Spain: August 1557

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 13, 1554-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1954.

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'Spain: August 1557', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 13, 1554-1558, (London, 1954) pp. 308-318. British History Online [accessed 1 March 2024]

August 1557

327. Philip to the Earl of Pembroke
Valenciennes, 4 August Don Juan de Ayala has written to me of the good will you showed by getting off the 1,500 sappers and marching yourself with your troops two days later, without waiting for the carts you needed. Since, I have learned that you had reached a place near Ardres last Saturday. I thank you for the zeal you have shown; I looked for no less from you. My army is before St. Quentin, and I am leaving on Thursday, 5 August, for Cambrai, where I shall sleep. It is very important that I should join the camp as soon as possible. I wish to have you accompany me, together with a body (tercio) of Spanish infantry and cavalry. In any case, I beg you to do your best to make the troops march as fast as possible.
Draft. Spanish.
Simancas, E.515.
328. Philip to the Earl of Pembroke
Valenciennes, 4 August You will have seen the letter I wrote to you yesterday, (fn. 1) asking you to hasten your arrival as much as possible. I now write to inform you that my whole army is before St. Quentin, and that it would be very important for me to be there in person, if possible by next Friday. Therefore I beg you to make all the speed you can and to let me know by this courier when you expect to reach Cambrai, where I will be to-morrow by dinner time.
Draft. Spanish.
Simancas, E.515.
329. Philip to Don Juan de Ayala
Valenciennes, 4 August In reply to your last letter, I need say no more than to thank you for the good work you have done in connection with moving the 1,500 sappers forward and getting the Earl of Pembroke to start. His decision to march is exactly what I hoped of him. To-day, the Duke of Sessa and his company arrived here. They say that last Saturday the Earl of Pembroke and his troops had reached a place near Ardres. Although I am sure that he will lose no time, and that the carts will have reached him by now, you will remember that my army is before St. Quentin, and that on Thursday, 5 August, I plan to be at Cambrai and to go on from there to join my camp. As Lord Pembroke's force is to accompany me, I am writing to him to hurry, and you will make every effort to save time. Send me news by this messenger, informing me where Pembroke is now, at what rate he is progressing and when he expects to reach Cambrai. If necessary, let him leave some of his baggage behind; but you will suggest this in a moderate manner.
Draft. Spanish.
Simancas, E.515.
330. The Duke of Savoy to Philip
The Camp near St. Quentin, 5 August I am sending to your Majesty two Englishmen, called Raf Delphs and William Rug, who have served in France, in order that your Majesty may hear from them certain things of importance, when you have heard them, I think you would do well to send them under safe guard to Calais, to make sure that they do not return to France. Your Majesty will take such precautions in this matter as you may think fit.
Copy. Spanish.
Simancas. K.1490.
331. The Earl of Pembroke to Philip
The Camp at Blenderques, 5 August To-day, I received your Majesty's letter, together with that which Don Juan de Ayala spoke to me about, directing us to make all possible speed to join your army. I will not fail to do my best. As Don Juan knows, we have marched as fast as we could up to the present, although we lack some necessary facilities. We are now at Blenderques, one league beyond this day's march in the direction of St. Omer. Your Majesty may be sure we are all determined to do your bidding, hoping that as our numbers are greater than we expected, your Majesty will take the requisite steps, for it has been impossible to send away the supernumeraries.
Holograph. Spanish.
Simancas, E.514.
