Elizabeth: October 1561, 6-10

Pages 349-364

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Elizabeth, Volume 4, 1561-1562. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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October 1561, 6-10

Oct. 6. 584. William Lord Dacre to Cecil.
1. Received the Queen's commission with his letter, and held a session at Carlisle on Saturday last, whereat four notable thieves were condemned to die, three of whom are this day put to execution, and the fourth (called Rob Greame) reprieved until next gaol delivery for notifying the principal thieves on the frontiers, which he can do. Kept a warden court the same day, whereat four Scotchmen were for march treason condemned, and likewise beheaded this day.
2. The Master of Maxwell is very earnest in calling for redress according to the order made between the Queen's commissioners and him at Carlisle; but after receiving from him for three bills he received a letter from the commissioners from York desiring him to learn the pleasure of the Lords of the Council, whether he should proceed according to their order and agreement or not; of which in his last letter of 18th Sept. he desired advertisement. Also for that the Master of Maxwell refuses to file certain bills (which he thinks would be most terror to the disordered persons of both realms, greatest stay of riding, and most commodity to the Queen's subjects), he has therefore deferred meeting with him until this session and warden court were done, thinking that he would have advertisement of the pleasure of the Lords of the Council.—Naworth Castle, 6 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Oct. 7. 585. Mundt to the Queen.
1. No news; the affairs of Germany are more tranquil than the military men like. Wolfgang, Duke of Deuxponts and Neuburg, lately made an expedition with 1,000 cavalry against Count John of Nassau, on account of a dispute about boundaries; but at the intervention of the other Princes he has laid down his arms. The Court also was desirous that the matter should be settled by arbitration. Messengers are sent frequently from the King of Navarre, Condé, Longueville, and other French Princes, to the Protestant Princes, in order to establish an alliance. As they have lately asked that four divines should be sent into France, the Elector Palatine and the Duke of Wurtemberg each sent two, who two days ago passed through this town on their way to France. The Elector was advised not to send any from Wirtemburg who would exasperate the sacramental controversy, in which Brentius took a part, and persuaded the Duke to be of his opinion. Bullinger and Peter Martyr lately wrote against the book of Bentius on Ubiquity; but he and the Saxons stick to the letter, which kills.
2. The Duke of Wurtemberg is minded to send his son into France, as the Landgrave thinks of doing with his youngest son. Mundt has seen letters from the King of Navarre and Condé, in which they promise to take as much care of their education as if they were their own children Lewis, the Landgrave's third son, whom he determined to send into England, remains now in Wurtemberg. The French most earnestly strive after the alliance of the German Princes and the chief captains and leaders of cavalry, as Grumbach and Ernest von Mandelson, and have confirmed their old pensions to some others. Pensions have been promised by the King of Navarre to the two Dukes of Weimar, who have 18,000 florins per annum. Duke George, the brother of the Elector Palatine, has also an annual pension from France, as have several others.
3. Christopher, the young Marquis of Baden, lately set out with forty men-at-arms to the King of Sweden, in whose service he is. The King gives him 2,000 dollars for the expenses of his journey. The French are strongly fortifying Metz, where they are building a fort in the higher part of the city, and have demolished above 200 houses for that purpose. Has conversed with many French noblemen about the restitution of Calais, who openly say that it would be as dangerous for the French to give it up, as it would be for the English to surrender Dover; and that neither Calais or Metz will be restored, except they are compelled by force. With respect to Metz, the Princes will attempt nothing, unless they are encouraged by the example of the Emperor. It would therefore be well to enter into treaty with the Emperor and the Electoral Princes for the recovery of both towns by arms; nor does Philip take it well that Metz, being strongly fortified, should thus continually threaten his territory in Luxemburg and Limburg.
4. In his letter of April 4, he mentioned the goodwill of the Duke of Deuxponts towards her. Her father Henry VIII. used to encourage these offers of service with most gracious answers. Some of the Princes of Germany lately wrote to the French King, asking him to pay certain sums of money that he owed to their subjects; and threatened that if he did not do so they would exact what they now requested; and so means are being taken in France for paying them.— Strasburg, 7 Oct 1561. Signed.
Add. Endd. Orig. Hol., with seal. Lat. Pp. 4.
Oct. 7. 586. Mundt to Cecil.
Has had nothing to write and was unwilling to disturb him while hunting. Two days ago the theologians of the Elector and the Duke of Wurtemberg passed through here on their way to Metz and thence into France. For some months past it has been desired that an honourable embassy should be sent into France by the Protestant Princes to oppose the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian threats, and Mundt thinks that this mission is intended to be in its place. At Metz, after much solicitation at Court, and in despite of the opposition of the clergy, they have obtained a church. Many hope from this that churches will be granted to them in France. Thinks that the Queen mother desires to do without the friendship of the Guises, in which the Queen of England is supposed to have something to do. There are various rumours about the King of Sweden going into England. The wisest people say that the Queen could make the best match in her own kingdom; as foreign marriages are wont to work disagreeable changes in a nation. Charles has been sent by his father to the assembly of the Estates of Austria to obtain money for the defence of Hungary. All hope of succeeding to their cousin Philip has not been taken away from the sons of Ferdinand, as his son is very ill and there is not much hope of issue by his Queen. The Prince of Orange returning home with his wife, avoided the territory of the Landgrave, who did not send anyone to the marriage.—Strasburg, 7 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Oct. 7.
