Simancas: April 1565

Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1892.

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, 'Simancas: April 1565', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892) pp. 414-428. British History Online [accessed 26 May 2024].

. "Simancas: April 1565", in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892) 414-428. British History Online, accessed May 26, 2024,

. "Simancas: April 1565", Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 1, 1558-1567, (London, 1892). 414-428. British History Online. Web. 26 May 2024,

April 1565

7 April. 293. The same to the Same.
The secretary of the French Ambassador left for Paris on the last day of March at night. He called to see me the previous afternoon. For the purpose of getting out of him some hint of the reason of all this rapid coming and going I said "You must have some great business in hand, from what I hear, at least, as in addition to your own great diligence, another courier is expected." He answered, Oh ! no, there is nothing particular ; no new business is being discussed" Gossip in the street says otherwise," I remarked ; but he again assured me there was nothing astir and said that the courier who had come after him was sent by some private merchants touching a robbery which had been committed on them. He showed me a letter from his Queen in which the Ambassador was ordered to obtain restitution of the property stolen. "I believe it," I answered, "but if it be so it would be better not to arouse suspicion "in people's minds." I said this laughingly, but he must have told the Ambassador as the latter sent one of his friends to tell me the same story as the secretary, not as if the Ambassador had told him but in the course of conversation. I replied that I quite believed it, but still there lacked not people to say that they were endeavouring by means of counter offers to throw impediments in the way of the Bruges conference, and if this were true it would be an unworthy course to pursue on the part of a mother and brother towards your Majesty to whom they stood in that relation. The next day I heard that the gentleman who is to bring the coach and the camels was coming and is to be followed by Lausac. I heard also that they have some marriage affair in hand but could not get any particulars except that, judging by what was said and published in France, the public there seemed to think the marriage in question was that of the Archduke Charles with this Queen and that they were determined to upset it somehow. The same person told me that this business of Charles' was being seriously pushed forward, but with extreme secrecy, and that Lausac was coming with the Order of St. Michael for Leicester and the duke of Norfolk. On the same day the French Ambassador himself came to see me and said he had heard I was suspicious that he was making some agreement with the Queen, but that he assured me and pledged his honour that not a word was uttered or a point discussed detrimental to the treaties of peace and friendship existing between his King and your Majesty, and, as regards the trade with Flanders, although his King could without any contravention of the terms of friendship with your Majesty endeavour to make such trade profitable to his country and people yet it would not be desirable to treat of such a thing during your present relations of affection and amity, and he swore to me that no such thing was under discussion. He assured me that the negotiations might be carried on in Flanders without misgiving that his King would claim anything or interfere in any way. They might therefore go on with that business in the absolute assurance that nothing whatever would be done to impede them and that not a word had been said on the subject. It was quite true that his King and Queen were anxious to please this Queen and keep on terms of cordial friendship with her having in view the future negotiations that might have to be undertaken respecting the capture of Calais, and when the time arrived for giving it up that the surrender should not be demanded. They therefore were sending the camels and coach so that, woman-like, she should be flattered and pleased with the presents. I told him I supposed it was to gain her over still more in case of having other business with her that Lausac was coming to bring the Order of St. Michael to Lord Robert and the duke of Norfolk. He answered that if Lausac was coming it was only to perform on the King's behalf certain ceremony of investure such as takes place at Windsor when the Garter is given to a person according to institutions of the Order. A person was expected some time ago to perform this ceremony for the King ; and he again assured me positively that there was not anything else in hand as his King was not of an age to undertake enterprizes and had not money or desire in his country to do so if he would. From what I hear about the state of his country this last assertion is no doubt true, but as for the rest, his words are not to be depended upon.
I have been told that these queens of France and England have become so friendly because the queen of France is on bad terms with the queen of Scotland, and the latter Queen has had a very outspoken correspondence with the queen of England on the subject of the delay in declaring the successor to this throne, and that the two Queens have thus been drawn together out of enmity to her of Scotland whom they would like to unsettle and alarm.
Orders have been sent to the governors of the provinces to muster and examine the troops that can be called out in case of war or pressure and report their condition and the numbers necessary to fill the ranks. These are troops that are not paid until they are called out, but are chosen and held in readiness beforehand. They are of little use as they always come out against their will.
