Elizabeth: December 1586, 26-31

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 2, June 1586-March 1587. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1927.

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'Elizabeth: December 1586, 26-31', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 2, June 1586-March 1587, (London, 1927) pp. 287-305. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol21/no2/pp287-305 [accessed 20 April 2024]


December 1586, 26-31

I cannot let this messenger pass without these few lines. I do not need to lay before you the dutiful service of Sir Edward Stanley, because I know you are inclined to judge well of us. What misery here I abide he can tell you. "I am at this time driven to lay all my apparell to pawn in the Lomberde, for money to pay for meat and drink..... Were it not in respect of my duty to her Majesty, I could as well run my head into a stone wall as endure it. The Captains that are here with me have not a penny to buy them meat or drink, but are fain to live upon bread and cheese. The soldier hath lived and so doth still upon half a pound of cheese by the day ; and where they fall sick, as they must needs do for want of some warm meat to nourish them sometimes withal, neither myself nor any captain hath money to relieve them. I thank God, hitherto I have kept them together. And I dare avouch there is not so sufficient a troop in these countries. But they are now so discontented that I doubt I shall hardly keep them from running away. We have not received a month's pay since our coming into these countries, which is now almost six months." I lately wrote desiring you to find some place of service for me and "my whole troops," unless her Majesty enter wholly into these wars, for if I should break them, I should hardly get such again.Deventer, 26 December, 1586. Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XI. 87.]
Dec. 25./Jan. 4. Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the States General for the Council of State to submit accounts to them. (fn. 1) 4 January, 1587. Fr. p. [S.P. For. Archives XC., p. 72.]
Governor and bailly of town away at Brussels, so ignorant of Parma's intention about release. Reminds him of appeal for Chaping. (fn. 2) Enquires about state of his exchange with Cibiur. Has so far resisted all temptations and persuasions.Dunkirk, 26 December, 1586, stylo Anglo. Add. Endd. 1 pp. [Flanders].
Dec. 27./Jan. 6. Further proposal made by the Council of State to the States General, for finding the sum of 380,000l. for the payment of the troops so that they may retire from the flat country and for the reduction of some small and ill armed companies. Fr. 2 pp. [S.P For. Archives XC., p. 69.]
Dec. 28./Jan. 7. Reply and resolution of the States General (fn. 3) upon the above proposal of the Council of State of the 6th January.The Hague, 7 January, 1587. Fr. 3 pp. [Ibid. XC., p. 73.]
Stating that the governor of the prison sends him good hopes of procuring his liberty, in exchange for Pedro Subiaur, as was long since agreed upon ; or else by paying some small ransom or none at all. Not being able to pay his own charges, much less any ransom, he submits himself wholly to his honour, and begs to know his pleasure, according to which he will rule his actions and give answer to the Governor when he declares the intentions of his Highness. "This miserable place yieldeth no other tidings but of new guests almost daily brought in by these ships of war."Dunkirk prisons, 28 December, 1586, stylo Anglo. Postscript. Prays that his letters may be directed to Thomas Beale, an English merchant in Calais. Ships with English beer come in almost daily, and great store of victuals from other places. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders I. 109.] (1) Terms (25 Articles) proffered by the States General in offering the government to the Queen of England as approved on 8 April, 1585, with apostiles in the margin. (2) Proposals on behalf of the city and state of Utrecht by Geraert van Domseler and Jacob Taets of Amerongh to Count William Louis of Nassau, stathouder of Friesland, for offering the sovereign power to the Queen of England. (3) Further apostiles upon the same by Domseler and Taets made at the assembly of the States of Friesland. Dated the 8 January, 1587. Copy. Dutch. 17 pp. [Holland XI. 88 and 88a.]
I have prayed the Chevalier Peitton [Sir John Peyton], to discover to your honour, what passes in these countries, and how I have been treated since his Excellency's departure ; only having received since his entry into these countries three month's wages for myself and my company. And what little I had left has been seized by the mutineers of Wauwe Castle, with all my arms, which were good and abundant. And by what I can hear, my only recompense is that it is resolved to reduce my company, without giving any compensation either to soldiers or officers ; all this proceeding from the hate borne me because, as my duty is, I am devoted to the service of her Majesty. Notwithstanding there is due to me, according to the bonds and accounts I have from the States, more than 95,000 florins, not including what is due to me in the service of Holland. And were it not for the help of my good lords and friends, the said States would never think of paying me a patart. I humbly pray you to intercede for me with her Majesty that I may have some small pension, and a company in her pay it if be possible.Bergen, 8 January, 1587, stil nouveau. Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XI. 89.]
Dec. 30./Jan. 9. Decree of THE STATES GENERAL. (fn. 4)
Seeing that from ancient times there has been great friendship and neighbourly correspondence between England and the Low Countries, for establishing whereof there have also been divers good agreements made between the Princes on both sides in consideration hereof, and the better to continue the traffic between them, and particularly for increasing the traffic of the English merchants called Adventurers ; there have been granted to them in sundry of the foresaid provinces several honourable privileges, which agreements and intercourses long since passed, are sufficiently confirmed by treaty lately made between her Majesty and the States General. And the States, desirous to continue the traffic of the English nation in these countries, and that their merchants here should not only be encouraged to remain ; but that those others, who have left by reason of the troubles, and have their Residence at Embden, Hamburg and other places, westward or eastward, to the great impairing of the traffic of these countries, might be encouraged to return : So it is that for the upholding of the foresaid privileges and intercourses we have not only agreed unto and confirmed, and do by these presents agree unto and confirm the same in all points, but do offer the said merchants free choice of what town they think best to have their residence in ; promising to grant them therein all such privileges and freedoms as they have had or presently enjoy. And to cause the same to be kept as it behoveth, without imposing upon their persons or their goods, without the consent of her Majesty and foreknowledge of the said merchants, any new imposts or taxes, with intent also that all imposts and taxes which for certain years they have paid, and which they pretend to be contrary to their privileges, so soon as the wars shall end and the land be brought to peace and quiet, shall be discharged. Copy extracted "per me, Fra : Eyre." Endd. 2 pp. [Holland XI. 90.]
