Spain: June 1513

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.

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'Spain: June 1513', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525, (London, 1866) pp. 127-142. British History Online [accessed 29 February 2024]

June 1513

June (?)
P. A. d. l'E. ix. Negot. B. 1638.
110. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander Muxica.
Desires peace with France. Had the King of France consented earlier to the truce, he might have prevented the Emperor and the King of England from invading France.
If the King of France asks what the dower of the Infante (Ferdinand) is to be, he is to answer that the Infante will inherit one half of the patrimony of the Emperor. It may be that the portion of his inheritance in Germany will be exchanged for the kingdom of Naples.
Indorsed : "Muxica."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 3.
June (?)
P. A. d. l'E. Neg. P. d. S. K. 1638.
111. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Ambassadors of the King Of England.
The King of England asks him to send him succour in the war he intends to make on France this summer, such succour to consist of a fleet with at least 5,000 armed men on board. The answer of King Ferdinand is as follows.
Has never thought or known that the King of England intended to make war single handed on France. An enterprise which is feasible and even easy, when undertaken by many with united forces, might prove to be very difficult and dangerous when undertaken by the King of England alone. Is of opinion that the King of England should desist from it, especially as he (King Ferdinand) and the King of England are carrying on negotiations the subject of which is to undertake conjointly a common war against France. Sent to that end the Knight Commander Muxica to England. Muxica returned in company of the English ambassador, Doctor Knight, and brought him the answer of the King of England. After having heard Doctor Knight and John Stile, he sent a draft of a new treaty to the King of England, and wrote his opinion about it to his ambassador Luis Caroz. The draft of the treaty which he sent to England contained all the conditions clearly stated under which the joint enterprise, that is to say, the conquest of Guienne, might be undertaken with well-founded hope of success.
Informed the English ambassadors at the same time that the King of France had made overtures to him, and proposed a truce of one year with him and all his allies, promising to do justice to every one of them. Many reasons induced him to think that the offers of the King of France ought not to be rejected.
1. The late Pope Julius had set all the states of Italy one against the other, had excluded the Venetians from the league, and had weakened the duchy of Milan by forcibly occupying some cities therein. He (Pope Julius) had rendered impossible the conquest of the fortresses in the duchy of Milan which were still occupied by the French. He had even attempted to carry out some measures which were prejudicial to his (King Ferdinand's) possessions in Italy. The consequence thereof was that the Italians, in their troubled state, were not only unable to succour the league, but that Venice, Ferrara, and other Italian states made common cause with the French. Thus, instead of being assisted by the Italians, he was obliged to give up his war with France, in order to secure the Italians as members of the league.
2. The peace between the Emperor and the Venetians could not be concluded, and the Cardinal of Gurk wrote that the Emperor, as the Venetians had refused to make peace with him, intended to conclude an alliance with France, in order to destroy Venice.
3. Supposing even that the Emperor had not concluded an alliance with the King of France ; occupied as he was with his war with Venice, he could not have aided much in a war against France.
4. The King of England had delayed the final conclusion of the treaty with him concerning their intended joint enterprise on France. To settle all the details of the preparations for the war would require a long continuation of negotiations, the end of which could not be foreseen. Meanwhile the season had advanced, and it was very doubtful whether war with France could be undertaken that year. In the draft of the treaty which the King of England sent to Spain, it was said that the war was to begin at the end of June. The end of June is the same thing as the 1st of July, and the two remaining months of the summer, July and August, were too short a time for carrying out so great an enterprise as war with France.
Thus, as it was impossible to begin war with France in the current year, he thought the best he could do was to send the Bishop of Catania to France, with his power to conclude a truce of one year for himself and all his allies and friends.
During this truce the following things may be done :
1. The King of England and he ought to come to a final understanding about all the measures and preparations for war.
2. They ought to pacify Italy.
3. They ought to do all they can to bring about peace between the Emperor and the Venetians. From this peace two great advantages will accrue. One of them is that the Emperor, when he is no longer occupied with his war against Venice, can employ all his power against the French. The second advantage is that the Venetians will pay him (fn. 1) 700,000 ducats, send him 300 men-at-arms at their own cost, and pay him a perpetual tribute, which he can employ in a war with France.
4. When Italy is pacified, the army of the Italian league can be employed against France.
If all this is done during the period of the truce, and the King of France does not fully satisfy every one of the allies, the whole league may next year, at the beginning of April, attack France with their united forces, and continue the war during the whole summer.
