Elizabeth: May 1589, 11-20

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1950.

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, 'Elizabeth: May 1589, 11-20', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589, (London, 1950) pp. 266-278. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol23/pp266-278 [accessed 30 May 2024].

. "Elizabeth: May 1589, 11-20", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589, (London, 1950) 266-278. British History Online, accessed May 30, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol23/pp266-278.

. "Elizabeth: May 1589, 11-20", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 23, January-July 1589, (London, 1950). 266-278. British History Online. Web. 30 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol23/pp266-278.

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May 1589, 11–20

May 11. Sir John Conway to Burghley.
Wrote about mid-April to the States and Bodely for help. Since his last [sic], of May 4, has heard from Boddely that the States will at once send it. Cannot learn of any meaning in the Prince to attack this place presently, although his lordship's intelligence is doubtless more trustworthy.
Hears that the Prince has lately engaged 40 cannon and the greater part of his forces before Hwesdone. Some say that 12 cannon have been brought to Wawe, near Bargen. Learns that the Prince is very short of money and that his credit with the merchants fails, so that he will be able to do little this summer. He sent forces to hinder the Allmaynes entering France. “Having taken an ill heat and infection of that country, which vexeth his bones, he is gone, or presently doth go, to the Spawe for his better ease of body and mind. In his absence it is not likely that any town shall be besieged.”
Heard previously that Bridges, etc., had pressed the Prince to attack this town and that he promised to do so in a year's time. Also that Lamote urged an immediate attack. Does not think an attack will be made unless there is a good chance of success. “The proudest Spaniard of hottest complexion will [not] adventure himself where he is assured he must fight, unless he have a good assurance of his match and hope of his victory. This much I can justly speak of them by some experience both in field and within walls.”
Accordingly hopes that her Highness will decide to retain this place, at least for the summer. Hopes Burghley will move her to decide on this course. When her Highness considers how much it will increase her quietness at home and burden her enemy, no doubt she “will prefer her honour, allow your counsel and so good a help, before a small charge.”
Will adventure to hold the place till Michaelmas with the small forces he has, if her Majesty will get the States to defend them against the sea and spend 200l. upon the fortifications. Could withstand a siege with five more companies. Withdrawal now would be prejudicial to her Majesty's honour.
Desires pardon for writing so much and for his “ill hand.” Knows the value of this place to her Majesty so well that, if she will resolve to retain it, he will bind himself and his company of 150 men to serve here for a whole year without pay.
The place is “a second Calles and more available than ever Calles was.”
However, in case her Majesty resolve to abandon it, he encloses an estimate of the garrison's numbers, its supplies, munitions and artillery, so that “the commanders of the Admiralty” will know how much shipping they need. The people on this side should not be used, for their service would be neither certain nor secret.
The small boats of the town, and others that he would stay, would suffice for the inhabitants.
Could destroy the haven, with the help of a spring tide, if meet tools and someone to direct the work be sent over. Could do it most effectually if they waited until the winter storms, which would also hinder repairs.
His own and the garrison's devotion, whatever course be adopted.
Excuses his ill writing. As his lordship commanded, he wrote this his answer immediately he received his letter.—Ostend, 11 May, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley, as “received 13 May.” 3 pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 203.]
Estimate of men, etc., at Ostend.
Her Majesty's. 7 companies, 850 men. 8 demi-culverins, 10 port pieces. 106 barrels of powder. 10 muskets, 30 calivers, 440 pikes, 120 half pikes, 50 black bills. Spades, shovels, wheelbarrows needed. The men ill armed. The store cannot supply, nor the captains buy, arms. Wheat, 130 quarters and 200 expected; rye 30. Beer, 140 hogsheads.
The States. A culverin, 2 cannon pierriers, 2 sakers, 2 falcons, all of brass. 3 sakers, 8 minions, 3 falcons, 10 quarter-slings, 4 'bases,' of iron. A broken falcon. About 50 shots for each. Provision received by their commissary, April 15:—2,100 musket shot, 10,000 lb. match, 1,000 spars, 1,800 bundles of straw, 200 deal boards, 24 lasts rye [Note by Burghley that the last contains as much as 18 barrels of beer], 18 lasts 1 bushel of malt, 50 hurdles, 30 lasts turves.