I am informed that this business now under discussion with the French cannot be of much importance, and that no warlike movement can be in contemplation because the Queen has ordered the money she owes in Flanders to be paid, a quarter of the sum now and nearly all the rest in two months. This is a peaceful sign, the payment of debts. These ministers of religion have been so stubborn in their refusal to return to the ancient garb that the Queen must need get angry, and has again given stringent orders that the rule is to be enforced, and has appointed deputies to see it executed. They have commenced to-day and it is a great blow to these people. The Catholics are delighted, but their pleasure is somewhat damped to see that they are removing the Catholics from the country magistracy.— London, 7th April 1565.
14 April. 294. The Same to the Same.
I have not been able to discover the drift of the negotiations which are going on between this Queen and the king of France notwithstanding all possible efforts.
I was with the Queen on the 11th instant conversing on a variety of subjects for a long while. I told her I had said to the French Ambassador that the gifts his Queen was sending to her were such a long time coming, and had been made so much of that he and I might go out to receive them. The Queen answered, "You are quite right ; but if they do not come without your going out to receive them I know I shall never see them." I drew her into conversation about bygone events in this country against the French and the victories that had been gained by her predecessors, of the writings about their ancient enmity and of their traditional distrust of one another, and cited to her a proverb which is very commonly used in their histories here both Latin and English, which says, "When the Ethiopian is white the French will love the English." She seemed pleased that I should know this, and said, "I ought to send that proverb to the queen of France when she sends her camels, but if I do it must be in your name." I said that this reply might be kept back till Lausac came as it would not do to receive the bringers of presents with such words—they might be reserved for the man who came to talk. She answered, "I do not know for certain whether he will come ; but what should you think if one of these days you were to find yourself attached to a queen of France?" "I have ample reason to be attached to one now," I said, "seeing that the queen of France is mother of my own Queen" "I do not mean in that way," she said, "but suppose it was I?" "Ah, I have not decided how I should take it in your Majesty's case," I said. She then continued, "The country is a good one if it had a master. But tell me what do you think will come of the Bayonne interview?" Your Majesty must know better than I for you can see both hands of the game. That of the King my master I have already shown your Majesty by his desire, and as for the French game with all this coming and going of couriers one after the other it is to be supposed that your Majesty will be well posted in it." "I do not know of any other couriers except the Ambassador's secretary. "Well, I know of the rest, although they did not come to me," said I. "You Spaniards are sometimes very jealous—at least they say the common people are, and why not their betters too?" said the Queen. "Because", I replied, "they have the conviction that no one will presume to offend them, and can hold their own." "And they do quite rightly," she answered. The conversation turned to other subjects, and I could get no further in this. She is artful, and wished to appear reserved and give the idea that there was no matter of importance afoot.
She expresses great gratitude for the good reception given by orders of the duchess of Parma to the English deputies in Flanders, (fn. 1) and asked me to write as much to your Majesty. She is right, as I hear they have been received most carefully, and with every demonstration of love and goodwill by special order of the Duchess. It is giving great satisfaction here. God grant they may acknowledge their obligation. They alone will be to blame if they do not, as every attempt is made to conciliate them.
The Queen asked me after your Majesty's health, and very particularly after that of his Highness. I told her your Majesty would go with the Queen as far as Burgos, whence her Majesty would proceed to Fuenterabia, whilst your Majesty visited some other frontiers of your kingdom. I said that for the greater ease of the Queen the Spanish ladies would remain in Madrid, and only French ladies would accompany her. "That," she said, "is certainly a wise decision of the King for many weighty reasons."
They say this Queen still wishes to have a meeting with the queen of Scotland, but they do not think the latter will agree to it.
Lady Margaret's son had leave to stay in Scotland three months, and with a great deal of difficulty this Queen has given him license for three more. He has been very well received there.