Well knowing that war against France could not be carried on if the Emperor were at war with Venice, and the political state of Italy troubled, he sent to the Emperor, and begged him to conclude peace with Venice, and at the same time to persuade the other Italian powers to reconcile themselves with one another. The Emperor answered, that he thought he (King Ferdinand) should conclude the truce with France in the names of all the allies, in order to give time to the allies to make the necessary preparations for the war which was to begin next year.
Two other circumstances contributed to induce him to conclude the truce.
Had caught a very severe cold during the winter, which had ended in an attack on the chest and a complicated fever. (fn. 2) When he was so ill that his life was in danger, his confessor had told him that it was his duty to conclude the truce. Following the precepts of his confessor, he had given commission to conclude a truce of one year on equal conditions for all his allies.
Another reason which had made him think the truce was desirable was that his council had found it quite impossible to procure the necessary pecuniary means for continuing the war. The impossibility of obtaining money continues, and will continue until the state of his health shall permit him to take an active part in the despatch of business.
Pope Julius is dead. Although his successor is a good man, and will most probably succour those who defend the Church, it is necessary first to come to an understanding with him, and to see what he does.
All these different reasons have rendered it necessary for him to conclude a truce with France. Begs the King of England, his son, to follow his advice and that of the Emperor, and to ratify the truce. Meanwhile preparations for a renewal of the war can be made. With regard to a peace with France, protests that on no conditions whatever would he consent to a peace, except with the full knowledge and approval of the King of England. If peace with France is to be concluded, he and the King of England must conclude it together.
Indorsed : "Answer of the Catholic King to the ambassadors of the King of England, who were sent to ask the Catholic King to send a fleet with 5,000 men, to be employed in the war of the King of England with the King of France."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 5.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. K. 6. f. 251. 112. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Ambassadors of the King Of England.
This document is a copy of the preceding, apparently in the handwriting of the 17th century.
2 June.
S. E. R. L. 847. f. 105.
113. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich, his Ambassador in Rome.
Wrote to him on the 15th of May, and sent his letter by Fernando Rodriguez by sea, and by Perote by land. Wrote again on the 28th of May, and sent his letter by Francisco Peyron by sea, and by Felipe de Battanar by land.
The King of France urges him quickly to conclude the league between the Emperor, the King of France, and him (King Ferdinand), the object of which is to destroy Venice. The Emperor has also sent him a letter, dated Augsburg, the 12th of May, in which he tells him that Pedro de Urea and an Imperial ambassador are on their way to Spain, and are bringing with them a full power of him (the Emperor) to conclude such a treaty as he thinks convenient. The Pope, the Emperor, and he (King Ferdinand) must always remain allies. The Pope must, without delay, conclude a general Italian league against France. Concessions may be made to the Venetians, in order to induce them to become a party to the league. But, at all events, the league must be concluded without delay, and the friendship of the Emperor must be preserved.
The league must pay his infantry and 5,000 Swiss troops. The league is to last 25 years.
It is said that the King of England has made up his mind to begin war against France. Two things must be done by the Pope ; firstly, he must form the league and reduce the castles which the French still hold in the duchy of Milan.
Secondly, the Pope must preserve the friendship of the King of England. He must see that if England make peace with France, the whole of Italy, the Pope, and the Council of the Lateran should be included in the peace.
He must answer directly.
Indorsed : "Rome. 1513. Written at Valladolid on the 2nd of June 1513. By the courier Andrea Velati by land."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
3 June.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon. Hist. K. 1639. No. 31.
114. Louis, King Of France, to All Persons.
Odet de Foix, (fn. 3) in his quality as French ambassador, concluded with Jacobus de Cuchillos, Bishop of Catania and ambassador of King Ferdinand, a truce, dated Orthez the 1st of April 1513, to which the following princes were parties : he (King Louis), James, King of Scotland, and Charles, Duke of Gueldres, on the one part ; and the Emperor, the King of England, King Ferdinand the Catholic, Queen Juana of Castile, and Charles, Prince of Spain, on the other part.
The Emperor and Henry, King of England, were, according to this treaty, to ratify it within two months. As that time has expired and the Emperor has not ratified it, he grants him a further delay till the 1st of July for the acceptance and ratification of the said truce.—Paris, the 3rd of June 1513.