Undated. Not endd. 2 pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 121.]
May 11. Christopher Carleill to Burghley.
As Burghley did not speak with her Majesty yesterday before going from Court touching the reasons for keeping and repairing Ostend, has this morning translated them into English and digested them into a little better order. Encloses them herewith. If her Majesty be still disposed to abandon the place, desires that some other than himself may be employed therein. “I had rather spend one of my joints to win such a place than be spoken of to have been the instrument of leaving it to the enemy.” Those who so earnestly urge its abandonment “have seldom paid the price of winning such a place.”—His lodging in Buttolphe lane, 11 May, 1589.
Signed. Add. Endd. by Burghley and a clerk. Seal of arms. ½ p. [Holland XXXII. f. 201.]
Reasons for keeping and repairing Ostend.
The only remaining entry into Flanders. If a camp were framed to invade that country or to divert the enemy from other operations, it could from Ostend “quickly march into the bowels of a country whereof he hath an especial care.”
The nearest town to England in the United Provinces.
It stands on the sea, well placed between England and Zeeland, from both of which supplies could be sent for such an enterprise.
It is the only refuge from tempests and the enemy for the small ships trading between England and Zeeland.
It has before it “the principal and very best fishing” of Flanders. Once the town is fortified properly, this would bring back to it many mariners and flyboats.
If 5,000l. sterling be spent upon the fortifications, and licence be granted to trade with the enemy as Middlebourroughe, Flusching, etc., do, then the inhabitants will return and English, French, and other merchants will resort thither. So the garrison would be better accomodated and the town better able to do service.
Ten or twelve foot companies more useful there than anywhere else. The enemy must keep twice or thrice as many to check them and yet the ‘platt’ country around will be kept waste and he will draw no profit from it.
As her Majesty and the Estates are unlikely to entertain a camp able to make head against that usually maintained by the enemy, it is especially important to keep so useful a frontier as Ostend, planted as it is in the enemy's country where the soldiers can spoil only their enemies. It can be easily supplied from England by water,—the cheapest form of carriage.
If her Majesty thinks it necessary to hold cautionary towns for the repayment of her lendings, so also should she keep Ostend as a means, at the pacification, to obtain payment of the part due by Flanders, which will pay nothing of its own accord.
The spending of 5,000l. would make it possible to hold the town awhile with six or eight companies if the rest were wanted for another service.
Her Majesty should be able to direct that this 5,000l. be thus used and be deducted from her gross contribution to the United Provinces, of which Ostend is a member according to the Treaty.
To refer the care of the town to the Estates, as her Majesty's last speeches suggested, would mean its dishonourable loss. If the enemy is really preparing an attack, he will be so far “shot on in his work” before any aid arrives from the Estates, that the town would be lost.
Two further points have just occurred to the writer. First, that if the town be abandoned, the enemy would soon be able to repair the haven, whatever measures had been taken to destroy it. Secondly, that as Gertruydenberghe has been lost and is no longer a charge, it should be easier to repair and maintain Ostend.
In the same hand as the letter, above. 3¾ pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 208.]
French version of the above paper, with slight differences of arrangement.
Endd. by Burghley, “10 May, 1589 …” 32/3 pp. [Holland. XXXII. f. 211.]
May 11. Sir Thomas Knollys to Walsingham.
A party of 67 soldiers from this garrison overthrown by the enemy. Most of them came back ‘piecemeal,’ but 23 were taken and slain in cold blood. Weakness of this garrison and need of reinforcements. Heard yesterday from his brother [-in-law] Morgan that Husedon is ‘hardly’ besieged and that 43 cannon are brought against it. His desire to serve Walsingham.— Osteand, 11 May, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. 1 p. [Holland XXXII. f. 205.]
May 12. William Milward to Walsingham.