They are still talking here of the coming of your Majesty to Flanders, and I think the French are those who express themselves most certain about it in order to arouse distrust in these people in case they should be considering any new league or confederation. I am told that the ships-carpenters and caulkers are ordered secretly to hold themselves in readiness so that in case of need the Queen's ships might be shortly in trim to put to sea. They will begin at once to prepare some, namely, 30 ships and one galley, of which 27 are in this river and three and the galley are moored at Portsmouth. They say they are very choice ships, and well adapted for war. I have seen some of them and those who praise them are right. I am advised that this preparation is made out of distrust of the queen of Scotland who they think is offended at the further prorogation of Parliament as touching the question of the succession. Lethington is expected here before Easter, and they fear his errand will not be a pleasant one for them. A courier has just arrived from there bringing letters saying that the son of Lady Margaret Lennox has been ill of small-pox. I am given to understand by a person of importance that the business now under discussion between this Queen and France is not of any weight or moment, and he assures me of this most positively. He says that in several other negotiations that have been commenced in the past the French have been treated very offhandedly, and the position of the two Queens tends to this. Nevertheless I am uneasy about it. They tell me that Secretary Cecil advises the Queen to entrust the business she has with your Majesty to Prior de Gelley for the present or until she sends some person of her own. It is uncertain whether she will do it. The duke of Norfolk is expected here before Easter. The preachers to the Queen have greatly modified their sermons, and their example is followed elsewhere since the scene which I described to your Majesty on a former occasion. The Catholics thank me for it, and the heretics blame me, which would be all the same to me if any good effect were to result.
Every day I receive fresh advice of the growth of the number of the Catholics, and since your Majesty left the country the increase of those who have submitted is incalculable. The disorder and irregularity of these ministers leave done us much good, and also the books which are constantly sent from Louvain. They are published in English in order that the people may be able to read them. In this city itself, which was the worse place of all, there are now many godly men, and Mass is much celebrated in secret, and many people confess and communicate most devoutly, which is quite common in other parts of the country. It is a great comfort to see and hear this. The rest must he left to God and your Majesty. The Queen is anxious to know whether the Emperor has performed the funeral exequies of his late father, and has asked me the question.— London, 14th April 1565.
21 April. 295. The Same to the Same.
The duke of Norfolk entered London on the 17th instant with a worthy company. As he is a Councillor he is lodged in the palace. They say the object of his coming is to be here when the Order of St. Michael arrives for him and the earl of Leicester which is expected ; others assert that his visit is in order to be present at the feast of the Garter which is shortly to take place, avd that other principal nobles are expected for the same reason. I sent to visit him and he appeared much gratified, and sent word that he would come and see me. Lethington, the secretary of the queen of Scotland, arrived here three or four days since, and I sent also to visit him. He returned word that he had not yet seen the Queen, but as soon as he had done so and visited the French Ambassador (which he could not avoid doing as he owed him a visit) he would come and see me publicly and afterwards secretly, as he has something to communicate.
Lady Margaret sent to tell me of the coming of the Secretary and that her son was well again, and asked me, if I had an opportunity of speaking to him on the subject, to tell Lethington that your Majesty desired to favour her, as she believed it would help considerably in her son's business. She thinks very possibly he may marry the Queen (of Scotland) who Lady Margaret assures me rests her claim to this country more on the support of your Majesty than on anything else especially as the Queen-Mother of France is very much against her. I will try to keep this matter in hand showing sympathy, as I have done, and will take up a suitable position until I receive orders from your Majesty in case the Archdukes affair should not be persevered in. As I have said on many occasions, it should be borne in mind that in addition to the Queen of Scotland's great claims to this kingdom she certainly has here a very strong party, and it is highly desirable in many respects that she should be reckoned with in the consideration of affairs here which deeply concern us. The ports of this kingdom are necessary for tlie success of trade between Spain and the Netherlands and for other interests of the States ; but, besides this, these people are beginning to navigate largely and may hinder us greatly in the Indies, upon which they look greedily, unless they are prevented in some way from going to those parts.
In two parts of this country a few gentlemen have prepared a letter in the name of the Catholics of England who are now at Louvain asking the Catholics here to remember them in their prayers and to hold firm ; and they hoped that a remedy would soon come as help was expected from many quarters and especially from your Majesty. With this fabrication they communicated with the Catholics and gave them rosaries and some images of our Lady, obtaining from them, as I am told, large sums of money for the succour of those at Louvain ; and then the inventors of the scheme themselves told the whole story to the Council, giving the names of all the Catholics with whom they had communicated. The members of the Council have expressed displeasure at what has been done and have had the authors arrested secretly although they also think of proceeding against the Catholics who were thus cheated. This business has not yet been made public, but as soon as it is openly known I will take such steps as the circumstances may demand. The Queen performed the customary ceremony on holy Thursday. They tell me she did so with qreat dignity and devotion, dressed in black as usual and with her head-dress covered with pearls and precious stones. After she had washed the poor women's feet she deliberately traced a very large and, well-defined cross and kissed it to the sorrow of many persons who witnessed it and of others who would not attend the ceremony, but to the joy of others. The previous Friday the Queen's high almoner preached to her on the text, "Hoc est corpus meum quod pro vobis tradetur" which he repeated many times and said, the same as was crucified for you, and as such you must accept it and believe it to be." One of the listeners cried out, "I do believe it, and he who doth not should be forthwith burnt." The Bishop did not enter into other questions or disputes on religious points as they usually do.—London, 21st April 1565.
