the fortification at Leith daily fails, this weather nothing advancing the same. The French long after the summer; their misery is such that it is a wonder their lives escape. He is told that the Dowager has required certain in Lothian to burn their own corn; only one Lord has obeyed, some other in whom she had good trust are like to leave her.
4. The Lords would know which of the twelve hostages the Queen will choose, not to bring the whole number, to avoid charge and trouble. A gentleman was this day despatched to the Lord Huntley to request him to come to the Duke, and to command his friends and servants to be ready in four days warning. It is not doubted but he will be here, and very forward in this action. Since the Lord of Sutherland was hurt he has become a great enemy to the French. The chiefest reason why Lord Huntly did not join the other Lords was because he doubted they would make some composition with the French, but now he will be as forward as any of the rest. Thus much has the Earl of Sutherland said in his behalf, as desired by Huntley to report to Arran and the Lord James. It is reported that more ships have arrived; and the writer never saw people take greater joy of any felicity that ever befel them than do the Scots. There has been an old prophecy that there should be two winters in one year, in which many wonders should chance in Scotland. This now they think to be fulfilled by the arrival of Winter, the Admiral. Randolph has been required by the Duke to accompany these Lords to the Duke of Norfolk. Knows not to what purpose it should serve, yet asks for direction.—Glasgow, 4 Feb. 1559. Signed: T. R.
5. P. S.—La Marque remains where he was.
Orig. Hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. To the Duke of Norfolk. (fn. 3) Pp. 4.
Feb. 4.
R. O.
688. Munitions for the Borders.
"A docket as well of the remain as of the supplements now sent to the north parts, 4 Feb. 1559," consisting of brass ordnance, iron ordnance, powder, shot of iron and stone, harquebuts, dagges, and matches, artillery and munitions, and habiliments of war sent to Berwick and Newcastle.
Pp. 8.
[Feb. 4.]
R. O.
689. Munitions for the Borders.
"Supplement of munitions for the north parts," consisting of powder, shot, munitions, and habiliments very needful presently to be supplied, amounting to 315l. 5s. Signed: William Bromfield.
Endd.: 1560. Pp. 3.
Feb. 4.
R. O.
690. Expenses of the Garrisons in the North.
A paper-book consisting of (1.) "The declaration of the issuing of the last mass of 16,000l. sent down for the Queen's affairs in the north parts;" viz., at Berwick, Wark, Norham, Holy and Ferne Islands. Signed by Sir "William Inglyby," Treasurer of Berwick.
(2.) "The issuing of 1,800l. received of Mr. Ashton for the payment of the old garrison of Berwick." Signed by Sir "William Inglyby."
Pp. 12.
Feb. 4.
R. O.
691. Christopher Pintztberg to Cecil.
Letter of commendation and credence for Wolfgang Bachman.—Frankfort-on-Maine, 4 Feb. Signed.
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
[Feb. 4.]
R. O.
692. Wolfgang Bachman to Cecil.
Pricztberger [sic] has an uncle, or cousin, belonging to the German Order of the Knights of St. John, and also to the Court at Frankfort; the writer will ask the colonel where he is, for the Prefect has a castle called Crichbeke, eight miles from Frankfort, under the Count of Ravenberg, of which the young Count is master, who is well affected towards the Queen. If necessary, he doubts not but that they will find enough friendship amongst the free and maritime states, or with Adolph, Duke of Holstein, to permit them to enrol and transport soldiers. He will endeavour to write of all the warlike preparations, for he knows that the colonel is aware of all the French proceedings; for daily they pass through that country into Hesse, Ravenberg, and Saxony. He will also inform him what is done at the Diet held at Spires, where all the Electors and Princes near the Rhine, the Duke of Cleves and the imperial cities of Augsburg, Nuremberg, Ulm, Strasbourg, Aix-la-Chapelle, and others will send deputies. He will also inform him of any practices in Germany. Desires to have a trusty person appointed at Antwerp through whom he may send his letters.
Orig. Endd.: Wolfgang Bachman. Lat. Pp. 3.
Feb. 5.