Wrote last on April 28 by his servant Adrian Moore. Has been here twelve days but finds men nervous to part with money. Few men will take ten, and all men are resolved not to deal with any prince, city, or generality. Caused the factors of the best ‘counters’ in Germany to write to their masters about money. The answer from Cullen, Franckford, and Aeon is that they will pause until they see what will fall out between her Majesty and the King of Spain and between Parma and the Low Countries. Hears nothing from Noremberg and Ausbourg.
The Low Country merchants and others resident in Hamborough hover upon the success of Sir Francis Drake, of whose voyage men talk diversely. Believes the navy has gone long since, but it is bruited that the same cannot go forward for want of money, whereat the enemy rejoiceth, accounting the honour of England touched. This bruit greatly hinders Milward's business.
Some here fear, or hope, that Holland will soon be at the King of Spain's devotion. If he bring the States to obedience and have the ships of Holland at will, he will trouble all England. Prays that those towns which her Majesty has, be kept free of treachery.
Julius, Duke of Brunswick, died on the 3rd. It may postpone the marriages between his heir, Henry, and the [late] King of Denmark's eldest daughter and between the King of Scotland and the younger daughter, which were to take place between Midsummer and St. James' tide.
News to-day from Frankfort of a victory of the King of Navarra, who took 27 ensigns, 26 of which he presented to the French king. Also that Lyons is besieged.
Norembergh news that those of Geneva have taken Eclusa, a town of the Duke of Savoy, between Geneva and Savoy.
2,000 reiters said to be levied in Brunswick for the League. The only man of account engaged therein is the eldest son of Otto, Duke of Brunswick and Luningborowgh, alias Duke of Harborgh, who is on bad terms with his father. The father's house is but 6 English miles hence.
Hardly hopes to prevail in his business. Something may be done at Franckford mart in September.—Hamborch, 12 May, 1589.
It is useless to travel higher into Germany. Sends verbatim copy hereof to the Lord Treasurer [not found].
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. Passages in italics in cipher, 12/3 [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. f. 82.]
May 12. G. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Has, as directed by his letter of April 29, conferred with Mr. Bodly about her Majesty's letters to certain towns. Leaves Bodly to explain why they decided not to deliver them. Lord Buckhurst's coming should do much to remove discords and settle the government. He should come soon, for “the presence of such a person with authority from her Majesty” will restore the people's confidence in her aid, shaken by the loss of Geertrudebergh. The late placard caused many, who were formerly friendly to England, to become hostile. A public answer should be made to it. Likelihood that the enemy will press these countries hard.
The enemy is between Heusden and Bolducq. Most of his forces are now at Heechusen. He is said to intend “to leave the towns of Heusden, Bommel, Thiel, and the ‘housen’ and forts thereabouts and march directly to Warkendam, a fort lying on a point of the land over against the land of Geertrudebergh, and either to attempt the taking thereof or else leave it on the side and there make another to cut off the passage; his purpose being to cut off the river of Merue and pile it, making a bridge of shipping to pass over into the Dort's Weert and so may pass to Schoonhouen; also stop the passages of the Maes and the Wael and cut off all traffic from Dort to Gorcum and other towns upwards. It is likewise thought that he will pass over into the Betuwee and there attempt the taking of the small towns, as Culenborgh, Vianen, Buren, Heucklen, Leerdam, Asperen, Yselstein, Wyck, and such like, which are of small strength and nothing provided.” M. Caron will write of the state of Utrecht, whence he returned this morning.
Lack of forces. M. the Locres in Hemerweert with 1,000 men. Colonel Dorpe second in command. Neither very skilled or valorous, though Dorpe is an old soldier.
Count Maurice left this morning for Dordrecht and Gorcum. Only Count Solms, Count Philip, and sundry young captains are with him, and perhaps MM. Famas, Barson, and Balfour. Famas will probably not leave Heusden, for the enemy took Doveren fort on Wednesday morning and are now within four miles of the town. Count Moeurs has gone from Utrecht over the Ysel to hinder the victualling of Deventer and Zutphen, good service if accomplished: but “it is doubted he will be cut off one of these days and so hazard all that country.”
Berck almost completely blockaded. A captain managed to get out and presses for its relief or evacuation. Sees not how forces can be found to relieve it.
