Elizabeth: March 1560, 6-10

Pages 426-444

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1559-1560. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1865.

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March 1560, 6-10

March 6.
R. O.
813. The Queen to the Dowager of Scotland.
Has received her letter of the 18th February brought by a gentleman and a herald, wherein she complains of the breach of the last treaty by the English Admiral, and seems to fear that at the solicitation of certain rebels the peace will be broken, and asks her to declare her mind to the French Ambassador. She has done so, that she means nothing more than good and sure peace, and all that she does is to that end. She complains, however, of the using of the arms of England, "and consequently pursuing the apparent conquest of that realm," and of the hostile preparations in France. She has directed the Duke of Norfolk to make inquisition into Winter's doings.—Westminster, [blank] March, 2 Eliz.
Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 6.
R. O.
814. Another copy of the above.
Draft, corrected by Cecil, and endd. by him: 6 March 1559. Broadside.
March 6.
R. O. 171 B.
815. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
March 6.
R. O.
816. Philip II. to the Queen.
He will be happy to receive the Ambassadors whom she is about to send to him, but is sorry to find by her letters of 14 Dec. that she has not hitherto attended to his counsels, as explained by the Count de Feria and the Bishop of Aquila, and sends M. de Glason, a Knight of the Golden Fleece, to show her his mind. (fn. 1) —Toledo, 6 March 1560. Signed: Philip,—G. Perezius.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Broadside.
March 6.
R. O.
817. The Duke of Norfolk to Cecil.
1. Received a letter of the 17th February from the Lords of the Council requiring him to assist one De Plancie, a Frenchman, to understand the state of certain French ships driven into Scarborough by tempest. He brought a letter from the French Ambassador; after the perusal of which the Duke caused him to be well entreated, and promised him such expedition as he could reasonably require. He desired that he might have certain horses of the Marquis d'Elbœuf, taken in the Frith by Winter, delivered up to him; whereunto the Duke replied that when he knew upon what occasion the Admiral had taken them De Plancie should have a reasonable answer. Nevertheless he took the matter so displeasantly that he departed without the Duke's knowledge towards London, and by the way said that the English minded nothing but preparations for war, and that if he had tarried he would have been taken prisoner.
2. Understands that Joachim Wolf, the "brouderer," who was with La Marque when he was taken, was with the said De Plancie; which the Duke knew not of till the said Wolf was met backwards with Plancie at Durham. Advertises him that he may answer the matter, and devise for their "brouderer" as he sees cause.—Newcastle, 6 March 1559. Signed.
Orig., in Sadler's hol., with seal. Add. by Railton. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
March 6.
R. O.
818. Patrick, Lord Ruthven, to Cecil.
Reminds him of their friendship and acquaintance at London and Windsor in the times of the Duke of Somerset and Northumberland. Because he knows Cecil's good and godly mind towards the forthsetting of the true Word of God and the union of the realms in greater amity than in times bypast, informs him that since the beginning of this their enterprise the writer has been one of the forthsetters of the same, as he will continue, God willing, to the end. He heartily requires Cecil's good assistance in the same, as he can help the union of both the realms, to the perpetual weal of the same. He dare not write to the Queen, not being as yet acquainted with her, but hopes shortly to visit her, as the bearer will show. Sends his brotherly love and commends him to the protection of the Everlasting Lord.—Ruthven, 6 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. [?] Add. Endd. by Cecil: 6 March 1559. Pp. 2.
March 6.
R. O.
819. Fortifications of Berwick.
"An estimate of the conduct money for the taking up of workmen and labourers needful to be sent to Berwick by 6 March," amounting to 1,543l. 5s.
Endd.: Provisions to be made by Sir Richard Lee for the fortifications of Berwick, 1559. Pp. 4.
[March 6.]
R. O.
820. Provisions for the North.
"An estimate of such provision as is needful to be made and sent to Berwick for the Queen's fortifications," amounting to 1,405l. 15s.
Pp. 4.
March 6.
R. O.
821. England's Demands from France.
"A sum of the things desired on the part of England."
1. The continuance of a good disposition between the two realms.
2. That the usage of the style and arms of England by the French King and Queen may utterly cease.
3. That Commissioners be appointed for the satisfaction of such evil accidents as have happened by reason of the usage of the style and arms since the last peace.
4. That, whereas a discord has arisen in Scotland between the nobility and the French King's ministers, the Queen (considering the innovations of the French Queen and the transportation of forces into Scotland,) thinks it necessary that some meet persons should be despatched thither to make to the nobility (recognizing the French Queen as their sovereign lady) "a good and perfect assurance and restitution of the liberty of their country, to be governed without force of arms, according to the ancient laws and liberties of the realm, by the natural born people of the land." The Queen of England will then withdraw her forces.
5. That a "forthwith order" be given in France that no further preparation of war be made or continued; the like to be done in England.
6. That "the restitution of the liberty of Scotland and the reformation of the governance thereof to the French King's use, and the retiring of the French forces" may begin by the 21st inst., and that one-third of the French troops may be withdrawn by the 24th inst., the half before the 28th inst., and the whole before April 2.
7. That the commission should be addressed to the French Ambassador resident in England.
8. That the Queen will grant to the French forces safeconducts by sea and land "and permit them to be transported safely in the vessels of England to the ports of France."