26 April. 296. The Same to the Same.
On the 24th I had audience of the Queen to discuss the Flemish affairs now being dealt with in the Bruges conference. She asked me whether I had any news that the interview between the queens of Spain and France was to be abandoned. I told her that I heard quite the contrary. She said, "I have been informed that such was the case although no doubt incorrectly, in consequence of the queen of Spain being pregnant, which would be a new subject of rejoicing for the King my brother, as he only has one son. If, however, the interview is to take place as you say, I should be glad to know in order to send and visit the Queen." I said I would communicate what I heard.
She is always giving me hints about her marriage with the king of France. I said I had been informed by the French Ambassador that the Secretary would be back again here some time this month, and I remarked, "Everyone knows his own business best, but your Majesty should keep a bright look out on the people with whom you are dealing." "You may rest assured they will not cheat me," said she. "I hope not sincerely, your 'Majesty', and that this secret will end well." "I have not revealed it to you, because the Ambassador enjoined secrecy, and we monarchs are obliged to observe it," she replied.
Lady Margaret sent word to me that she had gone to the Queen's chamber and that her Majesty refused to speak to her, and afterwards sent an order that she was not to leave her apartments, giving her to understand that she was to consider herself a prisoner, as she had received letters from a foreign Prince without her permission, and without conveying the contents to her. Lady Margaret answered that it was true she had received a letter from the queen of Scotland by her Secretary, and had gone to the Queen's chamber for the purpose of showing it to her Majesty who had refused to speak to her, and consequently it was not her (Margaret's) fault. An answer came from the Queen to the effect that although she was detained in her apartments, there was no intention of preventing her friends from visiting her, as is usually done here in cases where persons are placed under arrest. Lady Margaret also advised me that the negotiations for the marriage of her son with the queen of Scotland were progressing favourably, and asked me in case Lethington said anything about it to me to assure him that your Majesty was favourable to it as they were, and always had been so faithful to your Majesty.
On the same day that I had audience of the Queen I spoke with Lethington at the French Ambassador's, having gone thither from the palace. On leaving there Lethington went with me to my house, which lay in his road, and said he had something to tell me as he had hinted before, and promised to come to my house the next day for an interview. He talked of this Queen on our way home, and said she was trying to get all the marriageable Princes to propose to her, and he therefore thought that at her instance they were discussing her marriage with the king of France, as he also said they were treating with the Archduke Charles. I told him I did not believe there were any negotiations going on with regard to the latter, as I knew nothing of such negotiations, and if they were really taking place I could not fail to be informed, seeing your Majesty's affection for the Archduke and your desire to promote his interests. He said, "I understand that this Queen is arranging something in France. I do not know whether it is some close alliance or only a feint to arouse suspicion and get better terms in Flanders." "But," I replied, "it might be rather to arouse suspicion on the part of your Queen if it be true that she is not on good terms with the Queen-Mother." "Yes," he said, "and I am surprised at it, for when my Queen was in France she could not do too much for the Queen-Mother, and put her own friends and relatives quite in the background for her, and yet in return for all this she has done her much harm. I did not dare to visit you before I had been to see the (French) Ambassador in order not to awaken distrust, but I will do so to-morrow." He came at the hour appointed, and after giving me his credentials spoke to me on his Queen's behalf, saying how great was the desire she had always had, even in France, to be guided by your Majesty's will and place herself in your hands. He had treated of this with the bishop of Aquila, who knew the extent of the party his Queen had in this country, and had discussed with him the project of his Queen's marriage with his Highness towards which her Majesty had shown herself favourable. She had awaited your Majesty's resolution on this point for over two years, and as so long a delay had taken place, and it might be feared that your Majesty had other plans in view, the pressure of her subjects, her own age, and the inconvenience of a young Queen remaining unmarried, had caused her to listen to certain proposals and conversations with the son of the earl of Lennox and Lady Margaret. Besides being related to her on both his fathers and his mother's side he was not a foreigner, which is the principal condition made by this Queen and the queen of Scotland's own subjects. She had done her best to satisfy this Queen in this, having in view the succession to the English crown, but nevertheless