Simancas: December 1588

Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1899.

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'Simancas: December 1588', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain (Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603, (London, 1899) pp. 492-504. British History Online [accessed 1 March 2024]

December 1588

3 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1567.
483. Advices from London.
The master of the ship "Valencera," which was lost in Ireland, has arrived here by way of Scotland. He says that most of the men were saved and had gone to Scotland. They had been plundered by the Irish, although afterwards they found some who treated them well, giving them food and lodging on the road. In Scotland the King had them clothed and some alms given to them. They shipped there for Bordeaux. He alone has come hither, and says he thinks that Don Alonso de Luzon, colonel of the Naples Regiment, with eight or ten other gentlemen and the captain of the ship, had been taken prisoners. He is not aware that any other ship of the Armada was wrecked on the island, but says that on the road he heard speak of others. Horatio Pallavicini tells me that they know now of more than 30, although the common statement is that there were 18 lost there. Don Antonio said last Monday that 12 had been wrecked. This great discrepancy makes one think that there were not even six. It makes my heart bleed to see these poor Spaniards prisoners here, suffering as they do. It is a great pity, and a great shame, that their countrymen do not send them some help to ransom them. It would be a work of mercy. The ship in which they were captured was being taken from one place to another to be overhauled and made seaworthy again, when she was lost with her guns and the Englishmen on board. (fn. 1)
7 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1569.
484. Copy of Letter from London.
Drake's fleet is being fitted out here, consisting of 80 sail, 45 large and 35 small. Besides these there are 20 Flemish ships. They say the fleet is to go to Portugal, but there is no certainty of this.
On the 5th instant the captain, (fn. 2) who recently came from Peru, gave a banquet to the Queen in his ship, where she boasted more than I could repeat. The sails were all of damask, and the sailors were dressed in the same. The cabin where the Queen dined was hung with cloth of gold and silver, and the flags were marvellously rich.
Great rejoicings have been held here for the dispersal of the Spanish Armada. The Queen attended a sermon in St. Paul's, where much was said about the victory. I will leave the rest to the imagination.
M. de Chateauneuf, the French ambassador, had received permission to return to France but has been detained, I know not yet why.
8 Dec.
(N.S.) Paris Archives, K. 1569.
485. Advices from England (from Antonio De Vega).
This letter is being taken by the French ambassador, who has permission from his King to return, which permission he only obtained after great trouble, both in England and France. He goes with the intention I have already mentioned, and will do all the good service he can ; feeling the pulse on both sides, and advising me of the result when we meet at the place agreed upon. The principal cause of his movement is our interest, and I am sure he will make such representations to the King as may be advisable. He will not speak with you until I go thither, for reasons which I will explain when I see you, but he will visit Stafford publicly, and will satisfy both him and his mistress with fair words, in their own way. If it should happen that one of his secretaries named Cordalier (Cordaillot?) should hand this letter to you, make much of him, and hold out hopes that he will be well rewarded, because he leaves here in consequence of the Queen's wish, and he will arrange when I leave for you to be well posted of all that happens in England, returning hither himself if necessary.
I am obliged to await the return of Colonel Norris, who has gone to Holland and Zeeland, to request their assistance in Don Antonio's expedition, in the form of ships and money. He reports that they promise 30 ships, supplied for six months, and 4,000 soldiers paid for a month ; all of which will be sent within 15 or 20 days, and the final decision as to what is to be done will then be arrived at. Notwithstanding this, however, they are making great preparations here of provisions, etc., Drake and Hawkins being constantly with Don Antonio, secretly. Seventy ships are being fitted out in various ports here, and now that we hear of great preparations are being made by his Majesty, they (the English) are showing more energy than ever, in order to prevent him from continuing what he has commenced. They count upon three methods of doing this, first, by sending Don Antonio to Portugal and Drake to the Spanish Indies, the fleet for either of which purposes will be ready by January, although they say it will undertake both. I can say for certain that Don Antonio is so confident that they will restore him to Portugal that he looks upon himself as already there. Another method is to persuade the Turk to arm on their (the English) providing for a part of the expenses incurred. They think this will prevent his Majesty from undertaking anything this year. Six very large ships are being built for the Queen, in addition to those she has, and they depend upon her receiving six large vessels from Denmark. They are also repairing the Indian ship (fn. 3) and that of Don Pedro de Valdés. Urge them (i.e., in Spain) to provide plenty of good Portuguese galleons (galleys?) as they (i.e., the English) care for naught else. It is said that orders will be given that a ship for the Queen shall be built in every port in England, but no such measure has yet been taken.
