Simancas: January 1564

Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1892.

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, 'Simancas: January 1564', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892) pp. 349-360. British History Online [accessed 29 May 2024].

. "Simancas: January 1564", in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892) 349-360. British History Online, accessed May 29, 2024,

. "Simancas: January 1564", Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892). 349-360. British History Online. Web. 29 May 2024,

January 1564

1564. 19 Jan. 244. Copy of Instructions given by His Majesty to Don Diego Guzman De Silva when he went as Ambassador to England.
The King.
Instruction as to what you Diego Guzman De Silva are to do, and the manner in which you are to behave with the Queen Of England to whom I send you as my Ordinary Ambassador.
Bishop Alvaro de la Quadra who formerly fulfilled the said office having recently died, and I, being informed that you possess the qualities and abilities which are necessary as well as lineage, prudence, experience of affairs, knowledge of that and other countries, and above all fidelity and a desire to serve me, have chosen you for the office and appoint you as my ordinary Ambassador to the said queen of England, and I desire that you depart thither immediately after these instructions are handed to you, adhering both on your journey and during your residence to the following regulations.
You will travel thither by way of France, and if you pass through the capital you will confer with Don Francés de Alava who, as you know is residing there temporarily to look after my affairs pending my appointment of the person who is to represent me as ordinary Ambassador. You will deliver to him the letter you will bear for him in which he is commanded to acquaint you with the state of things there and to keep up the necessary and usual correspondence with you after your arrival in England. You for your part will also keep in communication with him and with the ordinary Ambassador who may replace him. You will advise him of all you may think necessary for the good of my interests and the public service, and you will both go together to visit the Christian King and his mother the Queen, giving them the letters you take for them and news of my health and that of the Queen. You will tell them I am sending you to England where you will do all in your power to please them, and that I have ordered you to maintain with the French Ambassador resident there the friendly relations which are natural considering my close amity and relationship with them. Without enlarging beyond these generalities you will take leave of them graciously and pursue your voyage to Flanders.
When you arrive there you will at once visit Madame de Parma my sister and the governess-general of those States to whom you will deliver the letter you have for her and give her full details of all she may desire to know of events here, particularly about my health and that of the Prince my son and my love for her. You will show her this original instruction in order that she may see what it contains and she may point out to you what she may consider desirable on each or any subject for the better management of the affairs confided to you. She may also advise and order you, as I write to her separately on all matters with which you may have to deal concerning my States of Flanders or the subjects of them, and you will in all such things as carefully and punctually fulfil my sister's commands exactly as if I myself had given the order. After your arrival in England you will continue to keep her informed fully of the progress of all matters she may have entrusted to you in order that she may be able to judge and control them as she may think fit and necessary. Besides this you will write to her very frequently, giving an account of all that passes in England of interest and send her copies of all the letters you write to me in order that she may be fully informed of everything and be able to give me her opinion and send you such instructions as she may consider necessary pending the receipt of the reply I may order to be sent to you. You will see the necessity of this in consequence of the great distance from England to the place where I reside and the impossibility of doing things so rapidly as we would wish although answers shall be sent to you from here as quickly as possible. My sister, however, being so near will partly supply what is necessary, and, for any secret things you may have to write to me or her, she will order a general cipher to be given you in which you may also write to Cardinal de Granvelle, Don Francés de Alava or whoever may be my Ambassador in France and all other of my ministers whose names you will find in it, when the necessity for its use arises. You will have seen by the letters which have been shown you here from Luis Roman, secretary of the late bishop Quadra, who has been and is conducting affairs in England since the death of his master, the great injury, damage and depredations which the English continue daily to commit on the seas against our subjects both Spanish and Flemish, and the fruitlessness of all the efforts and remonstrances made in my name and at the instance of my sister, begging that Queen to redress these wrongs notwithstanding the numerous promises given by her that she would do so.
You will however hear more fully from my sister about this point, and I write to her to have a complete statement given to you of all that has taken place in the matter and the condition it is in at the time of your arrival in Flanders. In accordance with this information and the instructions you may receive from my sister you will address the queen of England and her Council a very vigorous representation on my behalf asking them to take such steps as will provide redress to those of my subjects who have been plundered in the past and will ensure the safety of navigation for the future, and that the English shall cease this course of robbery and violence so alien to the peace and friendship that exist between the Queen and us. You must not let this business out of your hand nor allow yourself to be put off with any sort of excuse that they may wish to palm upon you, until you yourself are convinced that the matter has been duly attended to and remedied as justice demands, and you will also give me full information of the steps they may take with this object. You will write to my sister as your negotiations progress so that she, being nearer and better informed than I, may instruct you how to proceed.
