James VI: July 1592

Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593. Originally published by His Majesty's General Register House, Edinburgh, 1936.

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, 'James VI: July 1592', in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) pp. 711-743. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp711-743 [accessed 20 May 2024].

. "James VI: July 1592", in Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936) 711-743. British History Online, accessed May 20, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp711-743.

. "James VI: July 1592", Calendar of State Papers, Scotland: Volume 10, 1589-1593, (Edinburgh, 1936). 711-743. British History Online. Web. 20 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/scotland/vol10/pp711-743.

In this section

James VI: July 1592

712. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 1.]

At his access on Thursday last to the King, the King renewed his thanks for her majesty's offer of help in his distress, and also to him [Bowes] for his offers of service and advertisements, whereby he said he discovered matters of greatest danger to him. After report of things done in this late outrage at Falkland, the King opened his purpose to ride to Dumfries and in person to pursue Bothwell and his company, praying her majesty to give speedy command to all the wardens and officers in the three Marches of England: first, that they will concur with him in his pursuit, and not suffer any person or goods to be brought into England but to restrain them from all refuge and receipt there, agreeable to the laws and accords; next, that the Grahams and all other Englishmen assisting Bothwell in the assault of the palace at Falkland may be duly punished, as he will ever do if his subjects shall take arms against her majesty or her subjects; lastly, that the Grahams and other Englishmen there with Bothwell, being guilty of taking the horses of the King and others in great number, may be delivered for the same according to the laws of the Borders, with extraordinary expedition in regard of the foul quality of their offences, or that he may burn their houses and ride against them to revenge this wrong done to him. The Englishmen are charged with all the horses and goods taken in this raid, although it is known that the Scottish Borderers did all the great spoils and robberies at Falkland. Prays direction as to what satisfaction he shall promise, and to know what order is given to the wardens in this matter. The King starts against Bothwell on Wednesday next, purposing to lodge that night at Biggar and to ride the next day to Dumfries; and proclamations are made commanding his subjects to attend him.

Sir James Sandilands has taken nine men of Bothwell's company, whose horses had tired under them; one of the Grahams is among them. Five were executed in Canongate yesternight, four, whereof[a] Graham is one, are reprieved for 15 days to try what their friends will do for their lives by any service for the surprise of Bothwell or some principal person with him to be brought to the King to redeem these men condemned. One of Mr. John Colvile's servants was taken among these nine: before his execution there was found with him a great packet of letters addressed to Bothwell and Colvile, whereby many parties and secret matters are discovered, and also the cipher used. Copies of some of their letters seeking her majesty's favour to be shown to Bothwell have been shown to him [Bowes]: it does not appear that they received any answer therein, but that their letters and motions have been lightly passed over; therefore the King is satisfied, saying that he finds some matter proposed by them, but not embraced by any in England. In the other letters interchanged between Bothwell and Colvile with others of Scotland, in cipher, those suspected are disclosed to have had intelligence with them, namely, Angus, Erroll and Colonel Stewart; but Atholl is not touched.

It is reported that Lord Maxwell and Robert his brother were "assayed" to join in this action, and so were acquainted with the plot and parties and met with them to confer in the cause, and afterwards discovered to the King all they knew. Maxwell is returned with great favour into the west to prepare for the King's coming to Dumfries against Bothwell and his adherents; whereupon it is looked that Maxwell shall have Lochmaben given to him. It seems that Angus, Erroll, Colonel Stewart, and sundry barons in Fife had quietly put themselves in strength about the King at Falkland or St. Johnston's before the coming of Bothwell and his forces to prepare access for him, that he might pray remission for himself and his associates, and justice against Huntly for the murder of Murray, "and that for the expedicion therof the King and the reste shoulde imediatelye arme and ryde againste Huntlaye": for which purpose many noblemen had their followers in readiness. It is thought that the discovery of the parties thus seeking the relief of Bothwell and punishment of Huntly shall hasten the overthrow of Bothwell and hinder justice against Huntly, enabling him to compass his desires, and also open the way to the Catholics and Spanish faction, sundry of whom were either seen in the field, or known to be privy to the action at Falkland, whereby the Papists intended to raise their kingdom. Great fears entertained of the consequences of undue advancement of Huntly, but few noblemen are willing to provide remedy, and his [Bowes] own power is too weak: needs frequent instructions. It is bruited that four English ships are ready on the coast to put Bothwell and his friends in safety. Has satisfied the King herein.

The Chancellor has returned to the King, and is in good favour. It has been objected against him that seeing he had once put himself and "chefe jewelles" in safety, and after had appointed a meeting with the barons and gentlemen about Haddington, that he should have employed these forces for the King's rescue, or stopped Bothwell, whose forces were so small that the Chancellor's might well have encountered them. The Chancellor answers that he gave the King daily intelligence in all things, "which he founde to receave so little credit, as Bothwell and his companyes were about the King," and it was reported had surprised the King's person, which—if it had been true—he could not have rescued. But all is smooth between the King and him.

Angus's houses at Tantallon and Douglas are summoned, and himself charged to appear on the 6th instant. It is thought he will not come. Erroll and Colonel Stewart are to be brought hither to be arraigned after the King's return, and to receive the pains of the law for treason if they are found guilty. Balwearie, Arderye, and Martin are summoned in the houses, and Balwearie's house is given to Sir James Lindsay. Bonshaw's house on the west Borders, where Bothwell was received, is summoned, and likely to be cast down if the King proceed into Annandale. Order is taken that Lord Hume with his cautioners, the Laird of Wedderburn, Alexander Hume of North Berwick, and "the goodman of Huton Hall" shall be bound in 10,000 l. Scots that Hume shall not receive or aid Bothwell or any of his accomplices. The bond is sent to be subscribed by Hume and his cautioners, and then order shall be taken for his leave to enter Scotland. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

Postscript.—Some for Angus and Bothwell have applied to him that they may have favour in England, and their eldest sons be received as pledges for their good behaviour. Thinks it his duty neither to entangle her majesty nor embark himself in these "tickell matters" without knowledge of her majesty's pleasure. The want of foreign news is no little hindrance to him, as lacking occasions to resort to the King's councillors. Prays that some one may be appointed to send news from time to time, who can be paid out of his allowances.

4 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

713. The Nobility in Scotland. [July 1.] Printed in Letters of John Colville, Ban. Club, pp. 333-343; Tytler's Hist. of Scot. (1877 edn.), iv. 344-7; cf. W. Forbes-Leith, Narratives of Scottish Catholics, pp. 361-374.


Duke of Lennox. Stewart. Protestant, aged 20; his mother a French woman. Married the third daughter of the late Earl of Gowrie; she is dead. His house, castle of Methuen.

Arran. Hamilton. Protestant, aged about 54. His mother Douglas, daughter to the Earl of Morton who was Earl before James the Regent. His house Hamilton. Married this Lord Glamis' aunt.

Angus. Douglas. Religion doubtful. Aged 42. His mother Graham, daughter to the Laird of Morphy. Married the eldest daughter of Lord Oliphant. His house Tantallon.

Huntly. Seaton-Gordon. Papist, aged 33. His mother daughter to Duke Hamilton. Married the now Duke of Lennox's sister. His house Strathbogie.

Argyle. Campbell. Aged 17. His mother sister to Earl Marishal, this Earl's father. Not yet married. His house Dunoon.

Atholl. Stewart. Protestant, aged 32. His mother daughter to Lord Fleming. Married this Earl of Gowrie's sister. His house Dunkeld.

Murray. Stewart. Aged 10. His mother daughter to Regent Murray, by whom this Earl's father, slain by Huntly, had that earldom. Not married. His house Tarnewaye.

Crawford. Lindsay. Papist, aged 35. His mother daughter to Earl Marishal. Married first Lord Drummond's daughter, and now the Earl of Atholl's sister. His house Finhaven.

Erroll. Hay. Papist, aged 31. His mother Keith, daughter to Earl Marishal. Married first Regent Murray's daughter, next Atholl's sister, and now has to wife Morton's daughter. His house Slains.

Morton. Douglas. Protestant, aged 66. His mother daughter to Lord Erskine. Married to the sister of the Earl of Rothes. His house Dalkeith.

Marishal. Keith. Protestant, aged 38. His mother daughter to the Earl of Erroll. Married this Lord Hume's sister. His house Dunnottar.

Cassilis. Kennedy. Aged 17. His mother Lyon, aunt to this Lord Glamis, now Lord John Hamilton's wife. Not married.

Eglinton. Montgomery. Aged 8. His mother Kennedy, daughter to the Laird of Bargany. Unmarried.

Glencairn. Cunningham. Protestant, aged 40. His mother Gordon of Lochinvar. Married the Laird of Glenorchy's daughter, Gordon. His house Glencairn.

Montrose. Graham. Papist, aged 49. His mother daughter of Lord Fleming. Married Lord Drummond's sister. Old Montrose in Angus.

Menteith. Graham. Aged 19. His mother daughter to the old Laird of Drumlanrig. Married to Glenorchy's daughter. Kilbride.

Rothes. Leslie. Protestant, aged 65. His mother Somerville. Married first the sister of Sir James Hamilton, and then the sister of Lord Ruthven. Castle of Leslie.

Caithness. Sinclair. Neuter, aged 26. His mother Hepburn, sister to Bothwell that died in Denmark. Married this Huntly's sister. Tungesbey [sic.]

Sutherland. Gordon. Neuter, aged 36. His mother sister to the Regent Earl of Lennox. Married the Earl of Huntly's sister, this earl's aunt. His house Dunrobin.

Bothwell. Stewart. Protestant, aged 30. His mother Hepburn, sister to the late Earl Bothwell. Married the sister of Archibald, Earl of Angus. "He standes now foralted [sic.]" Crichton.

Buchan. Douglas. Aged 11. His mother Stewart, heiress of Buchan. Unmarried.

Mar. Erskine. Protestant, aged 31. His mother Murray, sister to the Laird of Tullibardine. A widower. His house Alloa.

Orkney. Stewart. Neuter, aged 63. Base son of King James V.; his mother Elphinstone. Married to the Earl of Cassilis's daughter.

Gowrie. Ruthven. Aged 15. His mother sister to the late Lord Methuen. Unmarried. Ruthven.

Lords or barons.

Lindsay. Protestant, aged 38. His mother sister to the Laird of Lochleven. Married the Earl of Rothes' daughter. His house Byers.

Seaton. Papist, aged 40. His mother daughter to Sir William Hamilton. His wife is Montgomery, the Earl's aunt. His house Seaton.

Borthwick. Protestant, aged 22. His mother daughter of Buccleuch. His wife Lord Yester's daughter. Borthwick.

Yester. Hay. Protestant, aged 28. His mother Carr of Farnyhurst. His wife daughter of the Laird of Newbottle. Neidpath.

Livingstone. Papist, aged 61. His mother daughter of the late Earl of Morton. His wife Lord Fleming's sister. Callander.

Elphinstone. Neuter, aged 63. His mother Erskine. His wife daughter of Sir John Drummond. Elphinstone.