Schenck still treating here. The enemy beats his house, Blienbeeck: its fall expected. Gelderland earnestly supports Schenck's suit: they are said to desire to displace Count Moeurs in his favour.
Deputies sent to carry out the accord with Bommell. Provision sent to Tiel. The Amptman satisfied: he is “fickle of humour and dangerous….”—The Haghe, 12 May, 1589, st. Ang.
Signed. Add. Endd. 12/3 pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 217.]
May 12/22. John Gylles to Walsingham.
Has been in Holland for six weeks with John de la Fall, who will, he hopes, shortly see Walsingham. He cannot get his affairs with his brethren settled in these countries. The factors keep that which belongs to “the right children.” De la Fall has answered Walsingham's letter. The delay was due to his ignorance of English and to Gylles' absence. He sends herewith some radish and other seeds from Italy.
Has travelled as far as Arnam and seen the ill state of the country. Four ancients of men in Arnam, where 3,000 men would be few enough. They will admit no more until they are paid. Those of Tyelt (between Arnam and Utricht) will not obey nor take in troops, but will govern themselves. Heard from one of the court at the Hagh, that if the attempt on Gertrenbergh had succeeded, a similar unwise attack would have been made on Tyelt. At Utricht many exiled canons and “dumb heads” have returned and officers who were there “in the Popish time” are daily replaced in office. If Parma sent his forces into those parts, divers towns would probably go over to him. “I never did see Holland in so ill a state, for there is neither men nor money nor yet good government, and the hearts of the people fall wholly from their governors.” Three cornets of horsemen slain at Huseden, “and of Maurice's company not six scaped,” according to Justinus. Doubts if there are as many good horsemen in the land. The exploit was done by those of Gertrenberghe. Husden is beset with sconces and entry is difficult. The commons everywhere, except at Dort, speak ill of the English since the coming out of the book against those of Gertrenberghe. Since the loss of that town, the trade of Dort has almost ceased and some of their ships have run to the enemy. They entertained 2 or 300 mariners, but they would not take the oath to the States but only to the town. Danger of alteration in Holland, which many desire. Admiral Justinus commends himself to Walsingham: he says that two English captains in Ostend contract to deliver the town to the enemy. He does not know their names. Little news from Anwarp except that many flee, “for that their time draws near.” Also that Cameryck has declared for the French King, and those of the town have raided into Artoyes. The Prince of Parma is said to be at Carpen, on his way to Spae. He is reported to be very sick and to lack money. Certain bills have been “returned with protest” in Spain.
Means to go to the ‘vloot.’ Desires Walsingham's letters to Justinus to enable him to pass a man through the ‘vloot’ to Anwarp. It takes too long and is too chargeable to go into Holland to get a passport. Could learn much, having friends in Anwarp.
Mr. Thompson has come from Ordam, after 6 weeks there. His man bound for England. The Fowkers have undertaken “to furnish the King's need only by provision out of Germany.” Tervere has agreed to take in Germans or 'Dowtches' which Hollack brings or sends. This town means the like.—[Dated at head] "Laus deo le 22 May, styll. novo, 1589."
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. 2 pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 215.]
May 13. Sir Francis Vere to Walsingham.
Desiring him to deal with Sir Thomas Sherlye to pay him his entertainment as Sergeant-Major. Vere is “a poor gentleman who only dependeth upon the maintenance of the wars.”
Little news. The enemy is encamped before Huesden. The Duke has gone to the Spawe, so sick that he was awhile reported to be dead. Sir John Wyngfeld still at Breda,“withheld he knoweth not wherefore, directly against the Duke's word. The States continue their rigorous sentence against him. For me they confess their error and have razed me out of the book.” Raids into the enemy country frequently made: they keep the enemy in fear and so hinder the passage that many soldiers come over to them. “I do not doubt but ere long your honour shall hear we stir to some purpose….”—Berghes, 13 May.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. 1¾ pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 219.]
May 13/23. Don Martin de Sarragones, governor of Vigo, to [Don Francisco Maldonado, of the King's Council in Galicia].