Endd.: 6 March 1559. Answer made to M. de la Cievre, the French Ambassador; apud Westmonasteriam. Pp. 5.
March 6.
R. O.
822. A translation of the above into French.
Fair copy. Endd. by Cecil: Articles in French of the demands of England, 6 Martii 1559. Pp. 3.
March 6.
R. O.
823. Draft of the above French translation, with corrections, dated 6 March.
Pp. 4.
[March 6.]
R. O.
824. Demands to be made to the French.
1. All commissions made by the King and his wife, in which the arms or style of England have been used, to be revoked, and a general command to be added that no one retain any such, or affirm them to be in that point of any force.
2. Amends to be made for the great and inexcusable injury done thereby to the Queen.
3. All hostile preparations in France to cease.
4. The bands of men of war to be revoked without delay from Scotland.
A note of further things to be granted by the French King for the furtherance of quietness and concord.
1. All Scots recognizing the French Queen as their Sovereign, and willing to obey her during her life, to be restored to such estate and favour as they were in at the time of peace.
2. All principal offices to remain in the exercise of the natural manner of Scotland.
3. All bishoprics and estates of the Church, to be conferred on the native Scottishmen.
In Cecil's hol. P. 1.
March [6].
R. O.
825. [Cecil] to Sheres.
1. It being known to the Duke of Châtellerault and the rest of the nobility by the extraordinary powers that the French have of late brought into Scotland, that they mean to suppress the liberty thereof and join the same to the crown of France perpetually, they have made earnest suit to the Queen for her protection for the maintenance of their ancient liberties, and the right of their Sovereign, the French King's wife, whom they acknowledge as their sovereign lady during her life. The Queen, mistrusting the doings of the French, chiefly by the usurping of the title and arms of England, thereby bringing doubt to the world as to whether she be Queen of England or not, and their great forces and preparations sent into Scotland, has thought meet by the advice of her Privy Council to prevent all danger that might happen, and has therefore caused a certain number of horse and foot to be levied on the frontiers, and ships furnished with munitions and victual to be sent to Berwick.
2. Herein her meaning is none other than to preserve the realm of Scotland from utter subversion by the French, the people and nobility remaining in their duty of acknowledging the French Queen as their true and sovereign lady, and also to be in more assurance and readiness to meet any malicious attempt that they might make. This is the Queen's meaning; and if he hears any other report by means of the French or other ill disposed persons, he may by this satisfy them according to the truth. But since the Queen's readiness in the north, the French King has offered to accord the injuries done by using the title and arms of England, and to leave Scotland free from subduing by conquest; whereunto, to show her good disposition towards the continuance of peace, she has given ear (though she has no cause to trust them) and has agreed to certain Articles, a copy whereof he will receive herewith.
Corrected draft. Endd.: To Mr. Sheres from me, 6 March. Pp. 4.
March 7.
R. O.
826. The French Queen to Elizabeth.
Letter of credence for the Bishop of Valence.—Amboise, 7 March 1559. Signed: Marie,—Aubelin.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 2.
March 7.
R. O.
827. Francis II. to the Earl of Arran.
Letter of credence for the Bishop of Valence.—Amboise, 7 March 1559. Signed: Francoys,—De l'Aubespine.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 2.
March 7.
R. O.
828. The Earl of Huntley to the Queen.
Has understood by the report of the bearer, who has lately come through her realm, the good mind she bears to the liberty of Scotland, for which he gives thanks to God, and next to herself for the good opinion she has of him. God has stirred her up to the support of this realm, "by Whose providence in like manner at this present is put in her hands and power the very perpetual concord and union of this isle." As he will not "fasche" her with a long letter, he sends the bearer, for whom he requests audience and credit.—Perth, 7 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 7 March 1559. Pp. 2.
March 7.
R. O.
829. The Earl of Huntley to Cecil. (fn. 2)
Thanks him for his letter, for the kindness shown to the writer's servant, and for his remembrance of their old familiarity. Cecil, having recalled to his memory the kindness which at that former time the writer bore to his native country, and having required that presently, when no less occasion serves, he should be as mindful to preserve the liberty and commonwealth thereof as before, showing that the Queen's good mind is applicable thereto; the writer, having remembrance of Cecil's most ardent desire to the union of this isle, thanks God that presently he is in such place and credit as that he may be a great instrument to the accomplishment of the same. To this end the writer will apply not only his wit and labours but also the rest that his power may do, being assured that the Queen means the unity of this isle, which union now may succeed more easily than ever before, and herein he desires that the Queen may understand his true mind and service. Asks credit for the bearer with the Queen and Cecil.
2. Thinks Cecil will have no great marvel that he has not united himself with the Duke, the Earl of Arran, and the rest of the nobility of the Congregation. The bearer will declare his reasons.—Perth, 7 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
March 7.
R. O.
830. The Earl of Huntley to Maitland of Lethington.
Thanks him for his good mind towards him, and for his counsel given to his servant in England, by whom the writer understands his [Maitland's] proceedings and great labours, with which he is heartily content. Has lately spoken to the Lords in Perth, and, upon such motives as the bearer can show him, has sent to him [Maitland]. He prays that the bearer may have his good counsel. As soon as Maitland returns home, the writer desires him to appoint a meeting with him. Asks credit for the bearer.—Innerpeffray, 7 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 7.