332.Philip to the Duke of Savoy (Extracts)
Cambrai, 6 August I have decided to leave to-day at the latest, with all the cavalry, infantry, artillery and munitions I have here, believing that the Earl of Pembroke would have been able to arrive yesterday or early this morning, so that we might all go on together to Honcourt, where I was to lodge. But then, news came that the English were not so far forward as to permit this. We know that you need the troops that are here. On the other hand, I cannot advance with them alone. Therefore I decided that these troops should leave to-day without me. At that point, letters came from Don Juan de Ayala, written yesterday near St. Omer, telling me that the Earl will arrive here next Wednesday, 10 August. Thus the delay is very great. The siege-artillery cannot move forward without me. As I am sure Munchhausen will be here today, and I can then start without the English, I have decided to put off my departure for one day only, trusting that he will arrive. But although I have sent many people to look for him and hasten him on, I have been unable to obtain any certain news of him. We know that the French are making haste to throw troops into St. Quentin and how much trouble you are having. However, I believe that now that the essential work has been done in our camp, and trenches dug, they will not be able to do much. I have issued orders to move forward the light horse to Cáceres' tercio, and Don Enrique's harquebusiers, Count Wittgenstein's 300 horse, 8 cannons with the necessary powder, cannon-balls, lead and fuse, which you asked for, 1,500 English sappers and four standards of English infantry. Syli (sic, i.e. Cilli?) has gone to Honcourt, three leagues from here, to provide quarters where they may sleep to-night. They are to start off again at dawn to-morrow and proceed to camp without waiting for anything else. I thought it well to inform you of this in order that, should you see fit, you might send troops forward for their protection, according to what you may know about the movements of the enemy.
See to it that quarters be provided for the troops that have left, and also for the English and Münchhausen's regiment which is to go with me. Also, have cavalry ready to meet me and act as an escort. I will let you know what day I am leaving, according to what I hear from the English. I think I shall be two days on the way. I cannot cover the distance in one day, because of the artillery I am taking with me, and because I had better arrive at camp early in the day. Also, it will be necessary to capture and level some places on the way, unless the troops now in them destroy the fortifications themselves. The troops that are moving forward will include some infantry from the garrisons in this country. They will be helpful in providing provisions.
I have had the two Englishmen who came from France examined, and they are being sent on to Calais as you advised. . . . . .
Draft. Spanish.
Simancas, K.1490.
333.Philip to the Earl of Pembroke
Cambrai, 6 August I have received the letter you sent me from near St. Omer. I am certain you will have done all you could to hasten your coming. This is of greater importance than I can express to you, for without your forces I cannot proceed to my camp or move forward the siege-artillery I have here. Although I know you are doing your utmost, I thought it well to send Don Pedro de Velasco to you to beg you once more to make haste.
I do not wish to arrive at camp without you, however urgent it may be that I should be there. I beg you to be here on Sunday, in any case, as you cannot arrive to-morrow; although if that were possible it would be the best thing, and you would give me the greatest pleasure by so doing, as Don Pedro de Velasco will explain to you.
Draft. The second paragraph in Philip's own hand. Spanish.
Simancas, E.515.
334. Philip to Don Luis de Carvajal, Captain General of the fleet of the province of Guipúzcoa
Cambrai, 8 August The Queen of England and members of her Council have informed me that the Scots have declared war on England, wherefore the English desire to send the entire fleet in that direction in order to prevent the Scots from doing harm, and to attack them. The English insistently ask us to agree that you should also go thither. We have answered that although we should have been very glad to give them this satisfaction, we are unable to do so, for as our army has invaded France it is most important that our fleet should co-operate with it. They themselves, their coasts and shipping, will be the gainers thereby. Thus, we command you, as your fleet will now be ready, to set sail together with Pero Menéndez's fleet, to which we have sent orders in consequence, and proceed as far as you think necessary beyond Ushant in order to protect the fleet which is to bring the rest of the money and troops from Spain. You will then return with these ships and enter safe harbours, informing us of how and where you fell in with them, by means of a fast sloop, giving us details as to how many sail are coming, how many troops and how much money. You will have the troops landed at Dover, Calais or Dunkirk, rather than let them go on to Zealand; whence it would be a long business to move them forward overland, keeping us informed of what is to be done.