Labanoff, i. 110. Keith, ii. 132.
587. Mary, Queen of Scots, to the Queen.
Thanks her for sending Sir Peter Mewtas to congratulate her on her safe arrival. She has so answered his message in every point as it will appear that she means nothing more earnestly than continuance of tender amity and good intelligence betwixt them.—Holyrood House, 7 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Broadside.
Oct. 7. 588. The Lord James to Cecil. (fn. 1)
Perceives by his letter sent by Lethington Cecil's earnest affection to the advancement of true religion within the whole isle, as also towards a perfect amity between their Sovereigns. The writer means to continue as he has begun in the furtherance of the same, following herein Cecil's most godly advice. Hopes that the faithful subjection and good obedience of the professors of the true religion will occasion the Queen to allow the doctrine of the Evangel, and heartily to embrace the same. Touching the matter motioned by the Laird of Lethington, before the Queen's arrival he moved the same by letters to her. Desires him to be an earnest instrument to move his Sovereign thereunto. Takes that Cecil sees as far herein as any other in the whole isle. Has presented Cecil's commendations to the Queen of Scots, who received the same in as good part as he could wish. According to his accustomed homeliness must burden Cecil to present his small services to the Queen of England.—Holyrood House, 7 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Oct. 7. 589. Fortifications of Berwick.
Warrant to the Treasurer of Berwick to allow Sir Richard Lee 20s. a day for his entertainment there, the same to commence ten days before his arrival and during the time that he is attending upon the charge of the fortifications.
Draft, partly in Cecil's writing. Endd.: 7 Oct. 1561. Pp. 2.
Oct. 8. 590. Randolph to the Queen. (fn. 2)
1. Although Sir Peter Mewtas, her Ambassador, is better able to report all things done since his arrival here than he [Randolph] can write, yet he thinks it his duty to inform her that the self same day that the Queen of Scots gave audience to the Ambassador, after she had signified such purposes with him as the effect of his legation required, he presented her letters. At the receiving of which she said, before opening them, "I am beholden to the Queen, my dear sister, that she has sent hither to visit me so good and ancient a gentleman; he talks wisely in all purposes, and by him I understand far otherwise of the reports of things than they are brought unto my ears. I am glad to hear of her goodwill towards us and good inclination to peace and amity; and I trust that all those things wherein before this time we discorded shall in short time be brought unto a good end." To which he answered, that he knew that his Queen desired nothing more than to live in the fear of God and at peace with all godly Princes; and that he was glad to see her good incli nation thereunto. "It is fitter for none," said she, "to live in peace than for women," which she desired with all her heart, and that what she might do with honour should be performed to the uttermost.
2. After she had read the letters she said, "My sister, your mistress, writes that you may continue here for the maintenance of amity and intelligence between her and me; I am glad thereof with all my heart, and you shall be welcome unto me whensoever you have occasion; and if you be molested any way by any of my subjects, if I may know it I will be evil contented and find it remedied." (fn. 3) At the next coming of the Ambassador she said to Randolph that he should have letters to his mistress, and be welcome how oft soever he came. He reminded her of a letter he had before given her from Sir John Foster for redress of attemptates of late committed by her subjects, wherein she referred him to be answered by the Council.—Edinburgh 8 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Oct. 8. 591. Lord James to Cecil.
