Spain: October 1554, 16-31

Pages 71-76

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 13, 1554-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1954.

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October 1554, 16–31

80. Mary I to the Emperor
London, 16 October The King, my husband, and I are sending to you your ambassador to tell you the decision we have come to about Cardinal Pole's journey hither, so that if you approve he may inform the Cardinal and settle all the details with despatch, for time presses. While the ambassador is away we will negotiate with the private individuals according to your excellent advice, which stands in no need of alteration. For the rest I will refer you to the ambassador who has more experience of affairs than I, and I beg you to give him credence, and commend myself to your good grace.
P.S. In Mary's hand:
The ambassador was in such a hurry to be off that I could not write to you in my own hand, so I beg you to forgive me this once.
French. Signed.
Vienna, Staatsarchiv, E.1.
81. Mary I to the Emperor
Westminster, 17 October The King and I are now sending M. de Fiennes, Baron Clinton and Saye, Knight of our Order, to our very dear cousin, the Duke of Savoy, to invest him with our Order, to which we have recently, on account of his nobility and singular virtues, elected him. I have also instructed Lord Clinton to visit you, give you our news and bring us back those of your good health, which I desire above all other things.
Signed. Countersigned: Yetsweirt. French.
Vienna, Staatsarchiv, E.1.
82. The Emperor to Don Juan Manrique de Lara
Brussels, 18 October When Eraso went back to England the other day, one point of his instructions was to submit to the King the request you made some time ago to leave Rome and return to this Court, and to request him, as the Marquis of Sarriá was delaying so long, to send some one else to fill the place until Sarriá arrives or another appointment is made. Eraso was also to explain to the King that we wish to comply with your wishes in this matter; and as our son has the same desire he already has a person in view who is very soon to start on his journey, so your mind may be at rest.
The King and Queen of England, our son and daughter, are full of zeal for the restoration of that realm to the ancient and true religion. Since seeing Legate Pole's brief, they have discussed the manner in which this most important negotiation may be handled with the best chances of success, for their and our aim is solely God's service and the establishment of the authority of the apostolic see. They have several times consulted us, and have now come to the conclusion that it would be well to send hither some one to explain to the Legate how matters stand in England, and what medicine, in the opinion of those conversant with English symptoms, is required in order to cure so dangerous a wound. This envoy would then go on to Rome and beg his Holiness to extend the powers given to the Legate, assuring him that no one could possibly desire to see the realm return to its obeisance more ardently than the King and Queen. This has ever been our aim, and it was certainly the main reason for which we arranged the marriage, so we replied to the effect that we agreed that this would be the best way to attain the hoped-for result.
In the meantime we arrived here and gave audience to the Legate, who could find nothing better to say than that he had been here a long time, that the present was a very opportune moment for settling the religious question, and to beg us to allow him to go on to England and execute his commission. We were awaiting the arrival of the person who was to come from that country, as we have told you; and as we could not give the Legate any answer until then we thought it best to temporise. So we explained to him at some length how much we and our son desired the success of this undertaking, and that our reason for delaying it had been merely to avoid the irremediable disaster that would be sure to ensue were it pressed at an inopportune time. Two things, we said, were necessary. First, we must see what powers he had to negotiate and whether he could show us any further guarantees that he would be able to succeed; and second, he must write out a statement of the use to which he intended to put his powers, which statement should be examined here by persons who desired, no less than he himself could, to see English affairs remedied, and communicated to men of experience in England, of whose advice and assistance the King and Queen intended to avail themselves.
The Cardinal has set about this task in the spirit of one who realises that it is the best way to make a beginning. Our son had decided, on the 16th instant, to send Renard hither to give a detailed account of the state of affairs in England and the aspects of the religious question; but Parliament is to meet on November 12th, and time is getting short as by that date it is absolutely necessary to have a reply from his Holiness about the extension of the Legate's powers, for then will be the moment to bring the matter forward, so we are sending you this courier with instructions to speak to the Pope. You will tell him how zealous the King and Queen are, and explain that the main difficulty lies in the obstinacy of the holders of Church property, who care more for temporal riches than for their soul's welfare, and fear to be dispossessed. They are very numerous and seduce the people by conjuring up false chimeras before their eyes to keep them from the accomplishment of their duty, wherefore may his Holiness be pleased to give the Legate wider powers to dissipate the suspicions of these folk. It will be particularly essential to change the wording of two clauses that are noted in the copy of the brief we are now sending to you, concerning the alienation of real estate and the reference of grave difficulties to his Holiness, as well as the date of the brief, which must be later than the consummation of the marriage, for thus it will have greater weight as you will see at length from letters from our son carried by the courier, to which we refer you.
