James VI: July 1591

Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593. Originally published by His Majesty's General Register House, Edinburgh, 1936.

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, 'James VI: July 1591', in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) pp. 539-552. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp539-552 [accessed 20 May 2024].

. "James VI: July 1591", in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) 539-552. British History Online, accessed May 20, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp539-552.

. "James VI: July 1591", Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936). 539-552. British History Online. Web. 20 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp539-552.

In this section

James VI: July 1591

586. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 2.]

The King returned to Edinburgh yesternight, and this morning left for Kelso, Jedburgh, Hawick, and other places on the Borders, to take order for preservation of the peace there, and to establish his own affairs, with the quieting of the people there "whiles the Erle Bothwell remayneth in the King's displeasure." He intends to be again in this town on or about the 6th instant: and knowing the Earl to be advised of his coming, and resolved to give him place with all humility, the King purposes not to pursue him at this time. It is thought the King will in the end give him conditions to his contentment. Bothwell sent a gentleman yesternight to the King, with humble petition to accept his submission and offers, or to give commission to some of his Council to confer with Bothwell. The King refused to hear any offer or grant any condition before he should put himself again in the castle, but this morning he has given commission to the Chancellor and Sir Robert Melville to treat of conditions with Bothwell: and the Master of Caithness, who met Bothwell with his horse and accompanied him ever since his escape, is licensed to solicit his cause to the King or his commissioners. It is said that if the King give him leave to depart the realm and receive the profits of his living during his absence, then he will assign all his livings to the Chancellor, in trust for his wife and children left behind him. The King's success on the Borders will be reported by the officers of the Marches. It is said that her majesty has been moved by Bothwell's friends to show favour towards him; he [Bowes] prays advice and direction herein.

The King looks in this journey to find assistance from her majesty's officers on the Marches, therefore he [Bowes] has given them all notice of his journey, wishing them to assist him for the benefit of both realms. This morning he moved the King for redress for the outrages committed by Liddesdale in the West Marches of England, entreating remedy, and order for prevention of like attempts. The King said that some of the chief of the Elliots in Liddesdale were come hither as he had appointed, but the Armstrongs and others appeared not: he would have them all before him in this journey, and give redress and remedy to the contentment of her majesty and Lord Scrope her warden there. He [Bowes] has advertised Lord Scrope hereof, with advice to send some one to the King at Hawick to remind him of his promise, and to call on the Chancellor and Sir John Carmichael, who have promised their whole endeavours in this matter. The King is very slenderly accompanied by a few of the nobility. "He looketh that the gentlemen of Lowthyan and other places nere the waies in his passage shall resort unto him."

Bothwell "roometh quietlie in sondry places," often near Edinburgh. He has been seen in Dalkeith with small company, and at night keeps himself at large and in safety. Lord Hume has satisfied the King, and remains at Dunnottar with his brother-in-law the Earl Marishal until the King's return. The Queen made her entry at St. Johnston's on June 29th. Some contention fell there, Erroll claiming as constable of the realm to precede Atholl who is provost of that town: but that matter and other griefs "are wrapped up for better opportunitie."

One Lammy, a Scottishman, sent hither by the Catholics in Flanders, is ready to return thither with letters to Colonel Boyd, Robert Bruce, and William Clitherow an Englishman. This messenger thinks that Boyd, Bruce, and some Englishmen will come hither very shortly. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

587. Archibald Johnston to Burghley. [July 4.]

"There is a letter come to my hande from the Kinge's majestie my soveraigne unto the Queene's highnes, which I am comaunded to deliver, and as it shoulde seeme by my letter, it is in the favour of Mr. Udall, minister, who remaineth in prison here, and as I thinke obteyned by our churche and mayor of our citie: which I will in no wise deliver nor deale in, untill I make your lordshippe privie thereunto, wherein I humblie crave to knowe your honnor's good pleasure. Touchinge my owne busines there is nothinge done, but the matter remitted to your lordshippe and the lordes of her majeste's Counsell againe. He offereth one hundreth poundes for recompence of our losses of sixteene hundreth poundes which your honnors hath geven your decrees upon, besides all our charges by the space of two yeeres and a halfe, which will amounte to five hundreth markes. In this I pray God to move your honorable wise hartes to have pitie of a poore straunger's cause, and as her majeste's princelie progenitors and your lordshippe's predecessors have enacted a speciall lawe in favour of straungers, that God which moved there hartes to make it maie nowe move your honorable hartes to put it in execution." Signed: Archebald Jhonstoun.

