Elizabeth: August 1561, 21-31

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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, 'Elizabeth: August 1561, 21-31', in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562, (London, 1866) pp. 266-286. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol4/pp266-286 [accessed 23 May 2024].

. "Elizabeth: August 1561, 21-31", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562, (London, 1866) 266-286. British History Online, accessed May 23, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol4/pp266-286.

. "Elizabeth: August 1561, 21-31", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562, (London, 1866). 266-286. British History Online. Web. 23 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/foreign/vol4/pp266-286.

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August 1561, 21-31

August 21. 428. The Queen to Valentine Browne.
Licensing him to transport, sell, or exchange all such hides, fells, and tallow, as may be in store at Berwick.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
August 22. 429. The Queen to Lord Wharton.
Approves of his order for enclosing the grounds within twenty miles of the Borders, and for rectifying the castles, houses, and barbicans that are decayed; and also of his device to impeach the entry of enemies or thieves out of Scotland, either by the fords in Tweed, or else with ordnance and artillery by the mountains. Thinks that his service deserves her own express thanks. Allows his device for redressing Wark Castle to her possession; but it is necessary to have regard that for so chargeable and uncertain revenue she be not overcharged. He is to survey the house at Harbottle, and certify the charge of its repair. Is content to pardon the penitent offenders in Tynedale. When they have done what is meet in this commission, she licenses him and the Master of the Rolls to repair to her presence or to their own houses.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 22 Aug. 1561. Pp. 2.
August 22. 430. The Master of Maxwell to the Queen.
On the 21st instant repaired to Carlisle to treat with Commissioners, according to the letter which he received from her Council concerning the redress of attemptates committed by her subjects during the present amity. Her Commissioners are well inclined to do all that may tend to the continuance of the amity, not doubting but that things shall be executed as he and Lord Dacre agreed. As he and all his true countrymen are bound to pray for her long continuance in most royal estate, for the great benefits that they have received by their delivery from the bondage of the stranger, so he trusts that they will never be unmindful hereof, but declare such honest suit to her as to their duties appertains. Intends to wait on the Queen of Scots with all diligence, and according to his duty give his simple and plain opinion and advice for the continuance of this amity, which is both to God's glory and the good of his native country. He, and as he thinks sundry other of the nobility, will do what they have professed to her [Elizabeth] in conclusion of this late amity. Will advertise her of his proceedings after his return from Queen Mary.—Carlisle, 22 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
August 22. 431. West Marches towards Scotland.
"Articles indented of orders taken and agreed upon at Carlisle, 22 August 1561, by the Lord Dacre of Gilsland, Lord Warden of the West Marches, and Sir John Maxwell, Lord Warden of the opposite Marches there, and Sir William Cordell, Master of the Rolls, Sir Thomas Gargrave, Knight, and Thomas Garnes, Serjeant at the Law, for certain matters to be observed by the Lord Wardens and subjects of the West Marches of both realms." They are to the following effect:
1. That a day of march be kept on September 16th.
2. On that day the Wardens to make reciprocal delivery of twenty bills or attemptates, which are all to be made under 20l.
3. Deliverance to be made for the single value only of all attemptates committed before September 20.
4. For all attemptates committed since the last peace, deliverance is to be made on a day of march to be kept in next October.
5. For all attemptates done since September last redress shall be made with double, "and saugh."
6. No subject of either realm to sow any corn in the other realm, the corn to be forfeited, and the offender to pay double, and saugh for occupying the ground.—Carlisle, 22 Aug. 1561. Signed: William Dacre, John Maxwell, William Cordell, Thomas Gargrave, Thomas Garns.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 3.
August 22. 432. Another copy of the above.
Pp. 2.
August 22. 433. [Marsilio della Croce] to Shers.
Is glad to perceive by his letter of the 27th ult. that he [Shers] has arrived in England. Thanks him for the good . . . . . (fn. 1) Letters of the 13th from Milan mention the arrival at Genoa of Marco Antonio Corretto Doria, who will sail with the fleet in search of Dragut. The Marquis of Pescara will proceed to Pavia and Casale. The fortifications of Bergamo have caused the destruction of many vineyards and houses. The Pope has returned to St. Peter's; it is said that he will go as far as Bologna, Perugia, and Loretto, but he probably will not proceed beyond Frascati and Tivoli. The Count Broccardo is expected to decide the affairs of the Borromei. Don Juan D'Ayala has left for Spain. The King of Spain has distributed many pensions among the Cardinals. Cardinal Farnese still has the tertian fever. One of the Pope's chamberlains, M. Octaviano Cittadini, has been killed by a fall from his Turkish horse, while going with great speed to Caprarola to enquire respecting the Cardinal's health. A flood at Rome has brought so much putrid matter down the river that the fish die and are thrown upon the bank in great numbers; a pestilence is feared in consequence. The ruins of the Quatri Coronati are to be given to the Orphan House. A new promotion of Cardinals will be made in September; they will all be friends and relations of the Borromei.
2. Letters of the 19th from Ferrara mention the despatch of Giovanni De Ghevara from Spain to condole with the Duke on the death of the Duchess, but it is thought that a marriage is in contemplation. The Cardinal of Esti is ill. The Duke of Ferrara has given a castle in the district of Modena to his Ambassador Faleto, with the title of Court. Federic Baduar and his two nephews are in prison. The Duke of Florence has requested his Ambassador to depart, the dispute about precedence being undecided. A courier has arrived from France on his way to Rome. At Turin 4,000 ducats have been levied.—Venice, 22 Aug. 1561. Signed, but the signature is defaced.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To Shers, at Augsburg, to the care of Giusto Sorer, to be forwarded to London. Endd.: Advices.
Ital. Pp. 4.
August 22. 434. — to —.