On hearing that the courier had orders not to delay here we thought he might be carrying a despatch about the religious question. We also remembered that, as a letter was sent to you from Valenciennes on the 6th instant telling you to accept if the Duke of Florence asked you to take charge of the expedition against Siena, you might be perplexed by these cross-instructions, so we decided to open the despatch addressed to you. We realise how important it is to act promptly, for were we to lose the opportunity offered by Parliament it might not be possible to bring the matter up again until next winter, whilst at present, by God's grace, there seem to be good chances of success; and we have closed the despatch again, only adding this letter to give you a summary account of the antecedents of this negotiation and our reasons for having opened your letter and kept back the courier this afternoon. You will have to decide whether your presence is required to guide the campaign against Siena, or whether without running any risks you will be able to go to Rome for a few days and attend to this matter. If, as we suppose, you are able to go in person to Rome, you will do so without losing a single hour, and we are sending you a letter of credence to the Pope which you will present together with the one from our son, the King. You will urge his Holiness to deal with the matter without delay, and make it clear to him that although we want the powers extended in order to guard against the failure of so holy an undertaking, inspired by zeal for the honour of God, the apostolic see's authority and desire to come to the rescue of a multitude of souls, the greatest care shall be taken to use the powers with the utmost discretion, never spending four where three would do, as they say and we told the Legate the last time we gave him audience. You will make sure that the powers are so clear and distinct that the King and Queen, their ministers and everyone who may have occasion to see them may be rid of all doubt or uncertainty as to their real import, and that no opening may be given to demands for explanations that would create delays and ruin the whole negotiation. In order to give the Legate an opportunity of making himself useful and putting in his word with his Holiness as a person who understands what is needed in England, we sent the Bishop of Arras to speak with him and tell him of this courier's departure. He has done so this evening in order to persuade the Cardinal and the Nuncio, who was also present, to write to his Holiness in support of our request; and both of them realised that it was the only way of achieving anything and proclaimed themselves very glad to write copiously, thanking us and our son for taking such great pains in the matter. Both of them were urged to do so quickly and also to keep the secret, for the French always have their eyes open for a chance to do harm; but we need not make the same remarks to you, for you are quite prudent enough to realise their force of your own accord.
When you have concluded this negotiation, you may return to Florence and leave Rome for good. You will then be free to take the Sienese matter in hand if you think your presence is required in the present circumstances, or come hither if you desire to do so immediately on the arrival of the person who, as we said above, has already left to relieve you.
Copy or decipher. Spanish.
Simancas, E.508.
83. The Emperor to Philip
Brussels, 20 October Yesterday at dinner-time the courier arrived here whom you had sent off to Don Juan Manrique. You will see from the letter we had written to him, a copy of which is enclosed, the reasons for which we opened his packet and, in spite of the orders given him on his departure, kept him here until nightfall. We spent the whole afternoon discussing with the Legate and Nuncio and persuading them to write to his Holiness, for when we gave the Legate audience, as you will see in the copy, we were waiting for the person who was to come from England to explain affairs there with regard to religion, and as the Legate had written this to Rome his Holiness, had he received no further letters from his ministers, might have wasted more time, intending to gain it again by making the courier hurry. This, as you realise, would have been most unfortunate just at present.
(fn. 1) You will see from the above, my son, what made me open the packet addressed to Don Juan Manrique. I had to do it because he would have been confused between what I had written to him and your letter, not to mention what I had said to the Legater about speaking to him again when I had received your reply, on account of which he has been waiting. I opened the packet in spite of the inclosed note from Gonzalo Pérez to the master of the posts here, for to try to gain time by hurrying so much would only have been courting a risk of losing much more time because of incoherency. The Lieutenant of Amont has arrived to-day and given me your letter and the Queen's. I have heard his account at great length, and to-morrow we shall decide as to what he shall say to the Legate and the rest, for the letter we sent by the courier will prevent time being lost at Rome. You shall be informed of the result.