Boyd. Protestant, aged 46. His mother Colquhoun. His wife the sheriff of Ayr's daughter. Kilmarnock.

Sempill. Protestant, aged 29. His mother Preston. His wife daughter of the Earl of Eglinton. Sempill.

Ross. Protestant, aged 30. His mother Lord Sempill's daughter. His wife Gawin Hamilton's daughter.

Ochiltree. Stewart. Protestant, aged 32. His mother sister of Lord Methuen. His wife Kennedy, daughter of the Laird of Blairquhan. Ochiltree.

Cathcart. Protestant, aged 55. His mother Sempill. His wife Wallace daughter of the Laird of Cragy-Wallace. Cathcart.

Maxwell. Papist, aged 41. His mother daughter to the Earl of Morton that preceded the Regent. His wife Douglas, sister to the Earl of Angus.

Herries. Maxwell. Papist, aged 37. His mother Herries, by whom he had the lordship. His wife sister of Newbottle. His house Terregles.

Sanquhar. Creichton. Papist, aged 24. His mother Douglas of Drumlanrig. Unmarried. His house Sanquhar.

Somerville. Protestant, aged 45. His mother sister to Sir James Hamilton. His wife sister to Lord Seaton. Carnwath.

Drummond. Protestant, aged 41. His mother daughter to Lord Ruthven. His wife Lindsay, daughter of the Laird of Edzell. Drummond.

Oliphant. Protestant, aged 65. His mother Sandilands. His wife is Erroll's sister. Dupplin.

Gray. Papist, aged 54. His mother Lord Ogilvie's daughter. His wife Lord Ruthven's sister. Fowlis.

Glamis. Lyon. Aged 17. His mother sister to Lord Saltoun. Unmarried.

Ogilvie. Papist, aged 51. His mother Campbell of Caddell. His wife Lord Forbes' daughter. No castle but the bishop of Brechin's house.

Hume. Suspect, aged 27. His mother Lord Gray's daughter. His wife the Earl of Morton's daughter. Hume.

Fleming. Papist, aged 25. His mother daughter of the Master of Ross. His wife the Earl of Montrose's daughter. Biggar.

Inverneith. Stewart. Protestant, aged 30. His mother Lord Ogilvie's daughter. His wife Lindsay the Laird of Edzell's daughter. Redcastle.

"Forbes. Forbesse." Protestant, aged 78. His mother Lundy. His wife Keith.

Saltoun. Abernethy. Aged 14. His mother Atholl's sister, this Earl's aunt. Saltoun.

Lovat. Fraser. Protestant, aged 23. His mother Stewart, aunt to Atholl. His wife the Laird of Mackenzie's daughter.

Sinclair. Protestant, aged 65. His mother Oliphant. His wife Lord Forbes' daughter. Ravenscraig.

Torphichen. Sandilands. Aged 18. His mother daughter of Lord Ross. His house Calder or Torphichen.

Thirlstane. Maitland. Protestant, aged 48. Married Lord Fleming's aunt. A new house in Lauder or Lethington.

Houses decayed.

Methuen. Stewart. Decayed by want of heirs, and the King has "disponit" it to the Duke.

Carlisle. The male heirs decayed. There is a daughter of Lord Carlisle's married to James Douglas of Parkhead, who has the living but not the honours.

Lords or barons created of lands appertaining to bishoprics or abbeys.

Altrie. Keith. Protestant, aged 63. His mother Keith. His wife Lauriston. This lordship founded on the abbot of Deer.

Newbottle. Ker. Protestant, aged 39. His mother the Earl of Rothes' sister. His wife Maxwell to this Lord Herries [sic]. Lordship founded on the abbacy of Newbottle. His house "Morphile" or Preston Grange.

Urquhart. Seaton. Papist, aged 35. Lord Seaton's brother. His wife Lord Drummond's daughter. Founded on the abbacy of Pluscardy.

Spynie. Lindsay. Protestant, aged 28. The Earl of Crawford's third brother. His wife Lyon, Lord Glamis' daughter. Founded on the bishopric of Murray. His house Spynie. "But Huntlay is heritable constable on that house."

pp. Indorsed.

Copy of the same.

Cott. Calig. D. II., fol. 80.

714. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 2.]

Lord Hamilton, having taken the Lairds of Niddrie and Samerston, with their two brothers, Patrick Croumeye, and two Hepburns, has this day come hither to inform the King of his success, and to be suitor for their lives, which the King is not disposed to grant, but desires to content Lord Hamilton since he alone has taken these men, "with all others suffered to range at their pleasures," and Samerston is of his own name and blood, and of great reputation for his services in the Low Countries. With some difficulty Lord Hamilton has signed the warrant for delivering the prisoners to Sir John Carmichael and such others as the King has sent to receive them; this his service to the King is like to turn to his prejudice and danger. For Hamilton's better contentment the King required him [Bowes] to employ himself, and to draw on others, whom he finds unwilling to meddle therein: the offices daily laid on him are full of encumbrance and not void of danger, but will adventure all for her majesty's service and the peace of the Borders. Prays directions. With good help this state may be brought to quietness, with prevention of dangerous plots now working in this broken country.

Lord Maxwell has taken Francis Graham of the Moat, who was with Bothwell at Falkland, and four of the Johnstons and other principal clans. They are sent for, and likely to be shortly executed. The Earl of Erroll and Colonel Stewart are committed to Edinburgh castle. Sundry things fall out against the colonel by John Colvile's letters and cipher, so that his life is in danger, and Erroll is not out of peril. There is a draft of a "bande" made between Bothwell, Angus, and Erroll, and therein is an article providing that Bothwell shall not prosecute Huntly without the advice of Angus and Erroll: few of the late conspiracy, except Papists, were privy to this. It is doubtful whether the King will proceed in his journey to Dumfries, which matter is to be resolved tomorrow. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

715. [James Hudson] to Burghley. [July 3.]

"Mae it pleas your lordship to resave the inclossid tuchinge the effect of this last acsydentt in Scottland. The bearrer hearof I have derecttid unto your honor to discover by mowth that whiche I wil nocht wryt least I should wronge hime and nocht so fully sattisfye your lordship, seinge the service aperteynith to hir majeste and next to your lordship, becaws it seamith sume hath inttentid to abuess your honor. He wil be plaen with your honor tuchinge al poynttis boath past and to cume, if it mae pleas your honor to keip the mane unknowin in the handlinge theroff. He is ane honest man and a scoller, and towards the ministre, and cravith nothinge but your lordship's favorable and good cownttenance and to be knowin unto your good lordship. Mr. Fowels, one of the marchands that came for the King's anewety, is ridin post to move the King to amend his forgettfulness in nocht wryttinge to hir majeste: he is lyk to fynd the King in this new truble, and at his aryval the King wil loek for other matter then he bringith! I have oftin saed that unless hir majestie prottect that King boath with force, money, and hir good cowntenance at one tyme or other he wil fall, to hir majeste's loss, becaws I knowe none so wel effectid to hir majeste, the relegeon and this realme that is to sucseid hime, for nothinge but proper want can shaek hime, wherof sume proeff your lordship hath sein."

"I thank God I have nocht bein so earnist nor vehement in folowinge the suet of this last request of the King's as I had derecsyon, and as I was preast by the merchands, with whoame I ame fallin in forfalt of dyvers bonds that was now dew. And hear I protest unto your honor that hitherto thowgh I have ressavid hir majeste's prinsly benevolence to the King dyverss years, yit to this dae had I never alowance of one groat of the King therin, nether have I had of him one peny wages for this twelve years past, whiche al his Cownssell knowe to be trew. Then what reasson have I to serve hime, but therby to serve hir majeste? And I have kept my self in his favor and with the best abowt hime to that end. I have nothinge in that cuntrei, nor nocht I expect thence, and I live hear my wyff and children under hir majeste's blessid prottecsyon, for the longe conttinuance wherof if I fael to prae and for your lordship's health and honor of your howss under the shadow wherof I rest, then let God forget me when I most neid. This in the truble of my hart I humble utter." Unsigned.

2 pp. Holograph, also address. Indorsed.

Enclosure with the same:—

(Roger Aston to James Hudson.)

You shall understand that upon Tuesday night the 27th of this instant the Earl Bothwell, the Master of Gray, the Laird of Balwearie, Mr. John Colvile, with all the rest of Bothwell's friends to the number of two hundred horsemen, assaulted the King's house of Falkland. At 12 hours at night they came to a back door where they thought to have entered, but they were repulsed and some of them slain. We were in the house about three score persons. The Borderers fell to the spoil of the town and stables: they have got all our horse, but we are very well ourselves, praised be God, and are at this present ever ready to go to horse to pursue them. They are passed towards Stirling, and the King is following them. They came hither at 12 hours and departed at 7 hours. There is sundry suspected to be of this practice, as Angus, Erroll, and many others. Erroll was here with the King. In the meantime, the King being advertised of their coming by the Earl of Mar, who has played a true part [to] his majesty, Erroll was taken before they came, and so was the colonel, who are still kept. I can say no more for this present. This night we are to be in Stirling, from whence you shall hear from me. Commend me to Robert and Thomas; make them acquainted what we are doing. Falkland. Wednesday afternoon, June 28. Signed: Roger Aston.

Postscript.—There is already come to the King three thousand men.

1 p. Holograph, also address.

716. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 4.]

Albeit that on Sunday the 2nd hereof the Lord John Hamilton, by means and with some difficulty, was wrought to be contented to deliver to the King's pleasure and disposition the Lairds of Niddrie and Samerston, with the other five persons taken by him and left in the custody of Sir John Hamilton, his base son, lately knighted by the King, Captain Hamilton and others, and that thereon the Lord Hamilton gave his letter and warrant, addressed to Sir John, for the delivery of the seven prisoners to the hands of Sir John Carmichael, purposely sent that day with four other knights to receive and bring them to this town with all safety and speed, all which persons should have been hanged in their boots and immediately upon their coming hither, as it was then determined, yet by the advice and persuasion of the Lady Hamilton, Sir John and Captain Hamilton were drawn to suffer all the prisoners to escape; and Sir John, the captain, and others of the Hamiltons are gone away with them, and were departed long before the coming of Sir John Carmichael and the rest to Draffan, where they found none able to inform them directly where the prisoners were; so that they were driven to return yesterday to the Court here with report of their success. Wherewith the King, stirred with offence, roughly charged the Lord Hamilton, who, denying to have been privy to this escape, excused himself by the fault of his wife, his son, and Captain Hamilton, who had, he said, far abused him, and also offered to ride and travel with all expedition to recover and bring the prisoners, if they were in the possession of his son or friends in any place. Which being accepted, he put himself in readiness and was coming to have taken his leave of the King, and as he entered into the lane near the King's house the King's guard was there assembled for setting of their watch; whereupon they gave a volley for a warning, as they say, of their readiness there, and in that volley one Sinclair, depending upon the Lord Hamilton, and then very near him, was slain and six more in his company were hurt with bullets and "dregge." The Lord Hamilton thinking this to have been done for his own death turned in great passion against the guard, who stiffly denied to have had any bullets in their pieces, alleging that others in windows about them did it.