Count Broccardo, who is expected from the Court of Spain, has not yet arrived. The Pope has again summoned the Bishops, and urged them to proceed to Trent as soon as the weather becomes cooler. The affairs of religion proceed badly in France, and the Emperor has again asked for delay for the Council. The Cardinals are unwilling to set out without money, which they cannot procure. The Pope probably will not go to Perugia and Bologna.—Rome, 22 Aug. 1561. Signed, but the signature is cut off.
Orig. Endd.: Advices. Ital. Pp. 2.
August 22. 435. — to —.
1. The Ambassador of Florence is about to leave, as the Signory will not decide the question of precedence between him and the Ambassador of Ferrara. The Marquis of Pescara and the Senate of Milan have complained to this Signory about the fortification of Bergamo, but have been told that there is no cause for offence. Additional troops have been sent to Bergamo. It is reported in Rome that the Pope will come to Bologna this September, but others think that he will not proceed beyond Perugia, where he will have a conference with the Duke of Florence. The writer believes that there will be a National Council in France, which the arrival of the Cardinal of Ferrara will not be able to prevent. Aly Bassa, a Christian renegade, (who has had the seal upon the death of Rustem,) has obtained the release of all the Venetian prisoners in Constantinople. The Signory have appointed Sigismundo Cavalli to be Ambassador to the writer's master; he is son of Marino Cavalli, the late Ambassador in Constantinople, and afterwards in France.—Venice, 22 Aug. 1561. Signed, but the signature is cut off.
2. P. S.—Federico Badouero is imprisoned by the Capi in consequence of the bankruptcy in Flanders, as also are his nephews and the Abbot Marlopino.
Orig. Endd.: Advices. Ital. Pp. 4. (fn. 2)
August 22. 436. Precedency among Ambassadors.
"The certificate of the Master of the Ceremonies at Rome, touching the pre-eminence of the Ambassadors of sundry states," who, according to his decision, shall take precedence in the following order:—The Dukes of Venice, Milan, Savoy, Florence, Ferrara, Mantua, Urbino, and Parma and Placentia. —Rome, 22 Aug. 1561. Signed: Jo. Franc. Firmanus De Macerata.
Copy. Lat. P. 1.
August 23. 437. Johannes Vergetius to Cecil.
Though unable to see him, has often seen his son, and always with pleasure; he is a youth of an excellent disposition. Offers his services, and desires to be remembered to Cecil's wife, Mildred.—Paris, 23 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
August 23. 438. Sir Thomas Gargrave to Cecil.
The commissioners have this day made an end of their doings in the matter of the enclosures and survey of the castles, &c.; many things are forth of order, especially the Queen's castles and houses in great decay. They have found Lord Dacre very conformable in all things, and have made an agreement between him and Sir Thomas Dacre of Lanercost, and also between him and the Greames. The Master of Maxwell was at Carlisle when the word came of the arrival of the Scottish Queen; he seemed much troubled with the news, and feared her proceedings towards the Duke and him, and others their complices, and said that he thought they would have to seek aid in England. Maxwell has written to the Queen. Cecil will perceive by Maxwell's letters that he is ready to stand by the articles agreed upon with the Queen, and hopes that the others will do the same. If the peace continue, he trusts that the enclosures on the north part will take good effect, if the matter be somewhat looked into.—Carlisle, 23 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
[August.] 439. Enclosures on the East Borders.
"An order for enclosure within Northumberland, declared and thought meet by such gentlemen as hereunto have signed, to be followed and fulfilled throughly by the due regard and oversight of twelve of the most skilful men of every ward, elected by the Sheriff and Justices of the shire for that end," viz.:
1. A dike of force should be cut between Ridingburn and Harbottle. Every town and village should be well hedged with quickset, with a sough and ditch both at the front and back, with hanging gates fit for the streets and passages. The crofts and pastures next the town should be well hedged and ditched accordingly. The meadows and grounds further off should be ditched in the same manner, from time to time, according to the ability of the owner.
2. For the more expedition hereof, proclamation should be made for the bringing of store of quickset to the market towns within the country, churches and other places where it may be sold; and also 400 or 500 skilful hedgers, with due consideration of the prices of things, and the rate of wages, either by day or by the rod. Quarter sessions should be kept in four several parts of the shire. The several liberties of Ealand, Bamburgh, Tynmouth, Hexham, etc. to conform themselves upon this order, and appoint their overseers to make presentment of every default at the quarter sessions. All forfeits shall be levied to the use of the Queen, the Sheriff, the Justices of the Peace, and the twelve men by equal divisions. As lands in controversy cannot be enclosed, the Queen should authorize six or eight commissioners to settle disputes. Sir Thomas Grey and all his tenants on the Queen's lands at Dunstanborough may do and have in each part as they do and consent accordingly. They are all agreed to give their tenants twenty-one years lease.
3. "Signed with all the gentlemen's and officers' hands in the East Marches, for them and their tenants."
Copy. Pp. 4.
[August.] 440. Enclosures on the Middle Marches.
"Orders thought meet by Sir John Forster, Warden of the Middle Marches."
There should be a court of survey, for the dividing of the Queen's lands in Northumberland from others, and the land so divided to be laid in sufficient tenement that the tenants may live and serve the Queen with horse and armour, and the leases should be granted for twenty-one years, without fine or "greshome." That tenants for a life or lives should be considered with some further interest, so as to be better able to enclose their tenements, and serve the Queen with horse and armour, whereas the land being let in "bribes" and pieces, the most part of the country are "grown to wretches," and not able to serve as aforetime. All lords, knights, and gentlemen are to let their lands in form aforesaid; and where they have let them for a term of years yet unexpired, they should renew the lease for twenty-one years, that their tenants may be better able to serve. Order to be taken that all lands that have been laid "lee," contrary to the statute of tillage, may be repaired to tillage again, and let on leases of twenty-one years. A certain day to be prefixed on which everybody is to begin to enclose their lands and set quickset under a penalty. Counsellors to be appointed for the better division of lands and commons of pasture. Proclamation to be made in all market towns for the procuring of quickset, to be brought to every market town throughout the same, and in Tynedale and Riddesdale to the parish churches. —Signed by Sir John Forster and eighteen other gentlemen.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 4.