His alarm for Maldonado and the Marquis when he heard that that city was besieged. Sent a messenger to the Marquis to ask what aid he required and to tell him that their fishermen were taken by the enemy. The messenger could not deliver the letters. Juan de Costalora then wrote to this town of the necessity Maldonado was in. One hundred harquebuses were promptly sent hence under Gregorio Passos. Could not himself leave his charge. His sorrow at the overthrow of the camp, which everyone says was by ill government. Should have resisted the enemy at his landing. Eight enemy ships yesterday passed by the isles of Bay on in the mouth of this river. One of them “a very great ship.” They went boarding up and down all one forenoon. They then put out to sea, after four pinnaces had made an unsuccessful attempt to land at Cangos. Desires him to inform Don Pedro de Sotomayor and Don Diego Sarmiento, so that they may be ready to aid if the enemy lands here and so that all may be able “at the first to impeach his landing. Otherwise they will destroy all this country. In the rest that is needful the Marquis will give order…. My wife and my children I have them two leagues hence….”—Vigo, 23 May, 1589.
Translation. Endd., and in later hand, “by this letter doth seem that Don Diego de Sarmiento, now called el Conde de Gondomar, now ambassador here in England, was a governor and a commander a° 1589—11 Jan., 1620.” 1¼ pp. [Spain III. f. 59.]
May 14. Bodley to the States General.
In January last Willughby, by her Majesty's command, informed the States General that unless they took fitting order for the fortification, etc., of Ostend, the place was no longer tenable. As nothing was done and no answer made by the States, her Majesty, by her letter of May 3, o.s., received to-day, has commanded Bodley to inform them that as they have failed to carry out the necessary repairs, she must withdraw her troops from Ostend and leave it to them to defend. Her Majesty also expects them to fulfil, both at Ostend and elsewhere, their promise to Sir John Norris that they would provide, when need arose, footmen and horse in place of those granted to him. Thought well to communicate this letter of her Majesty's, although the States and Council of State have already, unknown to her, taken such order therein as will, he believes, fully satisfy her, provided that the said order is promptly executed.—The Hague, 14 May, 1589 stilo veteri.
Copy. French
. 2½ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 115.]
Another copy of the above.
Endd. French. 2¼ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 117.]
[May 14.] Proposals by James Digges for keeping her Majesty's companies complete, or at least for saving so much of her treasure as the defects amount unto.
No General, governor, treasurer, or officer of the field, receiving entertainment for their offices, to have any companies of their own. This would avoid the evil example of the weakness of their bands and the favour shown them by the officers of musters. Having no bands themselves, they will be the more eager to see that all are at full strength and to control the defects of musters. Could be attended by men passed in other bands.
The commissary resident and the clerk of every band to deliver every 14 days to the Treasurer perfect muster rolls upon their oaths. Any sending imperfect or false rolls to be cashiered and disabled from ever holding any office or receiving pay from her Majesty or from any officer serving her in the Low Countries. Similar rolls to be delivered by the commissary every 14 days to the Governor of the town, who shall check it by inquiry among the burghers whether the men named in the rolls are presently lodged in their houses “according to the billets.”
The lords of the Council to set down the rate of each man's weekly pay, so that the Treasurer may detain any sums due to those who are absent, “except by special passport well approved.”
That no passport be granted for more than 6 weeks. Any absent longer than the time limited in their passport to lose their entertainment during the time which they overstay. Any overstaying more than 3 weeks to be discharged, and their places given to others.
For the better discovery of defects of men and arms, companies should march to and from the watch in ranks “and not in troops as now they usually do.” The captain himself should march at their head, and not send his lieutenant or other inferior officer in his place.
As the troops are not serving in the field, there is no need of the Lieutenant-Colonel or the Sergeant-Major, offices lately erected by the Earl of Leicester. A captain could be made temporarily colonel, with suitable entertainment for the time, when any companies were drawn into the field.
If this strict method is adopted the captain should “be considered once or twice in the year with some convenient imprest.”
[Added by Burghley]: "That there be no great number of capt[ains] licensed to be absent."