Wrote yesterday by Randolph, and now sues for the pardon of Thomas Nicholson, merchant tailor of London, a banished man; who says he is known well by his neighbours to have been at all times a honest, quiet, and sober man, and to have there dwelling a honest woman his wife, with eight young children, now fatherless through his exile. It chanced that upon "thortour" of words strife arose betwixt him and one Roger Tempeste, and the said Roger gave the first stroke, hurting the said Thomas in the head, and the said Thomas wounded him again in the body, whereby death ensued. It was found by the first inquest impannelled by the coroner that he killed him by chance medley. Nevertheless a new inquest was assembled most secretly and deceitfully, wherein was found that the said Thomas Nicholson had killed the said Roger through malice prepense. Desires the Queen's pardon, and to grant the said Thomas' wife access to him that she may travail for his pardon.—Holyrood House, 8 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Oct. 8. 592. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Being ready to dispatch his other letter, the Duke of Guise (who came here on the 4th inst. to prepare himself for the tourney, which is to be on the 12th inst., at St. Germain), on the 5th inst. sent M. D'Oysel and requested that he would come to the Duke's house, or that he [the Duke] might come to his lodgings. Said he would go to the Duke's house. D'Oysel told him the Duke was very desirous to get the good opinion of the Queen, and blot out the evil opinion formed of him and his house. On the 6th inst. D'Oysel came in the morning, and said the Duke desired him to come in the afternoon about four o'clock to the Hostel De Guise; which he did, and was met at the gate by D'Oysel, and brought to the Duke, who was accompanied by divers gentlemen. The Duke (after salutations) took him to a withdrawing chamber, and thanked him for coming, and said he did not doubt but that the Queen's desire was satisfied for the suppressing of Sacconaye's book and punishment of the author, both here in Paris, at Lyons, and elsewhere. He also said the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the King's Council were most willing to give order in that matter. He being of the Council did advance the same, and so did his brother the Cardinal, and he knew not of any that did not. He also swore on his honour that none of their companions were better inclined to this matter than the Cardinal and he; and desired that the unhappiness of times past might not hinder the acceptation of their good meaning towards the Queen. If she can be persuaded that they mean as they say in this matter betwixt the King and her, they wish that there should be a perfect amity betwixt her and the Queen, their niece, who is a widow, and has returned into her realm "with some adventure, if they should measure things present by things past." The principal point (he said) of the past unkindness betwixt the two Queens, and consequently betwixt the Queen and them, was, the bearing the arms and using the title of the realm of England by the Queen of Scots. He said Throckmorton might perceive by Sacconaye's book, that all were not of the same opinion of the lawfulness of the Queen's title; and that she has no cause to resent the matter either against the Queen of Scots, or them, being her uncles, though they sought to make good their niece's title, seeing both divines and others of quality did allow it. The Queen and they are more to be excused, because then there was war betwixt England and France; and the King and his son would have the same prosecuted, to work their devices. The Duke said he would speak of the Queen's right. If the Queen should die without issue lawfully begotten (he said), he should repute the Queen of Scotland lawful heir to the crown of England; for she is descended of Queen Margaret, eldest sister of King Henry VIII. As to the others which are descended of "la royne Marié, la royne blanche," (fn. 4) they were excluded forth of King Henry's testament; yet if there was no such matter, they are descended of the youngest daughter. As to Lady Margaret of Lennox, aunt to the Queen, who is daughter to Queen Margaret by the Earl of Angus, the Queen of Scotland ought to be preferred before her, because she is descended by the first marriage; yet there are more obstacles in her case than many knows of, for it is said the Earl of Angus, her father, was affianced to one or two, by whom he had issue, who were alive when he married Queen Margaret, which appeared when the said Queen afterwards married in the Earl's lifetime the "Signor De Meffane" [Lord Methven], who lived with her as her husband till her death, which could not have been if the Earl was her lawful husband. The Duke has heard that the Queen of Scotland is excluded by an ordinance from inheriting the crown, because she was not born in England, and that there is a provision in that law for the King's children. They perceive that sundry Kings have not been born in England; as the Count De Blois, and Richard of Bordeaux. He said all laws should be profitable and just, and this law wants both; for how can a just law be made in prejudice of a third person who has not offended, and is not present to allege his right? And how can it be profitable when it is injurious, and is the cause to bring the realm to a war, which always follows when Princes are deprived of their rights and states? He said this matter had been thought on, and if Throckmorton had spoken with the Cardinal, he could have otherwise opened it to him, for both are of one mind, that nothing should be left undone to perfect the amity betwixt the two Queens in one isle; for good accord betwixt them would bring more commodities to their realms than any other amity with other Princes. Though the Queen has great allies, and is a great Princess, yet it should not be thought that the Queen of Scots is left destitute; and some that he makes account of would stand by the Queen of Scots when she needed the same. The best means that has been thought on for the quietness of the two Queens is by following the overture made by Ledington to the Queen on behalf of the Lords of Scotland, viz., that Queen Elizabeth should for herself and her heirs peaceably enjoy the crown of England; and failing herself and her heirs, that the Queen of Scotland should be accepted next heir to England. How this has been accepted he knows not. He says the conditions are honourable and safe for the Queen, and profitable for both realms. Queen Mary (he said) is in such state as she will be pleased to be advised by them, her kinsmen, and the Council of Scotland. Being young, she is likely to marry again, but she will not marry basely to the disadvantage of her honour; and if it be to a puissant Prince, they know not what he will do if the matter be left at large. If this matter takes place according to the said overture, the Queen, her nobles and subjects, may be assured that the Queen of Scots will never in marriage, or any other thing of consequence, proceed without the advice of the Queen and her realm; and they, her kinsmen, will never give her any other advice. Throckmorton may see by her usage in her realm, that she has put forth all Frenchmen, and is advised by her own subjects. She has already forgiven many faults, even such as would have deprived her of her estate. She is one of the meekest and best natured Princesses in the world. If she does anything amiss it is for want of good counsel. Many Princes have chosen their successors, but none have proved so happy to the state whereunto they have been chosen, as those accompanied with right and virtue. Those who have endeavoured to dissever the two Queens and made profit of them both, will not be pleased if they accord to the said overture. The Duke said he thought his persuasions with his niece should not hinder the matter begun, but rather further it; and he would fain know what inconvenience by any manner of way could happen by this agreement to the Queen, her realm, or subjects; he is sure none at all. The Queen and her heirs have their rights reserved to them. Some might say that the issue of "la royne blanche," and Madam Lennox should be "reculyd" back, as they ought to be. The Queen of Scotland could not disinherit the right heir (if the Queen was deceased) to the crown of England. No man need doubt of her residence in England if she came to the throne, England being a more commodious and richer realm than Scotland, and the noblemen, gentlemen, and commoners more agreeable to her than those of Scotland; therefore she would make no difficulty to reside in England, where she would be wholly governed by the Council of that realm, not only for affairs there, but in all matters of importance, wheresoever they occurred. And this benefit all should have from her, that she would answer with mind and intent to win all hearts, being void of partialities, affectionate to no faction, free from inveterate malice and desire to revenge displeasures and things past. If she would be directed by the Council of Scotland (as she is), he is sure she would be content to be advised by the Council of England, who have always had the reputation throughout the world to be grave and wise men. The Duke believes that if the Queen would accord to the said overture, the Queen of Scots would honour her and love and esteem the nobles and States of England during her life.