August. 441. Reformation on the Borders.
No tenant of the Queen's in Westmorland, Cumberland, Richmondshire, the Bishopric, and Northumberland shall have more land to his house than he has been hitherto accustomed to; every tenant to pay his "girsome," ditch and plant his ground, and be furnished with armour and a good gelding, and all weapons meet for a horseman. No forest ground or common to be enclosed but by consent of the owner. No tenant to be suffered to take two holdings. Whereas much decay of habitation has grown by laying much land together for increase of sheep and cattle, whereby the strength of horsemen and foot is greatly diminished; the same shall be dispersed into many holdings. All farmers of mills and waters to be bound by like conditions of service. No underwood or timber to be felled. Order to be taken with Norham for fortification and furniture with men. Like order to be taken at Wark by Mr. Grey, and also with Harbottle. All tenants to be bound in their grants to ditch and quickset their ground. Order to be taken with the River Tweed, and also with the ground between Berwick and Eyemouth. The Sheriffs and escheators to be brought to their accounts for their offices, To see the muster books of the Lord Wardens of both Marches, and also what muster books have been returned by the Earl of Shrewsbury, and also the last certificate of musters made.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 4.
[August 23.] 442. The Clan of the Grahams.
"The names of the Greymes of Eske and Leven within the county of Cumberland, given in by Richard Greyme of Netherby to the Lord Dacre, Warden of the West March of England." A list consisting of about 250 names, principally Grahams, but several persons of the name of Foster, Armstrong, Tailor, Haliday, Redpath, Richardson, and others occur among them; the relationship of most of the Grahams to each other is given; also several nicknames are specified, as Gruff, Shag, Flaggon, Redsleeves, etc.
The following note occurs at the end: "The Greames' pardon to be given at their request, and at that time their chief to be called and charged with their doings towards the breach of peace, and pardoned on condition of doing as good and earnest service against the Scots, the war being broken, as they did them hurt in time of peace for their own interest and private commodity." Copy. Endd. Pp. 8.
August 23. 443. Thomas Jenyson to Cecil.
Understands by his letter of the 29th July that those clerks appointed by Sir Richard Lee as Surveyor might do the same service under Mr. Johnson. Denies that he has ever letted them therein. Conjectures that he meant another matter, wherein both he and the clerks half seemed to stand with him; which is that they, being placed by Sir Richard, should only engross all the books of the works, as before his time they have done for the Treasurer to pay by, and for him to vouch. Has refused to do so, understanding the abuses that have grown by those ways; and has appointed those clerks for the part of the Surveyor to the daily oversight of the inferior clerks, workmen, labourers, and carriages, and so employs himself and his clerks. At the end of every month, or three months, they confer their books together, when they proceed to engross them, as he does with his own part; and every part being engrossed and re-examined, he vouches the same to the Treasurer for his warrant.—Berwick, 23 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
August 23. 444. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
1. Gives the total number of the private soldiers in the garrison at Berwick, amounting to 1,452, and calculates that 554 of them might be spared, which would save yearly 8,145l. 11s. 8d. Thinks that the mayor and corporation ought to be at the charge of ten or twelve men for the nightly scout and search watch. Also, that if an armourer were provided for every band of 100 men, 1d. or 2d. per day might be spared, which is now allowed to every armed man, who is not at so much charge as the hagbutters by reason of his powder, and yet has 2d. the day more in wage; there being at present a murmur amongst the hagbutters because they are not allowed as the others are. The Governor being appointed to lie in the castle, and the Treasurer to his house, there would be saved not only forty marks allowed to the Treasurer for his lodging, but also at least 40l. for stowage houses hired in the town. If a meaner man were Governor, there would be saved 200l. per annum, which is now allowed in considerance of his baronage.
2. The crews for Holy Island and Farn Island, being twenty-one men, cannot be diminished. The ten gunners at Carlisle might be spared, whose charge is 121l. 13s. 4d. per annum. The four gunners at Wark must be increased. As Sir Henry Percy has Tynmouth by patent, nothing thereof may be decreased. By making the watch less by eleven, 100 men might be spared. Gives a list of the captains, noting those that may be discharged. Gives an estimate of a month's charge for the works at Berwick to continue till March, viz., men 521, wages and expenses 739l. 17s. 8d. Recommends, if the works are continued in the winter, that the labourers who are of the town be discharged, and so many of the soldiers as are cassed be taken in their place.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil: 24 Aug. 1561. Pp. 8.
August 23. 445. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
1. Understands that some seek to deprave his credit with the Queen, and therefore desires to make his purgation. Touching the suit of Mr. Bennett, advises that if he require men in wages, the same should be remitted to be considered to the Governor and Council. Sends herewith his advice for the lightening of the Queen's charges. It were better to make good pays with the fewer numbers than to run long behindhand with the greater, whereby desperate men may take the occasion to practise mischief; for there are here all sorts of men, and chiefly of the worst.