Before you left Brussels, you told us, and you have sent the same information by letters since then, that you have too many of your men sick to carry out standing orders. Therefore we agree that you take on replacement from the ships that came with the Duke of Sessa or from elsewhere. Thus you will not be obliged to hire other ships, our will being that the total tonnage in our service should not be increased, considering that we have enough counting Pero Menendez's ships and the others from Spain. You will leave the sick from your ships in places where they may be well looked after; and their pay is to run until they are well, when you may take on again those you need and repatriate the rest to Spain; because it would not be fair to pay them off in these parts. You will proceed with the knowledge and in the presence of our officers, in order that they may keep a record of those who are sick and of those whom you may engage to replace them. Both categories are to be paid, as we have already said. We issued orders that the wool-ships were to go with Pero Menéndez in order that he should convoy them safely; but some have made excuses and others are not yet ready. We have therefore instructed him to go to Zealand and ordered them to set sail with you, so that no harm may befall them. If they make further excuses, he is to demand that they insure our artillery which they have undertaken to return to Spain, doing so in Antwerp or Bruges through our agent or a person whom he may name. And if they decline to do this he is to take the artillery and load it on some ship, in order that it may be distributed among the fleet which is to sail with you. We are giving you these instructions so that you may not lose time on account of these wool-ships, but may sail with your fleet as soon as possible. If you are in need of supplies, you may ask Pero Menéndez to let you have what you require, for the news I have from Spain cause me to be sure that the fleet there is assembled and nearly ready to set sail. You are therefore to lose no time, and you will inform our officers of any part of these instructions which it is important that they should be acquainted with. And you will advise us of when you are going to start.
When we had written the above, we received letters from Regent Figueroa with news that it had now been decided that some of the ships at present in the Channel should remain there, and that others should be fitted out to go to Scotland under the command of the Vice-Admiral; and that an agreement had been reached as to how he and you were to proceed. I was very glad of this, and in view of it I once more order you to set sail as quickly as possible, because the fleet from Spain cannot delay much longer. We are writing to Pero Menéndez to send some one to Zealand to take over the artillery from the wool-ships, carrying out the orders he received from the Princess. We desire those wool-ships to sail under your protection in order that they may come to no harm on the way, and you will write to Sancho de Achinuga, to whom we are sending you a letter, telling him to instruct the captains and masters to make all possible haste. If they still offer excuses, you will see to it that they contract insurances in Antwerp or Bruges by means of Juan López Gallo, our principal agent there, for the safety of our artillery, or that they make payment for it in full. If they refuse to do this you will insist on their handing it over, as they received it from Pero Menéndez, and that the person who takes charge of it shall deliver it to the fleet according to instructions. You will keep me informed about this. The stuff (ropa) which I am sending to Spain is at Antwerp. You will see that it is sent on the first ships that are to proceed thither.
Draft. Spanish.
Simancas, E.517.
335. A note without address, but certainly intended for Philip
9 August To-day, the 9th, there arrived here Dumay, commissioner for supplies, August saying that the flour which was expected from Valenciennes has not come, and that there is no bread available. He has ovens and bakers, and as soon as the flour is here he will make haste to make bread. He hears that there are about 200 carts here, four-wheeled and two-wheeled, which are to follow the camp, and he wants to know how far the supply detachments may advance with safety. There will not be much need for munitions on the way. I beg your Majesty to give instructions.
Marginal note in Eraso's band.
May it please your Majesty to read this note. It will be necessary to decide early to-morrow what supply-detachment is to go, unless your Majesty has already attended to this matter. I will speak about it to M. de Lalaing to-morrow. The messenger will not be able to start to-night to go to the Duke, because we have no one to guide him. Some one will have to be found before dinner. The English are delaying much in bringing the siege artillery up to St. Quentin. They should have been here on Tuesday.
Marginal note in Philip's hand.
Discuss all this with Don Fernando. It is not necessary to wait for the English, and we have enough supply-detachments. Tell Sessa that I mean to start to-morrow with what we have, or at the latest on Saturday; that is if the artillery can be counted on for that day, and if not, to-morrow.
Simancas, E.154.