2. The Duke said that he has heard that he [Throckmorton] has stood in their light, and that the late King and his Council had little cause to thank him, and Elizabeth more cause. And as he has well acquitted himself in these storms, so he shall deserve as well for the Queen if he is willing to advance the repose and tranquillity which is like to ensue betwixt the Queens in their realms, if matters are ended according to the overture. In the opinion of himself and his brothers there is no means so meet to end this matter as the conditions offered, wherein the Duke prays him to employ his credit, and inform the Queen of what he has said both on his own and the Cardinal's behalf to esteem this overture and to repute them as affectionate unto her as any in France. The proof whereof they will show whenever it pleases her to employ them in anything they can do, in honour to themselves and in duty to their King.
3. Throckmorton answered that he would advertise the Queen of what he declared to him. The Duke seemed to fortify the overture by some arguments; and amongst others took exception to the provincial law which excluded all strangers born from inheritance within the realm. Throckmorton said that that law was as just and reasonable as their Salic law. The Duke answered, being born in France, he ought to allow the law of the realm, and being come from the house of Lorraine, "which doth fall into quenoille," (fn. 5) and the Queen, his niece, does as the Queen does, take benefit by the law, so he must allow both the Salic and the other, whereby women inherit. He then said he would he glad to know how the Queen accepts the motion. The writer told the Duke he would not fail to advertise the Queen by his next; whereupon they parted.
4. He afterwards called upon Throckmorton and said that the Queen of Scots lately sent hither a gentleman named Crosse, who in passing through England found great favour, and the Duke desired him [the writer] to favour this person with his letters, which he promised to do. The Duke acknowledged again the favour showed to his brother, the Grand Prior, in passing through England, and desired to be informed when he arrived there again.
5. He sends herewith a book of the alliances of France lately set forth, which in his opinion is meet for the Queen's knowledge. Cecil and Wotton will be able to judge of the good or bad doings of the author. He also sends the Acts of Parliament made by this King and his Estates. This day the Queen Mother sent an express messenger to him with a letter, the process of De Sacconaye and his book corrected, all of which he sends herewith. He thinks some gratification from the Queen to her would be well for this amicable usage. For two days past the King has been evil disposed, but at the dispatch hereof was somewhat amended. He has just received the Queen's letter of the 2nd inst., with her letter to the Queen of Navarre, the contents whereof, according to instructions, he will accomplish.—Paris, 8 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 13.
Oct. 8. 593. Catherine de Medicis to Throckmorton.
Has written to the Seneschal of Lyons directing him to command Gabriel De Sacconaye to alter the offensive passages in his book, and to prohibit the printer from selling or exporting any of the copies until this is done. Sends the proces verbal of the Seneschal, by which he may see that her commands have been obeyed.—St. Germain-en-Laye, 8 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Oct. 8. 594. Windebank to Cecil.
1. Mr. Thomas has had two fits of a tertian ague, and a greater is feared. The physician doubts of some long sickness, because of the season of the year. The good deliberation which he had to settle himself, as he said, to some study, is for the present hindered.
2. Cecil having spoken of Mr. Thomas's old faults, the writer states that of the greatest, that is, of play at cards or dice, he cannot charge him. The others shall be amended. Asks to be informed of Cecil's pleasure as to the horses.
3. Mr. Thomas has escaped both a tertian and quartan, and is well amended. They have continued during his sickness " in my Lord's house." Has stayed Thomas Kendall for three or four days. On Michaelmas eve they went to the Court and saw the celebration of this King's order.—Paris, 8 Oct. 1561. Signed.
4. P. S.—They returned out of the country fourteen days past, and now go to their old house. Will send information respecting the books, but very little choice of charts is to be had here.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Oct. 9. 595. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. In his last letter of the 26th ult. he informed the Queen that the Cardinal of Ferrara was likely to prevail with the Queen Mother so that the Protestant ministers should have no further conference with the clergy of this realm. Since then the Queen of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, and the Admiral have so travailed in the matter, that the ministers have had conference twice with the clergy at Poissy, the sum whereof she will understand by the copy of the letters of M. De Saulle (the minister of the French church in London), lately sent to him, which he sends herewith.