An ambassador has arrived here from Denmark to confirm the alliance. Robert, the Englishman who managed the earl of Leicester's business, writes from Barbary that an ambassador from the king of Morocco to the queen of England and Don Antonio was on the coast, about to embark. Don Cristobal is still in the Downs, and the earl of Cumberland has returned to Court.
Every year on the 17th November the Queen celebrates the feast of her coronation ; and this year on the 19th, which is St. Elizabeth's Day, she determined to hold another festival, in celebration of the recent events. There was a great public procession, jousts, and great bonfires all over the city. The Queen decided to go in state to St. Paul's, and invited the French ambassador. But he excused himself by saying that be had no orders from his King to be present at any rejoicings in celebration of her success over the king of Spain. There was much wrangling about this ; and at last she said she was going to give thanks to God for allowing her to reign 30 years, and to beg Him to allow her to reign for the rest of her life in peace, and it was to this ceremony that she had invited him. He therefore accepted the invitation, on condition that the festival was extended for another day, so that the visit to St. Paul's should not take place on the same day as the jousts, bonfires, etc. It was therefore postponed until Sunday the 24th (O.S.). If it should be said in Paris that the ambassador went to any other festival do not believe it ; but still complain about it, so that Stafford shall hear.
There is nothing from Ireland later than what I wrote on the 21st. The best of it is that they (the English?) say nothing, and the news can only come through them. They make people believe what they like. I hope that all, or nearly all, of what they print is false, as much of it certainly is.
It will be well to advise the (Spanish) ambassador in Rome to take great care how he sends his letters, as some are taken and fall into their (the English) hands.
Since writing the above, I learn from the (French) ambassador that the Queen has declined to give him permission to leave, although he has the permission of his own King. She says she will write to the King, and wishes him to await the reply. In short she will not let him go.
9 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1568.
486. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I have no fresh advices from England from Julio. I will try to send some Italian thither, as your Majesty commands. The advices that went in the general letter of 24th ultimo are from Marco Antonio Messia, to whom I have communicated your Majesty's message and have sent him 200 crowns. I understand that he has been imprisoned for debt, which will prevent him from being useful. If your Majesty would order the property of his, embargoed in Lisbon, to be handed to his correspondent Lercaro, under the guise of a deposit, (fn. 4) Messia will be able to stay in England, and keep up a good appearance. Being poor his friends now stand aloof from him, especially Horatio Pallavicini, to whom he has access, and obtains from him much intelligence about armaments. Messia has always protested that if the embargo on his goods in Lisbon were not raised his credit would be lost, and he should not be able to be so useful to us. There are not many Italians who can obtain access to Pallavicini as he has done, and it is evident that he knows how to conduct himself. I therefore think he will be a better man to report than any other, if your Majesty will order his property to be restored in the way I suggest. The advices dated the 5th are from Sampson, whom I instructed to write a statement of what he had heard in his voyage (to England). I also send copy of the autograph instructions given by Don Antonio to his agent Escobar, who informed the Queen-mother that he (Don Antonio) had sent his son to Barbary, and that the queen of England or her Council had not said anything to him about his voyage to Portugal. Drake alone had spoken of it, and Don Antonio assures the Queen-mother that he will not undertake anything without letting her and her son know. Escobar mentioned that he had orders to go to the prince of Bearn, but the Queen-mother told him that the time was not opportune. She asked him (Escobar) to tell her the truth about the fleets, as so many lies were current. He told her that if your Majesty's Armada had fought the English fleet your Majesty would be as much king of England to-day as you are king of Spain, (fn. 5) and that Don Antonio entertained the same opinion, as did many Italian pensioners of the queen of England. It was evident, he said, also, from the extreme alarm in England at the rumour that the Spaniards had landed in Ireland. This greatly disturbed the Queen-mother, who asked him whether what he said could possibly be true.—St. Dié, 9th December 1588.
487. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I make every effort to report to your Majesty all that happens in England, as I am ordered to do in the despatches of 2nd and 5th ultimo. I can only add to the enclosed advices that I learn by letters of 15th that Don Antonio's son had returned to Dartmouth, in consequence of contrary weather, with 8 ships, three large and five small ; and by letters of 21st I hear that Don Antonio himself said that his son was in the Downs on the 19th, having ridden out a great storm. So by this he must have left Dartmouth.
They write from St. Malo that a ship of 300 tons, which had sailed well armed from Havre de Grâce, had fought three English ships of large size for eight hours, when she retired with the loss of 37 men and had entered St. Malo in contrary weather. It was said that the English ships carried the son of Don Antonio, and that under cover of going to Barbary his real intention might be to go to the castle of the Mina with other ships. As I do not known what probability there is of this, I pronounce no opinion, but think well to inform your Majesty of the statement.
The earl of Cumberland was still on the English coast, detained by cross winds. He must have consumed most of his victuals by this time. The Queen was arming, and had sent to buy ships at Dantzig, (fn. 6) but the number was not known, nor was the number which would be contributed by the Hollanders. It was therefore thought that Drake's fleet and the other ships could not be ready before the middle or end of January.
The Queen had also ordered 12 ships to prevent any fleet leaving Dunkirk. It was asserted at Court that the Queen would send to sea 150 ships. It is reported from Rouen that the queen of England had forbidden all French merchandise from being imported into England, except through the Island of Guernsey, whither English goods also would be sent. As my advices from London say nothing of this, I do not affirm it. If the Queen really carries it into effect she will prevent her subjects from trading with France, which will not be very advantageous to her just now. I send enclosed a printed pamphlet in Italian, consisting of a letter addressed to me which has been spread broadcast in all languages. (See Note, page 484.)
Escobar has returned (from England) and has seen the Queen-mother. Don Antonio conferred great honours upon him, made him a knight of the Order of Christ, etc.
M. de Trielle (fn. 7) had arranged that if he heard of anything that needed attention he would promptly advise the duke of Parma thereof, and at the same time would report to me. He writes to me under date of 23rd ultimo, that he has left for Brussels to inform the duke of Parma of an affair of great importance which cannot be entrusted to a letter. (fn. 8) —Paris, 9th December 1588.
10 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1448.
488. The King to Bernardino De Mendoza.
The duke of Medina Sidonia has entered Santander with a good part of the Armada, and it is believed that the rest will have entered other ports. Some of the men are suffering from illness, but, please God, they will recover their health. No particulars have been received of the condition of the enemy, or the destination of the fleet they are fitting out. Try to learn everything, and, with this object, see whether you cannot keep your hold on Julio, even though you have to put up with something from him. Since, however, you have some suspicion of him, do not depend upon his intelligence alone, but try to get other advices to compare with his.
If, as appears, you have not thanked the King (of France) for his action about the galleys at Bayonne, the galleass at Calais, etc., do so as warmly as you can in my name.—San Lorenzo, 10th December 1588.
Postcript.—You did well in giving the 1,000 crowns to the English nuns of Sion at Rouen. You will pay them the rest that is owing, and the amount due to the English seminary at Rheims, out of the last remittance sent you.
10 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1567. Portuguese.
489. Copy of a Letter written by "David" (i.e., Manuel de Andrada) from Rouen.
A courier arrived to-day from London bringing me a letter from Diego Botello, summoning me to join Don Antonio with all haste. Botello writes that Don Antonio hopes to hear before the 15th whether this fleet they are fitting out is really for him or not, because, although everybody says it is, the Queen herself has not told him so, nor have her Councillors. But, notwithstanding this, my cousin writes, that it is certain that the fleet is going to Portugal, (fn. 9) and that he heard from Diego Botello that he was sending me an urgent message from Don Antonio, not to delay joining him. As, however, I have determined to serve no one but his Majesty, I shall make no movement until I hear from your Lordship. If you tell me not to go, I will not. If you think it well that I should go, I will start directly I receive your advice and serve his Majesty there, and I give you my word it will have to be a difficult thing indeed that I will not attempt, if his Majesty's service demands it. (fn. 10)
If I am not to go, I will make the best excuses I can. No Portuguese hitherto has ever placed himself at the service of his Majesty more loyally and sincerely than I do.
19 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1568.
490. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
Since I informed your Majesty of the ideas the governor of Havre de Grâce had formed about the chain that ought to be given to him, I have received orders to give him the chain I first suggested, of 600 crowns. I am keeping it back until I receive further instructions. I have already spent 8,000 crowns on the galleass and the soldiers who are in Morvien, and Purser Igueldo writes to me for more money every day. He says the rank and file must be clothed. Please send money.
The galleass must have at least 100 soldiers more on board to go in safety, seeing the large number of English armed ships in the Channel. (fn. 11) It is said here that the duke of Parma has orders to send 40 captains to Spain, if so, it would be well to have them embarked on this galleass. The artillery, stores, etc., saved from the "Santa Ana" are being shipped on the galleass. I have directed Igueldo to have this done, and to leave nothing at Havre de Grâce.— St. Dié, 19th December 1588.
21 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1567.
491. Sampson's Advices.
Don Antonio had sent six ships to Guinea, in a contract with certain English merchants who had advanced him money on the venture.
Don Antonio was sending an ambassador to a negro inland, who is accompanied by a Portuguese named Juan Velez de Aranse, who was a companion of the mulatto, Domingo Fernandez, whom J. B. Tassis sent from here (Paris) and who was drawn and quartered in Lisbon.
Velez has written to Don Antonio for him to send ambassadors to the black King to form an alliance, and holds out hopes that the King will lend him a large sum, as he is very rich in money. The ships will go to a place not far from the Castle of the Mina (Elmina) and they are armed, to be able to fight the galleys if they come across them.
They left some time ago, but must still be off the English coast, as the wind is against them. The son of Don Antonio was still on that coast on the 24th ultimo.
The queen of England is sending many Englishmen all over Spain and Italy, on pretence of being Catholics flying from England in consequence of their religion. They are really going to spy, and hear everything that is said and done. Whilst I was in England four of these men arrived from Spain. (fn. 12)
22 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1448.
492. The King to Bernardino De Mendoza.
Thanks for measures taken with regard to the galleass "Zuñiga" at Havre de Grâce. She is no doubt by this time ready to sail, as the arms, etc., from the galleass "Capitana" ("San Lorenzo"), sent by the duke of Parma in flyboats, would soon arrive. If more men should be needed, in consequence of the disorder and desertion of those who were on board, you can have them supplied from the soldiers who were on the hulk that put into Morvien, if they are still there ; or else by getting some of the soldiers who are coming from Flanders and telling them that they will be punished (fn. 13) in Spain if they arrive there straggling in disorderly fashion, but that if they will serve on board the galleass you will use your influence to have them well received and treated. If neither of these courses is practicable, you will have to get some French seamen through some trustworthy ("Catholic," in the King's hand) person. But do not put enough Frenchmen on board to be able to master the Spaniards.
Those who have come to Spain from the galleass against orders shall be sought and punished. You may thank Purser Pedro Igueldo in my name for his efforts. The governor of Havre de Grâce and his lieutenant, who you say will not now be satisfied with chains worth 600 crowns each, may be given 2,000 crowns, divided between them according to your discretion. Thank them from me, as it will be advisable for several reasons to pledge them to us. You may promise that the ship that has been freighted to bring the stores from the hulk wrecked at Morvien shall not be embargoed when it arrives in Spain.—Madrid, 22nd December 1588.
27 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1448.
493. The King to Bernardino De Mendoza.
I learn by your letter about England, of 26th ultimo, that Don Antonio's son had sailed, and his object. You did well in sending advice at the same time to the Spanish ports, where all due precautions have been taken against any eventuality. No further news of the ships in question has been received. Let me know everything you can learn about the other fleet being fitted out for Drake, and try to discover what the real object is. Make inquiries as to what is being said about the existence of a Spanish force in Ireland, and the condition they are in. Up to the present the intelligence that has reached us in this respect is so uncertain that we do not know what to believe nor what steps to adopt in the matter.
You are rightly suspicious of the coming to France of the French ambassador in England, for his errand well may be one that bodes no good to us. But doubtless since his arrival you will have been able to get at the bottom of it. If it be a matter of alliances against me, you will take such steps as may be necessary with Mucio (i.e., the duke of Guise) and the King himself, if you think desirable to impede the negotiations. You will deal with each one according to his humour.
I will have the Scottish matter you mention well considered. (fn. 14)
With regard to employing David in one place or the other, you will use your own discretion, and use him where you think he may be most profitable.—Madrid, 22nd December 1588.