336. An account of what happened at St. Quentin since the camp was set up there: news sent by our lord the King
The Camp before St. Quentin, 11 August On Wednesday evening 4 August, the Duke of Savoy sent Count Mansfeld with his 1,000 horse, camp-master Navarrete with ten standards of Spanish infantry numbering as much as 800 men, and four standards of Germans from George Van Hol's regiment, to take up positions along the road leading from Ham to St. Quentin, in order to prevent any relief being thrown into St. Quentin. When these troops had taken up position along the road, about two hours before dawn, M. d'Andelot, (fn. 2) colonel of the French infantry, arrived with some twelve standards which they say numbered two thousand foot, picked men, and a rearguard of four standards of men-at-arms, all of whom had started the morning before from La Fére and had marched all day and all night, heading straight for the gate with the intention of entering St. Quentin. Camp-master Navarrete had posted some sentinels, one of whom the French captured, but the others came up with the news, and immediately afterwards the twelve standards attacked the Spaniards who were waiting for them on the very road they had to follow to reach the gate. As this undertaking was of great importance to the French and would have been highly damaging to his Majesty's interests and reputation if it had succeeded, the fighting was furious on both sides, the French bearing themselves with more gallantry than they have been known to do on other occasions. But not one single man of them reached St. Quentin. They were all defeated, with the loss of four standards, including that of Colonel d'Andelot, of whom it is not known whether he is dead or alive, but several prisoners believe he is dead, because they saw him alight from his horse just in front of his squadron. There were many killed, wounded and prisoners, including a number of leading men, and the survivors were all put to flight by Mansfeld's cavalry. Many of these were killed, and others taken prisoner. The captains who took part in this action with the camp-master were: Julian Romero, Diego Pérez Arnalt, Antonio de Quiñones, Nofre Sauri and Diego de Valenzuela.
The following Thursday evening, artillery was put in position to shell the castle; and the bombardment began at 6 on Friday morning. But for this bombardment, it might have held out a good six days longer. The houses within the castle were set on fire, and our troops went in and looted the place, after which two companies of Spaniards with Captain Julian, two of Germans and three of Walloons took up their quarters there. This action was very important, especially as it was carried out so quickly, and it greatly assisted the rest of the operation.
Two other regiments of Germans, with Count Schwarzenberg's thousand horse, were posted on the other side of the town in a very good position, so that the castle was masked, and the Duke was able to take the rest of his camp round to the other side so as to prevent the enemy from relieving the town, which they were trying to do with all their might.
The English were still delaying, and in order not to lose time his Majesty ordered Alfonso de Cáceres' tercio to advance without waiting for him. These troops started on 6 August, together with two companies of Spanish light horse and one of mounted harquebusiers, having with them Don Enrique Enriquez, Count Wittgenstein and his 300 horse, with eight siege cannons, powder, cannon-ball and other munitions. They spent the night at a place on French territory three leagues away, which immediately surrendered, and on the next day reached camp. On Saturday, 7 August, his Majesty had news that the garrison of Canol sallied forth from that fort to attack a place on the French frontier and made it surrender, although the enemy was much more numerous.
An Englishman who had served the French and came over to our camp on the 8th, reported that on Saturday 18 standards of German infantry, 400 berreruelos, (fn. 3) an equal number of men-at-arms and 1,400 light horse had left La Fère, where the Constable is, meaning to reach St. Quentin castle and relieve it. When they had reached a place two leagues away, they heard that the castle had fallen and that the Duke of Savoy had gone round to the other side. They therefore turned back, sending the said Englishman and two others to reconnoitre and make sure that the news were true. If the French were to come up, they would find us better prepared than they would like.
In spite of all attempts to make them hurry, the English will not be here until to-morrow, Tuesday, 10 August, with the result that it has not been possible to put their battery in position. If this had been done, St. Quentin would be hard pressed by now. The loss of six days is a serious matter.