Indorsed : "Prorogation of the King of France. 1513."
French. Written on a large sheet of parchment. Autograph.
June (?)
S. E. Var. L. 1554. f. 284.
115. King Ferdinand The Catholic to [blank]. (fn. 4)
He (?) is to tell him (?) that, according to news received from England, the King of England is about to invade France with a powerful army. Has not much confidence in the enterprises of England. Nevertheless, in order to assist England as much as he can, he has ordered his Viceroy to reinforce the Swiss, and to attack the army of Monsieur de la Tremouille. If the King of England will promise to undertake the conquest of Guienne next year, and if he will give the securities asked from him by Don Luis (Caroz), he (King Ferdinand) will in the current year invade Bearn and conquer it, which enterprise would occupy the French army in the south, and thus render great services to the King of England. Besides, the conquest of Bearn in the present year would render the conquest of Guienne in the ensuing year much easier.
Spanish. A fragment of a draft, written by (Almazan?). p. 1.
16 June.
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 17.
116. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Has received his letters of the 30th of April and the 10th of May, together with the documents enclosed in them. Sends Don Pedro de Lanuza to the King of England. Don Pedro is fully acquainted with his intentions, and he (Don Luis) is to believe all that he will communicate to him.—Valladolid, the 16th of June 1513.
Addressed : "By the King. To Don Luis Caroz de Villaragut, his Councillor and Ambassador at the Court of Rome." (fn. 5)
Spanish. Autograph. p. 1.
16 June.
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 11.
117. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Katharine, Queen Of England.
Has received her letter of the month of April. Is very glad to hear of her happiness and of the prosperity of the King her husband.
Sends Pedro de Lanuza to inform her of his concerns, and begs her to give him full credit.—Valladolid, the 16th of June 1513.
Addressed : "To the Queen of England."
Spanish. Draft or copy. p. 1.
18 June (?)
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 140.
118. King Ferdinand The Catholic to his Envoy (fn. 6) to the King Of England.
He is to speak to the King of England as follows :—
Has concluded a truce with the King of France. The reasons which induced him to do so are contained in the answer he gave to the Doctor (fn. 7) and to John Stile in the convent of Mejorada. Two considerations, however, had more weight with him than all his other motives. The first and most important of them was, that he was in immediate danger of death. Men of tender consciences pressed upon him that he should, for God's sake, conclude the truce before he died. Gave the power to sign the truce, since all good Christians are in the habit of reconciling themselves with their enemies when they are dying. His other reason for concluding the truce with France was that the King of England had not formally bound himself to send the assistance which he had promised in the first treaty ; and not even the smaller succour which had been agreed upon in the second treaty had been given, although it was to be employed in the enterprise on Guienne which was to be undertaken in the sole interest of the King of England himself. Even now, the King of England neither sends, nor even offers to send, money or soldiers for the conquest of Guienne. Had never expected that the King of England would act otherwise. But if the King of England does not like to spend anything on the conquest of Guienne, he must not expect him (King Ferdinand) to undertake it. Besides, even if the King of England had shown more readiness to assist him, and if he had not been ill, it is clear that Guienne could not have been conquered in the present year. His doubts about the good will of the King of England were confirmed by the circumstance that the King of England, instead of concluding the treaty, had sent to tell him that he intended to undertake alone the conquest of Guienne.
Another consideration which induced him to conclude the truce with France was that Pope Julius had left the whole of Italy in utter disorder when he died, and that the Emperor had informed him of his purpose never to make peace with the Venetians. The Emperor wanted to destroy them. Knew that the Venetians had entered into negotiations about a treaty of alliance with France. They were ready to conclude it, and were waiting for nothing but the answer of the Emperor. It was clear that the Emperor would reject the offers of the Venetians, as he has done so since. When the Venetians received the answer of the Emperor they signed, in the month of March, a league with the King of France at Blois.
The object of this league is to subject and conquer Italy. The Venetians concluded it without any respect to the league which they had already concluded with him (King Ferdinand) and the King of England. They behaved with ingratitude towards him. It is true that Pope Julius had excluded the Venetians from the new league, but he (King Ferdinand) and the King of England had not done so. Foresaw all this confusion a long time ago, and tried in vain to prevent it. Sent special ambassadors to the Emperor, and besought him to make such a peace with the Venetians as would have reflected honour on him, and have enabled him to carry out his designs against France. Could never prevail on the Emperor. The league between the Venetians and France is concluded with the intention of depriving the Emperor of his Italian dominions. If the Emperor were to offer peace to the Venetians now, they would not accept it on the same conditions as formerly. Thus, the obstinacy of the Emperor has rendered the French masters of Italy. It is under such circumstances impossible to form an Italian league against France. Both his plans are thereby destroyed.