Dutch copy of the same. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XI. 90a.]
Two other English translations of the same. Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. XI. 90b and c.]
In favour of Captain Littleton, who was put out of her Majesty's pay "long before he was made privy of the same," and so remains, although promised by the earl of Leicester to be put into the Queen's list before his lordship's departure. He remains at Ostend, in as hard case for what is due to him as the rest are, who were put out at the same time. Prays his honour to obtain some redress for him, whereby he may relieve his soldiers, now ready to mutiny for their pay.The Hague, 30 December, 1586. Signed. Add. Endd. p. [Ibid. XI. 91.]
Dec. 30. Declaration by certain persons commissioned by the States of Friesland. On this day, 30 December, old style, in Jacob's Cloister in Leewarden, in the Assembly of the Volmachten of Oestergoe and their associates, and in presence of many persons of note and bystanders ;there appeared Doctor Oricus Doenhem, secretary of Harlinghen, Mr. Anthonis Triesth, secretary of Sneeck and Mr. Powel Veltingh, secretary of Dockum, on behalf and in the name of the Volmachten of all the towns in Friesland ; and declared that they were resolved as speedily as possible to dispatch plenipotentiaries (fn. 5) to her Majesty of England, with express ordersin agreement with those ambassadors of the United Provinces already in England, and with the earl of Leicester, lieutenant of her Majesty and governor general of the United Provincesto offer her Majesty the sovereignity of the towns of Friesland ; and in case she should refuse the same, then to ask her to take the aforesaid towns into perpetual or temporary protection ; declaring that they do this because of their great need and seeing that the times can bear no delay on which account it were unserviceable to wait for the assembly of a general Lands-dag. And to prevent any suspicion that some of those of the towns might be opposed to the said resolution, the said Volmachten declare that they submitted the Instruction and order to dispatch their plenipotentiaries to her Majesty to the inspection of their Stadtholder, the Count of Nassau and the Provincial Council, in the presence and hearing of the very learned gentleman Dr. Tzialinck Wyckel, councillor of the provincial Council of Friesland ; Dr. Do. Richg, advocate in the same ; Wybe Hobbes and Sybolt Aysma, both captains of the trainbands of Leewarden ; Hendric Martens and Jurgien Jurgiens, and many other bystanders, together with Lodowick Fox, public notary at Leewarden on the date aforesaid. Signed by D. Richus de Postella and Lodo. Foxius. Copy. Dutch. 2 pp. [Holland XI. 92.]
Dec. 30./Jan. 9. Instruction for M. Thierry vanden Does, clerk of the Treasurer (sent to Campen).The Hague, 9 January, 1587. Fr. 1 p. [S.P.F. Archives XC., p. 133.]
Dec. 30./Jan. 9. Instruction for Joos Teelinck, Councillor of State, commissioner for the advancing to the States of Zeeland moneys due to them whereby to satisfy the soldiers in garrison on their frontiers. The Hague, 9 Jan., 1587. Fr. 3 pp. [Ibid. p. 134.]
Dec. 31./Jan. 10. Estimate of the contributions, ordinary and extraordinary, granted to his Excellency by the States General for one year, from Jan. 11, 1586 to Jan. 10, 1587 [new style]. Total, 1,438,056l. 8s. 5d. ob. Endd. Fr. 6 pp. [Holland XI. 93.]
Two other copies of the above. [Ibid. XI. 93a and b.]