Since then it has been learned that d'Andelot was not killed. He has written to the Duke of Savoy about some of his gentlemen who were taken prisoner when he was defeated. Almost all of these are dead.
On Monday, 9 August, it was discovered that over 1,500 horse were advancing to reconnoitre our camp, leaving some infantry one league behind. When we sent some troops towards them, they withdrew, and our cavalry followed them to make sure where they were going.
Once St. Quentin castle had fallen, we had no troops on that side of the town except for those who remained inside the castle itself. But as there is only one gate, and swamps and ponds lie on both sides of the castle, it was unnecessary to place any cover in that direction. Yesterday, St. Laurence's day, at 8 o'clock in the morning, the Constable of France came up with 30 companies of High Germans, 18 of French, old and new troops, and 20 pieces of heavy and camp artillery. They had heard that most of our cavalry had left camp to serve as escort for the King, who was to leave Cambrai to come hither with his army; although in fact his Majesty did not leave that day, for important reasons. The Constable's plan was to throw some of his troops across the river and the ponds, and the French did this, in small boats they found on the spot, which carried over 150 men and would have carried more if camp-master Navarrete and some of camp-master Cáceres' harquebusiers had not prevented them. When they saw part of our cavalry going forth, they posted their cavalry in a place where they could not be fired upon from the castle, and could fire on our cavalry's quarters. But when they saw that they were not producing any effect they withdrew. The Duke of Savoy then ordered most of our cavalry out and led it in person against the enemy, taking with him a German regiment and part of the Spanish infantry, which were not able to march as fast as the cavalry and could not arrive in time. Our light horse was harassing the enemy in the meantime, and then our herrcruelos and lances attacked the French horse and part of their cavalry. Although some of the enemy fought, most of them turned tail and ran. Many Germans and French foot were taken prisoners: among them M. d'Ayen and other well-known persons, d'Ayen being gravely wounded and his life despaired of. It is also said that the Constable was taken prisoner, although this is not known for certain, as well as the Duke of Montpensier, (fn. 4) two or three knights of the order of St. Michael and other captains. Our light horse and herreruelos, following up their success, are pressing the French cavalry, and as the French have three leagues to go (i.e. to safety), it is believed that few of them will escape. All the infantry was taken prisoner or killed in the open country. There remains the town, although the troops inside are not numerous and are dispirited. The Constable had mustered for this campaign the best troops he could find in France, so what they now have amounts to little. The King left Cambrai on 11 August at 6 in the morning, on his way to camp. He is to spend the night at Beaurevoir, five leagues from here; to-morrow he will be at St. Quentin. He has with him the English infantry and cavalry, 10 standards of German infantry, and the artillery and munitions which were waiting for him to come, as well as many cart-loads of supplies.
His Majesty left Cambrai on Wednesday, and while he was on the way there arrived a majordomo of the Duke of Savoy who left his camp the same day at 8 in the morning and reported to the King what had happened, adding that the Constable was a prisoner and slightly wounded. This same man had gone to visit him on the Duke's part. He also said that a younger son of the Constable had been taken prisoner, as well as the Duke of Montpensier, the Duke of Longueville and the Prince of Mantua, a nephew of Don Fernando Gonzaga; Marshal St. André, Viscount Turenne, the Rhinegrave who is colonel of thirty standards, La Roche Guyon, son-in-law of the Constable, and Rochefort. M. d'Ayen is dead, as also Baron Curton and Count Villars. This is what we know so far, and more is being reported all the time. Fifty banners and many standards were captured, and 3,000 horse routed out of the 5,000 the Constable brought up. 6,000 foot have been captured, of whom 5,000 are Germans and 1,000 French. They are being marched off to-day and will spend the night at a place four leagues from Cambrai. His Majesty is having them sent to Germany to be interned there. They are being well treated and provided with money for the journey.
Simancas, E.514.