The provost and townsmen arose and were ready to have stayed the guard, but by the command of the King all was pacified and the examination of the matter put over until this day. Hereupon the Lord Hamilton still continues in this town, and albeit that "some advyce hathe bene" to commit him, yet it is thought very dangerous to cast out at this time the whole surnames of the Hamiltons, Stewarts, and Douglases, chiefly in regard that people are generally malcontented and many showing open rage.

On Sunday last all things appeared to be drawing into calm, but yesterday the storms are again so risen that it is looked that greater troubles than these former have been shall hastily arise.

Albeit that by sundry well affected and very wise I am daily and credibly informed that many desire to put themselves into such courses as they think shall profit and well please her majesty, yet they think my credit at home is so weak that I can little advance their desires, which occasion them to hold the farther from me. Wherein also I am very "nyce and affrayde" to hearken unto or draw on any motions offered in this dangerous time, and in the which I have no especial instructions or taste of her majesty's pleasure what persons, parties, or causes I shall either embrace or else entertain with some favour, and how far I shall shake off others.

Therefore I right humbly pray that if it shall please her majesty to continue me in this service, then I may have timely, frequent, and particular directions for my warrant and for the guiding of my services and actions to concur with her majesty's best pleasure and liking. In which behalf I have oftentimes troubled your lordship with my earnest petitions and the daily accidents and changes which the present conditions of motions of persons and timing of actions press me to be thus importunate. Wherein I beseech your lordship hold me excused, and to be mean that I may be either furnished to benefit her majesty's service here, or else withdraw to avoid the hurt threatened by my disability.

It was intended that Colonel Stewart should have been tried yesterday, and, being found guilty, to have suffered the same day. Sir John Carmichael has his escheat, and seen, as they say, the bottom of some of his coffers. By some letters with cipher for his name, taken with Mr. John Colvile's servants, he is brought into suspicion that he has counselled Bothwell to hasten his enterprise and put him in comfort of the favour and help of many. But he denies confidently all these things, standing upon his trial.

Huntly, hearing in what danger the King was, entered into fear, the rather because he and his friends are at some dryness; for, the other day, the Lairds of Cluny, Gouthe, [Geiche], Invermeath, and others appointing to meet with him, came all armed and showed themselves much grieved that he suffered all of them to be put to the horn for the slaughter of Murray, done for him, and he continued still in the King's grace. It was answered that whilst he was not at horn he was able to do for them, and hitherto they possessed without loss all their goods and gear, but yet they desired to be either released from the horn by his means or else they would leave him and seek their own remedy; which is thought shall be by the help of Spain in regard they are papists, and some are of opinion that outward disorder is coloured with great subtlety and to the intent they may join with others in their present actions; and nevertheless Huntly shall not be seen to have interest therein until the time shall be fit for his discovery.

The King is hitherto purposed to enter into his journey tomorrow towards Dumfries, yet it is told him that his labour will be greater than the honour and gain coming therein. The Queen continues still at Falkland with no greater contentment, and is sorry for the troubles of Colonel Stewart and displeased with the bruits raised that he should have presumed to write in her name otherwise than he will acknowledge.

The Lord Maxwell "is comed" hither with report to the King that Bothwell is dead. But in this I think he is deceived, for I have lately heard that he, the Master of Gray, and others passed into the north, where Maxwell can have little knowledge of his doings. Colonel Stewart has been examined, and hitherto acquitted himself well of the matters objected against him. Nevertheless he is appointed to be warded in the Blackness.

Bothwell has retired into the north and Highlands. It is thought that he is so sick that he has stayed his journey into the north and is not able to ride, and it is, "very new," returned that he is dead. Atholl and his wife have been with the Queen at Falkland, but Atholl departed so suddenly that it is thought that he heard of Bothwell coming towards his bounds. Angus and Atholl pretend to be ready to come to the King, but many will not believe it before they shall see it performed. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

Postscript.—After the writing hereof the King required me to write to Mr. Lowther, moving him earnestly both to give him good concurrency in his journey and also to lend him the two cannon at Carlisle in like sort as he had them before at the hands of the Lord Scrope; and herein he prays your lordship to give speedy warrant to Mr. Lowther for the same. In this I have written to Mr. Lowther, trusting that it shall please her majesty to lend the cannon to the King for the battery of such houses as shall be holden against him in like sort as has been done before; wherein may it please your lordship to give speedy direction to Mr. Lowther.

3 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

717. Act of the Privy Council of Scotland. [July 7.]

If any person or persons of whatsoever estate or degree shall happen at any time hereafter to be "delaitit" or accused of any crimes of treason or lese majesté, deny any probable point of treason which may be verified by writ or by deposition of witnesses, in that case, if the person accused or suspected of treason grants not to the interrogatories that shall be "proponed" against him, the party so challenged of the said crimes shall be esteemed guilty, and all things which may be proven against him shall be holden pro confesso, "conforme" to the laws of all Christian kings.

¼ p. In the hand of Bowes' clerk. Indorsed.

Copy of the same.

Cott. Colig. D. II., fol. 79.

718. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 8.]

Before the receipt of your lordship's last letter of the 2nd hereof the King had entered into his journey to the West Borders to pursue Bothwell, and chiefly the Johnstones, Irwins, and other borderers who assisted Bothwell in this late raid at Falkland. By the occasion of the King's absence I am driven to defer the report of such things as by your letter is directed to be imparted to him by me, which at his return I shall, God willing, accomplish with diligence.

By good intelligence I was advised that John Sempill, of Felwood, pensioner to the King of Spain, was in readiness to return into Spain to Colonel Sempill. He had been in the north and amongst the Catholics, and had many letters about him, in regard whereof I was the more greedy to catch him and his packet as near his embarking as I could; and by the authority and means of Sir Robert Melville, now chief in counsel here, and the Lord Provost of this town, Sempill and Jo. Browne, a busy practiser for Spain, were taken yesterday at Leith with all their letters, examined by the Provost and Bailles of this town, and afterwards committed to ward and to be brought to me. The letters and examinations have been shown to me; wherein I find little matters of importance, and that in the last summer he was taken on the seas in his return from Spain, and was first carried to Dieppe, and afterwards to London, where he continued in prison until September last; at which time your lordship enlarged and dismissed him with your passport, dated 6th September, 1591, and Mr. Archibald Douglas soon after gave him his testimonial, certifying his deliverance then, or purpose to return into Scotland. Albeit many things minister just causes of great suspicion, and prove him to be sent and returning to Colonel Sempill, who is a principal instrument in this realm for the King of Spain, yet if greater matters shall not be found with him he shall be shortly set at liberty. I am informed that the Catholics here are rather gathering a party than already linked together, and that upon success falling to their contentment they will send to the Duke of Parma an especial person of greater quality than John Sempill to negotiate their causes; and it is told me that Sempill carries only the report of their readiness and purposes to employ and send another with certainty in all things, the danger whereof may be well prevented if the King's Council and well affected will seasonably provide the remedy sufficiently known and easily to be put in execution: whereof, nevertheless, I despair, and lament that my own means are so weakened that I cannot work the effects needful, and as before this I could have done.

Mr. Lowther will, I trust, advertise your lordship with best speed and certainty of all occurrents happening in the King's journey and raid in the West Borders, and also which of the Grahams accompanied Bothwell at Falkland; for the accomplishment whereof I have before this written so effectually to Mr. Lowther, that he will, I think, give your lordship satisfaction herein before the receipt hereof, otherwise I shall soon send you the names and number of the Englishmen at the raid at Falkland mentioned. Albeit that the King agrees and promised to give order to preserve the lives of Matthew Starke and six other Englishmen taken on the seas before Flamborough and brought to Dundee until the Lord Admiral of England should certify his knowledge and pleasure concerning these persons charged with practices, yet upon the confessions of the Englishmen that they had taken from some Scots on the seas two butts of sack and some plaids not worth 40s. sterling, they were found guilty, condemned, and Starke with five others is executed, the other two being taken in lately at Hartlepool, and having done no offence are saved and delivered. It is given me to think that some of Dundee desiring the deaths of the Englishmen, and seeing some sent thither by me whom I chiefly employed to hunt after John Sempill and other like practisers, "dowted" that I should have saved their lives and goods, did therefore in haste arraign them then, and executed them the same day.

Bothwell has recovered from his ague, and is little troubled at this time with the "flixe" which lately grieved him. He is in safety and has the way open at his pleasure to ride into Atholl, where he may safely cover himself in Balwearie's lands in Atholl; and it is told me that the Earl of Atholl will not hurt him, seeing that Atholl had his "spoone deipe in the late pye" at Falkland.

Atholl and the countess his wife were with the Queen seeking to have entreated her to have recreated herself at their house at Dunkeld whilst the King should be in the west. The Queen, pleased therwith, sent to the King for his consent, which he granted, but soon after, by other advice, the Queen was stayed and restrained either to come to the King in this town or yet to repair to Dunkeld. At this time the Queen is inwardly grieved, "as manye tymes she fallethe into teares wishinge hirselfe ether with hir mother in Denmarke, or ells that she might se and speake with hir majestie."

The process of horning against Angus is stayed. He is desired to remain at Montrose until the King shall return, which he will obey, and looks now to pass through these storms much better than was looked for; for the King's course toward the noblemen suspected is greatly calmed in regard that it was found very dangerous to him to cast out many noblemen together.

The Lord Hamilton is with the King, who has increased his suspicion and displeasure against him by the escape of Niddry and others taken by him, so that the Hamilton's companies with him are very small; and if I have been well informed, Sir John Hamilton, his base son, conveyed himself into England, whereof your lordship will be advertised by others with better certainty than I can give.

Erroll was once appointed to have come forth from this castle and to have been in ward with the Earl of Rothes; and this order was enacted by the King and Council, but some of the King's chamber, as it is said, soon changed the King's opinion and altered that order, so that Erroll continues in the castle here at Edinburgh.

Three English ships, giving themselves out to be of her majesty's navy, have arrived at Montrose. One of the captains has written to the King, to what effect I cannot tell, for hitherto I have only seen the letter addressed to the King by the captain and "comed" to the Council, and have not received any letter or advertisement from the ships. The Council here have not as yet received intelligence of the King's doings and success in his journey, therefore I leave all occurrents therein to the report of Mr. Lowther, as before.

It is heartily wished by good counsellors and others best affected that at the King's return from this raid he would speedily enter to banish the papists and to do justice for the slaughter of Murray; for it is evidently seen that without timely execution of these effects mentioned great and dangerous troubles cannot be avoided. I have laboured diligently with the King and others, but I have found little hope of good success, and all men cry for redress, which haply, by her majesty's good advice especially and immediately to be given by her majesty to the King, might be best advanced; yet the matter will be found [very] tough. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burgley's clerk.