Copy. Spanish.
Simancas, E.507.
84. The Emperor to Francisco de Eraso
Brussels, 20 October I have received your letter of the 12th instant, and was much pleased to hear that you and the King and Queen were all well, as also that she is now considered certainly to be with child and that people in general are pleased with the King and all, especially the Councillors, love him. It was good to hear that the rising of which you wrote from Calais failed to make headway, and that England was at peace and giving no lack of signs of a better time to come. You did well to inform me of all this, and you will be careful to give an account of everything that seems to you worth mentioning.
You acted in quite the right way with the man who went as ambassador to Spain and the Admiral, and as they were pleased and made the offers you mention, which we hope they will fulfill, you will treat the others in a similar manner; for at any rate it can do no harm.
It was wise to decide that none of the officers should exercise his office, as it has been thought best to send them back to Spain; and I approve of the line adopted with regard to vagabonds, though it cannot well be put into execution for the present lest a greater evil befall; but I hope the time for it will come, and it will certainly be a good measure. I am glad the Spaniard who killed an Englishman has been executed, and that he (the King?) is going to get rid of Saavedra because of the presumption against him. I have no doubt he (Saavedra) talks about revelations in order to put off what he is afraid is going to happen to him; but one must be careful in such matters, and also to take the measures that seem most prudent in view of what has been discovered about Elizabeth and her followers. It is a good thing that Parliament is to meet on November 12th, and that the King is making ready to treat the religious question with the assistance of Paget, who has returned. He is the right man, and is hopeful of the result on condition that Church property is not touched. The courier you said was to be sent to Rome about the brief has arrived here, but as we were not informed of what he was carrying and he only had a note telling him to proceed at once we opened his packet for Don Juan Manrique and sealed it up again with our secret seal. On reading the letter, I caused the Legate to be spoken to and wrote to Don Juan as I thought seemed required. I have also written to tell my son all about it, as you will hear from him. Simon Renard has arrived and I have heard what he has to say, so all that is necessary will be done.
As the King has heard the terms proposed for taking up a million at exchange and thinks they had better be accepted, I have ordered the courier to go by way of Antwerp with your dispatch for the bankers, whose reply will tell you what there is to be told. I need say no more except that the matter had better be pushed on to a conclusion according to the project formed, as we have no choice. Of the money in Zárate's hands we have not taken out any more over and above the sum you know of except 10,000 crowns for necessary and household expenses, 6,000 of which were given to the Spanish infantry as an instalment on their pay, as I heard they were in dire straits. We will keep the rest for the purpose you mention. I was sorry to hear about the trouble in Peru, but as our people got the best of it I trust the rebels have been broken up. There is nothing to be said about that appointment or what the Count of Olivares asks for, and as for the other matters you mention, I will only charge you to try to settle them as soon as possible.
Decipher. Spanish.
Simancas, E.508.
85. Giovan Tommaso Langosco dei Conti da Stroppiana (fn. 2) to the Bishop of Arras
London, 22 October The Duke, my master, has ordered me to send my letter to him to your Reverend Lordship, so you will not take it as presumptuous on my part to send you the enclosed, which I beg you to have forwarded. There are no news except the departure of Don Fernando (Gonzaga), who is returning to Flanders. During his stay here he has been greatly favoured, honoured, caressed and deferred to by Señor Ruy Gómez de Silva, and has received from the Queen a ring with a single ruby and a chain with a pendant formed by a diamond and a big pearl, valued 800 or 1,000 crowns, for the Princess, his spouse. My Lord Clinton, a knight of the Garter, left here on Friday with an honourable company of gentlemen to carry the collar, the cloak and the garter to the Duke, my master, at Hesdin, which is yet another very great honour for him. The Spaniards' cane-play is being put off from day to day, or rather from one holiday to the next, and I believe it will be deferred so as to be held just at the opening of Parliament, in order that it may give pleasure to a greater number of spectators. His Majesty is to take part in it, with the Dukes of Alva and Medinaceli, the Count of Feria and all the greatest nobles. My Lord Paget, as he himself asserts, is wholly your Lordship's servant, and has charged me to send you his loving commendations.