337. Mary to the Emperor
Richmond, 14 August. My Lord and good father: The object of this letter is humbly to thank your Majesty for those I have received from you since you left for Spain and to rejoice with you over the success God has been pleased of His bounty (and in my judgment miraculously) to grant to the King, your son, my lord and good husband. Although I know that you will have heard in detail about this great success from the King's letters, I felt in duty bound not to allow this courier to leave without taking a letter to your Majesty. I also wish to beg you to let me have news of your health as often as occasion may offer. As for happenings in this kingdom, I will refer to the letters of Regent Figueroa, who will be able to give a better account of them than I could myself.
Signed. French
Simancas, E.810.
Printed by Fernández Navarrete, Vol. III.
338. Don Juan de Figueroa to the Emperor
Richmond, 15 August The King has ordered me to stay here. He has left this kingdom for some days (sic) as your Majesty will know. I need say no more about what has happened before St. Quentin than to thank God for having made so good a beginning in this war. I hope that the outcome of the contest will be to the greater honour of the King, so that peace may be determined by him and not by his enemies; for in that case it will be a true peace.
The Queen has instructed me to inform your Majesty about the state of affairs in this kingdom. This courier must start at once, because the King bade him to hasten to your Majesty. Therefore the Queen has no time to write at length. And although we might send another, it seems better that I should report at once by this one.
When the King left England, he gave instructions as to what was to be done to protect the realm against the French and the Scots. He ordered that besides fortifications by land and at the ports, twenty ships, well fitted out, should cruise these seas, together with those that are already at sea and are well provided with men-at-arms. If there is any attack in this direction, the Admiral should be able to score successes, because the French do not appear to be well prepared. However, he has already missed some good opportunities, wherefore it is being dexterously arranged that he should not go to sea again this year. Since the King went over to Flanders, taking some ships with him, nine others have been sent off towards Scotland, and the rest are staying in these waters. The French are fitting out more big ships: some say 20, others 30, and as it did not appear that a fleet was being formed in Flanders to join the English fleet, the King ordered Don Luis de Carvajal to do so with the ships he has with him, to do as much harm as he can to French shipping, sail the Channel and escort on their way hither the ships coming from Spain with Ruy Gómez. As no Admiral is sailing with the English ships, and as these are not forming one single fleet, it seemed preferable that Don Luis should be placed at the head of all these ships. Although this point gave rise to some difficulties, the Queen issued the requisite instructions. Since then, the King has ordered Captain Pero Menéndez to convoy the ships coming from the Indies, but the weather has been so unfavourable that he has not yet been able to get here. It is feared that the opportunity of capturing the French vessels from Newfoundland may have been missed. God grant that if Ruy Gómez has sailed the voyage may go well! This is all about the sea.
As for land operations, the Scots, who had proclaimed that they wished to live in peace with the English, sent off two bastard sons of the late King and a gentleman from the frontier near Berwick, in the county of Northumberland, with about 3,000 foot and horse, invaded this kingdom, burned some villages, drove away a lot of cattle and returned to Scotland unscathed. News are arriving here to the effect that the whole kingdom of Scotland is moving against Berwick, which in those parts amounts to what Calais is in these parts, as your Majesty knows. This caused something of a panic, and letters were written to the King, Queen and Council begging that the ships should sail to Scotland in order to protect England on that side. But three days afterwards, people changed their minds when they learned that there was not so much cause for alarm. The Queen and Council tell me that steps have been taken for the security of the realm, and I hear that the English have crossed the Scotch frontier, and are satisfied with their progress. The Council has requested the King, as the Scots have broken the peace, to make war upon them with the ships from Spain and Flanders, and prohibit trade with them. In the case of Flanders, there are old agreements which must be considered, and the King replied that the question would have to be examined and he would send some one to Scotland. If the Scots did not want peace, he would make war upon them. With this, the English were satisfied. All the Englishmen are ready to defend this country, as is their wont. I am told that Calais and other important fortresses are well provided. There is abundance of food this year, and there was great need of it. As much money as can be found is being collected between now and October, when Parliament is to meet and will be asked for a subsidy for the purposes of the war, which otherwise could not be met.