Such being the state of things in Italy, both his allies (the Emperor and the King of England) forsook him last year, and left him exposed to the whole power of France. It would have been against all reason if he had continued to make war against France in Italy and on the frontier of Spain. Is even now left alone to oppose the whole power of France in Italy. It would be surprising if his resources sufficed to carry on that war, especially as the whole of Italy is at present allied with France. The Emperor has to answer for all this. Had he (King Ferdinand) not been the ally of the Emperor, all the Italian states would have sought his (King Ferdinand's) friendship. With the Italian princes for his allies he would have been able to render great services in the other enterprise (the conquest of Guienne and Normandy) against France. But the Emperor would never believe him, and the consequence is the loss of Italy. His own Italian states are now in danger, and he (King Ferdinand) has been obliged to spend enormous sums of money for his army in Italy. He is forsaken by all. The Pope is at heart his friend, but he does not dare openly to declare himself an enemy of France, and is therefore neutral. Has no money. Has always been implicated in wars, and thus he has spent all his revenues. If, therefore, the King of England does not give him the subsidies which he promised for the undertaking in Guienne, it is impossible for him to do anything in this enterprise.
Has learnt from Luis Caroz, his ambassador, that he concluded on the 30th of April, (fn. 8) in his name, a treaty with the King of England. When the English departed from Spain, and left him in a position which was notorious to the whole world, he sent the Knight Commander Muxica, in order to plan with the King of England a new enterprise against France. The answer which the Knight Commander brought back from England was insufficient. As soon as Muxica, the Doctor, and John Stile, had arrived at his court, he sent his reply to the King of England. The substance of it was that the new treaty was inadequate to the enterprise in contemplation, and that he, therefore, would not sign it. Sent, at the same time, another project of a treaty to the King of England. His ambassador informed the King of England and the councillors of the King of all those proceedings before the treaty was signed which, as he learns, is now signed by his ambassador. That was not all. He himself told the English ambassadors in Spain before he fell ill, that he could not sign the treaty sent to him from England, as it contained a stipulation according to which he was to receive the insufficient sum of 100,000 crowns from the King of England. The English ambassadors, it is true, promised him by word of mouth that he should have another 100,000 crowns out of the revenues of Guienne as soon as that province was conquered. Did not attach much value to verbal promises. Besides, the proposals of the King of England were, on the whole, unsatisfactory. Did not like to take money from the King of England, who is his son. It was, therefore, his wish that the King of England should pay the auxiliary troops employed in the enterprise of Guienne through his own paymaster. It had always been his intention to bear alone all the expenses of the Spanish troops, as is stated in the treaty which he has sent to England. Intended to assist his son out of paternal love. Thus, the King of England was fully aware that the Spanish ambassador, although he had the power, was not ordered to sign the treaty. On the contrary, he was instructed to sign no other treaty than the draft which was sent to him from Spain. It is clear that, as the Spanish ambassador was not even at liberty to sign the treaty in which he (King Ferdinand) was promised a subsidy, he was much less authorized to sign the treaty which he is now said to have signed, and which does not contain a single word about assistance in the enterprise on Guienne, although that is entirely an English affair.
The whole treaty seems to be concluded rather for the sake of appearances than to be calculated for real execution. It would be wrong to make the King of England promises which cannot be fulfilled. It is therefore impossible for him to ratify the treaty which, as the King of England well knows, was concluded against his orders. Besides, the treaty does not contain any arrangement which makes the enterprise on Guienne possible. The treaty is a demonstration, and nothing else. If the King of England is in earnest with respect to the conquest of Guienne, he must see that the enterprise is to be undertaken solely in his interest, and that it would be unjust to ask him (King Ferdinand) to pay all the expenses of it. Even if he were willing to pay all the expenses, he could not do so, as he has no money. Is, nevertheless, ready to undertake the conquest of Guienne, if the King of England will pay him as much money as an army of 6,000 Germans would cost during such period as the war may last. That is much less than he (King Ferdinand) will be obliged to add from his own means. If any other prince would make him (King Ferdinand) such an offer in his wars, he should consider himself obliged to him for his whole lifetime.