Holograph. Italian.
Vienna, Staatsarchiv, E.V.5.
86. The Emperor to Philip
Brussels. (fn. 3) My son: I am writing these two words in reply to your letter brought by the Lieutenant of Amont, for he will report to you himself on the result of his mission here, and tell you all my news. I only wish to say how overjoyed I am to hear of the condition of the Queen, my good daughter, and that there is hope that God will give us successors by her. She had no need to excuse herself for not writing in her own hand, for my desire is that she should be careful of her health and take things easily, especially in her present condition. And as I have the gout in my right hand and arm I also am unable to write to her.
The Lieutenant has begged me to let him leave England, and I have consented subject to your approval. You will think over the message I sent you by Eraso, and consider whether it would not be well to keep him (Renard) there until Parliament is over, as he is familiar with the ways of the Council and English affairs; for in spite of his desire to come home, he will stay and serve you as long as you may require his services.
I am sending you the bull for the Spanish half-fruits, which the Nuncio gave me the day before yesterday, and the brief including the Cardinal's, although I suppose you will already have had them sent to you in duplicate by Don Juan Manrique de Lara, or from Spain. You may use either the bull or the brief as you may think opportune.
Minute. French.
Vienna, Staatsarchiv, S.I.
87. Philip to Domingo de Orbea (fn. 4)
London, 27 October Geoffrey Baham has informed me that he was ordered by the Queen, my dear and well-beloved wife, to supply provisions and refreshments in Portsmouth harbour to the fleet in which my royal person journeyed hither. By the orders of Pedro Verdugo, who came as purveyor to the fleet in Don Bernardino de Mendoza's absence, he delivered casks of beer, fresh meat, flour, biscuit and salt-fish to the value of 7,232 reales, 5 dineros in Spanish money, which amounts to 245,913 maravedis, as results from the accounts drawn up with Geoffrey Baham by Cristobal de Haro, whom the Admiral of Castile, commander of the fleet, says he deputed to verify the provisions. Now, at the time when the part of the fleet that returned to Spain with the Admiral was about to sail, Geoffrey Baham sent to ask Pedro Verdugo for payment, and Verdugo gave him a signed order to Juan de Galarza, paymaster of the fleet, but as the fleet was sailing Galarza had no time to make the payment and took the order away with him, besides which Pedro Verdugo went off with all the orders for food he had issued to Geoffrey Baham, who claims to have greatly suffered thereby, and begs me, as it happened in my service, to have his money paid to him.
In consideration of the above, and as I have already had submitted to me the accounts signed by Cristobal de Haro and countersigned by Alonso Fernández, accountant of the fleet, to prove that the victuals were really delivered and have not been paid for, I have granted his request, and now order you to pay to him or anyone who has his power out of any moneys you may have in hand 7,232 reales, 5 dineros, amounting to 245,913 maravedis, in exchange for his receipt, which, together with this letter, shall be recorded in the books of the officials who keep the accounts of the Queen, so that the sum may not be paid twice over to Geoffrey Baham. On presentation of the original accounts signed by Cristobal de Haro and Alonso Fernández, I have ordered that the sum of 245,913 maravedis be placed to your credit without your having to take any further steps in the matter. I have ordered my clerk, Fernando de España, to make a note of this order, and when the accountants also look over your books come to this item, they are to report on it to the Emperor's accountant-in-chief, in order that he may make sure that Juan de Galarza is not paid the sum, and that the captains of the ships who took the victuals on board may not put in a claim to be paid for them.
Copy. Spanish.
Simancas, E.808.


  • 1. This letter appears to have been sent off on October 19th. See the following paper.
  • 2. A marginal note states that this paragraph, in the original, was in the Emperor's own hand.
  • 3. The Duke of Savoy's ambassador to the Emperor, on mission in England.
  • 4. This letter is undated, but its contents show that it must have been written on or about October 25.
  • 5. Domingo de Orbea was Philip's treasurer.