R. O.
693. Croftes to the Duke of Norfolk.
His Grace will perceive by a letter enclosed what advertisements have been received out of Scotland. The writer has also received letters from Winter, and, finding the contents to be such as he cannot take order for, he sends the same to be considered. Likewise he has directed the bearer hereof to make report of the proceedings since the coming of our ships into the Frith, and of the present place of the fleet. He brought with him certain prisoners to be delivered to the writer, which he refused to receive; but advised the captains of the ships to license them all to depart, saving a Spaniard remaining with this bearer, by whom the Duke shall understand that the man may serve for some good purpose.—Berwick, 5 Feb. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 5 Feb. 1559. Pp. 2.
Feb. 5.
R. O. Haynes, p. 236.
694. Challoner to Cecil. (fn. 4)
1. This forenoon he and Sir Thomas Gresham had audience with the Regent and presented to her the Queen's letters, containing her pleasure touching his revocation, and Sir Thomas's substitution as her agent, etc. After they had both used words of compliment to the Regent, they received from her such good words of answer, and with such good countenance from her, as they rested therewith well satisfied. Has not yet presented the letter for the horses, nor will he do so, in case his own passport should serve, which "to-morrow videbimus."
2. Three or four of his last letters have, by contrary weather, been stayed at Dunkirk. The Spanish bands are here secretly solicited by the French. Admiral Chastillon is at present at Calais with twelve ensigns of foot, and by the end of this month they shall be thirty ensigns, not so much meant for Scotland as for descent somewhere in England. "Take heed of the Isle of Wight." The French also will join to this force eight companies of their gendarmerie, and 1,000 swartrutters. They have made offer to the Duke of Savoy to restore out of hand Turin and the other pieces in Piedmont yet kept by them, for a round sum of money, to be employed against us. "Consider this well, for it is likely to be true." Sends the last Italian advices touching the detection of the conspiracy against the Duke of Florence. It is hoped certainly that this Pope will out of hand have a General Council, yea, though it be in the middle of Germany, and to be personally at it. "Think what moment this is of, and how it may touch us!"
3. The Emperor has received great demonstration of amity at this Pope's hands. Wrote ultimo prœterite with divers important advices out of Italy. All men account that the Emperor's and King Catholic's puissance will be much advanced by means of this Pope. Wishes and trusts it is considered what their strange amity imports, which may be unto us a pillow in utramque aurem dormire. Sir T. Gresham makes much haste (as he cannot blame him) for the Queen's affairs. He is a jewel of trust, wit, and diligent endeavour.
4. There has been a terrible tempest here for two nights past, which troubled him and Sir Thomas Gresham very much.—Brussels, 5 Feb. 1559. Signed.
5. P. S.—Here have been horrible tempest of late. Prays God they sustain no damage thereby. These two nights last past were over terrible, which troubled them both here.
Hol. Add. Endd by Cecil. Pp. 4.


  • 1. Another copy occurs in the Duke's letter-book at Hatfield House.
  • 2. A copy of this letter (somewhat abridged), is at Burton-Constable, in which it is addressed as above, not as in the endorsement of the original, which is obviously incorrect.
    Feb. 8.
    MS. Burton-Constable. Sadler, 1, 703. No. CCXXII.
    Sadler and Croftes replied as follows:—
    Sadler and Croftes to Randolph.
    They write in reply to his letters of the 4 inst., by command of the Duke, who desires them to state that he has appointed to meet the Lord James, the Master of Maxwell, Lord Ruthven, and H. Balnaves, at Berwick, on the 25th, and he will not fail to be there to confer on certain things for the furtherance of the cause. They shall then know which six of the seven hostages to bring, and pray that the Duke's second son, Lord Arbroath, may be one. As the writers are told of the good disposition of the Earl of Huntley, so the Duke and the Lords will do well to entertain him well, and travail to win him wholly to their devotion. Finally, the Duke thinks it not amiss that he [Randolph] accompany the said Lords to Berwick. He is to write in cipher, unless he has some conveyance of his letters.—8 Feb. 1559.
  • 3. This note is obviously erroneous.
  • 4. The draft of this letter is among the papers at Hatfield House.