Note of news from Dunkirk. The Prince of Parma is named Alexander "Fernessey." His secretary is Cossmey Massey ; his treasurer Alonso Carnero. The Marquiss of Pescara, general of the horse, in number 6000 ; the Marquis de[l] Guasto lieutenant general, the County 'Egmounde' Master of the Ordnance, "who was hurt." The County 'Malpelt' and County de la Roche, slain. Captain 'Contrerers,' slain and fourteen other captains hurt. Captain Mondragon, governor of the Castle of Antwerp. Captain Don Hernando de Menezas. Ramires, captain of 200 horse. Captain Riegommes de Fonseca. The Prince has but 7000 Spaniards and 2000 Italians with those in garrison in the forts and towns. And in all, with Almains and Walloons but 16,000 soldiers. On 26 November, after their computation, there came out of Italy 3000 Spaniards and Italians. Governor of 'Graveling,' M. de la Mote, Pedro Rivero and an Almaine his captains. Garrison 400 Spaniards and 100 Almaynes. Governor of Dunkirk, Francisco de Aguilare. Hernando de Santa Cruse and an Almayne captains under him. Garrison as at Gravelines. Governor of Newport, Diego de Aviala. Don Carlos de Luna and an Almaine under captains to him, with 100 horse and 100 foot. Also 300 shot. Head Receiver of Artoys and Flanders, Peter de Castilio, at Dunkirk ; and in his absence his cousin Clemente de Castilio. Under-Receiver for Artois, M. 'de Bone Nofe.' M. de la Bade captain of a town called Fornos [Furnes] with 300 soldiers. Peter de Sibior [Cubiaur] secretary for the county of Arles. "At my being at Dunkirk," there went out five men of war, all fly boats of 50 tons, each having eight cast pieces and fifty soldiers. The Admiral belonged to the Governor ; her captain Steven Newnes, sergeant-major of the town. The vice-admiral belonged to Captain de Santa Cruse ; her captain, Quevas de Alredo. The third ship belonged to one William Bodnam ; her captain John Regall, a Frenchman, who married an English woman. Margin. "Note that this Bodnam was with the Spanish ambassador that last was here." The fourth ship belonged to the town, and the fifth to one Mezas ; her captain one Sisneros. They went out to rescue 35 ships laden with wheat and rye, then at Hambro', kept in by men of war of Flushing. Not being able to rescue them they returned to Dunkirk, and in their return took these prizes : on Nov. [5-]15, a fly boat of one Mr. Barker of Ipswich laden with rye, and another laden with wheat. Also a fly boat of Enchuysen (Ancusen) with a dozen cast pieces and 50 men ; "which they of Dunkirk slew all saving the captain and the pilot, which was of Yarmouth, and thirteen others," all brought as prisoners to Dunkirk, where they now remain. They also took a bark with 150 Scots soldiers bound for Holland whom they threw overboard, and then sank the bark. Moreover, a bark of John Urtis, Peter de Hoase and Hernando Belliota de Alredo took a hoy of Holland, and a bark with twenty-eight English soldiers going to England, who now lie in prison at Dunkirk in great misery. On Nov. [18-]28, the king's commissioners came to Dunkirk to view the soldiers, and brought 100,000 ducats to pay them, "for in five years' space they had received no pay," the said ducats being given by Artois and Flanders, "for the freedoms and liberties of their cities and towns." The whole charges for these three garrisons monthly amounts to 12,000 florins, of which the country bears two parts ; so that the King pays but 14 rials a month to a common soldier. The 100 light horsemen at Newport have gone to a town five leagues off called Hounscoate [Hondscote]. Another hundred comes in their place, and the captain is named Don Pedro de Valverdo. A common captain has 50 ducats monthly ; the officers 8 ducats, and the common soldier 4 ducats, with allowances for their meat and drink. On Nov. [18-]28, sixteen men of war were making ready to go forth with all speed. The Admiral is a hulk of 160 tons, called the Conception ; the least of them being of 40 tons. The Governor has sent to Callis for mariners and to divers other places for soldiers which they need, especially mariners. "The Prince of Parma goeth into Italy to the burial of his father, (fn. 6) which deceased in Placentia ; and the Marquis of Pescara in his absence supplieth his room." The King of Spain makes ready 800 ships and 100,000 fighting men. The charges of the army in victuals and wages for eight months amount to three millions. Italy aids him with 50 great ships ; 'Civill' with 40 ; Lisbon with 30. And the Pope with 12,000 soldiers and pay for eight months. Moreover John Urtis told me divers times that they prepared to invade England and Ireland, and the soldiers at Dunkirk said "England was but a handful, and before two years were come and gone, they would ransack London and conquer the whole land," for there were many there who would take their parts. And the Spaniards say there is a prophecy the King of Spain shall conquer England. A league from Dunkirk is a city called Berges [Bergues St. Winox], where lie 250 soldiers ready to aid Dunkirk ; and fifteen leagues off is another town called Lillo, which has 150 men in garrison. In Dunkirk is a very high steeple, in the top whereof is a watch-house, and continual watch kept there, and when the watcher espies any ships, "so many times he tolleth the great bell." The height of the steeple is 300 steps, so as on a clear day they may see as far as the Downs, Callis, and all the country roundabout. They are building a strong fort near to the entrance of the haven "where it is chained." They have already a great mound of earth, and mean to wall it round with brick. ["The order of clearing of their haven" described at length.] To the east of the town is a strong platform with 15 brass and 5 iron pieces or ordnance ; and on the south side two platforms of earth with ten pieces. On the walls are 26 brass pieces and in the market-place 8 demi-culverins ; 2 brass culverins and 4 iron falcons, making 65 pieces in all. There are but six gunners in Dunkirk, and they have 12d. a day. ["The Order of setting of their watch" described.] There is corn in the country but for two months, because what should have come from Hambro' was stayed by the Flushing ships. It is very dear ; wheat 15s. sterling a bushel, rye 13s. 6d. ; barley 14s. They have two market days a week, Wednesday and Saturday, when the town is furnished with victual ; so that if they were kept from victual, they could not endure three months. Upon All Saints' Eve, "being 31 October by our computation," [sic] a friar of the order of S. Francis in Dunkirk, and vicar of the said Friary, entering into some talk with me concerning the Queen, said that if she were once dispatched, all Christendom would be in rest and quietness, but until that wicked woman were gone, there would be no rest at all. Then taking me into his chamber, showed me the picture of the Prince of Orange and the Burgonian who killed him, saying : "Even as this Burgonian killed this prince....there will not want such another Burgonian to kill that wicked queen, and that before it be long, for the common wealth of all Christendom." Also John Urtis said that between Portsmouth and Havant was a good landing place which he knew, and that the Spaniards might very well land there without resistance. "Finally, there is nothing done here in England but it is presently known in Dunkirk." No signature or endorsement. 11 pp. [News-letters, Flanders I. 74.]