27 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1569.
494. Marolin De Juan, Pilot-General of the Armada, to —.
Yesterday there arrived here (Havre de Grâce) some Scottish ships with 32 Spanish soldiers, and some sailors from our Armada lost on the coast of Ireland. They belonged to the Venetian ship "Valencera," which carried Don Alonso de Luzon, colonel of the regiment of Naples, and many private gentlemen, who, they say, remain prisoners on the island, most of the soldiers having been killed.
Don Alonso de Leyva, with the men saved from the wreck of his ship and those from the "Santa Ana," (fn. 15) also wrecked on that coast, went to embark upon the galleass "Girona," which had put into one of the ports. When she had set sail for Spain she was caught in a great gale, which broke her rudder and drove her at midnight on the rocks. Out of 1,300 men on board the galleass only 9 sailors were saved, who told the story to these soldiers who have arrived here.
The ship "Saint Juan Bautista" of Ragusa, 800 tons, was burnt in a Scottish port, with Don Diego Manrique on board. They say that the only persons who escaped were 15 who were on shore at the time.
The ship "Juliana" foundered on the high sea, not a soul being saved from her.
According to this, the statement that the Spaniards had fortified themselves in Ireland must be a fable.—Havre de Grâce, 27th December 1588.
27 Dec.
Paris Archives, K. 1567.
495. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
All my reports from England confirm the statement that Drake's fleet is being fitted out with furious haste, but that it would not be ready to sail until the end of January, as the men were not collected yet.
Drake offered 12,000 English crowns towards the expedition, the earl of Sussex (Essex), 10,000, Colonel Norris, 8,000, and various English merchants, 24,000. (fn. 16) Although it was said that ships were being got ready in Holland for the expedition, it could not be ascertained how many there were, or when they would go.
Many (English) soldiers had returned from Zeeland, and it was said they would go in Drake's fleet.
Captain Winter had sailed with 9 armed ships, with the object I reported to your Majesty in my previous letters, namely, to blockade Dunkirk, as it was asserted that the Queen had news that the duke of Parma was sending to your Majesty in Spain a number of old soldiers. (fn. 17)
The ships of the earl of Cumberland, and those with Don Antonio's son on board, were still on the coast on the 3rd instant, kept by contrary winds. The Queen had ordered the arrest of 10 English and 3 French ships in the Thames, but with what object was not known.
It is also true, as I wrote in my last, that the Queen had prohibited the direct importation of French merchandise into England. It is all to be sent to the Island of Guernsey, whither English goods for France are to be sent.
It is reported from Scotland to be true that Don Alonso de Leyva had landed 2,000 men in Ireland, in the province of Mac Win, (fn. 18) where the people were helping him. A person who has come from Scotland relates that a Spaniard of rank was in the Scottish islands, where the people were very much pleased with him, as he paid well for everything he had of them. (fn. 19) He frequently went from one island to another as they are close together ; and if he had to stay for a day or two on an island, as it was necessary for him to do to obtain provisions, he carried with him 400 or 500 harqebussiers who guarded him well night and day. These islands must be the Hebrides, because, according to another advice, there is a Spanish galleass amongst those islands, and the queen of England had sent three ships to try to capture it.
Another report from Scotland says that there is a galleass belonging to your Majesty in Moray Firth ; and another had put into a Scottish port but had left again.—St. Dié 27th December 1588.
496. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
The new confidant has very rarely any news from England, and the information sent to me by Julio I generally receive previously from other quarters. In letters of the 9th instant he tells me that Drake's fleet was being fitted out in furious haste, but that it could not leave until the end of January.
I told your Majesty some months ago that I had sent a man to England, and since then I have sent another. I obtained them by means of two confidants in Paris, through whom they corresponded. As the confidants have had to fly from the town, I am cut off from communication with the men in England. I greatly regret this, as they supplied me with punctual advices about armaments, and as I am in this village, where no one has dared to come and see me, I am prevented from sending others. Under these circumstances I humbly beg your Majesty to have Bosc's property disembargoed in Lisbon, giving out that it was done at my intercession (fn. 20), as it will oblige him (Marco Antonio Messia) to remain there (in England?), and he sends me constant intelligence which he hears at the house of Pallavicini. Antonio de Vega also says that if Chateauneuf (the French ambassador) comes away he (Vega) cannot stay. David writes the letter enclosed. I instructed him to go to England instantly, and report all he heard, as I thought that if Don Antonio kept him there he could be more useful to us than at Rouen. The reports, enclosed in the general letter translated from English are from Vega, and those dated the 3rd from Bosc. The others are from Sampson (i.e., Escobar).—St. Dié, 27th December 1588.