R. O.
831. William Bromefield to Cecil.
1. Prays him to pardon his absence, being somewhat crased. Understanding that it is his pleasure to have two cannon and eight demi-cannons sent to Berwick, he encloses a rate of shot and powder to serve the same for eight days, viz., shot 5,000, powder 49 last, 1,540 lbs.; for eight demi-cannons, shot 4,000, powder 32 last. Horse harness 270 pair.
2. Understanding that Cecil wishes that four culverins were sent in place of four demi-cannons, for that they shall pierce better, the writer advises him to hold his first determination. For if the place where the battery shall be made is of any force, the culverins shall be faint, and the demi-cannons of force too little. For the French and Burgundians bring no piece to batter any place of force so low as the demi-cannon is. Cecil must grant this proportion of shot and powder to serve the time mentioned, or else send less ordnance. The shot being great makes the enemy the sooner pliant, besides much time and charge saved. Has taken two ships for transporting the premises to Berwick, of 160 tons; they must have for their freight 160l.—From his poor house, 7 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 7.
R. O.
832. Ordnance for the North.
List of ordnance and ammunition to be sent to Berwick.
Endd. by Cecil: 1559, March 7. Ordnance sent northward for two batteries. Pp. 2.
March 7.
R. O.
833. Petition of the Lubeckers to the Emperor.
A certain ship of Lubeck having been fired into and sunk by an English captain, named Ash, although the two countries were not at war, and the owners and captain fearing the procrastination and uncertainty of the English law, he, Christopher Messerschmidt, Secretary of the republic of Lubeck, has written to the Emperor in the name of the republic, begging that he will intercede with the Queen of England to have justice done. He encloses the depositions of the captain and crew translated into Latin, for their better understanding, they having been originally written in Saxon and full of sea terms and phrases.—Vienna, 7 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 7.
March 7.
R. O.
834. Depositions of the Captain and Crew of the Bear, of Lubeck.
1. John Donner, captain, of Lubeck, aged 40, Joachim Bergeshagen, pilot, aged 50; Peter Johns, mate, aged 50; George Kochenmeister, ship's carpenter, aged 40; Albert Westrede, supercargo, aged 28; and Henry Kroger, sailor, aged 39, all men of credence, and belonging to the Bhare [or Bear] of Lubeck, which was freighted by certain citizens of Lubeck, made oath before the Senate of the said city to the following effect:—
2. The aforesaid John Donner in April 1557, having laden his vessel with the goods of Henry Billinghausen and others, set sail for Lisbon, where he arrived a fortnight before the Feast of Pentecost, and there discharged cargo, and sailed to St. Thuis, where he took in seventy measures (or "muids") of salt, and then started for Lubeck. He had also on board a large sum of ducats and a quantity of gold rings belonging to Henry Billinghausen, and a quantity of shellac and other goods, belonging to other people. From St. John's Day to the Friday before St. Barthlomew's Day they were at sea; when, as they were near the Surlinges Isles, fifteen miles distant from Lundy Isle, an English ship, commanded by John Ash, came in sight, who hailed them with a trumpet and ran up English colours, asking them whence they were bound, and what was their cargo. Their captain answering, From Lisbon, the English cried out "Allmein, Allmeyn," and without further notice fired a broadside into the Lubecker, of which a bar-shot struck her between wind and water with such effect that she sank shortly after. The Lubeckers, in their defence, answered the English fire, but ineffectually. The English shortly after boarded them under cover of the smoke and overpowered them, and placed fifty or sixty men in their ship. Soon after, perceiving that she was sinking, both parties set to work to save themselves, and lowered a boat; ten however of the twenty-five Lubeck seamen were lost.
3. On their arrival on board the English ship, although the captain knew that there was no war between England and Lubeck, they were plundered and stripped of their clothes, and kept prisoners two days and nights, during which time the captain sought every occasion to put them to death, and would have done so but for a dispute arising amongst his own men. Hereupon they tried to get the Lubeckers to sign an engagement that they would not try to obtain reparation for what had happened, but they excused themselves on the plea that they did not understand English, but that they would do so on reaching land. On the 3rd of August they reached Tenby, when Ash accused them, before the mayor, of having spoiled his goods and killed his men, but on the Lubeckers telling their tale they were believed, (especially as there were good witnesses there who knew their captain,) and the English captain was blamed for his barbarous conduct; who, being enraged, demanded that he might take his prisoners on board again. Hereupon Donner told him that he was ready to go with him before the Queen and have the matter tried there, and would abide the consequences. Then the English captain, veiling his eyes with his hat and crossing his two fingers, swore that he would never spare the life of any Germans that he might afterwards meet, but would throw them all overboard.
4. Three days afterwards, when he intended to embark, being desirous of carrying off the Lubeck captain and his men, he came by night with lanterns and forced his way into a house hoping to find him, but not doing so he went to another, where the captain lodged with a certain cobbler named Philip Dio [Dyer], who refused to open the door to him unless by day. The deponents had to walk 200 miles, supporting themselves by begging, being furnished with letters from the town of Tenby.