For certain very good and sufficient reasons there was recently made in Flanders certain necessary regulations with my full knowledge, concurrence and consent, touching the commerce carried on by my subjects in those States with England, but as the business is not yet settled (and even if it were it will be well for you to be informed about it) you will ask my sister to have a statement of the matter given to you and to advise you as to what steps you are to take concering it ; fulfilling her orders upon the subject.
After visiting my sister the Duchess, you will have an interview with Cardinal de Granvelle and will give him the letter you bear for him with my remembrance and news of events here, as is fitting to one of my principal ministers and a person, who, both on account of his dignity and his long and distinguished services, I respect and esteem as he deserves. On these grounds, and because of the confidence I place in him you will show him this original instruction so that, being well acquainted with its contents, he may be able to advise my sister as to what may be considered necessary and desirable respecting the instructions to be given you and matters to be discussed together with you, so that you may be the better furnished to succeed in the negotiations confided to you.
With the same object it will be very desirable for you to be well posted in the terms of the old and new treaties existing between Flanders and England, and you will accordingly ask Cardinal de Granvelle to have copies thereof made for you and inform you how they are being observed so that you may act in conformity therewith. You will also ask him for a translation of the treaties between Flanders and Scotland and between England and Scotland, and of the last treaty of peace made between us and King Henry of France, at Chateau Cambresi ; as also I write to the Cardinal, although I believe that Bishop Quadra must have had copies of all these treaties, and in such case you will find them in possession of Luis Roman, his secretary, who will hand them to you. But in any case it will be best for the Cardinal to explain them well to you because it is extremely necessary for the successful management of the affairs entrusted to you that you should be well informed and forearmed on all points.
When you have done this in Flanders you will go on to England and on your arrival at the Queen's court you will notify your arrival and request an audience. At the first interview with the Queen you will not introduce business at all but simply deliver my letter of credence to her and visit her in my name, complimenting her with the fairest words you can use. You will tell her, as I write to her, that I send you to reside near her as my ambassador ordinary with orders to endeavour to please her in all things as, in effect, we wish you to do, using every possible effort to that end, and to strive to preserve her friendship toward us and our mutual alliance. You will assure her that nothing will be wanting on our part to this end, as she well knows by the acts we have hitherto done, and the offers we have made to her. It is likely that you, being a fresh arrival at her court, she may ask you for news from Spain and of your journey, and you may thereupon tell her in general terms what you consider it is well that she should know, and you may then take your leave from your first interview, taking care to leave her pleased and in a good humour, so that in the subsequent audiences you may ask for she may listen to you graciously and have you well attended to. You will commence your business negotiations in conformity with the orders my sister may give to you in Flanders, and to her I refer you in this respect.
It will be necessary for the success of your operations, and for other things that may occur from day to day to secure the goodwill of Lord Robert, who is so great a favourite with the queen of England that he can influence her to the extent you have been already informed. You with your kindness will try to win him over, and also to make the acquaintance and friendship of the councillors and officers of the Queen, through whose hands affairs have to pass so that you may the more readily guide them into the course you desire. In this particular you had better obtain information from Luis Roman, who will tell you who were the persons most intimate and trusted by Bishop Quadra both in the matter of business and for the collection of information. You will make use of such persons according to the position and circumstances of each one, and you will ask Luis Roman for the late Bishop's papers respecting my service, and the office of my ambassador which remained in his charge at the time of his death. I order Roman to deliver them to you in the letter you have for him, and I hope you will see your way to favour him, as I am satisfied with the way in which he has acted in my service.
I am also pleased with Antonio de Guaras and Luis de Paz, who reside in London, and I understand that they have done all they could in forwarding my interests there as good subjects of mine. You will give them my letters and thank them from me. I order them to keep up their relations with you and to advise you of the feelings of the people in England where such advice may be necessary for my service, as they are experienced and well informed about the country. You will take advantage of their knowledge as persons of entire trust. Although, as you know, many of the English people are depraved and have abandoned our holy and only true ancient Catholic religion, still God has been pleased to preserve many who maintain it in all its purity, and are sincerely determined to die for it if necessary. These people should be encouraged and supported, and I enjoin you to do this whenever you can, and at the same time to endeavour to keep them in the good will and devotion which I understand they display towards us. This, however, must be done with such secrecy, dissimulation and dexterity as to give no cause for suspicion to the Queen or her advisers, as it is evident that much evil might follow if the contrary were the case.