2. The Lord Treasurer writes that money shall shortly come for the pays to be fully made unto Midsummer last, of which 2,000 shall come in ready money, and the rest shall be levied in the countries northwards, a bill whereof he has sent, whereby he perceives that if the pays be not made until the same be levied, he has no hope thereof before Christmas, for that much thereof seems not leviable, and there is no such sum to be levied until the old money be recoined.—Berwick, 23 Aug. 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—As it appears that all his letters have not come, he sends this by his own man. Prays that such bakers, brewers, millers, and other ministers of the victual charge, which is 34s. per diem, may be put into hands.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 24. 446. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote last on the 19th inst. The Kings of Sweden, Poland, and Denmark, the Duke of Saxony, the Landgrave, and other noblemen of Germany have joined together against the Emperor of Muscovy. The Council of Trent goes forward, where it is thought nothing will be concluded. The King of Spain requires from the States of this land a subsidy of money towards paying his debts, and has been answered that they will grant nothing unless the Inquisition is put down, and the land be not molested with the new Bishops in religious matters. Wrote in his last that the merchant adventurers had taken order for the payment of the 30,000l. at the day agreed upon; as yet they have not paid one penny. On the 22nd inst., the Governor and three others appointed by the company came to him, and said they could only pay 20,000l., the Queen being behindhand with them 10,000l. in their last payment. He told them there must be no delay now, for it stood with the Queen's honour and credit. He has heard nothing of them since.
2. Received Cecil's letter of the 17th inst. by the Count of Mansfeld's servant, to whom he will pay the Count's pension, and inform him of the Queen's pleasure, according to Cecil's writing. Is sorry to hear that the Lord Admiral goes to Lincolnshire, when Cecil deals with his [Gresham's] account, and it will be Michaelmas ere he returns to London. Has communed with the most part of the Queen's creditors, and trusting to see all things accomplished, Mr. Thomas Cecil has received, by virtue of Cecil's letter of credit, 300 French crowns.
3. Received this day letters of the 11th inst. from his Doer of Hamburg, whereby the writer perceives he cannot as yet get the Queen's goods released at the Duke of Holst's hands, who took respect eight days for the releasement, at his servant's last speaking with him. His man has gone again with William Erle to the Duke for finishing the matter, and also to the Duke of Brunswick, to release such things as he has stopped. Erle has received the 140 dollars Cecil requested him to give him credit for. His tenants in Yorkshire complain greatly of ungentle usage by sundry gentlemen there at all "seassinges and jorneys;" they are appointed according to the usage of the country, because they are more charged than any other tenants. He therefore desires Cecil to write to the Lord President in the north in their behalf to show indifferent favour towards them hereafter. Commendations to Lady Cecil.—Antwerp, 24 Aug. 1561. Signed.
4. P. S.—Whereas his cousin William Gresham, was in election to be Sheriff of the shire; he desires Cecil, if he is put in election again, that he may be spared for this year, "because he is at no great ferdell in his things as yet."
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 24. 447. Thomas Windebank to Cecil.
1. States, in answer to Cecil's inquiries, that the charges for their journey to Paris was forty crowns, and other ways since there has been consumed 173 crowns. "Mr. Thomas his apparel consumeth much," and next one month's charge for their house and board paid beforehand, and also some part of the 20l. allowed to Mr. Thomas; something has also been employed in books. The writer has had his own necessaries and apparel at his own charges. Where he hoped that 300 crowns would have served them seven or eight months, he finds they will scarcely do so for five.
2. Perceives that Cecil allows not the keeping of horses, as the fashion is here. A gentleman's estimation is less if he follow not the manner of the country; and if all the gentlemen ride, it is not meet that Mr. Thomas go on foot. If his pleasure is that they should not keep horses, he beseeches him to give them strait commandment in his next letter. In one respect it is better that he should not have one this winter, as he will better keep the house and use less company of Englishmen. Throckmorton thought meet that Mr. Thomas should have a horse, and has advised them not to leave the town otherwise than in going five leagues off to a house of the gentleman with whom they are lodged for three weeks or a month. Two or three dollars per month for a learned man to read with Mr. Thomas will not be evil bestowed. Attends to know Cecil's liking for the charge of their board and house.—Paris, 24 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
August 24. 448. Corrected draft of the above.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
[August 24.] 449. The Duke of Guise and the Prince De Condé.
The Duke of Guise, addressing the King, said that, as it was his pleasure that he should remove the opinion which the Prince of Condé had formed, he would tell him the facts. He then affirmed that he never had done, nor desired to do, anything prejudicial to the honour of the Prince, and that he had nothing to do with his imprisonment. The Prince replied that he considered that those who were the cause of it were scoundrels and wretches. The Duke said that he quite agreed with this opinion, especially as it did not touch him.
Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
August 24. 450. Cecil to Lord Grey.
Understands from the Earl of Northumberland that upon a commission from the Court of Admiralty to him [Lord Grey] and his deputies, all his tenants of Chatton, Lucker, Newham, Tuggel, and Swinhoe, that use commonly to resort to the market of Berwick, are staid there and committed to prison, except they will agree to pay such sums of money as are charged on their town, by reason of a condemnation in the said Court against certain of the townships aforesaid for spoiling of a Scotch ship at Ross, besides Holy Island. Desires that he will take order that the said Earl's tenants not condemned in this matter may be no further molested herein.—From the Court at Leigh's, 24 Aug. 1561.
Copy. P. 1.
August 24. 451. Valentine Browne to the Marquis of Winchester.
1. Perceives by his letter of the 6th to the Treasurer, and also by that of the 8th, his care for the pays here. Received a brief of such sums as were appointed to be paid; most either deny their debts or will not pay. Wishes to know whether he shall distrain on the Captain of Norham. Cannot reckon the money left by Abingdon for the pays, as it was part of 10,000l. appointed to remain as a stock, and for the maintenance of the store and staple; besides which Mr. Abington left owing for provisions 2,079l. 18s. 1d.