she was quite free to do as she liked and had placed the matter before her Council for their satisfaction. If, however, I gave her any hope of the negotiations with his Highness' proceeding, her own wishes and intentions on the subject were unchanged, and she begged me to tell her what I knew about it, as she had been informed by Cardinal de Granvelle that I had orders from your Majesty. I answered that your Majesty had always heard such flattering accounts of her great virtues that you held her in all love and esteem, and was glad when the subject of a union with the Prince was first broached, but that having heard that Cardinal Lorraine had treated with the Emperor about the Archduke and had shown him letters from the Queen saying that she left her marriage entirely in his hands and those of her mother(?) preferring rather to fail in his way than succeed in her own ; and the business having gone so far as the fixing of the allowance to be made by the Emperor for the Archduke's maintenance and the solicitation of your Majesty's approval of the match, your Majesty had been constrained to signify such approval rather than offend the Emperor and the King of the Romans, and also because the Archduke's interests were as dear to you as those of his Highness. I followed in this and in all else the instructions I had received from your Majesty urging the Archduke's business to the full extent of my power. Although Lethington did not refer to this point he went on to say that what had happened was that as soon as the King of France, his Queen's husband, had died the Queen-Mother had conceived a great suspicion of the marriage of his Highness, having regard to the Scotch Queen's claims to this crown, and had summoned the Duke de Guise and the Cardinal and had begged them most urgently not to consent to any such marriage seeing the danger and inconvenience that might result to France therefrom if to your Majesty's power were added that of these two kingdoms. They promised as the Queen-Mother desired and thought more of the benefit of France than the interests of their niece. When the Queen left France the Duke told her he would not advise her respecting her marriage as he could not give her the counsel that was best for her, but that she herself should look where her best interests were. Whilst Lethington himself was in this country he received advice that Lorraine had an interview with the Emperor at Innspruck to discuss this match without the knowledge of the Queen and he (Lethington) had sent off in furious haste to the Cardinal begging him not to negotiate the marriage as the Scotch people would not consent to it and it would cause confusion. he also said that the Cardinal was taking this step without having consulted the queen as he (Lethington) was well acquainted with her views and was convinced that it was unsuitable that she should marry a foreign prince unless he was powerful enough to hold his own. he sent a copy of this letter to his mistress to put her on her guard, but the Cardinal had nevertheless persevered in his action, and had written to the Queen who thought that as the Archduke was a son and relative of such powerful monarchs she could not refuse him hastily, but in a respectful way said that she would lay the matter before her subjects, and in the meanwhile could learn what the Emperor was going to do for his son ; the idea being to drop the business politely on one or other of these points. he always understood that the cardinal's object was to prevent the match with the prince knowing at the same time that the marriage he was advocating would never be carried through as the Archduke had not the wealth necessary for the purpose and the emperor was not near enough to be able to forward the designs and objects which would lead the queen to introduce a foreign husband in her house against the will of her people, which, indeed, would be hopeless unless your majesty took the whole matter in hand and did it yourself as this uncle had done for his niece. "I have no doubt" I said, "that all this happened as you say, but the end of the business has been that my master the king will not comply with the respect due to his uncle the emperor and his friendship with the king of the romans or with the love he bears to the Archduke, and will be prevented from displaying that regard and consideration due to his relatives. this has been the cause of the failure to send a reply, and not any want of the affection and attachment which the king feels towards your mistress. with regard to the proposed marriage with the son of the Earl of Lennox, since the Queen has to marry a native it appears the most suitable match that can be found both on account of the promise displayed by the Lord Darnley himself and on account of his parents, for whom, and particularly for Lady Margaret, my master has an especial regard." I impressed this upon him both to lead him away from the subject of the Prince and because I knew he would communicate this to Margaret, and I wished to continue the course I had adopted of trying to keep them in good humour in view of eventualities. He said, "It would certainly seem that, if my Queen could not marry a Prince powerful enough to ensure her against the dangers of marrying a foreigner this is the best match for her, but it may have a great objection if