Although it has been stated that the Queen has liberated the archbishop of York and some of the bishops and other Catholics who were confined for religion we have no certain information about it. You will learn the facts in Flanders or certainly in England, and if they are still in prison you will endeavour to consult some of the Catholics to whom you can safely speak and consider whether it will be desirable for you in my name to address the Queen and ask her to have them well treated, and to beg of her to allow them to have a church in each town where they may hear Mass. It may be, however, that this plan of separate churches might cause more evil than good to the Catholics as the Queen might grant it with the object of identifying those who were the most devout and then punish and oppress them. You will therefore listen to them, and if they tell you it will cause them no evil and may benefit them, you will approach the Queen on the matter with all the caution and tact possible, and use such arguments as you think suitable for the purpose of convincing the Queen on both points. Amongst other things you may say that they cannot fairly refuse the request about the churches as even the Turk allows the Christians who live in his country to worship God in their own way. You will also request her to give orders that the Catholics living in England should not be forced to follow this new so-called religion, for the evangelical law itself, in the false sense that the sectarians accept it, does not permit anyone to be forced into it. In this matter you will proceed according as you see the Queen inclined, and in conformity with the instructions of my sister and the cardinal. We should be very glad if you were able to conclude some such arrangement for the safety and consolation of the Catholics who are oppressed and maltreated in that country, and you will advise me immediately what you are able to effect in it, and what steps you take in order that I may write the Pope to whom I promised to appeal to the Queen through you.
When you are in England you will obtain information with diligence as to the Spanish heretics who may be there, their names, what part of Spain they come from and their rank, what they are doing there, whither they go or whence they come, and advise me all you discover about them, and also send the information to the Inquisitor-General archbishop of Seville ; and to the Duchess my sister you will also send intelligence of the heretics you hear of as going to or coming from the States, and those who have correspondence or communications with people there. You will also let her know of the Spaniards who go from England to Geneva or Germany, and have to pass through Flanders, and, in short, everything you can learn of this sort which you think should be known here or in Flanders, you will carefully and punctually communicate. You will arrange with my sister as to the method you are to follow in obtaining and transmitting such information.
You have already been informed of what occurred to the four English ships that entered Gibraltar to plunder the two French ships that were there, and you will bear this in mind to speak of it to my sister and the Cardinal. If perchance the queen of England should mention the matter to you, you may satisfy her in the same way that, as was explained to you, had been employed in replying to her ambassador here.
As the Emperor my uncle has no regular ambassador in England he was in the habit of sending what he wanted to Bishop Quadra, and I shall be glad if you will serve his Cesarean Majesty, if he so desires, with the same care and diligence as you would serve me, as you know the reason and obligation there is for it. You will always take the opinion of the Duchess and the Cardinal de Granvelle on the matters entrusted to you by the Emperor if they appear of so important a character as to require consultation.
With the Ambassador resident in England from my brother the Christian King you will keep up the friendly relations that my amity with his master warrants, in conformity with that which is noted hereinbefore, and you will bear yourself towards him in such a way that everybody may understand the friendship that exists between us. You will advise me of everything that it is fit I should know so that I may have you instructed as to my will on each point. You will send your letters to Madame and the Cardinal in order that they may be forwarded to me with theirs ; and mine to you in reply will be sent by the same means ; but when there is anything of great haste and importance which cannot well await my reply you will write direct to my sister and the Cardinal and be governed by the instructions that they may send you.
If you have to send me any despatch or other matter concerning my service by sea you may remit it to my servant Juan Martinez de Recalde who lives in Bilboa, and he will receive and forward it with the despatch that you will inform him is necessary. In all the aforegoing and all your acts in fulfilment of your office I trust to your using your utmost diligence.—Dated at Monzon, 15th January 1564.
I The King.
Countersigned, Gonzalo Perez.
20 Jan.
Simancas, B.M. MS., Add. 26,056a.