The whole kingdom of England is at peace and very obedient. Affairs are going well where religion is concerned, thanks be to God! Many churches and monasteries are being repaired, and inmates placed in them. As far as outer appearances go, things are as in Spain.
On the 18th of this month there will be a solemn service in the great church in London for the King of Portugal. May God receive him in His glory!
Measures are shortly to be taken to reform the currency, which has fallen into such a state that it may almost be said that all coin in circulation is false.
The Pope has withdrawn the power he had given Cardinal Pole as Legate a later, and has created Cardinal an English friar, a man of over 80 and of no ability whatever, but a good man and a Christian, who recognises his own shortcomings and told the Pope that he did not wish to be a Cardinal or a Legate, because he realized that the Pope had created him Cardinal in order to make him a Legate. Besides withdrawing Cardinal Pole's commission, the Pope has ordered him to go to Rome; and the worst of it is that the Pope says Pole is a heretic, as he already affirmed when Julius III was elected. Both these actions on the Pope's part have made a very bad impression here. The man who is bringing the hat for the friar and the other despatches has been stopped at Calais, and the Queen has written to the Pope and her Council pointing out how harmful this matter is to her kingdom and the cause of religion, and making it clear that if the Pope persists in withdrawing Pole's commission, she will receive no other Legate. Moreover, if Cardinal Pole were to desire to go to Rome, he will not be allowed to leave this kingdom, of which he is the chief prelate. Thus Pole will (try to) obey but will not be allowed to carry out his intention. If peace is concluded with the Pope, all this will stop, and if there is peace with France, everything will be well, but otherwise there will be nothing but false pretence. This, in brief, is the position here. I have ventured to write this to your Majesty because I have been ordered to do so. Otherwise I would not have dared.
Holograph. Spanish.
Simancas, E.515.
339. Juan de Piñedo to Francisco de Vargas (Extract)
27 August The news are that between three and four this afternoon our troops fought their way into St. Quentin. Both sides fought most choicely, and the English best of all. I will give you further details by the earliest opportunity. For the moment there is no more to say, because blows are still being exchanged inside the town, although they say that the Admiral of France has already been taken prisoner. Our Lord will give Philip the victory, because he has behaved like a true Christian throughout.
Holograph, Spanish.
Simancas, K.1490.
340. Philip to the Duke of Medinaceli, Regent of Sicily
St. Quentin, 29 August You are aware how the Pope has been acting, and that some days ago he caused his Fiscal Procurator to make a proposal concerning us in consistory, to the effect that an attempt should be made to deprive us of our states. We know for certain, although it is being kept a secret, that the Bull of deprivation has already been written. Everything the Pope does in this matter is null and void, because it is contrary to reason and justice, and every one knows with what hostility he behaves where we are concerned. However, it has seemed well to us to take all possible precautions, and to lodge a protest against anything his Holiness may do against us. We therefore caused an act of protest (fn. 5) to be drawn up when we were in London, and a copy of it (missing) is being sent to you with this letter, in order that you may keep it by you in case there may be need to use it. We warn you at the same time that until the emergency arises you are to keep the matter very secret, because if it were known it might be harmful to our interests. You will therefore inform us as soon as you have received it.
Signed. Spanish.
Madrid, Academia de la Historia, Col. Salazar, A.50.


  • 1. Probably the foregoing letter.
  • 2. François de Coligny, a brother of the Admiral of France.
  • 3. Mounted troops, called herreruelos (little smiths). This name is variously explained. According to some: because the faces of these men were as grimy as smiths', from the smoke of battle; to others: because they carried so many steel implements: to others: because they wore a short crimson cloak, called herreruelo.
  • 4. Louis de Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier (1513–1582).
  • 5. See Philip's letters to his bishops, etc., 18 April, 1557 (p. 280), and to the Archbishop of Toledo, 7 May, 1557 (p. 291).