30 Dec.
Estado, 594.
497. Duke of Parma to Don Juan De Idiaquez.
Your worship does me infinite honour in desiring to know from me the real truth as to the date when this army could have been ready to sail, if weather had permitted and the Armada had performed its task. I will reply frankly and freely to your question. Notwithstanding all that has been said, or may be said, by ignorant people, or those who maliciously raise doubts where none should exist, I will say that on the 7th August, when Secretary Arceo came and I left Bruges, I saw already embarked at Nieuport 16,000 foot soldiers ; and when I arrived at Dunkirk on Tuesday, the 8th, before dawn, the men who were to be shipped there had arrived, and their embarcation was commenced. They would all have been on board with the stores and the rest, as everything was ready, and the shipping was going on very rapidly, if the embarcation had not been suspended in consequence of the intelligence received of the Armada. But for this they might well have begun to get out of port that night, and have joined those from Nieuport during next day, so that together they could have fulfilled their task, as nothing necessary was lacking. It is true that, in consequence of the number of infantry having been increased, there was very little room for the cavalry, there being only 20 rafts for them, unless the Armada could aid us with accommodation for the rest, as those who had come from the duke of Medina Sidonia said they thought there would be no difficulty in doing. Even if this had been impossible we should have tried to send the rest of the cavalry over in the other boats, and no time would have been lost in the principal task, and in taking a port for the Armada in the Channel of London. If for your greater satisfaction, and my justification, you would like to see certificates and sworn depositions of all the magistrates, commanders of troops, and seamen, with regard to the readiness of victuals and stores, etc., I will most willingly send them. You may truly believe that when I told the Duke that only three days would be required for the embarcation and preparations for sailing, I did not speak lightly ; and I should have effected it in less time than I said, with God's help. I will not enlarge here on the causes and reasons that prevented me from going to the coast earlier than I did, as I have already stated them, and they may be well guessed. The men and stores, moreover, were so completely ready for shipment, that I felt confident they would be put on board rapidly. There was no need even to supply water to the boats, whatever some people may say, as no cooking was required for so short a passage, and there was plenty of beer to drink. It was also not necessary, as others imagine, to waste time in shipping artillery on the warships, as we counted on the support of the Armada. The omission to do this beforehand was not negligence but artifice ; and this is the simple truth which you may stand to.—Brussels, 30th December 1588.
S.D. Paris Archives, K. 1568. 498. List of Prisoners in the town of Drogheda in Ireland.
Don Alonso de Luzon, colonel.
Don Rodrigo Lasso de la Vega, commander of Santiago.
Captain Geronimo Aznar (Aybar?).
Ensign Pedro Ramirez.
Captain Juan de Guzman.
Captain Don Garcia Manriquez.
Captain Don Beltran de Salto.
Sergeant-Major Baltasar Lopez de Arbor.
Reformed Captain Juan Fernandez de la Pila.
Sergeant-Major to the Colonel Diego Suarez.
Reformed Ensign Juan de Porras.
Field-Captain Juan Hidalgo.
Reformed Sergeant Sebastian Vasquez.
Juan de Guzman, soldier.
Pedro Fernandez, doctor.
Ship Captain Horatio Donai, Venetian.
Michael di Venetia, bombardier.
Theodorini Greco, sailor.
Domingo de Jorge, ship's clerk.
Jacques Flamenco, captain of a hulk.
Juan Domingo, Italian, drummer.
Juan, Italian, drummer.
J. Moreno St. Angelo, drummer.
Pedro, Italian.
Augustino, Italian, barber.
Francisco de Soto, colonel's servant.
Juan Bautista, servant of the same.
Marco de Mendoza, Don Rodrigo Lasso's servant.
Juan de Salazar, sergeant-major's servant.
Juan de Uzena, soldier's servant.
Don Diego de Luzon, these three have died in the town.