245. Luis Roman to Cardinal De Granvelle.
The Queen has ordered all the nobles and other councillors to come to Court. Two days since her treasurer, (fn. 1) who had not been to Court since the war in Havre, of which he disapproved, spoke to his secretary, who is a good Catholic, and was a close confidant of Bishop Quadra, and told him that these people were in great trouble, and that public affairs are in such a state that he (the treasurer) can see no way out of it, as the war they thought to carry on against their neighbours will certainly now spread amongst themselves by reason of the bitter rancour between them. He said if his Majesty were in Flanders at this juncture he could do whatever he liked, and redeem Christendom.—London, 20th January 1564.
Simancas, B.M. MS., Add. 26,056a.
246. Luis Roman to Queen Elizabeth.
A petition for redress and for punishment of the offenders in the attack and capture by Thomas Cobham and two ships hailing from Newcastle, of a Spanish ship belonging to Martin Saenz de Chaves, on its way from Flanders to Spain, with a cargo valued at 80,000 ducats, and 40 convicts being conveyed for hard labour in his Majesty's galleys. They attacked the ship with artillery as if they were mortal enemies, and killed a brother of the owner.—London, February 1564.
19 Jan. 247. The King to the Duchess Of Parma.
Letter of introduction and recommendation of Don Diego Guzman de Silva in accordance with the aforegoing instructions.
The new Ambassador to have a copy of the new general cipher as the Bishop had died when the packet containing the copy sent to him arrived in England.—Monzon, 19th January 1564.

B. M. French MS., Brussels Archives, Add. 28,173a.
248. Summary of Instructions to you, Diego Guzman De Silva, (fn. 2) to aid you in your duties as Ambassador Ordinary from the King to the Queen Of England, so far as concerns this Country (Flanders), in addition to those already given to you by His Majesty.
In the first place, the present questions pending arise from certain grave injuries committed for a long time past by the English against the Flemish subjects of His Majesty, in violation of the ancient treaties existing between the two countries. The first is the prohibition in England of certain Flemish manufactures, more fully set forth in the prohibition itself. Another is the great increase of customs, port dues and other charges on many kinds of goods sent from here to England. Another is the recent decree issued by the queen of England respecting navigation, giving preference to English ships taking English goods to Flanders, the effect of which is to give the English a monopoly of this trade and shut out the Flemings altogether.
Besides this, the constant harassing and vexation of Flemish subjects in England, and the seizure of their goods and wares, with the continual exaction of sureties from them that they will sell their goods within a certain brief time and will employ the money in English goods, so that they are not allowed to do their business in their own way.
Finally, also, the great robberies that, under the pretext of the late war between England and France, have been committed by Englishmen on the merchants, ships and goods of this country, which have been the cause of incalculable loss, besides giving rise to the ill-feeling of the people of this country against the English.
In consequence of this we sent Councillor D'Assonleville in the month of April 1563, to complain to the Queen with instructions to require that these burdens upon Flemings should be reduced, and that the intercourse between the countries should be rendered equal according to the treaties in force. After the Councillor had done all in his power to carry out his instructions, he could only obtain from the Queen's Council a justification of their action without repairing or solving any of the complaints or difficulties, or even deciding upon the holding of a conference between the representatives of the two sovereigns which had been requested by the Councillor.
Since then, all through the summer and part of the winter, we have continued to receive complaints of the Flemish merchants and mariners of the English robbers, and we were moved to send many of these letters of complaint to the queen of England, both before and after the death of Bishop Quadra, in the months of August, September, October, November and December last, begging her to remedy the evil.
Nothing has been done and no answer given to these letters, and as from day to day the complaints of people grow, we are now obliged to seek another remedy, since friendly remonstrance is of no avail.
We have therefore, after due and mature deliberation, drawn up two proclamations, one respecting the Flemish manufactures and raw material for them, prohibiting their exportation to England, and the introduction of English goods into this country in retaliation for the decree of the queen of England to a similar effect mentioned above. The other proclamation respecting navigation provides that no English mariners shall ship any goods in this country for England, and is in retaliation for a similar decree of the Queen prohibiting Flemish ships from loading there.
In addition to this, after mature consideration, we decided to send closed orders to certain of his Majesty's officers here, at Antwerp, Zealand and Amsterdam, prohibiting the landing of any cloths or kerseys from England until Candlemas next ; in order to avoid contagion from the malady raging in England which had already begun to show itself, and had polluted certain places in this country whither these cloths had been sent. Notwithstanding this, before publishing the proclamations referred to and sending the closed orders, we decided not to omit any effort on our part to arrange the matter in a friendly way, and sent Secretary la Tour with letters and instructions, advising the Queen that we had been compelled by sheer necessity to adopt the course we had, but offering nevertheless to enter into negotiations whenever she pleased, in order to settle the question, and telling her that it was our intention to withdraw these proclamations as soon as the complaints made against England were remedied, as well as certain other minor points set forth in La Tour's instructions.