2. In the late disputes a Spanish friar of the order of the "Jezewitts" [Jesuits], (having the reputation of a learned man, and brought hither by the Cardinal of Ferrara to do great things in confutations), has showed himself so passionate, indiscreet, and unlearned, that he has won here the estimation of a very ignorant person.
3. The King held the order of St. Michael this year at St. Germain, where the twelve named in a bill enclosed, did assist. The Prince of Condé, the Duke of Longueville, the Admiral, and the Count de Rochefoucault accompanied the Queen of Navarre during the time of the order to Argenteuil (four miles from the Court), where M. De Roaghame (near kinsman to the Queen of Navarre) did marry Mlle. De Brabanson. The Queen and these noblemen assigned the marriage at this time notoriously to avoid the King at such ceremonies as were used at the keeping of the order. M. De Beza married them publicly after the manner of Geneva. Those that profess that religion are less fearful than they were.
4. The Dukes De Nemours and Aumale left the Court the day the order began, which is talked of diversely. The Cardinal of Lorraine a short time before the feast of the order, resigned the chancellorship thereof to the Bishop of Evreux. It is thought the Duke and all the house of Guise will retire from the Court for two or three causes. The first is that the King of Navarre and the house of Bourbon have so great a sway. The second, for that they will scheme to be partakers of the alterations which are like to ensue in the minority of this Prince. Thirdly, that they can more commodiously and with less show of suspicion practise their designs, being from the Court.
5. Madame De Fleming, the widow who passed through England a twelvemonth ago, has requested him to obtain the Queen's passport to repass into Scotland accompanied by fifteen men, women, and horses. She being sick here, her physicians have advised her to go to her native country for recovery of her health.
6. He informed the Queen in his last what order was taken by the King and his Council for suppressing Sacconaye's book at Lyons. Since then a command has come to this town to the "Lieutenant Civil" to suppress all the said books, who has made such curious search amongst the booksellers of this town that he has got into his hands eight hundred. The ordinance is so severe that whosoever sells any of the books shall have all his goods confiscated, and be imprisoned. The Queen has cause to acknowledge this friendly usage to the French Ambassador.
7. It is determined to send certain presidents and learned personages into Piedmont to the Duke of Savoy from the King to debate his title to the towns that he holds in Piedmont; so it is not meant to restore any of the towns to the said Duke.
8. The Prince of Condé will be Governor of Picardy, which Marshal Brisac lately held; in recompence whereof Brisac's son is to be colonel of the footmen in Piedmont, with some other charge there. Many (upon these two appointments) suspect that amity with not continue long betwixt France and Spain.
9. John Baptista Baltrand (of whom he wrote on the 26th ult.), has been with him two or three times lately, and has assured him that Maniola the Corfu is determined to repair into England very shortly. Baltrand says he will accompany Maniola thither, and has requested him to send one of his, either before or with them, so that order may be taken for the apprehension of Maniola and the things he takes with him, before he repairs to the Bishop of Aquila, which he intends to do upon his arrival. Baltrand is unknown to him [Throckmorton], who has no experience of his integrity; he may be a practiser; yet he has promised to send one of his when they depart. Baltrand says he is well known to one Mr. Wilson, who has spent some time in Italy, who is preferred to the mastership of St. Katherine's in London since his coming home. Baptista came to him on the 7th inst., and said that Maniola had departed secretly the day before, without making him privy thereto, and gone by way of Dieppe to England. If any such man repairs there the Queen must give order for him accordingly. The description of the man is as follows; he is about the age of forty, black beard, somewhat "grysonned," of a mean stature, and corpulent, and on the left side of his nose there is a cut.
10. Lazarus Van Swenden, one of the principal colonels of the King of Spain, has passed this way very secretly in post. He has gone into Spain, but his passage was not so secretly managed but that these men had knowledge thereof, and thereupon suspect some kindling of fire.—Paris, 9 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
Oct. 9. 596. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Received on 30th ult. (by order of Mr. Jones) Cecil's letter of the 11th ult., written at Hertford Castle, and perceives that he finds difficulties in the matter lately proposed to the Queen by the Laird of Lethington. Thinks that not dealing in it is more dangerous, especially if the Queen is taken from them without issue. Therefore he prays God and the Council so to inspire her that they may not be left to the rage of factions, and mercy of others. Lives by the hope Cecil put him in of the Queen's resolution to be made at St. James's for his revocation.