¼ p. Addressed. Indorsed.

588. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 6.]

By Burghley's letter of the 29th of June finds kindly warning of malicious intentions against him, and Burghley's goodness and care continued towards him. The like advice has often been given him by friends in Scotland, warning him of danger to himself and others devoted to her majesty. Fear of violence, "or losse of goodes presentlie at the bothome with me," could never draw him from his duty; "so in this worne estate nere the grave and voide of joyes in worldlie possessions," he will not "start at these monsters breaking the priviliges of the lawes of nacions." Hears that his revocation is determined and a fit gentleman appointed to succeed him. This will work sundry effects: prays direction, that he may work out his task "or wrapp up the clewe" for the most profit of her majesty's service. Has directed his son to attend upon Burghley to know her pleasure.

Leaves the advertisement of the King's journey to establish order on the Marches and in the feuds betwixt the Armstrongs and Elliots in Liddesdale, together with his course for Bothwell, to the advertisement of her majesty's officers on the Borders. Has heard nothing of Bothwell's doings since his coming from Crichton on the 2nd instant by Dalkeith towards Edinburgh with nine persons, before the King took horse to dine with the Chancellor and lodge at the "Freers" near Kelso. His [Bothwell's] friends think he shall obtain leave to depart out of this realm, with enjoying of his possessions during his absence. The King is of the same mind towards him as he was before his departure.

The Earl of Angus is lately deceased, and his eldest son seeks the earldom, but the obtaining thereof will be costly to him except he reform his religion and devote himself to the course of some courtiers. The Earl of Huntly is come to St. Johnston's, with two hundred horses for his convoy thither to the Queen, and purposes to be here this day or tomorrow, except the knowledge of the delay of the King's return stay him. "He hathe caused the cobbles of Murraie's fishinges to be cutt to his great losse." Some of the clans lately following Mackintosh are revolted to Huntly and entered into blood against some under the laird of Grant. Some matter against the Chancellor was to have been exhibited to the King at St. Johnston's, but the contention betwixt Erroll and Atholl stayed it. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

Postscript—This night Huntly came secretly to this town, purposing to go to the King, but the commissioners of this General Assembly for the church have summoned him to be before them this day.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

589. William Hunter to Burghley. [July 6.]

"Since I wrote my wther letter wiche is off a long daitt be raisoun the wind was nott good and this berrar boun by sea, I thoght good to adverteis your honour how the King is past to Kellso verrie sklenderlie accompaneit, and befoir his departour raissavitt the keyis off my Loirdis Boithwellis howsis. Carmichell is appoyntitt Loird off Liddisdaiil: we heir no wther thing his majestie hes done since his departour. My Loird Huntlie is in the north, and was in Aberdene accompaneit with eight hundred hors of his awin gentillmen and freindis: this word cam yisternycht, and thatt my Loird Boithwell was mett within two mylis to Aberdene ryding thither. Mirrie companyouns say atte thair wyne that all our trubillis ar bott tryfills to gett moir gowld frome Ingland, and thay seik my Loird Boithwell whear thay knaw he is nott, for Aberdene is neir fowr scoir mylis derrect north frome Edinburgh and Kellso is twenty eight mylis derrect sowth frome Edinburgh."

"I pray your honour to redd and ryff my letters, for your honour knawith whatt danger my lyff hes bene in befoir for the goodwill I have borne to hir majesteis service; and lett nott my letters cum owt off your handis till itt be reiffin. I can get no remeid off thatt tratour who broght me in all the trubill in Spain, for thatt the Chancelar is becum his freind, bot I hoip be your honouris assistance to be eqwall with him: the way how this berrar will schaw yow, who was with me in a part off the same trwbill; for thair is bott two wayis to remeid the same. All Ingland suche as fear God awght to revenge wpoun thatt tratour, saying his treasoun was onlie agains Ingland, and is yitt a traffiker with Spayne. Thus I beseiche your honour to heir this berrar, whome I have expreslie sent: his name is Archebald Schoirswod. I have no farther, bot that his majestie is nott yitt cum bak, who is taking in plegis thatt the cuntrie schall be obedient to Carmichell." Edinburgh. Unsigned.

1 p. Holograph, also address. Indorsed by Burghley.

590. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 14.]