If he (King Ferdinand) undertakes the conquest of Guienne, he will not be acting against the truce concluded with France ; for Bearn is not included in the truce. If he attacks Bearn the French will certainly oppose him, and thereby liberate him from the obligations he has assumed in the truce. Will then be at full liberty to invade Guienne or any other province of France. Although the treaty to be concluded with the King of England must contain the phrase "after the expiration of one year, or earlier, if the French break the truce earlier," the King of England may rest assured that the enterprise on Guienne will begin immediately after the signature of the treaty.
He is to tell Don Luis Caroz to enter at once into negotiations respecting the new treaty. Although the articles of it may be concerted in England, the treaty must be signed in Spain. Fears that otherwise a new error might be committed. It would be best to bring the treaty with him on his return from England, together with an order of the King of England to his ambassadors in Spain to sign it.
He is to tell the Spanish ambassador in England that he is henceforth to sign no paper without having received orders to do so. He (the ambassador) could not have committed a greater error and shown greater blindness than he showed in concluding the last treaty, when he knew two things, viz., that he (King Ferdinand) had concluded the truce with France from pure necessity, and that he had rejected the more advantageous treaty by which the King of England offered him a subsidy. If he breaks the treaties which he has signed and sworn to, nobody will in future believe him. The enterprise on Guienne is impossible. Fears that this last treaty which has been concluded, and which cannot be executed, will alienate King Henry from him for ever. Has hitherto always fulfilled his engagements with the King of England. But now the King of England will say that he (King Ferdinand) refuses to fulfil what his ambassador has concluded, and will become his enemy. However that may be, no choice is left him. He can ratify no treaty with the King of England excepting one concluded on the conditions which are contained in the draft sent from Spain to England. The King of England, if he is reasonable, must see that he (King Ferdinand) is always ready to assist him.
If the King of England is not in earnest with respect to the conquest of Guienne—a thing which many suspect—and if he is inclined to make peace with France, the peace must be a general one. It is necessary that he (King Ferdinand), the Emperor, and the King of England should remain intimately united, in order to resist the further designs of France.
He is to do his utmost to return with a definitive answer as soon as possible.
He is to tell the King of England that the Queen of France has sent a messenger to tell him that the King of France is inclined to satisfy the King of England and the other princes with whom he has disputes. The Queen of France added, that if he (King Ferdinand) would send a trustworthy person the King of France would give orders to conclude a general peace. Sent Quintana, in order to learn particulars respecting this proposal. The King and Queen of France told Quintana that they would make peace with him (King Ferdinand), and offered him great advantages. As soon, however, as it was clear that the King of France was not desirous to conclude a general peace, he ordered Quintana to return Quintana has come back to Spain. Tells the King of England this, only in order that he may not believe those who will perhaps represent the mission of Quintana in a different light.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Instruction concerning what is to be said to the King of England about the truce concluded between the Catholic King and the King of France."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 11.
June (?)
S. E. Fl. L. 496. f. 47 e. 48.
119. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander Juan De Lanuza, his Ambassador in Flanders.
He is to tell Madame Margaret, in virtue of the letter of credence enclosed in this despatch, that before and after he concluded the truce with France in his own name as well as in the name of the Emperor, the King of England, and Prince Charles, he wrote to his ambassador, Don Pedro de Urea, and ordered him to explain all his reasons to the Emperor. Does not doubt that the Emperor has told her so.
Two reasons, which sprung from nothing less than absolute necessity, induced him to conclude the truce. Being so ill that his life was despaired of, he was bound as a Christian to reconcile himself, before his death, with all his enemies. This reason had the more force with him, because he considered that, even if he escaped this time from the danger of death, he should for a long while remain too weak to be able to provide for a war with France.
His second reason for concluding the truce with France was that the King of England had not sent him the succour for his (the King of England's) own enterprise in Guienne, which he had promised in a formal treaty.