Dec. "Project of such forces as the United Provinces desire for their defence, with an estimate of the charge and means how to defray their charges." viz :
22 regiments of foot, total 33,000 men. Money per month, 38,500l. sterling. 3000 lancers and 2000 reiters or carbasins [sic] ; charge per month, 14,000l. 5 companies of pioneers. 1000 men ; 850l. Total, 39,000 men ; charges, 53,350l. In extraordinaries to the principal officers &c. 5100l. Sum total, 39,000 men. 58,450l. Means how the sums may be furnished. Her Majesty to give monthly 12,500l. sterling. The provinces of Holland, Zeeland Frise and Utrecht will contribute monthly, 20,000l. Contributions of Brandschats of the "plain country of Brabant per mensem, 3100l. Total 356,000fl. or 35,500l. sterling. "Which said sum being raised by the one half in respect that the pay is made after [the rate of] six weeks to the month, maketh 534,000fl. which is five hundred florins more than the entertainment of the companies amounts to." Project in what sort the extraordinaries may be defrayed, viz : 5200l. from the plain countries ; 400l. from the duchies of Guelders and Zutphen, leaving 500l. clear besides consumptions to be levied in Overyssel, Flanders and Brabant. Disposal of forces. Endd. as sent [i.e. carried] by Mr. Killigrew, Dec., 1586. 1 pp. [Holland XI. 94.]
Dec. Names of certain deputies to come out of the Low Countries.
For Holland : John, seigneur de Schagen Bersingerhoren.
Guillaume van Zuylen de Nivelt, seigneur de Kertzberch. Mr. Nicaise Sille, docteur es Droit, councillor of Amsterdam.
Zeeland : Sieur Pierre du Rycke.
Frize : Withie de Camminga, esquire.
On 3rd Article : They will not promise contributions for more than one year, with special provision for a camp for 5 or 6 months.
4th Article : They have found reconciliation with Spain to be hopeless, and require that no treaty of reconciliation be made.
7th Article : Reservation upon and in shipping.
1 pp. Endd. in Burghley's hand, 1586, Dec., out of ye instr. for ye Stat of ye Low Countreys. [Ibid. XI. 95.]
[1586.] (fn. 7) Memorial by M. Ortell on behalf of merchants of the United Provinces. Imprimis. Certain freebooters, some without commission and some against their commission have brought into Dover, London, the Isle of Wight &c. sundry goods and merchandises, for which all duties had been duly paid in the United Provinces ; and the merchants after three months tedious suits have not been able to obtain restoration thereof, in spite of orders from the Privy Council, but, on the contrary, the freebooters have been suffered to sell, transport and alienate the said goods at their pleasure, as though they were supported by some who ought to uphold justice. In like manner is Mr. Jacques Gellie, a magistrate of Flushing (on behalf of whom the Earl of Leicester and Sir Philip Sydney have earnestly written) put off from time to time and cannot yet come to know who has been cause of diverting from her course his ship, the Dolphin of Flushing, coming from Spain. But as one Richard Staper expressly alleges that it was done by order of a noble personage of her Majesty's Privy Council, it were very necessary that the cause should be decided by their honours themselves, with all expedient speed, for that the said Jacques Gellie being one of the principal magistrates, it is most needful for him to be at home for the countries' affairs. Another ship, the Hope of Flushing, Mr. Jacob Anthonison master, appertaining to Mr. John Johnson Cooman, burgomaster of Middelburg and John vander Eee, ancient alderman of Amsterdam, John Nicquit and others of the United Provinces, laden with oil, cotton, wools &c., belonging to the said merchants, in whose favour the Earl of Leicester has also written to the Privy Council, is still detained in the river of Thames, under colour of letters of reprisals granted to John Burde, Watts, Stokes and company, and the said merchants, "neither upon sufficient sureties which their factors have offered and still do, nor by any other reasonable means can obtain the possession of their own, nor yet have the same kept in sequestration, according to the Judges' decrees, their own mutual consents and the order of the Lord Admiral ; but [Burde & co.] forcibly intend to take upon them to have the said goods in their own possessions" sell them at their pleasure, and wage war with the merchants' moneys. Desiring therefore your honours to lend your helping hands that the merchants may have their goods upon sufficient security or at least that the decree of sequestration may be executed until further order be taken therein. And it seems that the aforesaid freebooters, instead of submitting to their superiors of the United Provinces, daily train others to fall from their obedience "to actions of plain spoil.... and to take the merchants' goods forcibly instead of convoying, whereunto they are bound." Which matter is like to grow to an apparent danger if their honours, with all expedition do not provide for remedy therein. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland XI. 96.]
1586. Placcart by the Earl of Leicester, forbidding all traffic, directly or indirectly, with places in the Netherlands held by the enemy, or with Spain, Portugal or any other places under the obedience of the King of Spain. Extract, undated. p. [Ibid. XI. 97.] [This would seem to be a note of the Placcart issued on March 25 (see Cal. vol. XX., p. 489).]
[1586?] Project or list of a certain number of troops and other expences thereon depending ; whereby the United Provinces might, by God's grace, not only be secured and preserved against the forces of the King of Spain, but also freed and delivered from this long and calamitous intestine war. Together with a state and demonstration of the means which might be employed to this end. Fr. 11 pp. [Holland XI. 98.] [Drawn up before the loss of Grave and Venlo.]