Received yesterday Burghley's letter of the 8th instant, with news from Brittany. Has to-day acquainted the Chancellor with the contents of that letter, and purposed to go to the King at Falkland, but was advised by the Chancellor to defer that journey, looking for the King's return or that of the Secretary to-morrow. Having opened to the Chancellor, as directed, the practices of the Catholics, he [the Chancellor] confesses that the discovery thereof made to her majesty concurs with intelligence come to himself: adding that the papists in the Low Countries have procured a letter from the Duke of Parma to this King; it is in this realm, but not yet delivered; a copy is promised, which shall be sent to Burghley. The Chancellor promises to endeavour to prevent the evil, and to take the party at Aberdeen with his letters and traffic, of whose arrival in this realm he has not yet heard.

The Chancellor at Kelso offered some motion in behalf of Bothwell: the King was offended, saying that he looked not for such matter at his hands, and that according to the example of James IV. he must make known to his subjects that he will be a prince constant in his word, "and not to be caried allwaies after the appitite of any especiall person." They then deliberated how Bothwell's house should be kept. The service of young Cesford was commended as necessary, for otherwise Bothwell would enter the house two days after the King's departure; but the King finding that this tended to a remission to Cesford, would hear no more thereof. The King seeks by all means to have Bothwell in his will. He has called Lord Hume and his friends, exhorting them to keep Bothwell out of the March. They have promised their services, Hume telling the King that if he come in person he shall find his readiness to serve him. It was looked that the King would charge them further, but he has not done so. It is said that the King had before this dealt with Hume against Bothwell, and that Hume promised service therein, yet has since been familiar with Bothwell, "and that Marshall and Hume have commed from Keeth to Bothwell at Crighton, and there frendlie agreed." But Hume denied to the King all these things. The Master of Glamis has promised to draw Hume to please the King in all things; yet it is seen that Hume and other noblemen have little will to do anything against Bothwell; and it is thought that these matters shall turn to some action against the Chancellor, by whose defeat all things shall be "wrapped up," both for Bothwell's releif and the contentment of many now discontented with this government, who are ready to aid in the disgrace of the Chancellor, who walks in very great peril.

The King has given to the Duke of Lennox, out of Bothwell's possessions, Crichton, Hailes, and the offices of the admiralty and sheriffdom of Lothian, but whether he will accept this without Bothwell's assent is not known; Bothwell's friends think that the Duke cannot enjoy those possessions with Bothwell's kindness. It was meant to offer to Hume the profits of Kelso and Coldingham, and the North Field at Coldingham, worth 200 l. yearly, but it is uncertain whether these are offered, or he willing to accept them. The keeping of Liddesdale is to be committed to Buccleuch, son-in-law to Bothwell, and one that will be loth to grieve him: such disposition of his lands and offices will not draw many friends from Bothwell. The Queen, making suit to the King in Bothwell's favour, found him so moved, chiefly against such as had entreated her to deal therein, as she let it fall, with his good contentment. The Master of Caithness came to the Chancellor in his way from his house at Lauder to Edinburgh, requiring him to speak with Bothwell, being at hand with a small company; the Chancellor refused, wherewith Bothwell was ill pleased. Soon after, in the night, the Master of Caithness and Captain Haggertson came quietly to the Chancellor in his house in Edinburgh, seeking his favour for Bothwell. They offered that Bothwell should reveal all practices intended against the King's course, or for the Chancellor's overthrow: the Chancellor advised them to disclose all to the King to procure his clemency; for furtherance whereof he promised his whole endeavour. But some say that these two pressed the Chancellor for assurance of his speedy help for Bothwell, or else they would leave him to his own ways and join with others that will better support him, when Bothwell would think that the Chancellor was the author of all his troubles and of the declaration of forfeiture: and that the Chancellor then bound himself to repair to the court with speed and there remain until he have purchased grace for Bothwell. Bothwell has been lately in this town, with four or five in his company, and is received wherever he likes without fear. "And to cleare his eschape it is now alleged that he did the same ob justum metum, justifiable by the lawes of this realme; so as standing upon his triall the rest of the nobilitie may thinck that he is over sharpelie delt withall."

The King will not pardon young Cesford, although his service is very requisite in the impotency of his father, and although the wife and friends of William Carr, slain by him, shall be satisfied, being already willing that he be received to the King's grace; therefore the Chancellor, old Cesford, and his friends pray Burghley to procure letters from her majesty to entreat the King and Queen here for Cesford's pardon. It is promised on behalf of the Chancellor, Cesford, and their friends that they will remain devoted to her majesty's service and be instruments for the preservation of peace on the Borders, especially in the Middle Wardenry, the March most subject to trouble, where young Cesford has shown many good deeds since his coming into England. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

3 pp. Addressed. Indorsement and marginal notes by Burghley.