Marginal notes of contents by Burghley. Endd. with date, and by Burghley “Mr. Ja. Digges.” 2½ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 119.]
May 15. Buzanval to the Queen.
Denies that he received three hundred pounds sterling for Captain van Lo, who went to Boulogne, and only paid him two hundred. Did not even see the money, which was sent by other hands than his. If his word is not enough, he desires to be confronted with his slanderers. If her Majesty thinks thus ill of him, he cannot do her service. Desires her to inquire into the matter.—London, 15 May, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. Seal of arms. French. 2/3 p. [France XIX. f. 131.]
May 15. William Borlas to Walsingham.
Many complaints made of the apparel now sent over. Every suit a mark or 10s. worse than last year. Desires his honour to examine those who supplied it. Wishes for some order by which soldiers should be fully paid for their time of service and not come over to trouble her Majesty and her Council for their pay.
Her Majesty should pay the soldier half his pay in weekly lendings and half in apparel. Then when the captain discharges him, he would fully content him by giving him the apparel due to him. The soldier would then have no reason “to come and exclaim at the Court for pay.” An order from her Majesty or the Council would be required for this.
M. Vaulke, Losa, and Egmond are daily expected here on their way to her Majesty.
The Prince of Parma gone to the baths. Some say he is very sick, some dead. Some think he will not return. The King has returned the merchants' bills and, it is said, refuses to repay the money taken up by exchange by the Prince, whose credit is therefore nothing. Discord between the Italians and Spaniards.
News to-day from France that the Duke Demall is slain and the governor of Cambra wounded and taken by the Duke of Longafelld and M. le Nowe: nearly 10,000 of the League reported slain.
The lord Governor should urge her Majesty and the Council not further to diminish this garrison.—Flusschyng, 15 May, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. “…complaints of apparel.” Seal. 2¼ pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 223.]
May 16. G. de Prounincq, called Deventer, to Walsingham.
Is almost ashamed again to importune him for his good offices with her Majesty to secure his (Deventer's) release. The seigneur de Caron has been put off with the usual evasive answers by the Count and the magistrates. Hopes that Lord Bockhurst will deal more effectually. Desires, if his release be obtained, to be given audience to defend himself against the calumnies of his enemies. His letter of January 26 and also the articles which he sent to councillor Borchgrave were copied by some means. His readiness to serve Walsingham.—Utrecht, 16 May, 1589, stylo veteri.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. ¾ p. [Holland XXXII. f. 227.]
May 17. Thomas, Lord Burgh, to Burghley.
The Duke of Parma said to be dead: he has certainly been very sick. The King of Spain's forces “travail the country and, what is most fearful to this people, even Holland itself.” They have taken a castle and a sconce, and so blocked the passage to Hewsden. They lie also around Bommell. Worckum was lately in danger “by an intelligence.” Cannon brought before Blimbeck castle, in Gueldres. Berk likely to be lost. The States are “almost at an end of their counsels.” The towns prepare to compound as soon as the enemy draws near. If any resistance were decided upon, they lack leaders (now Marshal Villiers is dead) and forces. Shinke at the Haughe “standeth upon so unreasonable demands as his service will be too dearly bought.”
“Even now being intercepted with a fit of an ague, I am forced to end….”—Brill, 17 May.
Holograph.Add.Endd.¾ p. [Holland XXXII. f. 229.]
May 17. Sir John Conway to Walsingham.
Fears that the absence of his hand from the recent letters from the Council means that he is unwell. Had no time to write to him when the pinnaces were here.
This place is daily more threatened by the sea. “The States will do just nothing.” Hopes Burghley, to whom he has written, and Walsingham will secure a decision either to reinforce the place or to abandon it. If the enemy besiege them before reinforcements arrive it would be too late to send aid.
Last Thursday, May 15, M. Lamott brought all his forces before the town and sent some 30 men to carry away their cattle. He hoped that the garrison would sally out in force so far that his horsemen might get between them and the ‘port,’ and then either overthrow them or enter the town with them. Conway, by not sallying beyond the protection of his artillery, saved the cattle, lost no man (except two taken who have now returned), and caused Lamott to depart “in as small glory as in his former attempts.”