2. Has received his letters to the customers for the passing away the ox-hides, fells, and tallow, but the same being made felony, he dared not adventure without the Queen's commandment. Desires to have equal liberty with the freemen of Berwick. There comes daily from the slaughter-house twenty hides, sixty fells, and 300 lbs. of tallow. Will be forced to depart the lease of Lillings, being offered 100 marks gain on it, and for want of wherewith to despatch the next payment. Has stopped the Surveyor from taking on more men. Desires liberty to go into the countries round about on the Queen's service. Perceives that all their letters sent by the post have not been delivered.—Berwick, 24 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Winchester and Cecil. Pp. 4.
August 25. 452. Queen Elizabeth to Queen Mary.
The King of Spain has at sundry times written to her, that not only the subjects of the King of Portugal, but also his own, as well of Spain as of the Low Countries, are from time [to time] sore spoiled upon the seas by certain pirates, some English, but the most part Scots, haunting both the south and north seas. The same complaint was last July so earnestly renewed by his Ambassador that he added thereto that if the seas were not, according to the leagues, better preserved from such frequent robberies, the King must be forced, for the aid of his subjects, to arm some power to the seas. Upon which matter, though she had by certain new orders in all her ports provided that none such should have any succour, yet the said Ambassador seemed not satisfied therewith in respect of the time of fishing now present, except she should send some of her barks to the seas, which she did, and now has report that the greater part of these rovers have withdrawn into certain Scotch ports. Unless Queen Mary takes some strait order for their apprehension, although she can well enough provide for the surety of her own subjects, the seas will be again annoyed with the same rovers whensoever her ships shall repair home. Requires that the colour of them may be redressed, which is the pretence of a letter of marque. As she is informed that certain notable pirates, her subjects, are in Scotland, named Marychirch, John Whitehead, Johnson, and their accomplices, she earnestly desires that Randolph may solicit their delivery to him, and that he may have her aid that they may be safely conducted to Berwick; in which, and all other matters, she desires Mary to credit Randolph.
Corrected draft by Cecil. Endd. Pp. 3.
August 25. 453. The Queen to Randolph.
Sends a copy of her letter to Queen Mary, by which he may perceive what to declare and solicit. He is to deliver it, informing himself where the pirates therein named remain and such other matters as may seem meet for him to move for the redress of such pirates of Scotland as haunt the seas under colour of the letter of marque. Is to let M. Damville and the Grand Prior understand that she has sent to the French Ambassador herewith her safe-conduct for their return to France through England. He will do well to understand what is meant by Queen Mary for the ratification of the treaty.
Corrected draft by Cecil. Endd. Pp. 2.
August 25. 454. Bernardinus Ochinus to Cecil.
Begs that he will assist him in recovering the prebend which was given to him in Edward VI.'s time, (which he wishes to enjoy, although non-resident,) and also his goods which he left behind him on his departure in the house of Richard Morrison, the use of which had been granted to him. Has five little children, and his wife is near her confinement. Has commissioned Robert Clerke and James Concio, an Italian, to act for him.—Zurich, 25 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. (fn. 3) Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
August 26. 455. Randolph to Throckmorton. (fn. 4)
1. On the 19th inst., at ten of the clock, the Queen landed at Leith, having only two galleys, with her three uncles, M. Damville, and certain other gentlemen. The noblemen were all absent saving the Lord Robert; her arrival was so sudden that no man thought of her. Incontinent upon the news there arrived the Duke first, next the Lord James, then the Earl of Arran. Since that time the repair has been great of all sorts. All men welcome, all men well received, good entertainment, great cheer, and fair words. Finds no great alteration in things; all men persist in the same mind that they were of before they saw her; the Protestants stout in defence of God's cause, and the Papists nothing encouraged for anything that yet they have found. Four days she was without Mass; the next Sunday after her arrival she had it in her chapel said by a French priest. There were only at it (besides her uncles and her own household) the Earl of Montrose [and] Lord Graham. Lord Hume would not be there; the rest were at Mr. Knox's sermon, as great a number as ever was any day. The Earl of Cassilis was that Sunday at the preaching, and the Monday at the Mass; it is said that since that time he has repented of it, and this is but Tuesday.
2. Has not received his commission, and therefore can write nothing of the Queen. She asked the second day after her arrival what he made there, and when he departed. Things stand in better terms than before, in especial since the Lord of St. Colm's arrival with her safe-conduct, four days after she was landed. She neither met or saw ship upon the sea, for all the bruit that was of her stay that should have been. It was concluded upon Monday that all matters touching religion should stand in the same state that she found them; she herself to use her house without reproach of person. Sees no hope of other in her than when Throckmorton left her. It does him good to remember that there are yet but two Bishops arrived, St. Andrews and Dunkeld, both in long gowns with tippets, with hats on their heads, but scarce dare put their noses out of their doors, for fear of afterclaps. "The priest who said the Mass, when he had his God at the highest, had almost for fear—. I say no more for reverence."
3. Lord James does most; next in credit is Lethington. Ambassadors are appointed to France, Spain, and England. The Duke D'Aumale and M. Damville pass through England, the Prior by sea; the Marquis winters in Scotland. Earl Bothwell is commanded not to come to the Court, for the differences between the Earl of Arran and him. The Earl of Huntley has come with sixteen horses in post. None absent themselves, or are not well taken with the first face, "saving John Knox, that thundereth out of the pulpit, that I fear nothing so much that one day he will mar all; he ruleth the roast, and of him all men stand in fear." The French are dislodged out of Dunbar and the Inch. Dunbar is committed to the custody of Lord John of Coldingham. Proclamation is already made on the Bordera for the continuance of justice and maintenance of amity with England.—Edinburgh, 26 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd.: Alex. Bog, 1 Sept. Pp. 3.
August 27. 456. Cecil to his Son Thomas.