591. Memorial to Burghley from William Hunter. [July 20.]

William Hunter, having the King's letters of commendation into Spain as his merchant, one Alexander Scott, a Scottishman, being also there, accused Hunter to have dealing with Englishmen's goods, whereupon he was brought in question, to his great danger and charge. Complaint being made to the King of Scotland, he deemed the said Scott worthy of punishment; whereupon Scott absented himself. Scott being now in Edinburgh, Burghley is entreated to write to the Chancellor "to stand good lord to Hunter, and to further the punishement dewe to the said Scotte."

½ p. Indorsed by Burghley.

592. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 21.]

Has been to Falkland and told the King the contents of Burghley's letter of the 8th instant. Upon hearing of the actions of Sir Alexander Stewart, with the practices to be enterprised in this realm by the Catholics, the King gave her majesty thanks for such friendly warning, which would enable him to prevent those dangers, acknowledging that the papists never ceased their endeavours to work trouble in both realms. The King told him [Bowes] that in June last he received two letters; one from the Duke of Parma, advertising his readiness to take into his service Sir Alexander Stewart, commended by the King to him, and after, at his own request, dismissed with the Duke's safe conduct for the King's sake: the other from Sir Alexander Stewart, certifying that albeit the Duke was ready to receive him at the King's commendation, yet he pressed him to give testimony that he was a Catholic, agreeable to the order taken by the churchmen there, and appointed two of his chaplains to examine him in four articles of religion, whereunto he answered in general terms for fear of his life, praying to be suffered to depart, being so suspected as his service could not profit the Duke. And so obtaining passport, he departed with the Duke's said letter to the King. Afterwards he turned to serve the States in Holland, and was received by Count Maurice, and being with him in camp, sent to the King the two letters mentioned and required the King's letter in his favour to Count Maurice, which letter is ready, but stayed till the King be further advised. The King thinks that Stewart has not been to Scotland since his passage from London to the Low Countries.

He [Bowes] told the King that her majesty might think it strange that he would commend Sir Alexander to the Duke's service, and that his dispatch, and his recall to serve the States, were not void of suspicion; and that he [Bowes] had received credible intelligence concurring with the discoveries made to her majesty. The King answered that he looked that Sir Alexander should so have carried himself in the Duke's service as some profit should have come to her majesty and himself: he will try all his doings, "and cast a watching eye to the progresse of this practise," which he doubts the less since he knows the fellowship of the Brigg of Dee to be broken and divided amongst themselves; and that the noblemen have been lately with him protesting loyalty. Being reminded "that this manner of dealing in the suspected sort of the noblemen was foretold to be the ground and entrie into this practise against religion and himself," the King says that he may not despise their good affections and services offered, but he will watch the rising of any smoke or spark and quench any fire kindling. He prays her majesty for further intelligence, promising diligent search, and to acquaint her with his success.

Has received information from a person in the north that the papists in Flanders intend some dangerous enterprise to disquiet both realms, and have sent their instrument into Scotland to lay the foundation. Has sent for that person to come to him, and trusts to speak with him shortly, as will appear by a letter enclosed, and will give further light to her majesty and the King of these things, "and whether Sir Alexander Stewart hathe bene at Aberdene or any other part in this realme."

Has acquainted the King with her majesty's disposition to send into Scotland such of the English pirates in ward at Alnwick as robbed his subjects near Orkney, to be an example for the satisfaction of this nation: as also with the hurt done by Captain Lastock to the ships of Kirkcaldy and "Emdon" by their own defaults, wherein redress is already made to the parties acknowledging their erorrs. The King was glad, saying that he should thus be quit of many exclamations of his subjects. At the coming of the Chancellor and Council he will give notice which of the pirates he desires to have delivered.

Has pressed the King and Chancellor for redress for the attempts of Liddesdale in the West Marches. The King has promised that at the coming of the chief of the clans in Liddisdale before him and his Council next month, with their keeper the laird of Buccleuch, he will satisfy Lord Scrope for past offences, and take order for future execution of justice.