[1586?] Armour and furniture delivered to certain captains by Sir John Norreys.
Total to 16 voluntary companies, 2064l. 8s. 9d. sterling.
to 15 prest companies, 395l. 11s. sterling.
to 4 captains yet at the States pay 540l. sterling.
Sum total 3000l. sterling.
Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XI. 99.] [Drawn up while Captain Price was still serjeant-major.]
1586. Prices of victuals in Holland and Zeeland, in Flemish and English moneys. stivers. pence.
Beef, fat, the stone 12st. 16d.
Mutton, fat, the quarter 18st. 2s. 1d.
Mallards and ducks the piece 2st. 3d.
Rabbits ready larded, the piece 7st. 10d.
Souce, the hog's cheek 4st. 5d. ob.
Bacon, the pound 1 blank 1d.
Butter, the pound 1st. 2d.
Cheese the pound 1st. 1d. ob.
Cod, fresh and alive, the piece 12st. 16d.
All kind of fish better cheap by three parts than in England.
Beer, English, in respect of the impost is dear, being sold by the pot at 3st. 4d.
Beer, Dutch, the pot 1st 2d.
Hay for a horse day and night 3st. 4d.
Oats the bushel 7st. 9d.
Endd. with year date. p. [Ibid. XI. 100.]
1586 [after
Paper endorsed "1586. Payments in general to the principal officers for the army." [The words in italics added by Burghley.]
To the Lord General 8189l. 9s. 8d. ob.
The Colonel General 1212l.
Lieutenant Colonel (Sir Henry Norreys) 606l.
Governor and officers of Flushing 3458l. 16s.
Governor and officers of Brill 1961l. 12s.
Henry Killigrew, one of the Council 700l.
Dr. Clarke, one of the Council 562l.
Thomas Wilkes, one of the Council 200l.
The Muster Master 810l. 7s.
Two auditors 126l. 13s. 4d.
The Treasurer 500l.
Sum total 18326l. 18s. 0d.
1 p. [Ibid. XI. 101.]
1586. Queries concerning the Low Countries. 1. "Whether the hatred borne by the people to the States be so great as is reported ! 2. "How they stand affected to a reconciliation with Spain and whether there be any secret instruments enough there to draw them that way. And which of the provinces stand most inclined that way. 3. "What hope they have of support from any other Prince in case her Majesty should abandon them in respect of their ingratitude. 4. "Whether the people of the said provinces stand so sound in affection to the said Queen as is informed and who they be that principally oppose themselves against her. 4 [sic]. "Whether the English bands in her Majesty's pay be so greatly decayed as is informed, which is to be inquired after underhand. 5. "What number of English bands stand under the States' pay and in what strength they are." In Walsingham's hand-writing. Endd. with year date. 1 p. [Holland XI. 102.]
1586. "A brief computation of an army to be kept in the Low Countries" ; being (1) an estimate of the monthly pay of the officers and men of a company ; and (2) a calculation of further charges, suggestions for reducing expences especially as regards the price of victuals. The camp has always paid 3d. and often 4d. for a pot of beer, not so good as our 4s. beer the barrel, which may be afforded (having licence from hence) for 2d. the pot. The bread which there costs 5d. may be had for 4d. ; and the beef, which costs 6d. the ordinary pound weight may from hence be afforded for 4d. ; "and may be done in the Low Countries very near as good cheap, with good husbandry." The butter, cheese and all other provisions will yield like profit. For their apparel ; for wools, linen, fustians or silks, the soldier has paid, for want of ready money, one third part or penny above what any other did ; "and bought it always at the second hand, which now might be delivered to them at the first hand." If his proposals be adopted (the writer says), "the camp shall be always well victualled, the soldier well apparelled and monied ....their meat and drink shall be sweet and wholesome, whereas beforetimes all musty grain for bread and beer corn hath served always for provision of the camp. And as [sic] carrion flesh and other tainted meats have they been fed withal ; which hath many times destroyed as many men as the enemy. Besides, there hath been such want of all victuals in the camp often times, as the soldier hath starved for lack of victuals ; many have hereby been forced to rob and spoil their own friends, which made our nation to be hated, the government exclaimed of, the soldier wholly out of heart and courage and the service thereby left undone." Endd. with year date. 2 pp. [Ibid. XI. 103.]
[1586?] "Questions to be ministered to George Leycester." What imprests he has made to captains without direction of the Treasurer or General ; whether he hath not dealt with the captains to give quittances for lower sums than they have received ; whether there was not money in the hands of the Treasurer at the time he took it up by exchange. In Walsingham's handwriting. p. [Holland XI. 104.]
1586. Paper headed "A profitable plot for the payment of the Queen's Majesty's forces on this side the seas."
Suggesting that all money for the payment of the forces "on this side the seas" should be delivered in London and paid to the Company of Merchants Adventurers, to be repaid "here in Middelburg" at usance, or double or triple usance. Details of the plan and reasons in favour of its adoption. It will hurt none except that there "will grow a loss" to Mr. Huddlestone the treasurer "for the portage of money, which he will want by this plot" ; and if any merchant oppose it, "it will be rather of peevishness than for any other cause." Endd. to the same effect as the headline ; also by Burghley "Merchants Adventurers," and in a third hand, "1586." 1 pp. [Ibid. XI. 105.]