Endd. Translated from Germ. into Lat. Pp. 7.
March 7.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 349.
835. The Council to Throckmorton.
1. They have well considered his letters and advertisements sent by Killigrew, and find the French Ambassador's report accord with all Throckmorton's proceedings with the Cardinal of Lorraine and the French King. They see great appearance in the French Ambassador by his words that the French would come to some accord; but experience has taught them to deal in such things with all the surety they can. By the Articles enclosed he will see their answers to the Ambassador, which, with the Queen's consent, they answered him after many debates.
2. The said Ambassador does not only allow but has given occasion of devising all that is therein contained, saving two or three points, viz.: 1st, he would have the matter for bearing of the arms to have been brought into dispute; how the same might be borne by the Scottish Queen, so as not to prejudice the Queen, and yet declare her nearness of blood and her title after the Queen to succeed to this realm. This they did not like, as her father, the King of Scots, being nigher than she, never bare the same; nor by the laws of the land is she next heir; and also because, by bearing hereof lately, she prejudiced the true title of the Queen. Upon this debate the Ambassador seemed at length to be weary, and was content on the reading of the second Article to allow the same. But he stands fast upon the other two.
3. He would not have all the French men of war revoked, but would have four or five ensigns left in holds there, and says it is impossible to have the forces revoked by so short a day. For maintenance of which two matters, Throckmorton shall understand that as long as there remain any men of war in Scotland, so long shall that realm be out of freedom; and so discord will arise again betwixt them and the French, which will be a new occasion for them to augment their force, and, consequently, enter the same trade wherein they now are, which is so dangerous to this realm that it cannot be endured. Although the number be few in respect of the whole kingdom, yet, it being in peace and its subjects dispersed abroad unarmed, how easy it is for a fourth part of one ensign to do as much hurt with the liberty of the realm as the whole French force can do now. And, as the nobility and people are content constantly to affirm and acknowledge the Queen as their Sovereign, and stand in nothing but preservation of her right and the liberty of the kingdom, why should any such act be left by the French King as would be a manifest hindrance to the liberty of the land, having been always governed by laws and not by strangers nor arms?
4. If all these reasons may not serve, yet by what the French Queen has so lately published against this kingdom, they can never be persuaded, as long as any fort or haven of Scotland be in the hands of the French, that this realm shall be in surety. For maintenance of this reason he shall always inculcate the manifest injury done by using the style of the Queen, claiming thereby to be Queen of England, and so depriving their Sovereign of her kingdom; which is such a manifest violation and wrong, that upon any occasion of novelty they shall always doubt the same. They remit to his wisdom the answer of such other objections as in this case will be devised.
5. Concerning the time of removing the forces, true it is that the time is short, but it is convenient to be so, and it may be well enough done in the time. Considering the long continuance of the Queen's forces by land and by sea upon the frontiers, and also what has lately passed between the Lords of Scotland and the Duke of Norfolk, it will appear to Throckmorton how convenient it is for the English. And that it may be done easily shall appear if they send commission by a courier to the Ambassador here, or to him and La Brosse, or to La Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens, or to some others in Scotland. And for the conducting of their powers they shall have safe conduct and transportation by the Queen's navy, and permission also for certain numbers to pass through this land.
6. The French Ambassador now also sends thither. They pray Throckmorton to lose no time in seeking audience of the French King, showing to him what time they concluded this with the Ambassador, which was on the 6th of this month.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 7 Martii 1559. Lords of the Council to Sir N. Throckmorton. Pp. 6.
March 7.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 348.
836. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. Since the arrival of Killigrew, with Throckmorton's letters of 27 ult., the French Ambassador has had sundry conferences with her and the Council, and has made an appearance of good disposition to accord all things touching both them and the matters of Scotland. How the same may be trusted, the event will demonstrate. She sends a summary of such Articles as have been propounded to him; in which he sticks at nothing but to have four or five ensigns remain, where her surety is to have none; and to have longer time given for the execution, wherein, as she sees peril divers ways, so she thinks the request of the English to be reasonable.
2. She commands him with all speed to inform the French King and his Council hereof; declaring that she cannot be persuaded otherwise than by this means that the amity will be sincere and without jealousy, considering the former notable injuries done by the usage of her title. She sends the Articles in French, as uttered by the Ambassador, and he shall perceive by the Council's letters the reasons that move them to stand upon those two points wherein the Ambassador found lack. She has written to the French King and his mother, as by the copies sent to him shall appear, and this the Ambassador required to be done. As for the proceedings of the north, he shall understand them by this bearer. Assures him she will not forget his good service, as he will shortly perceive.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. and endd. by him: 7 Martii 1559. The Queen to Sir N. Throckmorton. Pp. 3.
March 7 & 8.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 352.
837. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Notwithstanding their show of amity, the French go on with their preparations by sea and land. The captains of both are at Court, attending for despatch. Two of the Almains are sent, one into the Palsgrave's country and the other into Gueldres to levy men, and others are on their despatch on all sides. Some of the men pass through France to Dieppe or Calais, and the rest upon the sea coast of Basse Germany; yet he does not perceive they are assured of any shipping but at the Countess of Emden's hand. He has told the Ambassador of Spain of the levying in Gueldres, that he may advertise the Governor of Flanders, and his brother to stop their way. They cannot be ready and embarked before May; if Cecil does which he may he will have the advantage. The Marquis d'Elbœuf is stayed because he is not strong enough, and when reinforced he goes forward with his charge.