An additional reason for concluding the truce was, that Pope Julius at his death had left the whole of Italy in a most unsettled and perilous state, and that the Emperor wrote to him, and asked Luis Gilaberte to write to him, saying that it would be best to make peace with France and war with the Venetians. Knew that the Venetians were entertaining close negotiations with the King of France. They were only waiting for the answer of the Emperor to conclude an alliance with France, in case they were excluded from the general league. The Emperor excluded them, and the Venetians signed the treaty of alliance with France at Blois in the month of March, long before he concluded the truce with King Louis. The Republic has since then ratified the treaty with France at Venice on the 6th of April. The object of the alliance between France and Venice was to divide among themselves the whole of Italy. Had a long time ago foreseen all this, and had asked and besought the Emperor to make peace with Venice, telling him that no Emperor ever had a better opportunity to earn such glory as he would earn by reconciling himself with the Republic. The Emperor did not lend a willing ear to his exhortations, and has thereby placed the whole of Italy and the kingdom of Naples in so dangerous a position, that it is impossible for him (King Ferdinand) to enter into any alliance against the King of France. Even if the above mentioned principal reasons, which, as already stated, flow from absolute necessity, had not existed, how could he, in the current year, make war upon France, since it would be almost a miracle if he alone were able to provide for the security of Italy? A great portion of the Italian princes are allied with France, and no Italian state whatever is allied with him. Had the Emperor followed his advice, or had he (King Ferdinand) abandoned the Emperor and carried out his own plans, the affairs of Italy would be in a very different state from what they are now. The whole of Italy would be in his favour, instead of which he is, in fact, forsaken by all Italy, and obliged to maintain a large and expensive army to keep down the Italians. And though the Pope is at heart his friend, he dares not declare himself openly. Thus, having exhausted all his previous resources, it is impossible for him to undertake anything of importance, if the King of England will not pay the money which he has bound himself by the treaty to pay for the enterprise of Guienne.
Having concluded the truce from pure necessity, he is forced to observe it this year. During that time he and the Emperor can make alliances with all the states of Italy, if the Emperor accepts the peace which the Venetians have offered him through Count Cariati. Allied with Italy, they can next year return to the enterprise against France. He is to beg Madame to use her influence with the Emperor, and to show him that the policy he has hitherto adopted can have only one result, viz., that of making the King of France master of the world ; whilst, if the Emperor follows his (King Ferdinand's) advice, nothing will be lost.
Seeing how difficult it is to conclude a league against France, he has urgently advised the Emperor to see that, at least, the states of the Prince (Charles) remain at peace with France.
When the English troops which had come to Spain had returned to England, he sent the Knight Commander Muxica to the King of England, with instructions to concert another treaty instead of that which the English had broken. The King of England answered, that if he (King Ferdinand) were willing to undertake the conquest of Guienne, he would pay him 100,000 crowns at once, and afterwards as much more as his ambassadors in Spain should think necessary. The King of England sent him together with this answer the draft of a treaty. Found it, however, impossible to come to an understanding with the English ambassadors in Spain about the quantity of money which was to be paid to him. Wrote, therefore, to Don Luis Caroz not to sign the treaty the draft of which had been sent to him (King Ferdinand), and which contained the stipulation respecting the 100,000 crowns. That sum was utterly insufficient to carry out the enterprise on Guienne. Authorized, however, his ambassador to sign another treaty, the draft of which was enclosed in his (King Ferdinand's) despatch. Offered in this draft to undertake the conquest of Guienne the following year, and to spend on that enterprise more money than the King of England. Don Luis Caroz, after having received the despatch in which it was expressly forbidden him to sign any other treaty than the draft enclosed in it, signed another new treaty, according to which he (King Ferdinand) was bound at once to declare war with France, and to conquer Guienne at his own expense, to which enterprise the King of England was to contribute nothing at all, though the conquest was to be his. That was done not only without his instruction and authorization, but directly against his instructions and orders. The King of England and his ambassadors in Spain knew that perfectly well. He had written his will to the King, and had told it by word of mouth to the English ambassadors. Did not, therefore, ratify the treaty. The enterprise on Guienne, as its particulars were concerted in that treaty, was more a semblance than a thing that could be carried out in reality. Besides, the English knew very well that he had already concluded the truce with France which he was bound to observe, since otherwise nobody would in future trust him. Wrote nevertheless to Don Luis Caroz that, if the King of England was in reality willing to undertake the conquest of Guienne, he would condescend to concert a new treaty for the next year with clauses that could be executed. He is to tell all this to the Princess Margaret in secret.
[Written on the margin :] "Not to be overlooked. To be read with attention."