this Queen does not take it well, as she shows signs of not doing. She might in such case take the side of Catharine, and if she were to declare her the successor to the crown it would be necessary for my Queen to use force to eject her if this Queen were to die, especially if the Protestant side is appealed to for support by the Queen of England ; or if she were to enter into a new and close confederation with France, or if, again, the French moved by greed for this country were to carry out in earnest that which they seem to be treating as a joke, namely, the marriage of their King with his Queen. All this would cause grave evil, but could be remedied by his Majesty the King taking my Queen and her affairs under his protection in the assurance that at all times and in every matter they shall be considered as his own. In this way with perfect ease great effects might be produced, but such an arrangement would have to be treated with the utmost secrecy and kept quiet till the opportune moment. There is no doubt whatever that the majority of the gentry and common people are attached to my Queen, and I can affirm positively that she will follow in every respect the wishes of your master. To send an Ambassador to treat of this would cause suspicion, and the Queen therefore begs you to inform the King of her desires so that his Majesty may send you powers and full instructions, and we can then treat with all the speed and secrecy that the case requires. The Queen would do the same, but if it were thought that the matter could be dealt with better by the King's Ambassador in Paris (he being nearest to Spain) it could, be done very well in that way because the queen of Scotland's Ambassador there is a prelate, and a person of great virtue and ability. (fn. 2) Above all I wish you to understand that my Queen's wish and desire are what I have set forth." He then again touched cautiously on the subject of his Highness, but I appeared not to understand him, and said I thought he had well understood the difficulties which presented themselves in Darnley's affair, but that I had no instructions to treat or discuss anything beyond that which I had told him in explanation of the reason why your Majesty had delayed your reply, and to inform him how interested your Majesty was in the Archduke and his affairs. I said I would communicate with your Majesty with all possible speed and tell you what had passed. He begged me to let him know what I heard about these affairs as his Queen was so attached to your Majesty, and he would do the same. He asked me whether I had seen the book about the succession in favour of Catharine (fn. 3) I answered No, although I desired to do so. "Well", he said, "it has been promised to me in two days, and I will show it to you. I have not been able to get it from the Queen or Leicester although I have tried, thinking that they might desire to have it answered, and have assured them it should not leave my possession, as they are so jealous of any talk about the marriage of the queen of Scots with a foreigner." I replied, "You should not try to banish that fear if you are to carry Darnley's affair through as it will help you." "Yes," he said, "that is certainly true, but it cannot be done now as they know the prince of Spain is promised to the daughter of the Emperor, and the king of France is out of the question, seeing the enmity between my Queen and the Queen-Mother, and the opposition which would be offered by the Constable and his faction to spite the Guises. As for the Archduke they are approaching him from, various quarters to give him to understand that this Queen would listen to his suit." With this the conversation ended.
I have heard from other persons that this marriage (i.e. of Mary and Darnley) has actually taken place, and amongst others a man who had been told by a servant of Lady Margaret that he had been to Scotland to sign a deed on this subject as witness, but I think that it must only have been what the Ambassador (Lethington) told me, which agrees with Lady Margarets advice to me. If there were any more than that done I do not think he would deny it, but would be glad your Majesty should know it.
As far as I can learn this Queen is greatly incensed about the affair, as she thinks the queen of Scotland's party in this country will be strengthened greatly by it, and there is a suspicion that the match has been arranged with the concurrence of some of the great people here. I do not know this for a fact but am told so.
Altogether the matter seems an important one, and if this Queen is displeased with it some movement and dissension may arise.
I am advised that this Queen is endeavouring to get Darnley to return, and has even written to him herself, hinting that she will marry him if he will come back. I do not think, however that he will loose his hold as everyone knows, and they above all how easy it is to lie and cheat in this country. I am told also that Throgmorton is to go to Scotland for the purpose of trying to stop the marriage which will however somewhat console the Catholics as they had quite lost hope of his Highness' marriage upon which they had set their hearts. They thought that would remedy all evils, but as this gentleman (Darnley) and his parents are held in esteem by them they see in tfte marriage some glimmer of hope.