In the meantime during the month of December, after La Tour's departure, one of the Queen's masters of requests came hither from her Majesty, called Valentine Dale, and declared in her name that in compliance with our letters she had taken order respecting the robberies, and had instructed certain members of her Council to take the matter in hand and administer speedy justice. He also asked for the names of all those who had complained in order that they might be reimbursed ; this, in effect, being the object of his coming. After long discussion between D'Assonleville and Hopperus and the said Dale, all the names were given to him that could be obtained, and he was told from us that the course taken of appointing certain Councillors to deal with the robberies, and so constitute themselves judges of the sea, was unsatisfactory, as the high seas were common property, and that what must be done was to prevent the need of complaints and repair the damage already caused.
During these negotiations, La Tour returned from England with letters from the Queen to his Majesty and us, containing in addition to an expression of resentment about the proclamations a statement that she was willing to enter into negotiations.
In accordance with this, Dale came to us and said he was instructed to say that his mistress would be glad for these negotiations to take place at Bruges in April or May, and that she would send her deputies if we would do the same on our side. In view of this we answered the Queen's letters on each point ; first, as to Dale's mission, and next as to the communication brought by La Tour, the substance of our reply being that the remedy adopted against the robberies was insufficient, and that other steps must be taken, and that as to the proposal for a conference in Bruges, we accepted it and would send representatives.
Things being in this condition during La Tour's absence, the proclamations were published and the closed orders sent, and by subsequent letters the introduction of cloth was further prohibited from Candlemas to Easter as the epidemic still continued in England.
On the 20th March, Master John Sheres came to us from the Queen to say, that she was willing to suspend the English decree that we complained of if we would do the same, even with regard to the cloths, but that Dale had no authority to say what he did with regard to the place of meeting, and that in consequence of the war between the Queen and France, it was not convenient for her to send representatives over, but if her Highness would send deputies to England, she would be glad to enter into negotiation.
Whilst Councillors D'Assonleville and Hopperus were in communication with Sheres, a decree of the queen of England was drawn up and published in London on the 28th March, prohibiting generally all merchandise and provisions from Flanders being brought to England, and allowing her subjects to take their cloths whithersoever they liked, only excepting this country, without any mention having been made to us of this by Sheres. The latter was given on the 28th March a full answer verbally, that as regarded the suspension of the edicts on both sides, as soon as this was done by England we would do the same ; as was specially provided when ours were issued. This was to prove to them that we only sought equal treatment, and we only excepted the introduction of cloth from England because of the inestimable damage suffered by the Flemings by pillage in England, and until the pestilence should cease and reparation be made to those who had been robbed, or unless some friendly arrangement could be made, which we were ready for at any time. As regards Dale's communication we would do all in our power to nourish amity and peace, whereupon Sheres seemed well content, but said nevertheless that he had news of the arrest of some Englishmen in Spain, of which we said we knew nothing.
On the 29th of March we wrote to the officers at the ports that the introduction of English cloths would be prohibited until our further orders.
In April we became aware of the general prohibition of the importation of all Flemish goods into England under pain of confiscation, and as the prohibition embraced the case of Flemings driven by tempest to take shelter in English ports, it was considered necessary by our Council to inquire the meaning of such a declaration on the part of the Queen.
On the 23rd of April, therefore, we sent to the Queen Seigneur de Zweveghcm with certain instructions, and with letters of congratulation for the peace then lately made between the Queen and France, and to learn her intentions as regarded the said prohibition, which we considered very strange, seeing what had passed with Sheres, respecting which no reply had been received from the Queen. We also said that the conclusion of peace would now banish any difficulty the Queen might have had about the conference. Zweveghem brought letters from the Queen dated the 7th May, saying that as regarded the declaration of her intentions touching the general prohibition she had no design to include in such prohibition those Flemings who were driven into her ports or roads by tempest or misfortune.
As regarded our thinking such general prohibition strange she said it was made not only on account of the proclamations and edicts published here, principally the prohibition of English cloths, which she was told would continue after Easter, but also because of the arrest and general ill-treatment of Englishmen in Spain, and she feared the same would be done here, Sheres having been advised by her to that effect whilst he was in this country. She had therefore not been able to continue the course she had intended and had proposed to as by Shercs, but had instructed him to say as much to us in our last interview with him, and he said he had done so. This he did not do. She could only conduct the negotiations for a conference through a regular resident Ambassador, and as she understood one would soon be appointed she would defer the question till his arrival.