He writes that Madame is willing to deliver Don Juan Manuel up to him as a prisoner. He is to tell her that Don Juan has not only rendered bad services to him (King Ferdinand), but also speaks so ill of her that for this alone he deserves punishment. Sends Artieta, who is the bearer of this despatch, with a ship, which ostensibly sails with merchandise, but which, in fact, is sent for no other purpose than to convey Don Juan as a prisoner to the place of which Artieta is informed. If Madame has not changed her mind, he is, with the greatest dexterity, and in such a manner that nobody may be aware of it, to transport Don Juan on board ship, and to deliver him to Artieta. To carry away Don Juan Manuel seems to be a small thing, but, in fact, it is very important. If it were done, his relations with the Emperor and with the Prince (Charles) would at once be much improved. Is willing to pay the desired pensions to the four persons he has named in case Don Juan be delivered to him. If not the pensions will not be paid, as they would be of little advantage. Encloses letters of exchange for the sum of 4,000 ducats, which is the amount of the pensions for the first year to the four persons whom he (Lanuza) has named. Adds other letters of credit, by which the payment of the pensions is secured for the future.
Has written to Don Juan of Aragon that he has not precedence of the ambassadors, and has told him that he would commit a great error if he were to enter ecclesiastical orders.
Approves of the arrangements he has made with the host of the couriers, and promises to pay him (the host) a pension of fifty ducats a year if he continues to render him services.
After having written this despatch, letters from Don Pedro de Urea arrived, dated Augsburg, the 12th of May. He writes that he and an ambassador of the Emperor will soon be in Spain, and there arrange with him all the differences between him and the Emperor. Is glad of it. The affairs mentioned in this despatch must not, however, suffer any delay.
Thanks him for the minute information concerning the persons who are near the person of the Prince (Charles). Sends him a letter of credit drawn on the house of Diego Flores for the sum of 100,000 maravedis, the payment of which will be repeated every year. The money is to be paid to those persons near the person of the Prince who render him good services. Will soon find a profitable employment for Luys Vara.
Written on the margin : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "The Catholic King to Mosen Juan de Lanuza."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.
June (?)
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. Pont. L. 1. f. 81.
120. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich and [blank], his Ambassadors in Rome. (fn. 9)
Has shown by his deeds his devotedness to the Pope. As soon as the Pope was elevated to his high station he sent an embassy to assure him of his obedience. Sent him afterwards seven despatches by seven couriers, by land and by sea, begging him to reconcile himself with the Venetians, and to conclude a general league for the defence of Italy. Gave orders to his Viceroy of Naples and to his ambassador in Rome to do all that might be necessary in order to conclude the league within the shortest time possible. Has received no answer, either from the Pope, or from his viceroy and his ambassador.
Has received news from France that, whilst the King of France was afraid of the invasion of his kingdom with which he was threatened by the King of England, the French had conquered the duchy of Milan and Genoa without any resistance.
If the Italian princes are willing to deliver their country from French tyranny, they must not lose time, but avail themselves of the present opportunity. The English army has invaded France, and the King of England is about to take the command of his troops in person. Thus, the King of France will be under the necessity of recalling a portion of his troops from Italy. If the Italian princes should enter into an alliance with him (King Ferdinand), they could render great services to the King of England, and do much harm to the King of France. Should the Italian princes declare themselves against France, he and the King of England would be able to humble France, and force her to leave the other Christian princes in peace for the future. Begs the Pope to persuade the Venetians and the Florentines to conclude an alliance with him (King Ferdinand), and to enter likewise into the alliance against France.
It may be that the Venetians will refuse to enter into a league against France, as they have so lately concluded an alliance with that country. If that should be the case, the Pope ought to explain to them that it was the late Pope Julius II. and the Emperor who had forced them to seek the friendship of France, not he (King Ferdinand) and the present Pope. But, however that may be, the presence of the French in Italy is fraught with imminent danger to all the Italian princes and to the Venetians in particular. The French have already occupied Milan. Their intentions concerning Venice may be guessed from the fact that they have offered the Emperor and him an alliance, the object of which is to conquer Venice. Has rejected the offers of the French, and will never accept them.