Wishes him God's blessing, and that he may deserve it. Marvels he has so few letters, and wishes he would write in French or Latin. Wishes to know how his money passes away. "In this time take heed of surfeits by late suppers." If he finds anything meet for Cecil's garden, let him send word thereof.—Hallinbury, Monday 27 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Tho. Cecil Pp. 2.
August 28. 457. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
1. According as he wrote on the 26th he has set forward yesterday, under Captain Brian Fitzwilliams, the 200 soldiers towards Ireland, whereof 140 are harquebussiers and sixty armed pikes. Had some difficulty with them, by reason that they seemed to be in desperation of their wages due for their service behind since Christmas, wherein he has (partly with some money borrowed, and partly by setting over their debts and taking upon him the payment of the same,) quieted and despatched them. There are forty sail of fishermen at Workington, whom he trusts they will find in readiness. The most ado has been by such as were married, who have been as hard to draw to serve as though they had never served. Has delivered to them one month's wages aforehand for their encouragement in this journey, to do which he has borrowed of the bearer, John Thickpenny, merchant, 240l., which he begs may be repaid for his business at Sturlushe [Stourbridge] fair. By the travail that he has taken for satisfying the soldiers, they seem to have some more respect towards him than hitherto, and have secretly declared to him that Hedley and Colwiche, doers of Lord Grey's, about twenty days since had been in hand with divers soldiers to make a supplication against him touching the excessive price of victuals, and Lord Grey would then advance the same, to his reproach. Is ready to prove that the provisions have been uttered at the same price as Mr. Abingdon used to utter them, and at more easy prices than at any other place in England by 12d. in the pound. Some evil malt, which made evil drink, and was not past two brewings, (and of which he has got rid of 840 quarters by the help of Mr. Bertram Anderson of Newcastle,) still remains on his hands, to the extent of 1,000 quarters, which he refused to take. For 200 or 300 men there will be no need to send them thence, as there are as many who lie in the town for wages, being only upon watches.—Berwick, 28 Aug. 1561. Signed.
2. P. S.—A messenger declares that the Mass is forbidden in Scotland save in the Queen's house.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3
August 28. 458. Niholas De Gallars to Throckmorton.
As Throckmorton has desired to know how they have proceeded at the Assembly, he informs him that they have petitioned the King that they may have a hearing, and that he, the Queen Mother, the Princes of the blood, and the nobility may preside; that all the differences shall be decided by the Scriptures; and that two secretaries shall be chosen on either side, who shall compare their accounts of the disputations of each day. On last Sunday these requests were discussed, and it was decided that they were reasonable. As they had refused to have the Bishops for their judges, it was determined to consult as to the manner in which they should be heard. They are waiting to have a day appointed, which they think will be during the next week, and that the Estates who were assembled yesterday will press the matter. The adversaries, seeing themselves thus hindered, and fearing for the duration of their estate, try to deter them by threats, or to deceive them by trickery, neither of which shall avail. Will write again.—28 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Copy. Endd.: Nicolas De Gallars, otherwise De Sault, to Throckmorton. Fr. Pp. 2.
August 29. 459. Johannes Vergetius to the Queen.
She is far above Cyrus and Numa Pompilius in honour as she excels them in piety and religion. Her divine and wonderful virtues could not be contained in many books. Knows a man who has a series of the twelve Emperors in Corinthian brass, most excellently executed, and has with difficulty induced him to agree not to show them to any one until she has had the offer of them, knowing that she is especially interested in such monuments of antiquity. Saw them in company with Nicolas Fragmort, and has written on the subject to William Citilia.—Paris, 4 Cal. Sept. 1561.
Orig. Hol. Add.: Ser. et invict Isabellæ, Reginæ Britanniæ, etc. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 3.
August 29. 460. Johannes Vergetius to Cecil.
Has written to the Queen touching the effigies of the twelve Emperors in Corinthian brass. They were discovered some days past in the possession of an Italian merchant, who fled with his creditors' money, and being captured was put in prison, and his goods distributed amongst his creditors; but as it was determined that the series of medals should not be separated, but sold to some Prince, they were shown to him, and he was very much struck by their beauty, as was also Sir Nicolas Fragmort. Obtained a promise from the merchants that they would not show them until a reply was sent from England. If either King Francis I. or Henry VIII. had seen these effigies, they would have given a great price for them. Sends his commendations to Lady Mildred, Cecil's wife.— Paris, 4 Cal. Sept. 1561.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 3.
August 30. 461. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. The Earl of Hertford took his leave of the Court (having recovered his strength) on the 26th. He presented the King and M. D'Orleans with greyhounds, bows, and arrows, which he brought over for that purpose. He gave also greyhounds to the Queen Mother and the Prince of Condé, all which were taken in very good part. He has had given him of the King a fair jennet of Spain with his furniture. His good behaviour here has been greatly to her honour and service.
2. On the 24th the jar between the Prince of Condé and the Duke of Guise was pacified by the working of the Queen Mother and Mareschal Brissac in the Constable's chamber. Hereupon a great banquet was made in the Court, whereat were present the King and all Princes and great personages thereof. Encloses a paper with the words they spake at the peace-making.
3. On the 23rd Theodore Beza came to the Court, and on the 24th preached at the Prince of Condé's lodging in open audience, whereat was great press. Since his coming the Cardinal of Lorraine and he have reasoned together, whom the Cardinal confessed to be a great personage, and greatly to his liking, and so much in his good opinion that he minds to commune further with him. There is great hope that the same will work some good thing in the Cardinal by Beza's persuasion. The like hope there is by some good arguments that the Duke of Guise will become an earnest Protestant, whereof the Pope has some secret inkling, and thinking that his legations will serve to little purpose, has revoked the Cardinal of Ferrara. There is also good hope that the ministers come hither as suitors in the name of the Protestants of this country will have temples granted to them for their service; not that the clergy assembled at Poissy will consent thereunto; the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise being once persuaded that way, the King will the sooner grant their requests.