This Queen was again pressing the idea of the marriage of Lord Robert with the Queen of Scotland, and it is possible that the secret negotiations with France were that the Queen-Mother and the Quises should help this match forward. This is the more probable as Throgmorton and this Frenchman (the Ambassador) have been mixed up in it. I understand that Throgmorton has given the Frenchman an English horse and a foreign one, as he was seeking them for the Queen-Mother to present to our Queen and could not get any such as he wanted. There is no doubt Throgmortons voyage to Scotland is also with the object of forwarding this match as he is a great friend of Robert's, and whatever may have happened will be brought to light. I was praising lately to the Queen the ceremony she performed on Holy Thursday and the sermon of her Bishop-Almoner, and the devotion with which she made the crosses on the feet of the poor women and kissed them, as I informed your Majesty in a former letter, to which she answered, "Many people think we are Turks or Moors here, whereas we only differ from other Catholics in things of small importance." I said, "And those things your Majesty will soon amend." "And you will see it," she replied. But one can only believe what one sees. The changes are not from day, to day but from hour to hour, and I was assured by a well-informed person yesterday that Cecil and the Chancellor would be removed before Easter, which appears ridiculous.
I wrote to your Majesty lately that this Queen had given orders to pay what she owes in Antwerp. I now learn that she has not done so, but that fresh money has been raised.
The Conventicle of Spanish heretics here is on its last legs. A certain Gaspar Zapata who, 1 understand, was a secretary or servant of the duke of Alcalá, a man of talent and good parts, awaited here some security or assurance from the Holy Office in order to return to Spain. I have managed to get him away with his wife and family, and he has gone to Flanders with a safeconduct from the duchess of Parma, pending the arrival of the assurance from Spain, and this has been done so neatly that I am very well satisfied. His wife urged him to go, and I am informed that he could never prevail upon her to join in the services of these people. The man had been with the Admiral and Condé in the last war and married there (i.e. in France) with a Spanish woman, a native of Zaragoza, who was with Madame de Vendome. I understand it to be to the interests of God and your Majesty that Spaniards who have gone astray in this way should be brought to submit again. It is even important for the national honour, for they make much of an heretical Spaniard, everywhere in order to pit him against (... (fn. 4) ) who are not heretics. This man was held in high esteem, and if affairs are managed skilfully I hope that his example will be followed by the submission of the greater number of them, because such are the evil doings of these heretics, that more of them (the Spaniards) are held by fear than ignorance of the truth The Duke of Alcalá has lent great assistance in this business, writing me valuable advice, which I showed Zapata, but I ascribe the principal part to the goodness of God in aiding the man's own good will and talent to see the truth. As 1 am closing this, Lady Margaret sends to say that she considers her son's affair an accomplished fact that admits of no doubt.
Lethington has been seeking an interview with this Queen's Council, but they have refused to meet to hear him. They say Throgmorton is not going at present to Scotland. From one hour to another here nothing is sure.—London, 26th April 1565.
28 April. 297. The Same to the Same.
On the 27th I received a letter from M. de Chantonnay, dated 31st March, in which is the following paragraph :
"The Emperor has informed me that he intends to return the collar of the English order worn by the late Emperor to the Queen by a gentleman in his treasury, named Swetkowitz who, I am told, will start at once, and is instructed to discover adroitly whether the Queen intends to marry, and if she has any idea of the Archduke Charles, about whom negotiations were formerly commenced. My own opinion is that this is the last thing she is thinking of. Your Lordship will recollect that the King instructed me to assure the Emperor that he would willingly do everything in his power to promote the match in Scotland, and his Majesty must not think that the Emperor has an eye on England as well. I thought that either one or the other of these matches would serve to forward the interests of his brother. Your Lordship will understand what is best to be done in the public and private welfare of his Majesty's patrimonial dominions."
I was very anxious to have instructions as to what would be the most fitting course to adopt in the important question involved in Chantonnay's last remark, especially as, if the marriage of this Queen and the Archduke is to take place at all, the present condition of Scotch affairs offers the opportunity, and I have therefore used all speed in my former letters to let your Majesty know all that was going on, so as to get some enlightenment to guide me in my proceedings. The business is now ripe for treatment as on the same day as I received Chantonnay's letter I received another from Bandera the Flemish Secretary of State, dated 22nd instant, in which he advises me that Adam Swetkowitz, Baron of Miterburg, had arrived at Brussels on his way to England to return to the Queen the insignias of the Order of the Garter that had been worn by the late Emperor.