Seeing by the tone of the Queen's letters the impossibility of a friendly arrangement and the great loss and damage done to Flemings by their exclusion from England, and the diversion of trade by the English, having taken Embden as the place for their staple, we have been forced after due deliberation to issue a general prohibition against any Flemish goods being sent either to England or Embden, and that no English cloth shall be imported by anybody. All Flemish subjects are also prohibited from going to Embden to trade under heavy penalties ; all this only until the revocation of the enactments against Flemings in England, or until some friendly agreement is arrived at. This is the present state of affairs, as you will see by copies of letters attached, and you will now take your departure to England with all speed, in order to negotiate for a conference to meet and settle the question.
As you are amply informed about the arrest of Englishmen in Spain, you will lay before the Queen the true state of the case in conformity with His Majesty's instructions and satisfy the Queen on that head, as also about this country, which is in no way concerned in that occurrence, as no injury has ever been done to Englishmen here, either in person or estate, and they will still be treated with the same favour. You will beg her to do the same on her side, even in the case of certain robberies committed by some of her subjects, amongst others by Thomas Cobham, who, the Queen had promised Zweveghem, should receive an exemplary punishment if he was in England, but who nevertheless was seen by Zweveghem's people at Dover at the very time. Respecting the Queen's assertion that she was moved partly to make her general prohibition in consequence of the importation of cloths being forbidden beyond Easter, you may tell her that she had been badly informed, as the extension of the time of prohibition was not discussed even by us until after the date of her prohibition. Besides, the order to prevent the entry of cloths was never given generally, or by letters patent, but only by closed letters to certain places only, and if Sheres had given any hope of redress we were ready to come to terms at any rate. Our last prohibition has been adopted from pure sheer necessity at the instance of Flemings ; but a clause has been introduced to the effect that as soon as the obstacles in England are removed our proclamations shall stand annulled. If an arrangement can be made with the Queen, and it is only a question as to who shall make the first move, a certain day can be fixed, when the obstacles on both sides shall be abolished.
You will proceed to arrange the time, place, and persons for the conference to settle the whole question, and deal with the matter in the friendly spirit anciently existing between the two countries and their rulers, and we have no doubt that your prudence and tact will arrive at a conclusion so important to His Majesty's interests.
You will from time to time advise us of your proceedings with the Queen, in order that we may convey to you what we may deem necessary.—Handed to the Ambassador 11th June 1564.
22 Jan. 249. The King to Don Diego Guzman De Silva.
A statement has been made to me by Francisco Rodriguez, a Portuguese, that he, being in the port of Bayona in Galicia with a ship of his loaded with merchandise of the value of 15,000 ducats, there entered at midnight with certain other vessels Captain Thomas Stukeley, a native of Plymouth, who with his companions stole the said merchandise killing three men and wounding many others who were on board the said ship and another that was alongside of her. He says you were well informed of the affair before your departure and petitions me as he has hitherto been able to obtain no redress or satisfaction for the robbery to have his claim supported and help furnished him to recover his loss. We have considered his petition a reasonable one and write a letter to the Queen which is enclosed with this in your credentials. When you deliver it you will represent to her on our behalf how odious the conduct of this Stukeley and his companions is in committing this act of robbery, and the reasons I have for resenting it and for taking steps to stop and punish these pirates both on account of the act having been perpetrated in my own kingdom, I being on good and friendly terms with the Queen, and because the aggrieved person is a natural born subject of the King my nephew whose people I am as bound to defend as my own. For these reasons I beg and request her to be good enough to order such measures to be adopted in the case as shall indemnify the said Rodriguez for the damage he has suffered and recoup him for the property stolen by the said Stukeley and his people. You will act in the matter as if the petitioner were my own subject.—Monzon, 22nd January 1564.


  • 1. The Marquis of Winchester.
  • 2. Don Diego Guzman de Silva was a native of Ciudad Rodrigo, and was created a canon of the cathedral of Toledo in 1540, which preferment he enjoyed for over 30 years. Little is known of his family, but it would appear from a letter at Simancas, written by Don John of Austria to Diego de Guzman's secretary, condoling with him on the death of the Ambassador, in 1578, that he was a protégé of that prince.