2. He thinks that instructions should be sent to Lord Montague, or the Ambassador in Spain, to move King Philip that in case the French invade England he will declare himself enemy to the French, according to the old treaty. It may be said that the Queen takes the treaty to be inviolable. The sooner the message is sent the better. Wishes the instructions to be sent three ways; by post through France, by sea, and by Sir Thomas Gresham's means, who may deliver his packet to M. d'Arras, by him to be sent to his brother here and from him conveyed into Spain.
3. The French sent lately letters into Scotland by four ways; by a courier in Killygrew's company, by Flanders, by Calais, and through England, by Cornwall; which he fears more for rebellion than for Scotland. One Wilson, a Scotchman, arrived here on the 4th inst. with letters from Scotland, and passed through England unknown, and once he passed as a scholar going to Louvain; whereat the writer marvels much. Cecil should also beware of Italians there; for these men use them for intelligence, and of late an Italian was sent over hither by De la Cievre. Advises him to take good heed who passes to and fro on the Borders and on the sea coast on this side, for nothing can more serve France's turn than to have intelligence from Scotland. Assures Cecil that no Scotchman passes hence without his [the writer's] knowledge, but it is to serve the French.
4. The Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine have discovered a conspiracy wrought against themselves and their authority, which they have bruited to be meant only for the King. They are in such fear as to wear privy coats, and at night are guarded with pistoliers and men at arms, and have apprehended eight or nine and put them to torture. The Lord Davy Hamilton, Suselis, and Stewart are removed from Bois de Vincennes and brought, with some others, muffled here. This Court is in great trouble and know not which side to turn; and to colour the matter the more they bruit that the King of Spain has advertised that this conspiracy is meant against the King. The matter is presently hot and like enough to become hotter, and if ever time offered to do what the English have need to do, it is now. For the Dowager has advertised them here (by Wilson) that if she be reinforced by May she hopes to keep good, but, these things proceeding to a garboil, they here shall have other matter to look to. Therefore he says again, Chafe the iron while it is hot.
5. John Ribaud and John Ross arrived here yesterday, and to-day are despatched to the coast to put their ships in readiness with all speed. The Marquis and his wife are gone from Dieppe to Fecamp. Throckmorton marvels at Wilson's passing (who is despatched back this 6 March) as he went by post; by means of whose report of Lord Hume, the said Lord being answered with delay in his suit, is better regarded than he was like to be. Hereof the writer advertises Cecil expressly, as he doubts he shall not of a good time have the like commodity.
6. Wilson said that he dares not land in Scotland for fear of the Queen's ships, and therefore minds to go to Flanders and land about Essex or Sussex, as a Fleming, or else at Newcastle from Calais or Newhaven. He reported that Lord Hume has an Englishman upon the Borders in England as his servant, who is his spy, and by whose means Wilson shall be conveyed into Scotland. Wishes the Duke of Norfolk to have an eye to Wilson and other Scotchmen passing to and fro, and also to learn who it is who serves Lord Hume.
7. In handling the matters with Scotland and in receiving the hostages, the matter should be so used that the French should have no cause to think England mistrusts them. Assures him that what the Queen has already done has gained such reputation and credit that she is more dreaded and esteemed abroad than her sister was with all her great marriage and alliance. He has written to the Lord Admiral to appoint some man to remain at Dunkirk for conveying letters over into England; for the circumstances thereof he refers him to his Lordship's letter.—Amboise, 7 March 1559. in the morning.
8. P.S.—Being ready to seal this letter he understands that the fear of this commotion is so great that on the 6th inst. the Duke of Guise, the Cardinal Lorraine, the Grand Prior, and all the Knights of the Order that were here watched all night long in the Court, and the gates of the town were all shut and kept. Advises that the Queen cause the Count Helvenstein to write to the Duke of Cleves to prevent the Frenchmen from levying men in his country.
9. Begs him to obtain permission for Jones to be abroad a longer time, whereby he may serve the Queen. He means to retire to Dole in Burgundy.
10. He has opened his packet to enclose in it a letter signifying that the Bishop of Valence is a man of great experience and cunning practice, and will go beyond Cievre, of whose complexion he is. Wishes in no wise he went to Scotland. As they send no commission to go through with anything, it is clear they trifle to win time, and they rather increase their preparations for war. What will be the end of this conspiracy God knows. Divers arquebusiers this morning came into this town, and order is given that all prisoners detained within the realm of France for religion shall be released.
11. Wishes that nothing were treated of with the French touching the Scots, without the Scots being made privy thereto, and that nothing were accorded without their consent. The Duke of Nemours and Count Mirandola with divers others were yesterday sent abroad to make scout watch. Order is given for the coming to Court of 400 men at arms. The Admiral of France and D'Andelot are suspected to be parties in the broil. Wilson will come thither with the Bishop of Valence, whose name is Monluc.—Amboise, 8 March 1559. Signed.
Orig., the greater portion in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 6.
March 8.