The country urges the Prince and Lamott to free this town of the English, offering large contributions and threatening that otherwise “they must be constrained to do as they formerly told him.”
Reports on the other side that the Duke of Parma is dead. There is at all events such a pique between him and the Duke of Pastrana as will allow of little service this summer. Both lack money and their forces dwindle.
Hopes Ber. prove honest. He has very familiar access to the Prince, it is said. He lately told Conway of an intended enterprise upon this place by an English captain called Barnard. Desires Walsingham to let him know if he doubts of Ber.—Ostend, 17 May, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 231.]
May 17. Julian Clarhage to Walsingham.
Regrets having to importune him. Before Leicester's arrival in the Low Countries, Clarhage had been appointed by the States of Holland governor of Gorcum and Worcum. Then the States General made Leicester Governor-General and bade all captains take the oath to him, which Clarhage did. After the siege of Zutphen and the capture of Deventer, Leicester was recalled to this kingdom and the States began to practise against his government, cashiering the companies which had taken the oath to him and replacing them with new levies. All who did not openly become hostile to the Earl were suspect and maltreated by the States. Clarhage lost his government and could not get payment of his entertainment, etc. The Earl then put him into Utrecht, where he was very ill treated. When the Count de Meurs, suborned by the States of Holland, seized the town, Clarhage was made prisoner and put in great danger of his life. His release proves that this was undeserved. His goods, etc., seized, his company of 200 men given to another, his services unrewarded. Heavy expenses while in prison: has had to leave his children as pledges. His only crime was that he would not lightly change his oath—which he was never called upon to do. Was ignorant of political matters. Hoped to arrive here in time to go with the King of Portugal on this expedition, but was too late. Desires Walsingham to use his good offices to obtain for him some relief from her Majesty.—17 May, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. French. 2½ pp. [Holland XXXII. f. 191.]
May 18. The Queen to Sir Thomas Morgan and the captains and garrison of Berghen-up-Zome.
Understands that some disorder is likely to grow in the town owing to the disobedience of some of the captains to their governor, Morgan. Thomas Bodley is to repair thither to enquire into and reform this. Charges them all to be obedient to Morgan. Credence for Bodley.—Given at Westminster, 18 [over 19, crossed out] May, 1589.
Copy. Add. Endd. “This was sent patent in the packet to Mr. Bodley.” ½ p. [Holland XXXII. f. 233.]
May 18. J. Ortell to Burghley.
Some few days ago he pointed out, both verbally and in writing, the danger that the town of Berghen-op-Zome would follow the example of Gertruidenbergh owing to inward dissentions and factions. Neither the authority of the Estates General, nor that of the Council of Estate, nor that of Sir Thomas Morgan, is any longer respected there. The Council of Estates have been constrained to write to her Majesty thereof. Desires Burghley to present the letters and do his utmost to obtain speedy redress. Encloses copy of a letter, deciphered by M. St. Aldegonde, from the Duke of Parma's secretary to M. de la Mote, which clearly shows the enemy's designs and practices. Desires to know when and where he shall receive answer upon all these matters.— London, Whitsun-sunday, 18 May, 1589.
Signed. Add. Endd. by Burghley. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [Holland XXXII. f. 234.]
May 18/28 The States General to Bodley.
Have considered his writing exhibited to them on May 25. Have always done everything possible to provide for the defence and fortification of Ostend, which, as they understand, is by no means so ruinous as to make its evacuation necessary. Several towns and fortresses in the United Provinces are in far greater peril than Ostend, and yet are not abandoned. They made no such promise to Norris as Bodley suggests. On the contrary, they stipulated both verbally and in writing that the six hundred horse and two thousand footmen granted to Norris from her Majesty's succours were to return by June 1. Desire that this may be done. Their deputies sent to England had express charge to urge it. Desire also that the four hundred horse and three thousand foot supposed to be left here may be brought to full strength.—The Hague, 28 May, 1589.
Copy. Original signed, Heermale, countersigned, C. Aerssens. French. 2 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 121.]