1586. List of 52 companies of the enemy's horse.
Italians and Albanians : those of the Prince of Parma, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Geo. Bast, Count Niccolo Bast, Jehan Batt. de Monte, Camillo de Monte, his brother, Geo. Marcelin, Roderigo Italian, Montrahin, Seigneur de Teude, Capt. Rogiere, Don Martino, Marquis de Guasto.
Spaniards : Capt. Roderigo, Don Juan Mendric, Mondragon.
Burgundians : Capt. Cressia, Thouraise, M. de Ballancon.
Walloons : Marq. de Risburch, Seig. de Varluse, Conte de Mansfelt, senr., La Mothe, Corandin, Capt. Maria, Verdugo, La Bilce, company of Bosleduc, La Mollye, La Bourlette, De Haultepenne, Barlyamont, M. de Mol, Ballon. 4,000 horse in all.
Infantry :
Spanish : 3 regiments under Mondragon, and Italian companies.
Germans : Count of Arenberch and other companies commanded by Italians.
Walloons : regiments of Count of Aiguemont, Count Chas. Mansfelt, Montigny, La Mothe, Haultepenne, M. de Liques ; Verdugo, with about 4000 others in garrisons. Total of infantry, 28,400.
Endd. with date. An estimate of the forces of the Spa. king in the Low Countries. 2 pp. Fr. [S.P. Flanders I. 109a.]
1586. Companies that be cast and reduced into the Companies that be in Her Majesty's pay. Capts. Burghe and Wottenn, reduced long since into their own companies.
Capt. Henry Norreys, to the Colonel General.
Capt. Edward Norreys, to his own company at Flushing.
Capt. Blunt, to his own company in Ostend.
Capt. Kettelbye, to Capt. Ant. Wingfeld.
Capt. Pawlett, to Capt. Lambert.
Capt. Lathame, to Col. Morgane.
Capt. Lee, to Sir W. Waller and Sir R. Williams.
Capt. Ant. Shurley, to Capt. Price.
Capt. Wilfourd, to the companies at Ostend.
Capt. Payntoun, to Capt. Darcye.
Companies that be cast out reduced into the Companies that be at the States' pay.
Capt. Shawe, to Capt. Inge.
Capt. Yonge, to Capt. Clark.
Capt. R. Farmer, to Sir Geo. Farmer.
Capt. John Tracye, to Capt. Giles and Nyc. Tracye.
Capts. Gashefild and Martenn, to Capt. Spencer.
Capt. Knapp, to Sir Edm. Carry.
Capts. Phulford and Riche, to my Lord Audley.
Capts. Samson, Weman, Smythe and Hytchok, amongst the companies that lie in Deventer.
Endd. Companies reduced 1586. 1 p. [Holland XI. 106.]
[1586.] "A list of the numbers of soldiers of the Low Country birth entertained by the States United." (fn. 8)
"Companies" of Count Hohenlo, the Count de Murs, Count William of Nassau, Prince d'Epinoy ; Comte d'Oversteyn, Sieur de Villiers, Colonel Schenck, La Sale, Bax, Barchon, Greunevelt, Cranevelt, Du Boys, Volff, Eldeborn, Balen, Coppen Farges, Guillaume Bernardt, L'Espine, Wischarrdt.
The Count of Solm's company not yet set up.
The company of M. Cluyt at Nuys.
Regiments of Count Philip of Nassau ; the "Sieur de Sydney" ;
Col. Sonoy ; Governor Grunevelt ; Col. Iselstein ; the Comte de Murs ; the Baron of Hohensaxe ; the Baron of Creanges ; Col. Pieron ; Col. Dorp ;
Companies not regimented :
The regiment of Count William of Nassau, governor of Frise.
Further list of captains.
The names of the captains and numbers in their companies given ; and in some cases the places where they are stationed.
Fr. 12 pp. [Ibid. XI., 108.]
[1586.] List of Officers of the English force in the field and in garrison ; 6400 infantry and 1000 cavalry, at a total cost of 132,586l. 5s. per annum. 4 pp. [Holland XI. 107.]