4. The first President of this Court of Parliament was lately committed to keeping in his own house, because he was one of the greatest hinderers in matters of religion, wherein he has spoken very stoutly to the King of Navarre and others. He is noted to be a great follower of the house of Guise. Reminds her again of the suit of M. De Vormigny, the lute player, to have entertainment; he is minded to bring over with him the gentlewoman to whom he is contracted. His entertainment here is 300 crowns solis yearly, besides other presents. Desires that this matter come not to the French Ambassador's knowledge. Touching the request which was presented to the Queen Mother and the King of Navarre in the names of the congregations, he has received a letter from M. De Sault, whom the Admiral sent for out of England, as to how the matter stands. Encloses a copy thereof. Another strait edict has been published for staying the people in quietness, forbidding assemblies, bearing of arms, pulling down images, etc.—Paris, 30 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
August 30. 462. Throckmorton to Cecil.
The Earl of Hertford goes to the Queen scant free of his fever. He has received knowledge of the matter in question; how he minds to behave himself and how the case stands he will not let Throckmorton know, saving that he will declare to the Queen, and to none other, the whole bruit thereof. Vergetius has been with him, and told him that as the Queen showed herself very desirous to have antiquities, he had found a man who would sell the Twelve Emperors, very antique, in ære Corintho, and that no Prince in Christendom could show them all in that sort. They are of the compass and thickness of half a Jacob's dollar. Their price is 1,000 crowns sterling. Has written twice to the Queen of a request from M. De Vormigny, and desires an answer. Wishes to know her pleasure concerning an evil book to be complained of here, whereof he wrote to her on the 10th August. Encloses letters from Vergetius to the Queen and Cecil. Hither are come letters out of Scotland, which say that the Queen of Scots landed at Leith on the 19th August. On the 22nd Cecil's son went into the country, six leagues from Paris, as he wrote he should do.—Paris, 30 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 30. 463. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote last on the 24th inst. It is certain that the King of Sweden will come to England, and that he has departed from Stockholm towards his haven of "Newles," which is distant 400 English miles, and takes with him one of his sisters and his youngest brother, and the youngest Duke of Saxony, with other noblemen and gentlemen. He has made the Duke his brother, who was in England, governor of all his countries.
2. The merchant adventurers and staplers have paid about 25,000l.; he trusts they will accomplish the rest next week, which is a worthy service, considering the scarcity that is here, and the bankrupts that have been since his last. Andreas Lixhalls and Thomas Fleachamore are bankrupts for 100,000l.; they were accompted of the best Germans upon the Bourse, set the Fuggers and Wellsors apart. There is also broken a Spaniard called Anthony Gosseman, and lately an Italian in Spain for 100,000l.; and they allege they are able to pay every man if the Kings of France, Spain, and Portugal would pay them. The Queen owes to the said Andreas the sum of 7,967l. 10s. He it was that thought to set aside the Queen's bonds at his [Gresham's] being in England, which he caused Paullus Van Dall to buy for preserving the Queen's credit. The Queen owes to the said Van Dall 50,000l. The Bourse is very much altered, and all Princes are out of credit except the Queen. The exchange passes at 22s. 4d., and no money, for here one merchant is afraid of another, so now there is no credit here in money matters.
3. Mr. Bryckyntyne has written from Deventer the 22nd inst. that he is sick. Has also received a letter from Cecil of the 24th inst., written at Harwich, mentioning that it is the Queen's pleasure he should allow for a month's diet longer; he is a very honest gentleman. Sends his commendations to Lady Cecil.—Antwerp, 30 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Slightly torn. Pp. 3.
August 30. 464. N. Stopio to Sir John Mason.
1. Constantinople, 26 July. The plague increases so much that the inhabitants think of leaving the town and living in tents. All the captives taken in the Venetian ships are liberated, and the ships themselves will probably soon be given up. A secretary of the Turkish Ambassador has been slain by orders of the Sophi. The Turk has forbidden wine to be drunk, even by Christians, and has destroyed some churches.
2. Rome, 13 August. The Pope will not go to Bologna nor Perugia, as he intended, having been dissuaded therefrom by the Ambassador Vargas. He will now occupy himself with the affairs of the Council and the new buildings. He has summoned the Bishops and informed them of his wish that they should proceed to Trent as soon as possible. He also will send thither two Legates, but cannot provide for their expenses. Count Broccardo is daily expected. King Philip intends an enterprise against Tunis. The Spanish fleet has passed to Civita Vecchia and Ostia, and the Turkish fleet has returned to Constantinople. Dragut has gone to Zerbi. The Bishop of Catania, who was taken prisoner in the seven galleys, is liberated upon the payment of 10,000 crowns. The last letters from France were opened at Turin, it is thought by the orders of the King of Navarre; among them were 4,000 crowns sent to the Rucellai, which were stopped. Antonia Augustini has resigned his office as Auditor of the Rota.
3. (fn. 5) Has written as usual. The King of Poland has gained some little advantage over the Muscovites, and Ambassadors are sent to bring about a reconciliation, but the Muscovites are confident in the large number of their cavalry. The King of Poland has an immense army, and is promised assistance from the Tartars, but they do not trust each other. —Venice, 30 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Copy and hol. Add.: II Caval. Masson, London. Endd. Ital. Pp. 4.
August 30. 465. Intelligences.
1. Venice, 30th August. The pestilence at Constantinople increases; more than 700 died there in two days, and amongst them was the only daughter of Rostan Bassa, whose fortune was reckoned at ten millions, which now falls into the Turk's hand. The French Ambassador there has also died of the plague. A secretary to the Turkish Ambassador with the Sophi, being sent to the Turk, was slain within the Sophi's dominion, by order (it is said) of the Sophi, so the Turk threatens war next spring. The Turk has renewed his proclamation against drinking wine, and it extends to all persons without any respect. All the prisoners taken with Tarabotto in the Venetian ships are dismissed, and they have hopes the ships will be delivered also.