It is to be expected that he will wish to know what opinions have been formed respecting the marriage, and although, as I have advised, the subject of it has recently been revived here, I do not look upon it as easy to bring about, and am inclined to believe that the Queen will not marry. I will nevertheless endeavour to convince this gentleman when he comes of your Majesty's great affection and interest in all that concerns the Emperor and his brothers, and if I understand that the Queen does not mean to marry, I will take such steps as may be filting to show the Archduke that nothing has been wanting on my part. If,on the contrary, the marriage looks as if it could be settled, I will try as adroitly as possible in view of the circumstances to delay it ; but if the thing is done suddenly, as this Queen has told me she wishes to marry, I will show great satisfaction and pleasure in your Majesty's name, and will lodge and entertain the envoy, so as to have the threads of the business in my hands until I receive your Majesty's commands.
I have given a detailed account of all that passed with Lethington to Cardinal de Granvelle and of the help given to the Archduke's match, and I advise the substance of it also to his brother to convey to the Emperor, telling him at the same time that I had not sent these particulars before, because until his arrival there I had no means of conveying any important news to his Majesty with the necessary secrecy. Having written thus far I have received a visit from Lethington, who tells me that important communications have passed between him and the Queen respecting his mistress' marriage. He demands some clear declaration respecting the succession, as this Queen has promised his mistress so many times, and the Queen replies that she will make such declaration if the Queen of Scotland will marry to her satisfaction, and this is the present state of the affair. The Queen tells him that she is going to send Throgmorton, but day after day goes by and he does not depart. The Queen asks Lethington whether the match with Lord Darnley is carried through, to which he replies that he has no instructions to make any communication on that subject and that he knows no more than he says. Lady Margaret looks upon the business as done, and has sent word to me that she has now no doubt. During the last 24 hours the Queen has sent secret orders that no one is to be allowed to pass the Scotch frontier without being searched to see whether he bears letters, and Lethington says that they will not despatch him until after Throgmorton has gone. He has again begged me very urgently to carry out what he requested before in the matter of writing to your Majesty on his Queen's behalf, as she was resolved to remain for ever under your Majesty's protection and control. So far as I can gather from conversation and observation, I believe this marriage with Darnley must already have been effected. The French Ambassador's secretary returned yesterday, and the Scotsman (Lethington) tells me that he believes they are pressing this Queen for a decision about her marriage with the French King, as if she will not resolve to accept him, he will have other matters to deal with in the interviews (with the queen of Spain), and the King wishes to be free before the interviews take place. I have not learnt anything else about this, only that the Ambassador has an audience this afternoon.
I asked Lethington if he had spoken to the Queen respecting the imprisonment of Lady Margaret,and he told me he had done so, and believed they would release her from her confinement to her rooms to-day to the extent of allowing her to go all over the palace so long as she did not see the Queen. He tells me he has possession of a copy of the book written in the interests of Catharine in the matter of the succession, and that it mainly consists of two points, first, as to whether King Henry's will was valid or not, as in it this Catharine is appointed amongst others as his successor ; and secondly, the question of the Scotch Queen being an alien. As far as I can understand the decision they will arrive at in the present matter is to send Throgmorton to hinder the marriage if he can, either stopping it entirely or delaying it on the pretext that this Queen wishes to have the question of the succession considered, and if the queen of Scotland's rights are proved they will be recognised on condition that she marries to this Queen's satisfaction, and to ask the Scotch Queen to send people here to represent her. She will no doubt do so, but it will all end in nothing.
The Admiral was away, and they have summoned him hither. He arrived last night, and with him some of those whom these people consider their best sea-captains. It is to be presumed that they intend to make some demonstration to frighten the Scotch Queen.
This Queen went hunting yesterday, and the earl of Leicester's horse fell with him, hurting his leg. The Queen went to visit him yesterday. I sent to ask after him this morning, and to tell him that I had received news that the Emperor's envoy, bringing back the insignias of the Garter had arrived in Flanders and would shortly be here. He sent a reply that he was very glad, as the visit would give rsse to a firm friendship between this country and the Emperor.—London, 28th April 1565.


  • 1. The English Commissioners to Bruges for the settlement of the pending questions respecting trade between the States and England were Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague, Dr. Wotton, and D—. Haddon, master of requests. They arrived at Bruges on the 24th March 1565, a temporary treaty for free intercourse between the countries having been agreed to during the negotiations. The Conference lingered with adjournments and resumptions for a long period, the temporary treaty remaining in force the while.
  • 2. James Beaton bishop of Glasgow.
  • 3. John Hale'a book. See note on page 365.
  • 4. Undecipherable.