[1586.] PAUL BUIZ. (fn. 9)
Greatly displeased with H. Killegrew, with Ringout, whom he accounted seditious, without religion, credit or ability ; foisted in by Mr. Dyer and Mr. Secretary, who hath too much attributed to alchemists, as Vander Aa and Joseph Michieli and Webbe married to Vander Aa's sister, a secretary of state under Alva. Also the Count of Meurs, a stranger, not capable of office in these countries but as a military man. Erection of Court of Finances against the contract between the States and His Excellency as to the oath of the Council of State. He offered to me the act and the copy of another. Ringout is treasurer with access to Council of State ; so have Moeurs, Killigrew, Brakell, Tyell, Loose and P. B. himself. Mr. Killigrew told him in great passion that H.E. would establish the finances or else hazard his neck. He had threatened that order should be taken with Buis, for his course and practices were too well known. Asked the reason for changing his opinion answered that Buis in council had resisted the coming of the English, demanding who sent for them, also that he had trifled with them over a commission of H.E. to the States at Utrecht, and at Amsterdam about money. He showed a letter written to the convoy master touching the licence of corn and cheese to Colchester, wherein he blames Burgrave, showing that H.E. signs letters without reading them. If you will have it, neither the enemy nor we have any victual thence, nor any victual at all be sold out of our country. P. Buis his will to sett all at liberty for money. Why should they more forbid Emden than the river of Yaa, the Weser, the Elephe and their own provinces into Spain and elsewhere. The reports to H.E. by the Hollander of Count Edzard were very untrue and a quarrel sought ; not to damnify the enemy, but to choke (?) the trade at Emden for their private respects. If John Garbrandz had been to Emden before me, according to his commission, and then executed the same, it had been excusable, if he had not used Her Majesty's authority therein ; but coming with me, and I finding the Earl tractable and his whole people therewith, I must not suffer the ships to be detained, and her Majesty's merchants and ships arrested. Amsterdam hath enlarged itself to become rich with the blood and confusion of their best friends. [Margin : Bardezius promised me the sequestration of their privileges. They deceived Davison, Secretary Arzennes.] To note and set down what P. Buis said to me. [Margin : the Queen will enter into a general league for religion ; but not for bye causes.] The detention of my 3 papers by P.B. When for their sake we enterprise anything against the Empire, all the trade is taken away and our men and goods stayed in each place. The Hollanders with 1000 ships cannot keep, by the Ems alone, the transport of victual to the enemy. [Margin : the deputies' letter to H.E. that it may be perused.] The Weser and Ja do now victual more than the Ems. The way to annoy the enemy and impeach groynes is either by forts or army in the field. [Margin : the nature of the low countryman is all to be helpen but to perform nothing, nor yet be governed by any.] The proposed surprise of Emden infeasible, with great bloodshed, provoking the whole world justly against us. [Margin : they say they cannot make forts ; how then shall they make armies (?)] The ambition of Amsterdam would destroy Emden and all other places, yea our traffic of England, and reduce it within their jurisdiction, to exercise their avarice over strangers and naturals, having to this end abandoned Antwerp and Brabant and Flanders. What will they then do to strangers. [Margin : they are neither true in the towns nor valiant in the field and so their treachery bewrays.] The policy of Holland is to plunge Her Majesty into wars with the whole world, and so being made hateful to compel her to aid them, and yet undutifully to exclude her, and so have they mocked all the world. [Margin : 2 staples in the Low Countries is dangerous and the commodities not vendible.] They would bound their frontier places, as they did Barrow against Brabant and then despise their protector. Resum of above and further notes. These countries will not be ruled by the sword or by garrisons which course will bring them all to revolt. Her Majesty will never take upon her the sovereignty, and they must have an absolute head. If H.E. were appointed they would all obey him, or any other of England. Count Maurice to marry the daughter of Denmark. Sir Philip Sidney [erased] and of judgment. H.E. might have had 88,000 gilders in his purse. Herman Modet doth deprave him and yet cannot get an action against him. He never had a penny since H.E. came beside what he spent to perform the commissions he was employed in, 1000 gilders of his own and hath given credit for 30,000 gilders ; therefore desires to retire to look to his own things. My Ld. Treasurer's words to him etc. The rittmeister hath been at given charges and yet no man paid. The country is fain to feed our men at their arrival and to arm them, which amounteth to a higher charge and yet draw no service by these men. If he thought not that H.E. did these things from policy he would never present himself in his presence again. 4 pp. [Holland XI. 109.]
before Nov.?]
A geographical and statistical account of the Low Countries, with the counties of Artois, Hainault and Namur, the bishoprics of Lemberg and Liege, and the Seigneurie of Utrecht.Undated. 28 pp. French. [S.P. For. Archives XC., p. 1.]
[? 1586.] Suggestion for the Earl of Leicester to make profit by having arrested cloth valued and sold ; as Parma made arrangements with merchants to pay his soldiers partly with English cloth and partly in cash. Endd. in Burghley's hand "To my L. of Lecester." 1 pp. Italian. [Holland XI. 110.]
[1586.] FOR THE GOVERNMENT AND ADMIRALTY. That his Excellency take steps to provide that the Count of Nassau may enter upon his government. That the Estates of Holland and Zeeland nominate the councillors to assist the Count. That as regards the office of Admiral H.E. provide that the Count's authority be not diminished. That the rights belonging to the Admiral be reserved to the Count or that the Estates give him a pension in compensation. Further requests to use influence with Estates to provide for the Count and his House. Endd. : Memorial touching the Count Maurice, his Government. French. 1 p. [Ibid. XI. 111.]
[1586.] Note of victuals to be provided in England for the soldiers in the Low Countries, because of the scarcity of victuals there. License to transport beer, wheat, barley and malt, butter, cheese, bacon and powdered beef. (2 copies.) p. [Ibid. XI. 112 and 112a.]
[1586.] True sum spent in hiring shipping etc. for "the speedy advertising of your honours and the Lord General of what I found," and the charges of one of Sir Wm. Stanley's men brought at own cost from the enemy's country to Lord Willoughby and thence to my Lord Steward. Asks speedy despatch else "my Lord General will conceive some sinister opinion upon my long stay here," having promised to go back to the duke's camp and there reside until some good occasion might be offered for effecting a special piece of service. Without date, address or signature. (fn. 10) p. [Ibid. XI. 113.]