"Paulus Knybius, doctour in lawe, and ambassadour for the King of Denmark to the King of Scottes, came into this river on Saterdaie the 10th hereof, and on Sondaie last the 18th hereof had accesse and audience of the King at Fawkland." His errand was to signify to the King, that whereas Colonel Stewart and John Skene, by commission of the King, had negociated matters to sundry princes in Germany, moving a treaty for peace betwixt her majesty and the King of Spain, and betwixt the French King and the King of Spain; or otherwise that the Kings of Denmark and Scotland and the princes in Germany should assist the princes inclining to peace against such as were obstinate; and they left the answer to their negociations to be certified to the King here by those princes; since which time this King has written to those princes, with Monsieur Morland employed here for the French King, that they would aid the French King against his rebels: therefore the princes conceived that the King here intended no further treaty for peace, but rather wished succours to be sent to the French King for defence of the common cause endangered, without looking for other answer to the articles proposed by his ambassadors; hence the answers of the King of Denmark and other princes have been thus deferred. In the mean time the King and state of Denmark have sent to the King of Spain to move the treaty for peace; having hitherto received no answer, they cannot enter into action against that King, and must forbear to join with other princes to aid the French King. Therefore request is made to the King here "to commend all these to the knowledge of her majestie and the Frenche King for the excuses of the King, Queen, and estate of Denmark and others interessed herein," and to testify their readiness to take part with other princes of the religion for the defence of religion, themselves and their dominions. This ambassador for Denmark purposes to be with him [Bowes] shortly. The King received letters from the Duke of Brunswick, again written in Dutch, although the King had answered his former in Latin. The effects are of small weight, containing nothing touching the matter opened by the ambassador for Denmark. "The other gentlemen of Denmark are imploied to bring hither a young gentlewoman to serve the Queen, and to cary home two other gentlewomen that came hither in service with the Quene."

The King has examined the offence conceived by sundry of the nobility against the Chancellor; the parties suspected of seeking his hurt do resolutely deny the same, and "offer to be ordered by the Kinge's owne doome," so that the King trusts to take up these griefs with speed for prevention of evil. He sent Lord Hume to the Chancellor that they might be agreed, and that Hume might receive advice for execution of the King's pleasure concerning some part of Bothwell's possessions; wherein they jarred in the first conference and had almost given up kindness, yet they accorded better in the end. The showers looked for are with this wind blown over for some time.

The King is still in one mind against Bothwell, and offers the Duke of Lennox part of his possessions. The King thinks the Duke has accepted them, but the Duke, thinking that the King will take in exchange other profits of as good value, and that he will offend Bothwell and other Stewarts, "staggereth muche to take them," but to avoid the King's displeasure is advised to stand to them, the rather that he may obtain therewith the keeping of Edinburgh Castle, which is to be taken from the Captain and given either to the Chancellor or the Duke. The rest of the fellowship of Stirling have no liking that the Captain should leave it. Lord Hume is not yet possessed of any of Bothwell's livings, but Buccleuch is keeper of Liddesdale, some think with Bothwell's consent. Bothwell haunteth by day at Crichton with seven or eight in his company, having sent the rest of his servants to their friends: at night he keeps the woods at Crichton or rides abroad to Leith, the neigbourhood of Edinburgh, and other places; he has been again in Leith, and the watch of Edinburgh discovered him the other night. He is now fearful of suspected snares; his servants are weary with watching, and their horses tired with night riding. The young laird of Niddry, "the chefe about him, and a man entered into great bloode," sought the King's pardon on Friday last, and is ready to leave Bothwell and this country as the King shall appoint. The King hears that Bothwell can be content to depart and serve the French King or any other as the King shall direct, and to leave all his possessions to the King's disposition, but the King will give ear to no petitions till he render his body into this castle; which he finds too perilous.

Huntly and his wife continue in court at Falkland, pretending to be desirous to live in the country. He is an earnest suitor to the King for the lieutenancy in the north; it is flatly denied by the King, but he trusts by the help of his friends in court to obtain his desire. He protests great loyalty to the King, who thankfully accepts the same. The assembly of the church have ordered the King's ministers to call for his declaration in religion, but he will probably avoid the summons and retire to his house. The Master of Glamis has moved the King for the wrong done him by Huntly in making the Chancellor think that he and others at Dunnottar conspired the hurt of the Chancellor. The King has referred him to Huntly. Councillors lately mediating between the Chancellor and Glamis "found this pyke betwixt Huntlay and Glames, and other like quarrelles betwixt the Chancelour and Glames so cast in as their labours were in vaine," and they left the cause in worse case than they found it. The Master was to be forbidden by letter to come to court or Council till the King sent for him, but received good countenance of the King and is departed with great contentment, which may stay the letter: otherwise the fire will shortly flame betwixt the Chancellor and him.