R. O.
838. Sir John Legh to the Queen.
1. Desires her to excuse the slackness of his writing since 13 July last. Was desired by the Countess de Feria to come to Malines, where she was accompanied by the Countess of Hostrat [Hochstraten] and divers other ladies and gentlewomen of the town richly apparelled. Upon Ash Wednesday, the Count de Feria and she, at their going into Spain, removed to Brussels to take their leave of the Regent; his company was 100 horse. A great distance from Brussels he was met with above 200 horse, amongst whom were the Bishop of Arras, divers of the Council, and all the nobility of the Court. The Regent met him at the hall door, and accompanied them to their lodgings and supped with them; and till Sunday, (when they removed to a lodging in the park,) they dined and supped continuously with the Regent, and the rest of the day and most part of the night appeared to her to be too little time to entertain the Countess and Don Lorenzo her son. All this proceeds from this, that the Count is a preferer of her regiment, wherein he is greatly misliked of all the estates of the country, who desire to have the Duchess of Lorraine. Of herself she can do nothing, but with the consent of the Prince of Orange, Count Egmont, and the Bishop of Arras.
2. The writer told the Countess of Feria that the great affection between the Prince of Orange and the Regent was the common talk of the Court; she said it sprang bus from envy that they had of her place, and that her ladies told her that though she were the Emperor's daughter yet was she but a bastard, wherefore she was far unmeet for that place; and that the Duchess of Lorrain had such affection for the Prince of Orange that when he would have married her daughter she said she was meeter for him herself. There is great talk in the Court that the Prince of Spain shall be here this summer, and shall have the government of this country as the Regent has now.
3. The Count of Feria takes great unkindness that the Queen denied him licence for the Lady Dormer's longer tarrying here, and for Clarencyus' going into Spain, and said he heard the cause was that the Queen was informed that he would misreport her, but that his doings appear to the contrary, for he has always provided that she should marry King Philip, or the Archduke of Austria. He understands she hopes for great aid from the Duke of Holstein in her proceeding in Scotland, who (he says) had a great pension from King Philip, and covenanted with him in his last wars to have brought him 2,000 soldiers, but to the field brought but 500. The Count has also been informed that she has sent Lord Montague into Spain to complain of the Regent and himself. He also told a friend of the writer that the Emperor sent for his Ambassador that was now in England, and that King Philip will withdraw his friendship from the Queen. Some other of great account said that she had so long run off the bridle that by force now she must be stayed; and the sooner, for that she will have neither amity or alliance with any foreign Prince.
4. In his former letter he wrote of the journey of Goldwell (late Bishop of St. Asaph) to Rome; he fell ill by the way and returned to Louvain, where he lay this winter, and of late came to this town to provide necessaries for the voyage, and now is gone thither; and Harry Pynnyes [?] has promised him to find the means. He shall be made Cardinal on his arrival. The writer has written nothing but what he has seen or heard himself, or of those that are of credit, and begs it may be kept secret.—Antwerp, 8 March. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: Sir John Legh to the Queen, 8 March 1559. Pp. 3.
March 8.
R. O. Tytler, vi. 461.
839. Lord James Stewart to the Duke of Norfolk.
After departing from Berwick he safely arrived in Fife and found the Earl of Arran in St. Andrews, ready to depart towards Lord Huntly in St. Johnston's, whom he accompanied and found Huntly willing to show himself to the furtherance of this present matter, as he testifies by his writings, which Lord James thinks it would be good "to keep in store for all adventures." Since his returning on the first he has been continually travailing in the towns here upon the sea coast for the preparation of victuals against the arrival of the commissaries, and preparing the folks for the meeting upon the day appointed. In case any let should come on the English side, he begs that they may be advertised.—Pittenweem, 8 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 8.
R. O. Tytler, vi. 462.
840. Lord James Stewart to Cecil.
Travailing with the Duke of Norfolk, God has prospered His work in the hands of His servants, and His blessing has always continued therewith. Lord Huntly and a great part of the north will keep the "affixit" between the Duke and them, of which he trusts Cecil has been certified by Huntley's writing, "which I would wish were kept in store." Hopes in God that there will be very few of the nobility who shall not join them. If they are successful in this journey, then he is persuaded that the matter that all godly men desire, and wise men travail to bring to pass, shall, by the tender mercy of God, most happily be achieved. "And seeing it cometh near the birth, let no earnest labourer (as you be) faint in the Lord's work."—Pittenweem, 8 March 1559. Signed.
Add. Orig. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp.2.
March 8.
R. O.
841. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Advertised him by his letter of the 3rd of his arrival here, and of the great scarcity of money, and of the great bruit among the merchants and commons that he would rob them of all their fine gold and silver, by reason of which he is half afraid to go abroad, but only at the hours of the Bourse time. Since his coming he has delivered by exchange about 23,000l. Flemish. Has bought 2,000 marks weight of fine silver at 47s. the mark, and 8 ozs. to the mark, which amounts to 4,700l., which is after the rate of 22s. 1d. the pound, reckoning every ounce of fine silver at 5s. 4d. Has bought 1,200l. in crowns. Has disbursed for the Queen 41,000l. Flemish.