719. Master of Gray to Burghley. [July 14.]

My very honoured lord, if this time past I should have written letters only "officiouse," without further subject, knowing the importance of your lordship's affairs, it might have been thought in me great folly, like as the same may now be thought, if, having good subject, I should not use it, and rather immediately, nor by any other, reposing deeply in the good opinion it pleased your lordship ever [to] conceive of me. The subject then of my letter is this late appearance of trouble fallen forth amongst us, whereof, perhaps, your lordship as yet has not heard the very truth, for that it may be some having the charge to advertis of our state have so far "medlit" in particulars that "hardly have they place to vryt sincerly in the presentt," not that I am to accuse any man of undutifulness. The truth, then, is this, not the Earl of Bothwell and the Master of Gray, but almost the whole body of the nobility are joined in this course, of intent first to maintain God's cause and to see such things reformed wherewith most justly the Church is "greifet"; next, to honour and serve above all earthly their natural King, and to see such persons reformed who "throw thair insolence and hungry appetites haith procured unto his majestie most heavie sclanderis and crying out of his people"; thirdly, to see such settled dealing between these two realms that neither of them be the footstool to foreigners for the overthrow of them both. These, my lord, are the very true causes that the nobility here at this time associate themselves [with], which shall "preufe," God willing, by the "issue of thair dissing."

"Seing then that so is, I as on who since my first knowledg of her majestie haith ever bein of her persone and estait on weilluillar, beseikis your lordship to be a good mein that her majestie be nocht an oposer agenst an nobilitie so weill affected to the amitie," but rather a beholder, to the end that in the end her majesty may have their good wishes and friendship, which cannot but be more agreeable and assured unto her majesty "then if of a sorte of altogither impotentis, who only serveis the tym, moveit throw necessitie of thair auin neidie estaites." If her majesty shall only behold this "it shall cosit auay all occasionis that evill affected personis may caipe for insinuating the name of foraine forces in the hairtis of the nobilitie"; which I write not without sufficient ground, as by my next your lordship shall know at length, "if this beis weill thocht of." And to the effect no scruple remain, if her majesty stands in doubt of the affection of any of the association, I answer this far, that all and every one for themselves "shall if what assurence he in her majesties name shall crave, ey, becaus th'earle Bothwell is one of the most suspect, for him I say this farre, that sete doun the reasonabill assurance, and he shall with all hairt give it." This far for the present.

"Restis, for my auin particulaire, to pray your lordship deall with her majestie that, seing I have to do to remaine in the south pairtis of Scotland with my freindis, that I may have an oversicht of the wardens to leive on my auin chairdges, as occasion shall serve, within thair wardenries in the north pairtis of her majesteis country."

This far I have written to my Lord Chamberlain, because, if I come into her majesty's country it will be chiefly within the bounds of his lordship's wardenry. Seeing this, my lord, is all the benefit I crave, I doubt not by your lordship's good mediation to obtain it, and it may be that I never use the fruition of it. I look, then, for your lordship's answer both in the present and my particulair, as soon as your leisure shall permit, to be directed to Mr. Governor of Berwick, and by my next your lordship shall know further, or if your own leasure permits not, any of her majesty's Council who shall be thought meet for that effect; but first I look to hear from your lordship.

3 pp. Holograph, also address. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

720. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 16.]

Albeit that on the 11th hereof I received your lordship's former letter of the 5th of the same, and that yesterday your lordship's last, of the 10th of this month, was brought to me, whereunto I ought to have returned "indelate" answer, yet finding sundry things therein to be negotiated with the King, whose return hither was daily looked for, and trusting that Mr. Lowther has already advertised your lordship of all the occurrents happened in the King's late journey in the West Borders, as I perceive they are already sent to others at Court to be showed to her majesty, therefore I have thus long deferred the address of these presents, to the intent I might give your lordship more full knowledge as well of my doings and success in the execution of your lordship's three several letters of the 2nd, 5th, and 10th of this month, as also of the present condition of this estate and of the novelties here.

Whilst the King was at Dumfries I sent advertisement to him that her majesty had given order to Mr. Lowther and the other wardens that none of his fugitives or rebels pursued by him should be suffered to come within their rules or have any refuge there; that all the wardens should concur with and assist him in this journey, agreeable to his desire; that the Grahams and others of her majesty's subjects who accompanied Bothwell in the late raid at Falkland should be apprehended and punished severely, as the laws would warrant; and that Francis Graham of the Mote, taken by the Lord Maxwell, should be left to such sort of punishment as best pleased himself to lay upon him, and yesterday, at my access to him, I recounted to him the effects of these things commanded by her majesty, certifying therewith that order was also given for the loan of the two cannons at Carlisle, according to his request, wherein he acknowledged to have received at her majesty's hands such full satisfaction in all his desires and late affairs, as thereby he was deeply bounden to thank her majesty and requit those benefits with all pleasures in his power. Then I reported to him both the great joys conceived by her majesty upon the receipt of the advertisement of his happy escape, as also her majesty's advice given to him for prevention of like dangers hereafter to remain in sure place and with company fit for a King, banishing the suspected and executing traitors without regard of the highest degree, as by your letter of the 5th hereof I was directed. And after I had blamed his security, whereby he tempted God, and despite good advice, I opened to him how wide the way was now made to him to reform all things in this government and to establish the same in peace and quietness. After his compliment of thanks to her majesty he entered in a large discourse, declaring the practice to have been laid either to have surprised and detained him captive to be reserved and made the instrument for the accomplishment of all their desires by the colour of his authority, or else to have taken his life; and he noted many persons of good quality to be manifestly guilty of this conspiracy, for whose safety, nevertheless, such suits and means are presented to him and otherwise wrought that he finds great difficulty to proceed in the execution of punishment, as her majesty wisely and friendly advertises, and as himself most approves. He well allowed—and as methought gladly embraced—my opinion persuading him to take the benefit of this time and present occasion offered, with great advantage to reform the government and quiet estate. In all these, and chiefly in the administration of justice and punishment to be done on these conspirators, he doubted to meet with great impediment and to receive here little aid and assistance in regard that all men preferred and sought for particular relief for their kinsmen and friends without respect to their sovereign or estate, and that none would by vote in Council or other advice or mean be seen forward and consent to punish any person of quality by whose feuds and displeasures they may hereafter be hurt in themselves or posterities; and thereon he was purposed to send to her majesty an especial gentleman to inform her majesty perfectly of all these acts past and of the parts of the parties therein, and thereon to seek her majesty's advice for the choice and direction of his best course to be taken and followed herein. But after some short conferences severally with the Chancellor and other Councillors," and castinge into them a peice of the King's purpose" that I might feel their breaths in the allowance of the employment of any to be sent to her majesty in this behalf, I found that it savoured not so well with them that there is surety of the progress of the King's purpose mentioned, yet I do not utterly despair thereof, and as it shall proceed your lordship shall be advertised.

Afterwards I let the King know that her majesty marvelled that he had not prosecuted and punished Huntly and other offenders for the murder of Murray, in regard that the same heavily burdened his own honour in the eye of the world and mightily grieved his people at home; and I showed him that this late conspiracy and attempt to have been executed at Falkland was deeply grounded and much stirred by want of expedition of justice in this cause for Murray. In this he readily laid the blame on Murray's friends; to the which friends he had offered to give immediate justice against Huntly according to the ordinary course of the laws; and in case the same could not suffice, then he would advise and join with him to provide such other means as should be found meetest, which he promised to see done by the travail of his own person and with the power of his whole forces. He would not agree that this late action at Falkland was so grounded as I alleged and am perfectly informed to have been indeed. And he passed over this matter so, and without promise to prosecute the same, that I think it like to be laid up in the "decke" and forgotten, except it shall be quickened by her majesty's means, as by my former I have written to your lordship, and therefore, agreeable to your lordship's direction, I have thought good to travail with sundry noblemen, councillors, ministers, and others well affected to move and prick the King forward in this behalf. For the furtherance of justice to be done the ministers are very diligent to do their best by all the means they can make in their public sermons or labours to the King, Council, or others able to advance the cause, wherein surely they look at no other lure than with care to seek the advancement of justice; neither will they stoop to any reward offered by me, neither dare I tempt them nor yet adventure to "feade" or entice others to do their duties by any rewards charging her majesty; so that I shall duly keep the order prescribed by your lordship to me in this behalf. And this much for declaration of my doings and success with the King in the contents of your lordship's three letters mentioned. Albeit that the Earl Bothwell and Mr. Colvile had written and directed letters, the copies whereof remain in the King's hands amongst the other writings intercepted, to Sir Henry Wooddrington and Sir John Selby, moving them to be means that the earl might receive some favour and oversight in England, yet I am credibly informed that these letters, being sent to Mr. Richard Douglas to have been conveyed, were not sent nor delivered to the parties according to their directions, as is, I think, sufficiently known to the King, who is fully satisfied therein.

Before this I have been solicited that the Earls of Angus and Bothwell might have favour and "oversight" to remain in England, whereupon they would not only refuse the offers and courses of all foreign princes and devote themselves and services to her majesty in the time of their troubles and when they should have recovered the goodwill of their sovereign, but also that Bothwell would discover the practices of the King of Spain and others against religion and the amity betwixt these realms, and do such offices therein as should highly profit both sovereigns and realms; and for the accomplishment of all other things in his behalf he would give in hostage his eldest son. Unto which offers I durst not hearken, knowing that few Councils are kept in Scotland, and that upon particular accident for the advantage of the parties in the Council, they would easily bewray all things passed in Council. Wherein I have thought it not meet to bring in question her majesty's honour or reputation by my acts with others and whilst I serve in this place. Nevertheless they are so left that it is like that they will essay others to be instrument to compass their desires, and, as I have been informed, they are minded to send Mr. Lowther herein, as your lordship will shortly understand, if they shall proceed in the purpose intended.