The King, discontented that Sir William Keith should marry the Countesss of Gowrie, had him called before the Council. Had he appeared he should hardly have escaped ward, but he was departed out of the town before the charge could be given.

Is wounded to hear by Burghley's letter that her majesty finds no readiness in his son and servant to pay anything for the garrison at Berwick, and that Burghley is likewise offended by default of payment of 1,000 l. from his revenues and salt-pans. All his lands, salt-pans, etc., are already in her majesty's hands; the rents are received for her, the pans lie unoccupied and yield no profit to anyone, whilst she delays to determine of the offers made by him [Bowes] and his son: this long delay has wrought the present default of payment. Expresses his deep devotion to her majesty, and desires leave to return and repair to such place as shall please her, that he "may finde some ende of these miseries more grevous then death." The sight of her good countenance withdrawn from him at home breeds contempt for him in Scotland, and the expectation of his revocation has abated his credit and quenched his intelligence with many, as may appear by a letter enclosed. Prays Burghley, for God's sake, to procure her majesty's resolution. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

6 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

593. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 26.]

Has this day received his [Burghley's] letter of the 21st, with a letter to the King from Monsieur Morlans, and the good news of Arnhem. Fears for the convoy of his letters, seeing such stirs rising, therefore spares to write particulars, trusting these "ruffelles and bravadoes" shall soon pass over.

The King, hearing that Bothwell had been entertained in Edinburgh and Leith, did by sharp letters reprove them, and by proclamations published in both towns on Saturday the 24th instant commanded all the inhabitants upon great pains to apprehend him in case he should come thither again, and upon his resistance to ring the common bell and use all their forces. It is bruited that some noblemen have communed with or sent to Bothwell, and that something should be attempted against the Chancellor within four or five days. Yesternight, after that the Earls of Huntly and Marishal and Lord Hume were come to this town about midnight with a small company, the watch of the town espied and challenged a hundred horsemen well appointed, who, finding themselves discovered, withdrew. The Chancellor stands upon his guard. This afternoon Bothwell came openly into Canongate, riding under the walls and near the gates of the town, and departed towards Leith with about twenty men. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

594. Warrant against the Earl of Bothwell and Lord Hume. [July 28.]

"James by the grace of God Kinge of Scottes to our lovittes messengers our sheriffes in that parte conjunctlye and severallye speciallie constitute gretinge. Forsamekle as we are credeblye informed that Francis somtyme Erle Bothwell resortes and hantes in our East Marche and ther is ressait of our unnaturall subjectes inhabiting within our sayd Marche, to the apparante disturbance and inquietaunce of our estate, for remedye wherof it is our will and we commaunde you straitlye that ye chardge our traisty cusinge Alexander Lorde Hume, Warden of our saide East Marche, to appeare before us and lordes of our Secrett Counsell at Edenburgh, or wher it shall happen us to be present for the tyme, the first daye of August, to give he [sic] anefaulde and good counsell for reformacion of this hienous and proud attempt committed thus unnaturallie within the boundes of his warranrye under the payne of rebellion and puttinge of him to our horne; and gif he faile ye the said daye beinge bypast that ye incontinent denunce the disobayours or rebells and put him to our horne, and eschit and imbringe all his movable goodes to our use for ther contempcion, as ye will answere to us theruppon. The quhilke to doe we committ you conjunctlye and severallye our full power be thir our letters, delivering them be you dewlie execute and againe to the bearer." Edinburgh. Per actum Secreti Consilii.'

½ p. Copy.

Another copy of the same.

Cott. Calig., D. II, fol. 23.

595. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 31.]

Has delivered to the King the packet enclosed in his [Burghley's] letter of the 21st instant, containing letters addressed to the King by Viscount Turenne and Monsieur Morlans. The letters were shown to him [Bowes]. The Viscount gave thanks to the King for his letters sent to the princes in Germany with Morlans, and for his readiness to aid the French King against the rebels; recounted his success in this negociation with the princes in Germany, the coldness of the Duke of Brunswick, and the good hope that Denmark would join in the furtherance of those affairs. Morlans yielded compliments to the King, and sent news of events in France, contradicting false reports of the Catholics.