The King of England fully occupies the King of France in the north. There has never been a better opportunity of expelling the French from Italy. It would be a great error if the Italian princes were to permit such an opportunity to pass without making use of it. If the Venetians have scruples of conscience about entering into a league avowedly concluded against France, the league can be concluded without mentioning the name of France, and without stating against whom it is concluded. The members of it must be the Pope, he (King Ferdinand), Venice, Florence, and the other states of Italy, with the sole exception of Milan and Genoa. Although the alliance is to be only a defensive one, there is no doubt that the King of France will soon offer them a good pretext or reason for beginning war with him. If the King of England should carry on the war vigorously, the King of France will, perhaps, be under the necessity of recalling all his troops from Italy. In such a case, he (King Ferdinand) would promise to invade France from Spain.
The Pope must try to preserve the friendship of the Swiss. He must find means for paying them the usual pensions ; for, as they no longer receive their pensions from the Duke of Milan, it is to be feared that they will reconcile themselves with France.
The Pope must further win over to their cause the Duke of Ferrara and the Marquis of Mantua.
The Pope would do well to entertain a secret understanding with the party of the Adorni who command at present in Genoa, as well as with the party of the Fregosi, who have been expelled from that city.
Whatever be done, the Pope must at all events maintain a constant correspondence with the King of England, and animate him to continue his war with France. The Pope must not forget that in the time of the late Pope Julius he (King Ferdinand) and the King of England made war upon France principally in order to force the French to recall their troops from Italy. But seeing that the Italians did not avail themselves of that opportunity, they concluded a truce with France. It is probable that the King of England, if he see that the Italians remain inactive, will act in this conjuncture in the same way, and he will perhaps even conclude a perpetual peace with France. But, on the other hand, if the Italians profit by this opportunity and help themselves, the King of England will surely continue his enterprise on France, and he (King Ferdinand) will invade France from Spain, without, however, breaking his treaties with her. If the Italians let the opportunity, offered to them by the King of England, pass away, they will perhaps have to wait a long time before they will find any one who will free their country from the dominion of the French.
The Pope must, at all events, act without delay and without further asking his (King Ferdinand's) advice. Is determined never to forsake the Pope. Begs him to have courage.
They are to tell the Pope that the King of France has made proposals to him and to the Emperor to destroy Venice, asking nothing more of them than the towns which formerly belonged to him, and offering to pay the Emperor 1,000 men-at-arms and 8,000 foot. The King of France left it to the pleasure of the Emperor to enlist with the money he offered him either German, Spanish, or Italian troops. When the King of France saw that neither he nor the Emperor accepted his proposals, the Queen of France sent a messenger to him, and told him that the King of France was willing to conclude a general peace between all Christian princes. Sent Quintana to the King of France, hoping that a general peace might be concluded in Rome in presence of the Holy Father. But when Quintana came to the French court he learnt that the King and Queen of France desired to conclude with him (King Ferdinand) a separate peace. They offered to marry their second daughter, Renée, to his grandson Ferdinand, and to give her the duchy of Milan and Genoa as dower. Quintana was of opinion that the King of France hoped to catch him with that "bait." The King of France imagined that he would not refuse to make war with the Venetians, because all the conquered towns were to be given to his grandson Ferdinand. The Queen of France even told him that the general peace was only a pretence. Was indignant at such proposals, and recalled Quintana.
Don Pedro de Urea and an Imperial ambassador are on their way to Spain by way of France. Expects that the Emperor and the Germans will try to persuade him (King Ferdinand) to enter into a league against the Venetians. Promises the Pope not to accept any such offer.
Has opened his heart to the Pope and told him all his secrets. Hopes the Pope will not betray him, and will only make such use of his communications as may induce the Italians to conclude the league.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "What you [blank], jointly with Don Jeronimo de Vich, our ambassador, are, in our name, to say to the Pope our Holy Father, in accordance with the credentials you take to Rome."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.


  • 1. To whom? To the Emperor or King Ferdinand? The despatch is not clear ; but from other documents we know the payments were proposed to be made to the Emperor.
  • 2. "Terzianas dubles."
  • 3. Seigneur de Lautrec.
  • 4. Most probably to the ambassador of King Ferdinand at the court of the Emperor.
  • 5. Sic. Evidently a slip of the pen.
  • 6. Probably Don Pedro de Lanuza.
  • 7. Doctor William Knight (?)
  • 8. Sic.
  • 9. This despatch was evidently written after Louis de La Trémouille had conquered Milan, and before his defeat by the Swiss near Novara was known in Spain. The battle was fought on the 6th of June. King Ferdinand seems to have received the first news of it in a letter from his ambassador in Rome, dated the 13th of June, which probably came to his hands before July.