Before receipt of your letter of the 5th hereof I learned that Francis Mowbray had returned hither from Spain, and through England, having brought with him some letters out of Spain and being of very small effect, as such as saw them told me. Since, I have spoken with Mr. Mowbray and taken order with him that his letters shall be conveyed safely to your lordship in my packets. He is presently gone into Fife to the Earl of Crawford, and upon his return hither [in] about four or five days he will write to your lordship, which letters I shall use and send, with my own opinion thereon, as your lordship has directed me. I have learnt that he received at the hands of Mr. Archibald Douglas 40 angels by the gift of her majesty, wherein he acknowledged to me the receipt of 40 angels given by her majesty and delivered to him by Mr. Archibald, saying that he held himself well satisfied both with her majesty's reward and also for the "remaine" detained for charges and kindness bestowed towards him by Mr. Archibald. He recounted to me largely his imprisonment suffered in Spain upon suspicion of the information that he had given to England of the practice to burn her majesty's ships, which, albeit it took not effect, yet he protests deeply that he knew it to be intended, and therefore discovered it, whereby he endangered himself and afterwards endured the imprisonment for that cause. He offers freely his devotion and all good offices to her majesty; so that I find that he hopes to be further comforted by her majesty's bounty, and his present estate requires relief. He and others of good intelligence are still of opinion that the King of Spain will send treasure into this realm to alter the religion and the estate; and some would persuade me that two Englishmen and Mr. Andrew Clerk, lately serving the Lord Hume, have brought already 5000 double pistolets, with promise that a greater sum shall be sent hither very shortly. Yet one acquainted thoroughly with all the secrets of the Catholics assured me that they were indeed dealing with Spain for men and money, wherein the King of Spain has been very cold and could not be induced to yield to the desires of the Scottishmen and others for them before he shall know them to be entered into action promising wished effects both for the restitution of the Catholic and Romish religion and also for the revenge of the death of the Queen Mother of Scotland, who by her last will and testament, sent to the King of Spain, left that revenge to be done by the King her son, or in his default to be executed by the King of Spain. In regard whereof, and upon the default of the King of Scotland, this kingdom was given by the will and testament of the Queen mentioned to the King of Spain. Nevertheless so many English papists and other practisers flow and are lately "comed" hither, and such general expectation and bruits of money and forces to be sent hither by the means of the King of Spain, and this late action of the surprise of the King should have so well served the Catholic turn—which action is now fallen in the ashes—that I dare not warrant this last intelligence given and assured to me, notwithstanding that I have it at the mouth of an honourable person of official quality and intelligence with the Catholics, and that it is confirmed as well by sundry letters of advice sent from Spain and the Low Countries to Catholics here and showed to me, as also by report of John Sempill, whom I caused to be apprehended and examined, as before I have written to your lordship, and who by the persuasion of his friends, religious and favouring the amity, has come to me to discover to me his whole knowledge and to offer all good offices after his coming to the Court of the Duke of Parma, whereunto he is ready to resort. Albeit that I have accepted his offer, yet I shall little charge her majesty thereby or credit him before he shall have performed service worthy to be regarded.

By sundry good and sufficient advices and directions generally and particularly given and expressed by your lordship's late letters to me, I am much relieved and comforted in the carriage of my course and actions with all parties and causes for her majesty's services here, wherein, as I use to write only to your lordship in matters of negotiation and importance, and so far as comes to myself, so I hope to be holden excused in my advertisements, differing, perhaps, from the letters of others here and addressed to others at Court to be showed to her majesty. This much for answer to the several contents in your lordship's letters mentioned.

On Wednesday last, the 12th hereof, Mr. Andrew Clerk before named and two Englishmen came unto and lodged in Canongate, at Mr. John Mosman's house, a favourer of the Earl Bothwell and suspected to harbour papists. It was told me early in the morning that they were at Mosman's house; that they had a large budget fraught with Spanish pistolets; that the Englishmen were like to be Jesuits, for Clerk was well known; that they had with them coins of gold with Agnus Dei; and that they purposed to ride that day to Fast Castle. Clerk and one of the Englishmen resorted to Henry Keyre, a known papist, a suspected practiser and in especial trust [with] and serving the Duke of Lennox. The other Englishman went to Mr. Thomas Livinsgtone, a papist and likewise serving Lennox, on the morrow; and immediately on the discovery of the matter to me I acquainted the Council resident here, praying that these three persons might be apprehended, and that Keyre, Livingstone, Mosman, and his servants might be examined, and in case these three men should have departed, that order might be given to take them at Fast Castle. The Council readily consented to apprehend them in Canongate, but finding that they were gone from their lodgings before the commissioners could be ready to come thither, thereon the Council referred the matter to the coming of the King, looked to have been here that night; yet some of the ministers have travailed earnestly that commission might be given to follow and take them. By this these guests have been chased and put from their diet into the south parts of this realm, and likely into England. And opening this matter to the King, order is taken to prosecute them; wherein little better effect is like to ensue than that they shall be either put out of the realm or else into such place as they and their errands shall be discovered. The Lord Chancellor has told me for certain that they have come from Holt, an Englishman and confessor to the Duke of Parma; but I cannot learn that they indeed have come lately from foreign parts, and sundry of the Catholics hereabouts are ignorant of their coming and business here, and think the two young gentlemen of England with Clerk are rather recusants fled out of the north parts of England than persons trusted with matters of great importance, which the Catholics look to receive at other hands. Of these I shall hereafter give your lordship better knowledge.

Six or seven other Englishmen are presently at Seton; amongst them one is called Captain Collwood, and yet he is thought to be a Jesuit. Many other Englishmen have come into and harboured in the towns about Seton and in Fife, Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, and Dysure [sic], wherein I trust to procure speedy order to be taken for them.

The King has found amongst Mr. John Colvile's papers and ciphers the draft of a band betwixt Angus, Erroll, and Bothwell, whereby every one of them is bound "to others," that Angus and Erroll shall do their endeavours to restore Bothwell to his place and possessions, and that Bothwell shall aid and "partye" them in case they or either of them shall be "put at" for it. "Wherafter (for)" there is a vacant space and a cipher signifying religion so that the King and others understand this band to be made for the maintenance of religion professed indeed by Angus and Erroll. This cipher agrees with other ciphers sent by Mr. Colvile to the Laird of Johnstone and James Douglas, who both confessed to the King their whole knowledge, and also delivered the letters and ciphers in their hands.

All the occurrents fallen in the time of the King's journey in the west parts, and which are, I trust, certified at large to your lordship by Mr. Lowther and others, I leave to their letters, as before, fearing that I am over tedious in report of my actions and travails in the week last past.

It has been told me that Sir John Hamilton, base son of the Lord Hamilton, intended to have surprised the Castle of Dumbarton and very narrowly missed the possession thereof.

The Earl of Angus came into the King at Little Gill upon the letters of Sir John Carmichael wishing Angus to come to the King at that time to stay the country and others, which would be the better drawn to the King's obedience and service by his example, and to obtain his own peace. Angus on his knees presented himself to the King, saying, "Sir, hearinge that you were in the feildes I thought it my dutye to come and submit myselfe to you, notwithstandinge of myne inocencye, and for your majesteis honour and myne owne dischardge." The King said he need not submit or seek remission if he were innocent. Whereupon he prayed pardon for his fault, and the King commanded him to follow him. His first words were diversely construed and deemed to be proud and repugnant in themselves. He was brought hither and is still kept by the guard. He desires to be warded with the Earl of Mar at Stirling; but Mar likes not to receive him, whereby it is hitherto meant that he shall be sent to Blackness, and that Colonel Stewart, now at Blackness, shall be removed to Tantallon, Angus's house, and which house shall be delivered tomorrow to Alexander Hume of North Berwick for the King's use. Some of the confederates think that Angus has both deceived himself in his sudden entry into the King's hands and also broken promise, which was that he should be the last that should enter and submit to the King.

The Earl Bothwell is well recovered: he has been lately near this town. His company for the present is not great, yet he is in hope to be both well assisted and also to attain shortly to his desire by the possession of the King's person, which still is shot at, and which surely will be in very great danger unless better provision shall be made for the prevention of the peril than hitherto I see done. For by the evident discovery of so many persons of quality to be blotted with the late fault at Falkland, and by the particular malcontentment of Hamilton and general offence against this present government, cast down wholly into the King's own hands, all things are like to be confounded, as shortly, I fear, your lordship shall have further expereience.

The Chancellor, not called to manage matters as he was wont to be, rather beholds and looks for the success therein than presses to embark himself with peril and without thanks. Huntly's friends have banded together for their own common defence in their present distresses, and they have resolved to choose the Laird of Auchenden for their chief in case Huntly will not both enter into the band and also give assurance that shall "partye" them in all their causes.

The Master of Forbes seeks to match his son in marriage with one of the Earl of Gowrie's sisters, whereat Huntly is much grieved, for he says that the same shall greatly weaken him. But by means I have both set forward the matter to be embraced by Atholl and his wife, who have power chiefly to advance the same, and also warned Atholl that he shall be tempted to enter into the Spanish faction, wherein promise is made to me that he shall be withdrawn from the same.

Maxwell and the Laird of Johnstone, bringing with them the defenders guilty of the raid at Falkland, are appointed to be here on Friday next, at which time order will be taken for the warding and punishment of the offenders, which it is thought shall be little grievous to them in regard that Maxwell and Johnstone have so fully discovered to the King the parties and actions in the raid at Falkland.

A nobleman in Polonia, pretending title to the earldom of Buchan in Scotland, has sent hither a procurator and an Englishman to offer large sums of money for the same earldom. His offers are so far above the value of the earldom and possessions that the Earl of Morton and other friends of the young Earl of Buchan are willing to accept the offer, and it is thought that this "Poloynean" descended of the old house of the Cumings, "and which clamed the crowne of this realme againste Bruce and Bayloll, woulde seike to revyve his tytle to the crowne," which presently is little regarded.

The Earl of Mar is dangerously sick of a burning fever and was "let blood" this day. Captain Fenner has passed to the north with her majesty's ships to meet with Molerto—as he has written to the King— sent to spoil the English fishermen in the north seas. But John Sempill, who served, as he says, Count Dermount Molerto, an Italian, many years, is otherwise employed and sent by the King of Spain. Six or seven Hollanders have been at Orkney and there taken testimonials of their being there to search for Spaniards, and have departed from the coast. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

721. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 22.]

The King, purposing to return to the Queen at Falkland after his coming hither from the West Borders, had put all things in readiness for his passage over the water betwixt Leith and Kinghorn on Tuesday last the 18th hereof, in the forenoon. In the evening before the King's passage appointed I was credibly advertised that the Earl Bothwell had prepared a crayer, then riding in the river and ready for Norway, and a little shallop; into the which vessels he would embark himself with twenty or thirty of his most sure friends and servants, well armed and furnished with victuals for two days, muskets, and other weapons, to surprise the King in his passage over the water, which easily might have been executed if the King had not been seasonably forewarned thereof. But knowing her majesty's pleasure and care for the preservation of the King's person and estate, I closely discovered to the King that night the whole practice, persons, number, weapons, and the manner devised for the execution, together with the signs and beacons which should be given to Bothwell from Leith, Newhaven, Granton, and other places all which were perfectly described to me by one privy to the enterprise, "and by means I had one in companye with th'erle in the crayer, and th'accion." For which especial intelligence and other like and good offices done since that time, and promised to be hereafter performed, I must be suitor to your lordship to be mean to her majesty to grant him for his reward a licence for transportation of some convenient portion of beer to be carried from London into Scotland; wherein he will, I trust, be found worthy such bounty as shall please her majesty to vouchsafe to bestow on him, and wherein it may please your lordship to let me know her majesty's good pleasure for the comfort of this party, whom I have protested to keep secret and unknown. The King gladly received my advice, acknowledging himself to be most deeply beholden to her majesty directing her servants to take such care and do such offices for safety of his life and honour, and therewith heartily thanked myself. This he communicated to few others than Sir John Carmichael, promising to keep close the matter and my doings herein. Afterwards he resolved to send over the water, in the morning, his servants, horses, and carriages with bruit that himself was entered on the water, as was appointed, to try what Bothwell could do therein. All which being done as the King and some councillors had devised, a sign was given to him from Leith that the King had not come. Whereupon Bothwell rode still at the back of Inchkeith with the crayer and shallop, suffering the King's servants to pass without impediment, and looking verily that the King would have come in the afternoon, at the next tide. After the passage of the King's servants I let the King know—and it was evident—that the crayer and shallop rode still at the back of Inchkeith, whereof little care was taken either for the discovery or taking of these vessels, yet by my means an oyster boat was sent out to discover them; who, seeing the oyster boat approach, removed and held off from her, and in the afternoon of the same day the crayer and shallop came near and lay betwixt the Inch and Leith, attending the King's coming. When the tide was spent they were advertised by a beacon that the King would not come that time. Therefore, at night, they sent the shallop to the place where they embarked betwixt Newhaven and Granton, where they met and took in a gentleman who told Bothwell that his enterprise was discovered, and that the King had prepared 300 shot of Edinburgh and Leith, and, besides, the forces of the noblemen coming with him, with one ship, one pinnace and many shallops to set him over the next day. Whereat Bothwell in great passion said that he was betrayed, and determining thereon to retire, they put on land near to Newhaven and passed away on foot towards Edinburgh about one o'clock after midnight.