The King is still persuaded that Sir Alexander Stewart remains in service with Count Maurice, in the Low Countries, and came not to Aberdeen or any port of Scotland. Hears that Sir Alexander passed immediately from the Duke of Parma to Count Maurice. The letter sent to the King by the Duke of Parma, testifying Sir Alexander's being with him, was dated the 30th of May: but some say he, or his brother, was in Aberdeen in the beginning of April. Encloses copy of the Duke of Parma's letter to the King, who says he received none other from the Duke yet he [Bowes] looked and called for another procured by the Catholics, whereof the Chancellor promised the double. The Secretary cannot yet find it.

Hears from the Danish ambassador that the princes in Germany have sent no answer to Denmark to the negociations of Colonel Stewart and John Skene, but upon the coming of Viscount Turenne from the French King and with the letters of the King of Scotland, they thought it best to contribute money for the defence of the reformed religion and its professors, and agreed to employ that money to pay an army to aid the French King against his rebels. This army he trusts is on the march under Prince Christian of Hainault. The King of Denmark has consented, as Duke of Holstein, to join in this contribution: but because he had sent a gentleman to the King of Spain to treat for a general peace, and had no answer owing to the King of Spain's sickness, and because the King of Denmark is in his minority and not yet crowned, therefore he and his state suspend their resolutions in this cause until they receive the answer of the King of Spain, purposing, if he embrace the notion of peace, to proceed thereon with other princes; if he refuse, then to join with the princes in Germany. The Danish ambassador's errand is to ask the King's advice herein. The cause of the coldness of Brunswick is that the Duke desired his uncle, the Duke of Brunswick, to have the conduct of the army, and was denied. Because it seemed that this position of Denmark would cause delay, he [Bowes] in conference with the King, laid before him the commodities to come to all princes professing the religion, by the union of the King and state of Denmark with other Protestant Princes in Germany, and the honour he should gain by expediting the same. The King lamented that some remnant of Spanish faction rested in Denmark, and that a Colonel in Brunswick's country, a special gentleman about the Duke, had lately gone to serve the King of Spain. He promised to deal with Denmark and Brunswick, that they may join with the other princes.

Told in his last letter of Bothwell's coming to Edinburgh. The troubles are grown to dangerous height; regrets that this should happen just when the general expectation of his revocation has damaged his credit. Desires to know her majesty's determination, that he may either leave all things in order for his successor, or seek to recover his former means and credit.

The King was lately informed that Marishal, Bothwell, and Hume would come to Edinburgh to lie, with purpose to kill the Chancellor; whereupon he sent his letters and warrant to the Duke of Lennox, the Chancellor, and Huntly to apprehend Bothwell, and to ward Marishal and Hume. Further, that the Master of Glamis was privy to this enterprise, and should have met Bothwell at Leith, and that Sir William Keith did chiefly draw it on: the like charges therefore were sent to take and ward them. But the King's letters were not delivered till Monday morning last, and before the Council could resolve on the manner of the execution, and the provost be ready to do it, Marishal and Hume were warned, and withdrew on Monday last. Bothwell came that afternoon to the port of Edinburgh, and understanding of their departure, entered not, but passed down Canongate. He found the Duke and Hume in the fields near Leith, and would have spoken with the Duke, who refused, whereupon Bothwell turned to Hume, and after some words rode to Leith with his company. The officers there threatened to apprehend him, according to the King's proclamation, but he refused to depart, saying "that he had prepaired his supper there, and wold eate it in dispite of his enemies." The bailiff caused ring the common bell, and gathered the people, whereupon by the advice of Captain Haggertson he left his supper and returned to Crichton. The Chancellor and Council advertised the King of this ill success of his letters, requiring his presence in Edinburgh with expedition, but the King, greatly offended that his directions were not accomplished, stayed his journey, although ready to come, sending Roger Aston with his pleasure. The next day, being Wednesday, he came.