2. Rome, 13th August. The Pope has retired for a time from all business, so as to attend to the Council, and the Bishops would all depart by the end of the week after the date hereof. He would fain send thither two Legates, but the treasurer has told him there is a lack of money; therefore charge is given to those that go thither to live as warily as possible, having for their help discharged them from the tenths, and given them certain faculties. Conté Broccardo was expected within a day, at whose coming King Philip's resolution would be known concerning the preferment of the Pope's near kinsman. From Spain it is written that the King means an enterprise against Tunis, and the King of Morocco has promised him 15,000 horsemen and abundant victuals. Spain has thirty-one galleys, and four of the Duke of Savoy's had gone towards Naples from Civita Vecchia to join the twenty-two which are there. Marc Antonio Carretta is general of all the army, having aboard the galleys 3,000 Spaniards, which will be employed against Tunis. The Turkish army has retired to Constantinople, and Dragut Rays to Gerbes. The Bishop of Catania, who was taken by the Turks with others in the seven galleys near Sicily, is liberated upon paying a ransom of 10,000 crowns, whereof his diocese contributed half.
3. The letters brought by the last post from France, as well from the Queen as from the Cardinals, were opened at Turin, as is said with the knowledge of the King of Navarre, being desirous to know what they contained concerning religion; amongst them were found 4,000 crowns sent to the Rucellai, which were stopped, there being a prohibition against carrying gold that way. Antonio Augustini, one of the Auditors of the Rota, has resigned, King Philip having appointed him to repair to Trent. Signor Federico Baduaro and two of his nephews are committed to prison in Venice, being charged with a great debt they have run into by reason of a bankrupt lately fallen in Antwerp. The Emperor has written to his Ambassador at Rome to solicit a delay of the Council. The Venetians fortify with diligence Bergamo. and for the better doing thereof have destroyed so many vines about the city as would have made 5,000 vessels of wine, and have also pulled down within the said city 400 houses.
4. There has been a controversy for a long time for precedence between the Ambassadors of Florence and Ferrara, and the Duke of Florence having obtained sentence and execution in Rome and in King Philip's Court, has required the same in Venice. Upon refusal thereof, his Ambassador is to leave, who is answered that in the case the place be given him in Rome, etc., and that it may appear it was by order of the Pope, he should also have it at Venice.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
August 31. 466. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
Has received his letter of the 26th inst.; those enclosed for Mr. Randolph have been despatched by order of Sir Thomas Dacre, who returned hither two days since. The clear debts to the garrison and works unto Midsummer last were certified upon the end of last quarter both to the Lord Treasurer and him, amounting to the sum of 14,473l. 16s. 8d., for the satisfaction whereof the Lord Treasurer writes that he has sent 245l. 14s. 5d., and has appointed certain auditors and receivers to levy the rest upon revenues and debts owing to the Queen in these parts. Begs for 1,500l. or 1,600l. more to purchase provisions, as the store is nearly disfurnished. Encloses a declaration of a bargain made for the pastures which he required for the beeves and muttons for this town. Has of his own provision made the first payment of the same, viz., 583l. 13s. 8d., and if the Queen be not determined before Michaelmas, he must pay for full satisfaction 700l. more, to which he is bound in 1,000l.—Berwick, 31 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 2.
August 31. 467.—to—.
1. The Ambassador from Florence was about to leave in consequence of his dispute about precedence, when there arrived here a declaration made by the Master of the Ceremonies at Rome on Aug. 22, to the effect that Florence should precede Ferrara, which was here confirmed accordingly.
2. Letters from Constantinople of the 25th ult. say that 1,700 people died in one day of the plague. The inhabitants have gone to Pera.
3. It is reported from Persia that the Sophi has strangled a messenger sent home by the Turkish Ambassador, which the Turk considers as a violation of the peace. He will march against Persia with a large army. Sultan Bajazet has married the Sophi's daughter, and is on the best of terms with the Sophi.
4. The Pope, according to intelligence from Rome, presses the Bishops to proceed to the Council.
5. At Turin M. De Bordiglione has opened all the letters by the order of the King of Navarre. The Duke of Ferrara still practises to have the Infanta of Portugal. The writer has received his correspondent's letter of the 8th instant.— Venice, 31 Aug. 1561. Signed, but the signature is cut off.
Orig. Endd.: Advices. Ital. Pp. 4.


  • 1. Here four lines are effectually rendered illegible.
  • 2. Two-thirds of the last leaf, including the whole of the address, are cut off.
  • 3. This seal bears the legend, + Secretum civium Thurinensium.
  • 4. Cecil to Throckmorton.
    Aug. 28.
    Hardwick, i., 176.
    1. On the 19th, in the morning early, the Queen of Scots arrived at Leith with her two galleys, her whole train not exceeding sixty persons of the meaner sort. The Lords of Scotland were not nigh; only there was at Holyrood House the Lord Robert, to whose house she went and there remained, and ordered her Lords to assemble. "The Queen's ships that were upon the seas to cleanse them from pirates saw her and saluted her galleys, and, staying her ships, examined them of pirates, and dismissed them gently. One Scottish ship they detain, as vehemently suspected of piracy." . . . . . .
    2. Lady Catherine is in the Tower, and near the time of her delivery, yet no one appears privy to her marriage, nor to the love, "but maids, or women going for maidens." The Queen thinks, and others with her, that some greater drift was in this, but he can find none such.—Stortford, 26 Aug. 1561. Signed.
  • 5. From this point to the end the letter is in Stopio's hand.