2. Mr. Thomas Cecil by the writer's advice, has seen the ceremony of this King's order kept at St. Germain, from which the writer was absent, so as not to get into the inconveniences he did last year. Was desired to be there on the King's behalf, but excused himself on account of sickness. None were made of the order, because of the number made last year. Fears lest the Queen's answer to Lethington will set forward the renewing of the league offensive and defensive betwixt France and Scotland, which he perceived hung in suspense. He suspects lest the answer may induce other thoughts of marriage to the Queen of Scots than they would have cause to be glad of. If the Queen and her Council shall hereafter approve of this overture, and in the meantime the Queen of Scots, left desperate of the success thereof, may proceed in alliance otherwise than the Queen shall have cause to like hereafter, then it would not be meet that things should be doubtfully handled, that the uncertainty may work more harm than good.
3. Has sent two books to Cecil of the genealogies of the principal houses in France, one is for the Queen, and the other for himself. He leaves to him and Mr. Wotton to approve of the author's pains. He has not perused them. It would be well for the Queen to acknowledge by letter to the Queen Mother her good acceptation for the suppressing of Sacconaye's book. The Queen Mother has just sent him by an express messenger a letter, the proces verbal, and the book corrected, the copies of which are sent in the Queen's packet. He thinks some present of three or four hackneys from the Queen to her would be well for her kindness, which would be accompanied by another present from hence. If Cecil thinks the Queen will do such gratification, he will write by his next how the same may be handled. At least the Queen may let the French Ambassador know of her thanks for the amicable usage in this matter. Secretary Bourdin has showed himself very willing to prosecute the same. Has received the Queen's packet by his servant, Thomas Hawkins, and her letters of the 2nd inst., with Cecil's of the 23rd ult. and 3rd inst., with a letter to the Queen of Navarre, the copies of the Master of Malta's letter to her, and her letter to the Queen of Navarre. His hope for his return is by Cecil's last well increased by writing that he trusts Somer shall come with Mr. Danett, his successor. Will refer all contained in this his [Cecil's] despatch to his next. Has received the twelve medals. Howsoever Cecil's does, in anywise for many respects it were not amiss to so order his proceedings that the French may have no cause to suspect the Queen's amity towards them, nor that she will lean to the King of Spain in his quarrels and attempts. Sees there is likely to be a breach betwixt these Princes; and therein lies our profit. Cecil speaks of "revisiting" the league betwixt the Queen and the Queen of Scots. If all things be well considered and all circumstances well observed, the league betwixt England and the Low Country would have a revisitation, and for their profit should be new made. He has lately received knowledge from Sir Francis Englefeld that he acknowledges himself bound to Cecil for prolonging his being abroad.— Paris, 9 Oct. 1561. Signed.
4. P.S.—After closing the Queen's letter, a friend told him that news had come to the Court that the Emperor was either dead or in great danger, and that the King of Spain seeks for the Empire. Requests Cecil to take heed of the matter, for there is nothing more dangerous for the Queen and quietness of the realm. The bruit is great here that the Duchess of Savoy is with child. " I do remember Queen Mary's great belly."
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
Oct. 9. 597. The Officers of Berwick to the Privy Council.
1. With respect to the condition of the fortifications, provisions, and debt at Berwick, they advertise as follows:
2. The pays and charges are paid for the first quarter of the year ended at Christmas last, but wholly behind and unpaid since, amounting to 10,616l. How the same has grown will appear by the particular declaration herewith sent. The workmen have been holpen with ready money, victual, and apparel at divers times this year, whereof they make no deduction, for the same is owing to the Queen upon her stock of victuals as to divers inhabitants here, which is " to be recuped" upon the pay of the said debt.
3. The work to be done about the bringing up of the new wall round, with stone, (being at this present not equal, and in some places the ditch not rid of the earthwork), to the height of twenty feet, will appear in the said declaration by the Surveyor. It should be done this next year, as the old wall stands in many places so bare, without ramparts, as it is not to be guarded, and in some places is in danger to fall. Thus the charges for this winter cannot be much less than they presently are, but rather more, in case the ditch be cut and the foundations laid to Heron's house. Intend within these four days to discharge twenty or more of the Irish hard-hewers, and as many of the English that are sickly, and to take in as many able men. The charges to accomplish the said works, for wages, provisions, and freight, will be little less than 26,000l. There is due to the garrison and certain extraordinary artificers in the ordnance 13,832l. The want is very great, by reason the pays are not kept. and that as well the merchants and inhabitants of the town as the soldiers and workmen depend wholly thereon. Having no relief but upon the Queen's store of victuals, the same has much decreased, which is not able to furnish this expenditure above three months; and without the help thereof (albeit the pays were quarterly made), these numbers were not here to be victualled.
4. In case this work is to be finished this next year, whereby more numbers are to be occupied, the Treasurer requests that he may be advertised thereof, so that he may foresee their victualling, and that he may have 1,000l. or 2,000l. more for enlarging the stock, which afterwards shall stand instead of so much money towards their pay.—Berwick, 9 Oct. 1561. Signed: Thomas Dacre, Valentine Browne, T. Jenyson, Rowland Johnson.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
Oct. 9. 598. Fortifications of Berwick.