2. The Spanish and Italian merchants having petitioned against him, he has not stayed the English merchants any longer from their bargains, and has warned them how they reckon upon buying gold and silver, lest the Margrave visit them, as they have gone so indiscreetly to work. Intends to keep Alexander Bardenci, a Florentine, of whom he took up 3,000l. to his bargain. The Queen's bond for six months in the name of Nicholas Johnston, for 27,835 florins at six months, must be made anew in the name of Albert Johnson for twelve months, to pay 29,800 florins. Sends the bond of George [Sprogenburger] for 72,800 florins. Has not gone above 22s. 6d. in the exchange, which has since risen to 22s. 9d., and is like to rise to 23s. 4d., and at London to 24s. and upwards. Has not seen the exchange in London above 21s. 6d. to 22s. 4d. since the Queen came to the crown, whereby they do rob all Christendom of their fine gold and silver, which has been only done by credit in taking up the money in a strange country at interest; and when the time of payment comes, the interest stands her in nothing, being saved by raising the exchange. The Queen's honour and credit is so augmented that no Prince has the like. There is not a penny to be had upon this Bourse but through his hands.
3. The ships in Zealand are rigging as fast as they may, but at present there is no munition in them. Has no means to understand but that 5,000 Spaniards shall be embarked for Spain. The proceedings of the Queen and Council for the practice of Scotland is marvellously well liked of all nations here; they say she would not have taken a better time, by reason of the French King's great poverty and loss of credit. The Princes of Germany gather up all the horse and foot they can come by. The Count de Feria, hearing that he brought letters from the Queen to old Lady Dormer and Mrs. Clarencious to make their repair home, took it marvellously unkindly, to whom he declared he had no such letters. If it pleases the Queen to give them licence to abide here, he begs that he may have the delivering of it to the Count of Feria.
4. Has received his letters of the last of February, and has written to Mr. Bryckendine touching Frederick Spedt, the Colonel, and also of Colonel Langar. The shipping of the corn powder cannot be kept too secret at home. Asks him to send a certificate for the 300,000 weight of copper, and warrants for the 166l. 13s. 4d. paid to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, and the 66l. 13s. 4d. paid to Driver for victualling the Queen's ships at Zealand.—Antwerp, 8 of March 1559. Signed.
5. P. S.—Sir John Ley desires him to forward a letter for the Queen. There is news that the Pope is departed, and some say with a boccado after the old fashion of proceeding.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
March 8.
842. The Queen's Transactions in Flanders.
Money delivered by exchange in Antwerp for the Queen's account, begun the 26 Feb. 1559. Total amount, 22,494l. 5s. 3d. Flemish.
Add. Pp. 2.
[March 8.]
R. O.
843. The Queen's Transactions in Flanders.
1. "The note of money taken up from the payment of the Cold Mart, 1559, till the payment of the Syngzon Mart, 1560," viz., six months.
2. Total, with interest and brokerage, 69,022l. 3s. 4d. Endd. by Gresham. Pp. 3.
March 9.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 356.
844. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. The 8th inst. he received her letters of the 17th of February by Cavalcanti, whom he will advise how to behave here. He thinks that the pension of 100l. which she has bestowed upon Cavalcanti is well employed.
2. On 7th and 8th he wrote to her and sent her packets, one by Dieppe and the other by Flanders. By that of the 8th he advertised her of the coming of the Bishop of Valence from this King, who said he should have his despatch about the 10th inst. But this morning the Bishop sent word to the writer that he was commanded this day to depart before noon, requesting letters to her and her officers at Dover, which Throckmorton granted. He is of the Privy Council here, and often employed in ambassades and other services of estate and trust; he is well learned in divinity and other sciences.
3. On the 7th the Bishop came to him and declared that the King had appointed him to declare some griefs to the Queen, and trusted that there should be nothing omitted for the establishing of a good peace. He also said that the Queen Dowager of Scotland had so often written to this King for her return to this realm and to be eased of those troubles, that the King cannot refuse her request, and thinks that she shall shortly come into France. Refers her to his letter to Cecil for an account of this bearer, the Bishop.—Amboise, 9 March 1559. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
March 9.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 358.
845. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Sent him on the 7th inst a packet by Dieppe and on the 8th another by Flanders, both of one tenor. Has therein described the bearer. He is as cunning as Cievre, or beyond him. Cecil may perceive that they protract the time, since the person mentioned has no commission to go through with anything.
2. Wilson, a Scotchman, has passed to and from Scotland through England. He took shipping at Dover on 28th Feb. and landed at Dieppe. Cecil should write to the captain of the castle at Dover to take heed to these things. Wilson intends to embark in Flanders and to descend into the North parts of Scotland, or else at Newcastle, and so pass their frontier. The French, for the sure conveyance of their packets, have devised now to send their couriers by sea to Aberdeen, Montrose, or Dundee, and so by the north parts. Wishes the Duke of Châtellerault to be advertised hereof.
3. He has received by Guido Cavalcanti, on the 8th inst., a letter from the Queen. The hostages are at Calais, ready to pass over. He has not accepted them, but said that he would understand of them, and then allow or disallow; by this Cecil may perceive that the French proceed without order in this doing. The Marquis de Neile should not be released. By his absence his wife may do service in Bretaigne; his presence takes the same away. For all their good countenances, they here make great preparations. Ribaud and Ross are despatched to make ready all the ships they can, both their own and all other strangers, except the King of Spain's subjects. They cannot be ready before May. The Marquis stays, because he is not strong enough. Advises that instructions were sent to Lord Montague, or the Ambassador in Spain to have in remembrance the old treaty between England and Spain, if the French invade the former.