Don Sebastian Zapata,
Sergeant Antonio de Bacia,
Don Garcia de Avila.
Don Gaspar de Avila, his brother.
Don Cristobal Maldoneza.
Don Diego de Guzman, was very ill, not known whether dead or alive.
Hernando de Cañavera, died crossing a river.
Don Antonio Manriquez, these three were very ill, 20 miles away. Not known whether dead or alive.
Don Alvaro de Mendoza,
Rodrigo Ponce de Leon, auditor,
Died before they surrendered, Don Pedro del Salto, aged from 14 to 15 years.
Note in original.—"In this list there can only be contained the loss from a single ship, and I am therefore much surprised that as so many names are mentioned no reference whatever is made to Don Felipe and Don Luis de Cordoba, who were said to have been taken prisoners also. This list makes me doubt it."
Note.—The above list seems to contain only the names of those from the "Valencera," whose subsequent fate is told in a document in this calendar. A list of prisoners from other ships, whom Bingham had ordered to be slaughtered at Drogheda, will be found in State Papers, Ireland, CXXXIX. Don Diego de Cordoba was one of those killed, but Bingham, in his letter to the Queen, says that he has "only reserved alive one Don Luis de Cordoba, and a young gentleman, his nephew, until your Highness' pleasure be known." These two gentlemen were respectively the brother and son of the marquis de Ayamonte.


  • 1. In the King's hand :—"It must be Don Pedro de Valdés' ship. Better, so than that they should enjoy it."
  • 2. Cavendish.
  • 3. The great galleon "San Felipe." Don Pedro de Valdés' flagship "Nuestra Sefiora del Rosario" was taken from Dartmouth to Chatham, where she was found to be not worth repairing and was broken up. Spanish accounts state that she sank on her way to Chatham, but this does not appear to have been the case.
  • 4. In the King's hand :—"It will be well to do this. My nephew (i.e., the Cardinal Archduke Albert) will have to be written to about it. Let Don Cristobal (i.e., de Mora) know."
  • 5. It will be well to remind the reader that Escobar was really a Spanish agent, although ostensibly one of Don Antonio's principal supporters.
  • 6. In the King's hand :—"Do not let them get beforehand with us."
  • 7. In the King's hand :—"I do not know who this is." The person in question was M. d'Estrelles, the renegade Fleming who had offered to betray Cambrai. See note on page 642, Vol. III., of this Calendar.
  • 8. In the King's hand :—"It is very likely that he had arrived at Brussels when he (the Duke?) left there, according to the date of the letters received from there."
  • 9. The King underlines these words and calls attention to them by his usual exclamation "Ojo!"
  • 10. In the King's hand :—"If this be so, you might entrust him with something."
  • 11. In the King's hand :—"Let what is necessary be done that she may come in safety." It will be recollected that the hulk "San Pedro el Menor" had been wrecked at Morvien, Brittany, and the flagship "Santa Ana" at Havre, as well as the galleass "San Lorenzo" at the mouth of Calais Harbour. The galleass "Zuñiga" had put into Havre, where many of her soldiers and sailors had deserted.
  • 12. In the King's hand :—"It will be well to keep an eye on this."
  • 13. "I do not see that any such men have been punished, so I do not think they will believe such a threat, for all Don Bernardino may say, seeing that nothing of the sort has been done." (In the King's hand).
  • 14. In the King's hand :—"I do not remember what this refers to. Tell me." See letters dated 4th October and 4th November about Scotland.
  • 15. The "Duquesa Santa Ana." Don Alonso de Leyva's own ship was the "Rata Coronada."
  • 16. The King has gummed up these amounts in the margin, and has appended the following words : "By his saying English crowns, perhaps he means pounds, which I think would be three times as much." Some account of the cost of the expedition will be found in "The Year after the Armada," by the editor of this calendar.
  • 17. In the King's hand :— "This would be a sign that they are coming hither."
  • 18. In the King's hand.—"Find out what province this is and let me know." It was Killibegs Harbour, which belonged to Mac Swyne.
  • 19. This must have been Gomez de Medina, whose flag-hulk "Gran Grifon" had been wrecked on Fair Island in the Orkneys.
  • 20. In the King's hand :—"This had better be done. See Don Cristobal (de Mora) and if possible write to-day. Bosc was the cipher name for the spy Messia."