Since the States General took over the government of the Low Countries, numerous changes of personnel have led to betrayals, accounting for the ingratitude shown to many faithful servants, including himself. Has been unable to achieve his aims from the time he left his last master, and not even at the coming thither of the earl of Leicester. (fn. 11) Does not know to whom he can better apply than to the Secretary. When the Provinces revolted in 1576 the Baron de Bouterssem, since Marquis of Berghes, took him as secretary. Finding after some years that the Marquis meant to ruin the States, left him and served the Prince of Espinoy some months, and then the Prince of Chimay, for six weeks only. The assassination of the Prince of Orange occurred soon after when a Council was set up to govern in the name of the States. They held him prisoner at Middelburg for 5 weeks, in petty revenge for a process he sustained against a poor rogue in the name of the Prince d'Espinoy. He has been prevented from profiting by the earl's great generosity, and believes this is largely due to some who fear that he might disclose things to their discredit, so that after serving that party for ten years he finds himself abandoned, loaded with debts, expatriated for the third time by the fall of Antwerp, though he has never done the least injury to the cause. Asks for some advancement, or something of the kind. He rejected popery and devoted himself to the true religion when understanding came to him, otherwise he would not be in this condition, the Marquis of Berghes having urged him to return with very advantageous offers immediately after the fall of Antwerp. Endd. Add. 2 pp. close writing. French. [Holland XI. 114.]
[1586.] Note of impositions, on flour, wheat, barley, beer, wine. Endd. Impositions. 3 pp. French. [Ibid. XI. 115.]
[1586.] Petition of [RINGAULT], the SIEUR DE CAUWENBOURGH to the QUEEN.
Prays her to grant him a commission as councillor in the train of the Earl of Leicester, with assurance of the post of treasurer-general of the finances when that College shall be set up under the free disposal of his Excellency ; which post he has deserved before all others by his labours in the Council of Finances for twenty-four years and more. Also the place of Treasurer of the Exchequer which he has filled since the year '74 ; it being considered that the Treasurer of the Finances has no management of money. That the salary of Councillor may commence from his entry into the said Earl's service, and be continued even if it should happen that his Excellency cannot obtain the free disposal of the said College of Finances ; seeing that, even so, the said Sieur de Cawenbourgh would not fail to lend his Excellency notable service in many ways. It will be very necessary for him to go with the Earl as councillor, to be able to serve him at his first entry, and this in divers junctures and causes, expected and unexpected. It is certain that the calumnies spread against him here proceed only from the breast of a particular person, and that his going will not be disagreable either to the people or the States General but rather pleasing to all honourable and virtuous men, who have seen his actions, fidelity and constancy. For if otherwise, neither the late Prince of Orange nor the said States General would have employed him in their Chambre des Aides, nor would he have been granted an assignment of 23,000 florins. And with this assignation and the assurance of the said post of Councillor (as above) the said Sieur will think no more of the property which the Spaniards hold, both in Flanders and Brabant ; although they promise free enjoyment thereof to those who wish to remain in neutral countries. If her Majesty will be pleased to advance him 100l. sterling by way of loan, for his expenses, he engages to return them at the end of six months, or to let them be defalked from his wages as Councillor, giving his bond therefor in due form. Prays her Majesty and her Council for a speedy resolution. Unsigned and undated. (fn. 12) Fr. 1 pp. [Holland XI. 116.]
A company of 150 costs 2090 and odd pounds a year, whereof imprests, apparel, arming and captains' pay come to 1750l. Asks that the 20 dead pays allowed to the captain of Rammekins be allowed to him out of the residue, so that he may lodge the men better. Money calculations in Burghley's hand. Endd. p. [Ibid. XI. 117.]
Explaining that the reason that "ten or twelve days is commonly spent and receiving and sorting the species of money" which he receives from the merchants is that the coins in the Low Countries are not of uniform value, "some being of 3 gilders and 4 stivers, or of 4 gilders and 3 stivers, and other of 4 gilders and 2 stivers, and many the like." When he has received it he sends to every garrison its proportion for 56 days ; and because contrary winds often delay the conveyance to those places to which the passage is by sea, he commonly advances to them more than 56 days "and shortens the like at Flushing," where, if need be, he can be helped by the merchants before the day of payment. Otherwise he could not hold such correspondence as he has done in all places during these many years. Signed. Endd. by Burghley. 1 p. [Ibid. XI. 118.]


  • 1. Japikse : Resolutien der Staaten Generaal. V., p. 667 where it is dated 5 Jan.
  • 2. See page 216 above.
  • 3. Given by Japikse : Resolutien der Staaten Generaal, Vol. V., pp. 670-2 in Dutch and dated 8 Jan.
  • 4. Japikse : Resolutien der Staaten Generaal, V., p. 467. It is merely the recital of an act previously passed.
  • 5. Volmachten ; but not in quite the same sense as before.
  • 6. Ottavio, Duke of Parma, died on 21st September, 1586.
  • 7. Cf. Ortell's letter of Feb. 5, 1585-6. (Cal. S.P.F., Vol. XX., p. 354) ; and a petition of 6 March concerning the Hope. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1581-90, page 311.
  • 8. The mention of Cloet at Neuss places this in the year 1586, before 19th July, when it fell and he was killed.
  • 9. This paper appears to be in the handwriting of William Herle, and the contents point to him as being the writer. The date would be after the establishment of the chamber of finances by Leicester on the 26th June and before Buys' arrest on the 9th July. Herle got back from Emden on the 28th June. See p. 87 above.
  • 10. In a bold round hand. Probably written after Leicester's departure for England, when Norreys was Lord General and before Willoughby left for England about the turn of the year.
  • 11. He had been employed by Leicester in 1585. See Vol. XX. of this Calendar, p. 88.
  • 12. Before the establishment by Leicester of the Chamber of Finances, on the 26th June.