4. A conspiracy has been here revealed against the house of Guise, which has much troubled them. It is somewhat appeased, and the King goes abroad on hunting. The French have sent to levy men in the Palsgrave's country and Guelderland. He has written to the Lord Admiral by his last to appoint some discreet man to take a house at Dunkirk for conveying letters over into England. The Queen by her doings is more esteemed and dreaded than her sister was. This bearer will sue the Queen to have the Dowager of Scotland to pass through England. Throckmorton wishes the handling of matters for hostages with Scotland to be such as Scots may think they do not mistrust them. The Bishop is come now upon his departure.—Amboise, 9 March 1559. Signed.
5. P. S.—The Bishop of Valence has instructions to desire licence for the Dowager of Scotland, and such Frenchmen as are in Scotland, to pass through England into France, and also to desire the Earl of Arran and the Congregation to permit them to depart quietly, giving them licence to live to their conscience, so as they forget not their duty to their Sovereign and old alliance with France. If the matter between the French and English come to hostages, the personages meet for that purpose are, the Dukes of Nemours and Longueville, the Prince of Joinville, eldest son of the Duke of Guise, and the Count d'Eu, eldest son to the Duke of Nevers; he means that if hostages are to be demanded, then they shall be these. The French make great preparations, and mean only to bring the Queen asleep to win time; and ere their offers be performed in deed, their ships and men of war will be ready.—Amboise, 9 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
March 9.
R. O.
846. The Duke of Holstein to Cecil.
Acknowledges the letters of "his dear friend" of 10 Jan. last, dated at Westminster, which were very acceptable, as confirming the intelligence communicated by Adam Thraceiger, the writer's Chancellor. He will not forget Cecil's kindness. Having begun his journey as has been arranged by the Queen and himself, he despatches his Chamberlain, Christopher Brobergius, to announce to her his speedy arrival. Will Cecil arrange for the safe transit of the writer from Dunkirk (which he hopes to reach on March 24th,) into England? Written while on his journey.—9 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
March 10.
R. O.
847. The Queen to the Emperor Ferdinand.
She acknowledges the receipt of his letters of [blank] February, brought by George Count Helfenstein, his Councillor and Ambassador, and thanks him for the good will expressed in the same, towards her late sister, Queen Mary, and herself, which she desires to reciprocate.
Draft, in Ascham's hol. Endd.: 10 Martii 1559. Lat. Pp. 3.
March 10.
R. O.
848. The Earl of Arran to the Duke of Norfolk. (fn. 3)
Met the Earl of Huntly at St. Johnston's on Monday, "the ferd" inst., and found him "appliable" to join in this action and to declare himself a plain partaker, as well in religion as concerning the common weal. For assurance whereof he appointed a day for meeting him and the Duke of Châtellerault. The present bearer, Huntley's servant, has come from him, directed to the Court, there to declare his mind. Will advertise him further.—Bruntisland, 10 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
March 10.
R. O.
849. The Earl of Arran to Cecil.
Was with the Earl of Huntly in S. Johnston this last Monday, "the ferd" inst., whom he found "appliable." Huntly sends letters to the Queen and Cecil by this bearer, whereof he desires copies, that he may know whether his writings agree with his communings.—Bruntisland, 10 March 1559. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.


  • 1. The Instructions of King Philip to M. de Glajon on his mission into England are printed by Teulet, 1. 494.
  • 2. Cecil to the Earl of Huntley.
    March 18.
    MS. Hatfield House. Haynes, p. 263.
    The letters and message sent by him to the Queen and brought by Mr. Keyre have been well accepted by her. "The Queen meaneth princely, and like a good neighbour, to relieve the declination of that kingdom of Scotland." Of the Queen's purpose Cecil thinks the Earl is not ignorant, by the declaration of Lord James Stuart and his colleagues, who were lately at Berwick, and there concluded a treaty with Norfolk, which the Queen has ratified. Prays him (since the time has come, the power ready, nothing is wanting, the enemy at the worst, themselves honourably accorded and provided with such a patron and friend as the Queen of England) to proceed to the safety of his country, and preserve his ancient house. There is no third thing to choose, but either to suffer the insolence of France, or be preserved with a natural governance; he who shall speak of a third, that is, of a favourable government by Frenchmen, is either ignorant or means deceit. "No governance shall so accord with Scotland, but a lawful governance of natural people." Is glad to perceive that the Earl will accept the remedy which God has offered. The writer is commanded to write to him on the Queen's part, that he may be certain of her favour and aid to the common state of the realm, and that she accepts him with all his friends and allies into her protection. As soon as he shall make any demonstration of any action to concur with her aid towards this purpose, he shall see the proof thereof.
    Cecil's draft.
  • 3. The Earl of Arran wrote on the same day to Sadler and Croftes a letter to the same effect, which occurs among the Sadler Correspondence, 1. 709, No. CCXXVIII.