At their first meeting, and before they embarked, Bothwell opened to the company his intention and the cause thereof, charging all men to do no hurt or violence to the King's person. After the end of Bothwell's oration Nedderie prayed all men to promise faithfully to forbear to hurt the King or any other gentleman with him, other than such as were appointed to be removed from the King, and willed them in token of their consent to hold up their hands; which they did, and he held up both his own.

This action has ended without hurt to the King, and albeit that it is known to many that the King was in danger to have been surprised on the water, yet the manner and parties are not hitherto made known to many. Howbeit I look that this matter and my doings—promised to be kept secret—shall be shortly revealed, as all other secrets used to be. Whereupon the feud is like to fall on me; which feud, and other storms threatened towards me, I little regard as long as I may do service to her majesty; wherein I find great impediment fallen to me by the weakness of my sight, beginning to fail me.

On the 20th instant the King accompanied with sundry noblemen, with 300 shot of Edinburgh and Leith and with other forces, passed the river betwixt Leith and Kinghorn and rode that day to Falkland, where he remains with the Earls of Argyll, Rothes, and Morton, and with sundry barons of Fife attending there on him for his safeguard.

On the 20th of this month I was again advertised that the Earl Bothwell, having gathered to him 180 horses, was at Cramond (Crawmontt), and purposed to attempt some great enterprise before Tuesday next. Whereupon I have both conferred with the Chancellor, warning him of his own particular harm intended, and with their councillors here, for the prevention of the danger, and also sent advertisement to the King this day at Burlye, and the King thereon has so strengthened himself that he is in safety for the time, except some in his own chamber and Court shall bewray him, against which I will give no warrant: for inward intelligence is continued betwixt Bothwell and sundry in Court, and the courtiers presently contend for the peace of their friends, wherein some seek to draw in Huntly, some Angus, and some Bothwell, and the parties for their peace and desires must part with "round" portions of inheritance severally to their friends being petitioners for them to the King. Amongst which the most of the Chamber have persuaded that Bothwell might "broke" his living and depart out of this realm for the King's safety and honour. And because it is thought here that the King shall be driven either to embrace and entertain Huntly or else to show favour and suffer Bothwell to depart out of the realm upon conditions honourable to the King, wherein it is generally conceived that the papists' course shall be advanced without any impediment in case Huntly shall be advanced; therefore Bothwell's peace is much wished and himself greatly favoured of the people, so that few or none will hurt him; and coming to this town after he came from the water on the 19th of this month, he remained and departed quietly with fair promises of friendship to be showed to him.

This morning I have been further informed that Huntly, Crawford, Ogilvy, and Gray have gathered their forces and are looked to come forward towards Falkland or this town. Some think that they and Bothwell shall join, in regard that Caithness has so travailed with Huntly to agree with Bothwell that Huntly has assented thereunto and offered by his messenger to put himself in Bothwell's will for the redress to be made for the slaughter of Murray; and if these persons shall thus join together, then most men here plainly conclude that the papists and Spanish faction shall adventure to possess the King and carry the sway without resistance of the well affected, who are so divided and without intelligence amongst them that I find it almost impossible to knit them together to avoid the inconvenience likely to fall out very shortly.

That I may work and draw all things to best effects, and that I may examine the intelligences given me before I shall hastily write thereof to your lordship, I am thereby kept occupied and enforced to be oftentimes slow in my advertisements; which fault growing upon these causes recited, I trust and humbly pray to be favourably pardoned.

Mr. William Macwherye, Scottishman and Jesuit—who being long a prisoner was delivered by the means of the Master of Gray—has lately come to Montrose out of Flanders in a French ship, which put him on land with a boat near to Montrose, and thereon returned and made sail for Flanders. It is told me that another Jesuit of Scotland was put in another ship to have come into this realm for the better expedition or surety to bring the like commission as Mackwherye has done, and that this ship is either taken on the seas or else driven to arrive in England. Mackwherye hasted to Mr. James Gordon with his commission—which hitherto I know not—and soon after his coming to Mr. James and Huntly, these four northern lords assembled their forces, a matter evil liked of here by the well affected.

Sundry of the ministers shall be speedily convened to make suit to the King that the former and general band made for the maintenance of religion may be renewed. This band was made at the coming of the Spanish fleet into these seas, and with the renovation of that band the ministers and myself shall diligently travail to associate the well affected noblemen, barons, boroughs, and ministers, with the King's privity, for the preservation of religion and of the King's person and estate, which I fear cannot be compassed in time and manner requisite. But the matter is begun, and all diligence shall be used in the same. It will be found the more difficult by the present sickness of Mar, whose death is expected, and whose death will greatly hinder the good progress of this cause.

The Laird of Restalrig's house at Fast Castle lies under charge, and himself must appear here on the 26th day of this month to bring in Mr. Andrew Clerk and the two Englishmen mentioned in my last before these to your lordship. He denies to have had any dealings with them, and yet it is evident there that Donkin, his bailiff at Restalrig, carried them near unto Fast Castle, and the officer bringing the charge to him saw a young English gentleman with him at Fast Castle, whom the officer thought was one of the Englishmen come with Clerk. But it may be that some officers of the Marches of England may give better information touching these persons than I can hitherto do. The Chancellor still assures me that Clerk and those two Englishmen have come from Holt, confessor to the Duke of Parma, who now is more ready to hearken to the Scottish motions than before he has been: and herewith it is told me that Clerk, being but a simple fellow, is sent by Parma to stir Hume to perform the things devised by Parma and to show their sure friends in Scotland the accords betwixt Parma and Hume. The Englishmen lately at Seton and thereabouts are recusants fled out of England. They are now scattered into divers parts of this realm, appointing to be again together in Lothian in the beginning of the next month.

An English papist calling himself Thomas Carr came lately from Mr. James Gordon, in the north, to this town. He was troubled with a frenzy and with fear that I sought to apprehend him here in this town, where he died the other day. His letters and papers were conveyed by his friends about him at his death to his friends in the north.

The Earl of Caithness, suspected to have aided Bothwell, is charged to appear, and letters are directed to Huntly to exhibit and send him in; but it is not thought Caithness shall obey the charge or that Huntly will prosecute him beyond his own consent.

The night before the King's departure Angus was committed to ward whereat he greatly storms, chiefly against Carmichael. He denies to answer to the articles offered in his examination, saying that he will inform the King presently in all things if he shall find himself well used, otherwise he will stand to his trial in law. Erroll being examined denies flatly the letters alleged to be written by him and all other matters objected against him.

The Earl of Mar, advised by the ministers and physicians to make his will, and thought by them to be past hope of life, has written to the King requiring that Thomas Erskine, son of Alexander Erskine, late captain of this castle in Edinburgh, may have the keeping of the same castle after his death. In this I have both travailed earnestly with the Chancellor to advance Mar's request for Thomas Erskine, and also sent to move the King in the same.

The Chancellor, being put in special trust by Mar with the bringing up of his children and preservation of his house, is willing to prefer Thomas Erskine by all the means he can, and in case Thomas cannot obtain it, then the Chancellor will challenge his former grant made by the King that the Duke of Lennox may be prevented in his suit for this castle, the keeping whereof the Duke would commit to some papist, as most in trust about him are known to be papists. I have my servant still at Court, and am advertised that the King is pleased to grant Mar's request in this behalf. For the safety of the King's person and to break the haunt about this town of Bothwell and his followers, it is devised that 120 horsemen shall be levied and kept about the King for a time, whereof the King will furnish and pay twenty, the Chancellor six, the rest to be levied and paid by noblemen and officers of estate. This device was well liked until the King appointed the Duke to lead and command this band; for it is said that the Duke has given proof that he will neither detain in his own hands any of Bothwell's possessions given him by the King nor hurt any depending on Bothwell further than shall well please Bothwell to be done.

Whereas by your lordship's last letter to me I perceive that your lordship is not pleased that my son and Sheperson should enter into the draft for the assurance of payment of my debts to her majesty, the other debt which I owe to the executors of Customer Smithe, deceased, and for which Sir Francis Walsingham was bound for me, whereupon the lady his wife is now charged, and whom I have faithfully promised to acquit or save harmless or else to render my body to prison and my possessions for her satisfaction, therefore I directed my son and Sheperson to sue your lordship to be mean that this debt to Mr. Smithe may be comprised in the assurance for payment of my other debts to her majesty. In regard that I have both assigned all the lands and livings which I have or can get of my son and friends for the payment of her majesty, and also that by this favour to me the Lady Walsingham shall be saved harmless—without which I desire no life, especially no liberty out of prison—and myself may be enabled to live in poor estate and serve her majesty truly, therefore I most humbly pray your lordship that this debt owing to the executors of Customer Smithe may be counted with the order of payment of my other debts to her majesty, or otherwise that my body may be delivered to prison for the satisfaction of the Lady Walsingham, whom—after so great benefits received at her husband's hands by me—I may not suffer to be encumbered so deeply for me, nor live out of prison before I have given satisfaction to her herein. In this my son and Sheperson will attend upon your lordship, and wherein I "eftsons" and most humbly beseech your lordship to have compassion on me, choosing rather death than to be thus hurtful to such as have so highly benefited me. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

6 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

722. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 24. (fn. 1) ]

According to your lordship's direction by your lordship's last letter, of the 18th instant, and received yesterday, I have "broken with" and obtained order at the hands of the Lord Chancellor and Council here that speedy and strait charge shall be given to all the inhabitants in Orkney and in the isles on the east and west parts of Scotland to give no victuals, harbour, or entertainment to any Spaniards or others serving the King of Spain, and coming on these seas or coasts, nor to suffer any of them to land there; which charge will be more straitly commanded than shall, I fear, be duly obeyed in case the ship for the King of Spain shall touch there, and may look verily for the Spaniards; yet I am still advised by an especial person privy to the secrets of the Catholics here that the King of Spain has no liking to send hither any forces this year; but he perceives that the Duke of Parma, seeking to stir and continue troubles in all places during the life of the King of Spain, who now, he says, is decaying fast, is much more ready and earnest to kindle the fire here than he has been, and for that cause he thinks that Mr. John Mackwherye is sent hither, whose commission he knows not as yet by reason that Mackwherye has addressed himself wholly and firstly to Mr. James Gordon, and next, with his advice, to Huntly, and to others as Mr. James shall direct.