"The estate of the charges of the works according to this present month to be ended on the 11th Oct., both in the numbers of men and carriages, and also their particular rates of wages." Total of men, 524; of carts, 27; of money, 719l. 10s. 8d.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
Oct. 10. 599. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg, to the Queen.
Sends her ten falcons as a token of his goodwill.—Königsburg, 10 Oct. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.


  • 1. Maitland to Cecil.
    Oct. 7.
    Haynes, p. 373.
    1. Since he came from Court he has received three letters from him and has delayed writing until the Queen, his mistress, answered the message sent by Sir Peter Mewtas, whereby her resolution may be known. Now she has so honourably answered, he does not doubt that when the Queen hears the report, she will be well satisfied. Finds in his Queen a good disposition to quietness, but therewith joined a careful regard to her own estate, and a courage, such as will be loath to forego her right. If the Queen [of England] will be conformable, she may assure her estate, have Queen Mary to be a trusty friend to her, and put the subjects of the whole isle in a happy state. The Queen's demand is highly esteemed; if Cecil will "pease" them both in one balance he will easily see who shall have the better bargain. England has a great advantage present, Scotland only a future contingency. If by Act of Parliament, or latter will of Henry VIII. anything has been done derogatory to the interest of the Queen, his mistress, prays him to consider what injury has been done to them, and how just a cause they have to ask redress of it. It appears by contract of marriage that Queen Margaret was married to King James IV., his Sovereign's grandfather, as eldest lawful daughter to Henry VII.; and he did not mean by the same marriage to debar her, nor the issue of her body, from the succession of his Crown perpetually, but rather the contrary. Remembers the Queen said to him that the like was never demanded of any Prince, to declare his heir apparent in his own time. That should appear reasonable, if the succession had remained untouched according to the law. In his opinion it is honourable for the Queen to determine the succession of the Crown in her own time, rather than suffer it thus to hang in suspense; "for Princes be as fathers of their country; and what father, seeing clearly that his sons will contend for his inheritance, will not rather himself appoint the difference. The Queen, his mistress, is descended of the blood of England, and so of the race of the lion on both sides."
    2. Prays Cecil to let no little difficulty frustrate both realms of so great a benefit, as is to be looked for by conjunction of these two Princesses. Has been credibly informed by many who lived in those days that if the two Kings had met at York, as was once thought, King Henry was determined to limit the succession of his Crown to their Sovereign, his nephew, which may serve as a precedent to the Queen. If Henry, being irritated for the breach of that appointment, did anything prejudicial to his nephew, what equity was in it? For meeting of the Commissioners, as it shall please the Queen [of England] to nominate, so will his Queen do the like; as also agree upon the time and place of meeting; which may be ordered either by letters betwixt the Queens, or "us two" at their commandments, as shall be convenient. Can promise thus far for his mistress, that she will be glad of such an accord, as is like to continue to the honour of them both, and wealth of the realms. Asks to be remembered to Lord Pembroke. —Edinburgh, 7 October 1561. Signed.
    Oct. 7.
    Haynes, p. 372. Knox, vi. 131.
    John Knox to Cecil.
    1. If God had not so often trapped men of most singular experiences in their own wisdom, he would have judged Cecil's counsel most wholesome. Accuses himself that he did not more jealously gainstand that idol at its first erecting. Men delighting to swim betwixt two waters have often complained of his severity. That their Queen shall be allured by that, that men term lenity and "dulcenes," is altogether contrary to his judgment. Sees that by permission Satan groweth bold; "for now she feareth not to set forth proclamations contrary to those that command whoremongers, adulterers, and idolators to be punished according to the former and established reformation." The Papists blow the bellows, but the faintness of some, flattery of others, and corrupt affections of such as ought to withstand such attempts, are likely to destroy shortly the face of that building which God by his power had founded amongst them.
    2. Some of no small estimation have said with open mouth that the Queen neither is, nor shall be, of our opinion; and in very deed her whole proceedings do declare that the Cardinal's lessons are so deeply printed in her heart that the substance and the quality are like to perish together. Would be glad to be deceived, but fears he shall not be. In communication with her he espied such craft as he has not found in such age. Since, has the Court been dead to him and he to it. Those that always have had the favour and estimation of the most godly begin to come in contempt, because they oppone not themselves more stoutly against impiety. " Doubt not but your council may somewhat reward the persons." Cecil knows Lord James and Lethington, who if God do not otherwise conduct, they "are like to lose that which not without travail hath heretofore been conquest." At this instant "the Provost of Edinburgh and bailiffs thereof command to ward in their Tolbooth, by reason of their proclamation against Papists and whoremongers." The whole blame lieth upon the necks of the two forenamed by reason of their bearing. "God deliver us from the plague which manifestly appeareth."—Edinburgh, 7 Oct. 1561. Signed.
  • 2. Randolph to Cecil.
    B.M. Calig. B. 177. Keith, ii. 85.