Marishal came to the King at West Wemyss, on his way to Edinburgh: the King would not give him access, but sent him to Wemyss. Yesterday he was brought hither, and examined before the King and Council. He denied any knowledge of hurt to be done to the Chancellor, saying that he and Hume came thither for their private affairs. He denied any dealing with Bothwell: and was committed to the Castle. The King sent John Shaw to Hume, to remind him of his promise to take Bothwell within a month if he haunted his accustomed bounds; and also to will him to come to the King to clear himself. Hume offered to come to the King at Falkland, or any other place where the Chancellor was not, fearing to be harmed by him. He confessed that Bothwell had come to his house at Douglas and elsewhere, but denied having made any band with him, or devised hurt to the Chancellor. The King has been informed of sundry trysts kept betwixt Bothwell and Hume: the latter is to be charged to come in upon pain of treason, and if he refuse, his possessions shall be seized and himself prosecuted according to the laws. He has sought the advice of his friends in Edinburgh, who purpose to persuade him to submit himself to the King. The Lords Ochiltree and Spynie are sent to the Master of Glamis to charge him to ward, or to bring him to the King. He seems ready to enter, and free from these practices. Sir William Keith shall be likewise charged, being considered a principal instrument to brew these broils. He lay in bed with Bothwell at Morham once or twice. It is not yet known where he is.

The King being advised that Bothwell was at Roslin, sent the Duke of Lennox, the Earl of Huntly, and the Master of Ochiltree, nephew of Sir William Stewart slain by Bothwell, with sixty men to take Bothwell and the laird of Roslin. Bothwell, with only one man, was very near them in the night, yet being not discovered, withdrew down the little brook on the end of Borough Moor and escaped. The Duke and others coming to Roslin found him gone from his house to Bothwell; so he will be charged with the rest. The King continues resolute to proceed against Bothwell to the uttermost, purposing to advance the Duke with Bothwell's possessions, which the Duke cannot refuse without loss of the King's favour: he has already taken part thereof, and will follow the King's pleasure. The King intends to pursue Bothwell and Hume with his forces, if Hume does not submit, and has moved him [Bowes] to procure her majesty's order to her wardens to aid him in pursuit of his fugitive subjects, and to keep them if they come in their wardenries, and deliver them to him.

For the safety of the King's person and execution of his commands he will entertain one hundred horsemen, to be paid out of the revenues of disobedient persons. John Lindsay, brother of the Earl of Crawford, shall lead one fifty, and the Master of Ochiltree the other. Sundry noblemen are sent for; Lord Hamilton will be here this night. Others, being sick, cannot come so speedily. The custody of the Castle should have been taken from Sir James Hume, the captain, and given to the Duke or Chancellor, but the office is not to be taken from him without recompense, because of the great charges he has endured. The Duke and Chancellor sought this office for the benefit of a house in Edinburgh, and Colonel Stewart and Sir William Stewart persuaded the Duke to this suit, that Sir William might be deputy captain, but his favour to Bothwell shall be some block in his way. It is suspected that Bothwell has met with the laird of Johnstone, but not proved. The laird of Buccleuch is returned from Edinburgh to his house; some think he should have been charged, "in regard of the love he beares Bothwell and his children commed of his mother"; others think he is delivering himself from Bothwell's importunity. He purposes to give over Liddesdale, and travel through England into foreign countries: suit will be shortly made to her majesty for his safe-conduct. If young Cesford were now pardoned this office would be given to him, for Carmichael will not have it. Cesford will do good offices to her majesty therein if he obtain his pardon by her means, and her letters to the King and Queen. William Carr, slain by young Cesford, had given his father "sondry ruffles," taking a prisoner at the bar forcibly from him in his warden court, and seeking to thrust him out of the office of provost of Jedburgh; with such proud words uttered against old Cesford as the young man could not digest, but rashly commanded his servants to shoot him with a pistol, which in this heat was executed over hastily. He has with all humility sought the King's grace, and composition with the wife, children, and friends of the party slain, wherein they are accorded. The King acknowledges that the young man's service might profit him, in the impotency of his father; so that her majesty's mediation will probably be sufficient to obtain his pardon: therefore the Chancellor, his father, and friends continue their suit to her in this behalf.

Huntly is like to be a great courtier, and to be employed in the south. He has obtained the reversion of Dunfermline after the Queen's decease. Commission is granted to him to apprehend all persons at horn in the north: he will be busy with Mackintosh hereon, and wars will soon rise amongst them. Little care is taken to pacify the discords in the north, so as troubles hereabouts may be quenched.

Is sorry that his son departed from Burghley without order taken for her majesty's satisfaction, and for repayment of the money for the garrison at Berwick. Will be glad to amend this default by all means in his power. Desires leave to return to England, that he may yield her majesty better contentment. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Marginal notes by Burghley.