This last night past the Earl of Bothwell, accompanied with 200 horsemen and above, as it was esteemed, passed over at Stirling Bridge, and is on his way towards Falkland. Six boats with other horsemen passed the water and landed at the "Cracke" at Aberdeen (sic: Aberdour) very early this morning. Sundry companies of ten or twelve horses have been discovered this night and found to be riding towards Falkland, where it is looked that those joining together and with other aids coming to them in Fife, they shall again attempt to surprise the King this day on hunting, or else assail the house at Falkland; wherein it is verily deemed here that these forces could not nor would not have thus assembled and showed themselves except they had good means about the King to advance the wished success of their purposes and desires: and albeit that the house of Falkland is partly fortified and the King sufficiently warned as well of the preparations for this raid to be enterprised this day or to-morrow, as partly by my last before these I have advertised your lordship, as also of these forces presently gathered and coming towards him, yet it is thought that he shall be in danger to be either taken against his will, or else by persuasion of such as shall be about him to be drawn to assent unto such order and composition as shall appease these troubles; wherein many wise and well affected here think that the King at this time shall not lack counsellors about him to advise him to grant this composition; and they think that Bothwell's forces shall little prevail except his friends charms or treasons shall better help him.

The Chancellor, this Council, and myself have been advertised very early this morning of this action, whereof immediate advertisement was sent to the King, so that he is well warned and privy to the doings and progress of this matter from time to time. The end, therefore, is yet uncertain; for the expedition of the discharge whereof I have sent two men to Falkland, and as I shall receive intelligence your lordship shall be speedily informed.

The Earl of Argyle came on Saturday last, the 22nd hereof, from Falkland to Dalkeith. He was suddenly married yesterday at Dalkeith, to Ann, the youngest daughter of the Earl of Morton, a matter likely to bring good effects, and whereof I wrote partly before to your lordship. This morning Argyll returned to the King at Falkland, hasting thither by all the means he could. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

12/3 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

723. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 24.]

Since the despatch of my former letter, written this morning at 6 o'clock, further advertisement is brought to this Council that the Earl Bothwell's forces still increase, and that himself hastes by all the means he can towards Falkland; whereupon this town and Haddington, the earls, lords, and landed men and others are warned upon pain of life by open proclamation to arms and to come hither to repair to the King at Falkland for his rescue and preservation. Such expedition will be used on all sides that the issue will be shortly seen. Edinburgh, at 11 o'clock in the forenoon. Signed: Robert Bowes.

p. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

724. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 24.]

This night last past the Earl Bothwell passed over Stirling Bridge with 200 horsemen and above to surprise the King at Falkland. Six boats passed over the water with horsemen and landed at the Crag at Aberdeen (sic: Aberdour) to join with Bothwell. Sundry other troops of horsemen are discovered following him; whereupon the King will be assailed this day. The King is well warned as well of the preparation of these forces as also of the present assembly of them. The house at Falkland is fortified and furnished. The country is warned, and open proclamation is made in this town this day—as the like shall be done in all the countries adjoining—to arm themselves and repair with all speed to Falkland for the King's rescue and preservation, so that it is thought that the King shall be in little danger, except it shall be by treason of some about him, or by persuasion to be drawn to composition, wherein the issue will be shortly seen. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

p. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

725. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 25.]

Upon information given as well severally to the King at Falkland as also to the Council resident here, and to myself, that Bothwell, with his forces, was on the fields and way towards Falkland, and had passed over the water at Stirling Bridge to surprise the King, as yesterday I wrote over hastily to your lordship, and that upon this advertisement the King resolved to come hither with expedition, and the Council set forth proclamations to the effects specified and appearing in the copy of the same proclamation, published yesterday in this town and enclosed with these presents. Wherein, besides the intelligence privately given to me, sundry of the Council sent and gave me knowledge of these doings, giving me thereby occasion to write to your lordship as I have done, and as in my weak discretion I then thought meet to be done, yet now it is found that this information has been grounded on small matter of truth, and it is suspected that it has been rather practised for the furtherance of a deep practice devised by sundry in Court and of great quality to surprise the King in commodious place and with best surety. For, albeit that Hamilton of Perdovell was employed and sent, as he says, by the Laird of Killfawnes, brother of the Earl of Crawford and in especial favour with the King to advertise the King and Council that Killfawnes had seen Bothwell with 200 horsemen and above, who had passed the bridge at Stirling to ride to Falkland to surprise the King, and that Kilfawnes found the field so full with sundry troops of horsemen following Bothwell that he thought it not convenient either to commit the advertisement thereof to writing or yet put himself amongst them, but rather to send Hamilton to signify these things to the King and Council, which Hamilton has confidently done by his own mouth to the King, and by means and messenger to the Council, wherein many stand to and affirm that Bothwell was indeed and with like number in the field, yet the King and Council are sufficiently informed, and it is manifest enough, that neither Bothwell with his forces mentioned passed over the bridge or fords near Stirling—"for theye kepte and watched"—nor any troops of horsemen which landed at the Crag of Aberdore and were conveyed in six small boats, as by my former [letter] I have partly advertised.

Since the King returned to Falkland he has been daily advertised of the preparations made in sundry places for his surprise, whereupon he fortified and furnished the house, chiefly the tower, at Falkland.

The Laird of Spynie, taking the opportunity in the King's chamber, has largely opened to the King how much the people misliked the King and his government and presently embraced Bothwell, concluding with persuasion to provide seasonably his best remedy, and in meetest place.

The Earl of Crawford, brother of Spynie, coming to the King in haste and abiding few hours, laid before the King the great dangers depending over him whilst he remained at Falkland, and thereon advised him to resort to and abide at Dundee. The King seeing clearly, as I am informed, how dangerous a place Dundee should be to reside at, seemed nevertheless to allow well of Crawford's advice. Afterwards he dismissed Crawford, who looked to meet the King at Dundee. But upon conference with Carmichael the King changed his diet, so that yesterday he came from Falkland to Burntisland and this day he has returned hither to Holyrood House in safety and purposing to take order in all things.

It is verily thought, and very likely, that if the King shall deeply and sufficiently search the bottom of this device practised to put him in fear of this sudden surprise, and for his surety to remove unto and abide in northern places, that sundry much advanced by the King's only bounty and favour, and divers others of the nobility and good calling, shall be blotted with unthankfulness and found careless of the King's honour or welfare, a matter that will hereafter further break out and be known for the King's benefit and safety, if he shall handle all things rightly; but most men think that this cause, like others, shall be shortly forgotten.

The King has been informed that Mr. Colvile has ridden into England towards the Court there, and that the Master of Gray purposes and is in readiness to follow; whereupon he is presently possessed with troublesome conceipt, from which I trust, upon my access, sufficiently to deliver him, and wherein for his more full satisfaction and for my own direction to temper it to her majesty's best liking I pray your lordship to give me some light and advice. As yet I have not been with his majesty, but I am appointed since his coming hither this day to come to-morrow to him. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghly's clerk.

Enclosure with the same:—


"Apud Edinburgh xxiiij die mensis Julii, 1592.

Forsa mekle as it is understand to the Lordis of Secrete Counsall that thair is a tressonable interpryse divisit and now intendit to be execute aganis the Kingis Majesties awne persoun be Francis, sumtyme Erle Bothuill and utheris his complices, gyltie of the formar tressonis, quha, as the saidis Lordis ar surelie informeit, ar alreddy past to the partis of Fyffe with certane nowmaris of horsmen in armes, of deliberat intentioun, as appeiris, to practize the same tressonable conspiracie with all celeritie to the endangering of his Majesteis persoun, croun, and estate, giff the same be nocht tymouslie and substanciouslie resistit. Quhairfoir the saidis Lordis ordanes lettres to be derect to officeares of armes chairgyng thame to pas command and chairge all and sundrie erlles, lordis, barronis, fewars, frehalders, and substantious gentlmen, togidder with the inhabitantis of borrowis dwelland within the boundis of the sherefdomes of Edinburgh principall and within the constablarie of Hadingtoun and Linlythquow, be opin proclamatioun of the mercat croces of the heid borrowis of the sam, that thay and ilkane of thame, weill bodin in feir of weir, addres tham selfis to cum and repair to the burg of Edinburgh with all possible diligence after the publicatioun heirof, and attend, pas forthuart and follow the directioun of his Majestie or his lieutenent for the better preservatioun and surtie of his hienes person, resisting to the invasioun of the saidis conspiratouris or persut of thame as occasioun sall offre. And to the effect that thai remain and depairtt nocht during the necessite of this present service wnder the pain of tinsell of lyff, landis, guidis and geir, and sieklyk, chairging all and sindrie erles, lordis, barrownis, fewars, frehalders, and substantious gentlemen dwelland within the boundis of the shrefdomes of Streveling and Clakmannan in forme abovspecifeit. Signed: J. Cancellarius."

1 p. Broadsheet. In a Scottish hand.

726. Robert Bowes to Burghley. [July 30.]

At my access yesterday to the King, and seeking to inform him what sum of money was to be paid for him to Thomas Fowles at this time, and that the same might be well accepted by him, I recounted to him the great charges sustained by her majesty for the common and present affairs in France, the Low Countries, and other places by sea and land, so greatly burdening her majesty that she little looked that at this time, and for his own particular, he would add anything to make this burden more heavy to her majesty; nevertheless her majesty had given order that 2000 l. should be delivered to Thomas Fowles for him and his satisfaction for this present, and I sought that this favour showed by her majesty whilst she was thus oppressed with the charges of the public causes touching the preservation of religion and the religious in Europe might be well received, agreeable to the direction given me by your lordship's last letter of the 18th hereof.

For his answer he laid forth the necessity presently pressing him to defray great sums of money so far exceeding his own store and all his means to provide sufficiently for the same that he intended to have sought her majesty's further aid to avoid the present dangers threatened to religion, his person, and estate, and to the peace and amity of both these realms, doubting nothing at all to have ready payment of the sum limited by the accords of the late treaty, in regard that on his own behalf he has straightly kept and fully accomplished all covenants therein, notwithstanding that by the same he has offended many, as he did by the delivery of Oriacke. And he said that he had such experience of her majesty's own favour and goodwill towards him that he would not think that, of his own disposition, she would thus stay so small a sum that might so greatly hurt her, himself, and the causes concerning them and both these realms. He gave me no time to reply, but proceeded to tell me that he was advertised that some of his rebels and fugitives were received in England; that the Master of Gray had written, and himself and Mr. John Colvile will speedily follow to the Court in England; and that Thomas Musgrave, Captain of Bewcastle, had given such entertainment and favour to Bothwell, to the King's great hurt and displeasure, that he trusted her majesty would not allow. With which matters he seemed so sharply pricked that I thought it meet to gather them all up and first to persuade that this sum of 2000 l. to be delivered to Fowles for him for this time might be taken in good part; next, to let him know that the Master of Gray and Mr. John Colvile have been seen here in Scotland so lately that they cannot be entered into England, and that her majesty would check and punish Thomas Musgrave for his evil behaviour made known to her majesty as should well content the King. Wherein I laboured the more earnestly in respect that I was credibly informed that some about the King had endeavoured to make him think that her majesty little cared for him or his standing. Thereon he descended readily into very kind terms towards her majesty's self, but otherwise I found the scar of some offence sticking and appearing in him, the "remove" whereof I refer to your lordship's good consideration and means.