    1. Purposed not to have written before his [Randolph's] man's return from the Court; but understands that he is stayed by the Lord James about the pursuit of a Scotchman that dwelt fifteen years with Mr. Rowland Lee of Yorkshire, who robbed him of above 400l. sterling, being taken for an Englishman and for Douglas took the name of Dudley; he is now in prison. This man writes that at Stirling, the Queen lying in bed, having a candle burning by her, being asleep, the curtains and tester took fire, and was like to have smothered her as she lay. This fulfils what of old was spoken, "That a Queen should be burnt at Stirling."
    2. On Sunday the 14th, her chaplains in the chapel royal would by the good advice of her trusty servant Alexander Erskine, have sung a high Mass. The Earl of Argyll and Lord James so disturbed the quire that some, both priests and clerks, left their places with bloody heads and ears. It was a sport alone for some that were there to behold it. Others that were there shed a tear or two, and made no more of the matter. She lay one night at the Earl of Rothes; it is said that he lost both plate and something else that was easy to be conveyed. In those places where they have been, saving in this town, they have paid but little for their meat. At St. Johnstone she was well received and presented with a heart of gold full of gold. She liked nothing the pageants there; they too plainly condemned the errors of the world. As she rode in the streets she fell sick and was borne from her horse to her lodging, with such sudden passions as he hears she is often troubled with after any great unkindness or grief of mind. At St. Andrews she was on Sunday. Has heard (which he judges to be a lie), that there was a priest slain. The Earl of Huntly and Lord James greatly discord. Some allege the cause to be that the Earl said that if the Queen would command him he would set up the Mass in three shires. The other answered that it was past his power, and that he should find "whensoever he gave the first mint thereunto," to approve the Queen's proclamation.
    3. On the 14th inst. Mr. Willock was admitted superintendent of Glasgow; the Duke, the Earls of Arran and Glencairn, and Lords Ruthven, Boyd, and Ochiltre being present; little to the contentation of such as thought not to have left either Mr. Knox or him in Scotland. In Clydesdale, hard under the Duke's nose, one Robert Stewart received the Earl of Montgomery with a Mass. The Duke says he will put him out of that room or take shame. This is express against the proclamation. Order is taken by the Queen's direction for payment of the preacher's stipends, and proclamation thereupon. The men-at-arms keep possession of Montrose against Earl Bothwell and all his friends. Now are they all there, taking up their tithes, well armed and horsed.
    4. Within ten days the Provosts and Bailies of all the burghs in Scotland shall be chosen. The election of the Provosts is the Queen's; the Bailies the Commons'. On Sunday next Mr. Knox declares the duty of all kinds of magistrates in a good reformed commonwealth; he has received Cecil's letter by Lethington, and purposes to write by the next. Spoke with Lethington as he passed to the Court, and knows through him, as otherwise, how much he is beholden to Cecil. Finds Lethington's absence has nothing hindered his credit. He stands notwithstanding in ticklish terms, for either must he be reclaimed from the Mass or his credit with the Queen will hinder his reputation with all others that are honest. This is as well spoken of him that is nearest about her as of the other.
    5. It is suspected that Lord James seeks too much his advancement, which hitherto little appears, for anything he ever received worth a groat. It is thought that Lethington is too politic. Take these two out of Scotland and their country will soon find the want of them. The Papists limit them to favour England too well; others that they are too well affectioned to their own; some judge them too far off from that they would have them at. So these two alone bear the brunt of whatever is done, thought, or spoken. Other tales there are a thousand, as: that the Earl of Arran is in England; Scotsmen's ships kept both in England and Flanders for the spoils made upon Portugal. Yesterday a Scotchman from Tynmouth, who passed to the Court, reported at Berwick and here, that the Queen's horses are stayed that landed there. It is now said that all Ireland is lost, and Sir James Croftes slain, who he thinks is not there. The secretary to the Portugal Ambassador has sped well in his suit; the letter of marque is called in upon an account, and the Queen has for her part 8,000 ducats. He is returned by sea, because it was put into his head that there was danger by land. As soon as he can get the tract of the inhibition, Cecil shall be informed of the circumstances thereof. Great inquisition is made for one William Cawte, who spoiled the Spaniards. The Laird of Bargenny appears before the Council the 3rd of next month because he adjudged it lawful prize. Randolph's countryman, sent from Mr. John Baptista, is very diligent in the pursuit. Is earnestly required to let Cecil know from Knox that the latter has received the letter of the former sent by Lethington, which he will answer.— Edinburgh, 24 Sept. 1561. Signed.
  • 3. The Queen to the Queen of Scots.
    B.M. Lansd. iv. 132.
    Thanks her for having caused to be apprehended Alexander Douglas, a Scottish subject, who having been retained in service in England with Reynold Lee, Esq., had robbed his master of 400l. and odd money, and fled with the same into Scotland. Requests credit for her agent, Thomas Randolph.—St. James's, (blank) Oct., 3 Eliz.
    Draft. P. 1.
  • 4. "The Queen Dowager, so called of the People of France, because she ever mourned in white." Cotgrave. Queen Mary, the wife of Louis XII. and sister of Henry VIII., is the personage here referred to.
  • 5. The feminine line in a succession. See Cotgrave.