Afterwards I let him know that, by advice, it is discovered that four ships furnished by the King of Spain set forth at "the Groyne," in Spain, to come into the north seas about Shetland, Orkney or Isles to prey upon the English fishermen either there or returning from Iceland, or else on the English merchants coming from their trade in Muscovia. Whereupon I prayed that speedy and strait order might be given to the inhabitants of those coasts of this realm that no victuals, landing, or entertainment might be given them. He let me know that the Chancellor, upon my motion to him, had already acquainted him with the matter; and he frankly promised not only to restrain all victuals landing and favour to be showed towards these Spaniards or strangers, but also that, upon discovery of their coming into these seas, he would arm and set forth all the power he had to take them. For he said that it was high time now to look to these matters; and thereon he required of me whether Mr. William Creichton had come from Spain into this realm, and had brought gold and comfort hither to the Catholics. After thanks for his good offer and promise mentioned, I told him that Mr. Alexander Macwherye, whom in my former letter I named John Mackwherye, had arrived near to Montrose and had commission to negotiate the causes committed to his trust with Mr. James Gordon the great Jesuit, and against whom I had many times prayed that the laws of this realm and his own orders enacted might have been executed; and albeit I doubted whether Mr. William Creichton had already entered here, yet it appeared that both gold and also promise of more gold and of forces to come hither were brought hither. He said that these things were lightly regarded in England by many and he had little help to withstand them, yet he would do his endeavour, and with the greater comfort, if he might find assistance, offering thereon to part from me. These and the manner as they passed betwixt the King and me, I thought meet to certify your lordship, to be made known to her majesty, that they may be considered and myself directed as to her majesty's pleasure shall be best agreeable.

Because I find here many Englishmen doing several offices, of which sort some may be, peradventure, sent for services, yet the most part are occupied with practice or fled for religion or crimes, therefore I have prayed that they may be examined for what causes they have left their own country and remain here, to the intent that they may be used according to their qualities. The King has agreed to my request, giving me order to specify the names in writing of all such as I would undertake to be honest, and that he would proceed against the rest. I have made known the names for whom I will answer, but I look not for hasty order to be taken with the rest.

Having sufficiently found that this late bruit raised that Bothwell had passed Stirling Bridge to surprise the King was practised to have drawn the King northwards to have entrapped him there, I opened in very general manner the matter to him and advised him to try the same for his great benefit. But he so flatly denied that any counsel was given by him to draw into the north parts, that, seeing his disposition, I ceased for that time to proceed further, trusting that things shall be so well handled and "dreshed" that he shall be much better prepared and disposed than I left him at this time; and of the doings and success in these behalfs your lordship shall be shortly advertised.

Whereas he doubted in some circumstances in the surprise to have been made of him in his passage betwixt Leith and Kinghorn, I have not only fully satisfied him of the express truth thereof, but also let him know that he was foully betrayed by some about and near to him. In all which he is now very fully satisfied; and I have been credibly advertised that by the means of some to have been with him in the shallop, the rudder of the vessel should have been encumbered and such impediments made that he should have been easily taken.

The Lord Maxwell, now Warden of the West Marches of Scotland, moved me that he might ride into England for apprehension of such Englishmen as accompanied Bothwell at the raid at Falkland and were fugitive and disobedient to the Warden of the West Marches in England; wherein he said that he heard that Mr. Lowther had received warrant to that effect. But I answered that Mr. Lowther or the officer succeeding had order to apprehend all such offenders that they may be punished according to the laws and for the King's contentment, and he should find good concurrency with Mr. Lowther and the officer succeeding in that service, so that he should not need to ride into England for the same. Wherein Mr. Lowther would also satisfy him both for the expedition of the service and also for the certainty of the warrant supposed to be directed and come to Mr. Lowther.

Huntly has sent Crawford to the King to procure his licence to depart out of this realm, which the King has granted; yet it is thought that Huntly will not thus suddenly leave the country, but hopes to find shortly new occasions to stay him. Murray's friends are nothing satisfied with this manner of punishment, coming by Huntly's own suit, therefore some of Murray's friends have purposed to send after Huntly in case he shall go out of this realm.

The King being informed that Bothwell was in the Justice Clerk's (last deceased) house near Linlithgow, sent the Duke of Lennox and the Lord Hume yesterday to apprehend Bothwell, but they could not find him, for it was said that he was not within twenty miles of that place at that time, and I have been informed that Bothwell, the Master of Gray, and Mr. John Colvile were together on Friday last, the 28th instant, at the Earl Marishal's house near Dunfermline, and lodged that night at Balwearie's house, from whence the Master of Gray, as it is told me, had purposed to take his journey into England, according to the order before accorded amongst them.

The King will give the Priory of Coldingham to the Lord Hume, who shows thereon great forwardness to take Bothwell for the King's safety and pleasure, and the assurances are ready for the Great Seal. In like manner Kelso is to be given to Sir Robert Carr, who with great companies yesterday in the street met the Lord Hume yet in quarrel with him. These parties and their companies "had foughten" if the Chancellor had not stayed them, but now the King is minded to compound the matter.

Francis Mowbray is ready to be employed to do good offices, which he may yield with great fruit and profit in regard that presently he is to be credited and sent abroad in the affairs of Catholics; but I find him so ill satisfied with the last consideration had of his service that, without surety of better recompense to answer the charges to be sustained for the advancement of his service to be done hereafter, he likes not to embark himself therein. And because I dare not promise more than I can perform, I have thought it good to commend this to your lordship that he may be entertained, and myself directed as shall be found most convenient.

The Lord Scrope, deceased, made me one of the executors of his last will and testament, and the Lord Scrope, who now is, letting me know that the funeral of his father is appointed to be at Carlisle on the 22nd of August next, desires my advice and presence there. If it please her majesty to give me leave and liberty for eight days I shall, by God's grace, be at the funeral and here again within the time mentioned. Edinburgh. Signed: Robert Bowes.

4 pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Marginal notes in Burghley's hand.

727. [Robert Bowes] to [Burghley]. [July].

At the writing hereof intelligence is brought that the parties in the enterprises intended by Bothwell and his friends are broken and divided; that the Master of Gray, Mr. John Colvile, and Hackerton, attending for the King's coming to Falkland, are scattered. Fintry, lying in Canongate to espy and give warning of the King's doings, is departed. Balwearie and Abbotshall, to have assisted the Master of Gray and others at Falkland, are seeking their best refuge; and Bothwell seeing that the noblemen—other than Morton, Mar and Lindsay—would either aid him or else wink at him, now finds himself so abandoned that he resolves to attempt some desperate adventure. The Duke [of Lennox], Sir James Sandilands and Sir Robert Melville, the younger, are purposed to travel into and tarry in Germany for two years, and in their journey or return to seek to come through England. One Ryseye, a Scottishman, being lately in Spain, is taken on the seas and brought into Rochelle. He has many letters to several persons, and some of them are thought to be meet to be seen, therefore I thought meet to give your lordship speedy advertisement thereof. Unsigned.

½ p. In the hand of Bowes' clerk.

728. Memoranda by Huntly. [July.]

"Remembrances given by th'erle of Huntlay to Patrick Murraye, and to be solicited for th'erle in Court and Parliament."

1. To advise if I may abide trial without danger.

2. To see if the Lords of Articles may be moved not to deal with my cause of forfeiture, in respect they have received "na just tryall against me."

3. To get the confirmation "expeid" with diligence to my son of my whole lands.

4. To purchase a letter of favour from the King and Queen's Majesties to the King and Queen of Denmark in case I pass there.

5. To purchase a general letter from his majesty to the Princes of Germany in case I pass there.

½ p. In the hand of Bowes' clerk. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk.

729. Names of Englishmen and Scotsmen at the raid upon Falkland. [July.]

"The names of th'inglishemen that were at Faw[k]land."

Gillesland. Not one of Gillesland.

Bewcastle. "Lawe" Forster of the Wyck.

"Browne" Adam Forster, hanged. Young David Grame of Sleitbeck.

Andrew Forster. James Andrewe.

Leaven. Will Hetherton of the Bushe.

"Sande" Hepe of the Clift.

Esk. "Jacke" Grame of the Peartree, son to "Geordie," prisoner.

"Riche," his brother.

"Watte" of the Peartree. Robert Grame, of the "Laike." "Rergie" Grame, son to Regie, prisoner. Christie. Robert Grame.

Sark. George Grame, son to William of Mylhill. Mathew Grame, prisoner, alias "Young Plump." "Gibbe" Grame, hanged.

Liddisdale. "Dickes" Davie, and "Watte" and "Wille," his sons. "Will" Grame; "Syme" Grame, the Pitches. "Rowe" Forster, of Backstangill.

"Scotesmen borderers at Fawkland."

Annerdale. Edward Yrwen of the Boneshawe. "Geordie," James, "Jeffraye," his sons. Francis Grame of Cannonby, son-in-law to Edward of Boneshawe, prisoner in Carlaverock. "Syme" Grame of Robewhait. "Arche" Armstrang, son to "olde Sande." "Hewgh" Armstrang, Davie, his brother, John, his berther, prisoner, sons to "Sandies Rynyone." John Armstrang alias "Jocke of Castle." William Yrwen, of Gretnahill. Davie Johnston, of the Rcdehawe. "Jock" Yrwen, of Steilhill. James Johnston, of Lowghouse. John Johnston, of Howgill. William Johnston, of the Kirkhill. Richard Bell, of the Clynte. William Bateson, of Darvington. "Christie" Bateson, "Rowies Christie." John Johnston, of Cartertrie. Hector Murraye, prisoner. Andrew Yrwen, "Jenkin's Andrewe." Peter Armstrang, of the Harelawe. "Andrewe of the Harelawe," hanged. "Riche" Armstrang, of Harelawe, prisoner. Rynyon Armstrang. Symon Rynyon, of Whiteleysyde.

Liddisdale. "Syme" Armstrang, young Laird of Whitehawghe. Andrew, his brother. Alexander Armstrang, of Twedon, hanged. Rynyon Armstrang. "Rowyes Rynyon," hanged.

pp. Indorsed by Burghley's clerk: "July, 1592. Names of the Englishmen that were at Fawkland."


730. Names of Englishmen at the raid upon Falkland. [July].

Bewcastle. "At the Rode, geven in by the Capten of Bewcastle," "Lawe" Forster, called "Edwardes Lawe." "Andre" Forster, called "James Andrew." Signed: Tho. Musgrave.

¼ p.


  • 1. The letter is dated 14th, but this is evidently a mistake.