Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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S. E. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 20.
561. Treaty between King Henry VIII. and the Emperor.
The commissioners on the part of King Henry VIII. are—
Richard Sampson, doctor of laws, and Dean of the Royal Chapel ;
Richard Jerningham, Knight and Privy Councillor ;
On the part of the Emperor elect—
Mercurino de Gattinara, Count of Valencia, &c. ;
Laurentius de Gorrevodo ;
Gérard de la Plaine, Seigneur de la Roche et Magny.
Pope Adrian VI. some time ago asked the Emperor elect and the King of England, in his quality of Fidei Defensor, to defend the Christian Church against the Turks, who, having gained the victory over Rhodes, are more menacing than ever. The Emperor and the King of England declared themselves perfectly ready to carry out the behests of the Vicar of Christ, but were soon informed that Francis, King of "the French," their common enemy, would not consent to make peace or to conclude a truce with them. In order that the welfare of the whole of Christendom may not be endangered by one impious person, the Emperor elect and the King of England have been obliged to postpone their war against the Turks, in order to compel Francis by force of arms to re-enter the fold of the orthodox flock. For this purpose they have concluded the following articles :—
|1. Both contracting princes bind themselves to assemble two large armies before the 17th of August next, in order to invade France. To this effect the Emperor elect promises to have ready on or before the 20th of August next an army of 20,000 soldiers, foot and horse, provided with artillery, balls, gunpowder, and whatever else is necessary to carry on a vigorous war, and to besiege towns and castles. If it should be necessary, he promises to increase his army. He binds himself to send this army, by way of Bayonne or by any other way, into the duchy of Guienne, and to conquer it. Also, every one of his subjects, in whatever portion of his dominions he may live, is to break off all friendly intercourse with all and every Frenchman, and to do him as much injury as he can. As soon as the King of England is informed that the Emperor elect has ratified this treaty, he will collect an army of 15,000 foot and horse, with artillery, and all other implements of war, and send it over to Picardy or Artois. Boulogne is the first town which is to be conquered by the English. Each of the contracting princes binds himself to select a good general for his army, and to pay the expenses of his expedition.|
|2. As the invasion of this year is to be undertaken by the King of England at the instance of the Emperor elect, the Archduchess Margaret will send from Brabant, Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Zealand, Limburg, and Luxemburg, an army of 3,000 foot to join the English army on the frontier of the marches of Calais before the 20th of August.|
|3. Neither the war in Guienne nor the war in Picardy and Artois can be discontinued before the end of October, except by common consent of both contracting parties.|
4. In the treaty concluded at Windsor on the 19th of June
1522, the Emperor elect and the King of England stipulated,
among other things, that they would invade France in person
before the end of May 1524, at the head of two powerful
armies, in order to compel King Francis to restore all the
towns, counties, &c., which France has no right to possess, to
their rightful owners. This great expedition will be postponed
until May 1525, at which time the Emperor elect and
the King of England will invade France in person, each of
them at the head of an army of 10,000 horse and 30,000 foot.
The Emperor elect will make his invasion from the frontiers
of Spain, and the King of England in the north.
As it would be impossible for the King of England to find among his subjects 10,000 able horse, the Emperor elect promises to provide him with as many German cavalry as he wants, the King of England, however, paying the expenses. The Emperor elect further permits the King of England to enlist foot-soldiers in Germany, if he should find it more convenient to employ German infantry than English foot soldiers, or if he should wish to do so from any other reason. When the King of England is actually fighting with the French, he can, if he wishes, request aid from the Imperial ordinary troops quartered in Flanders who are obliged to assist him.
Neither of the contracting princes shall be at liberty to conclude peace, truce, &c., with the common enemy without the knowledge and consent of the other contracting party. In case the common enemy offers peace to one of the contracting parties, the party to which such offer is made shall immediately inform his ally of it.
|5. The treaty concluded at Windsor on the 19th of June 1522, and the former treaties between Spain and England, remain in all other respects in full force.|
6. In order that this treaty may the sooner be binding, it is
stipulated that the ambassadors shall sign, seal, and exchange
it, and that the treaty thus exchanged shall have the same
force as though it were signed and ratified by the contracting
Commission of Charles, Emperor elect, dated Valladolid, the 28th of June 1523.
Commission of Henry VIII., dated London, the 17th of May 1523.
Signed and sealed in Valladolid, the 2nd of July 1523.
Rychard Jarnegan. (fn. 1)
Indorsed : "Articles of the alliance between the Emperor Charles V. and King Henry of England. Anno 1523. This is the original alliance which the English signed."
Latin. Written on parchment. Autograph. pp. 8.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 122.
562. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa, his Ambassador
Has received his letter of the 23rd of May.
He has been right not to proceed in his negotiations with the Pope in the manner he had been instructed to do. The reasons which he alleges justify him perfectly. It is sufficient that he should show the Pope that he (the Emperor) is ready to conclude a truce or a peace, and that the fault of the continuation of the war rests entirely with the King of France.
Will inform him of his real intentions. The King of England is little inclined to conclude a truce with France, and proposes some conditions which must create difficulties. The disinclination of the King of England has grown even stronger since the conclusion of the new treaty between the King of England and him (the Emperor). The King of England wishes to profit by it. The war with France is, according to the treaty, to be carried on by him (the Emperor) and the King of England until the end of October, and even to a later period, if it should be necessary.
Under such circumstances, he (the Emperor) is not disposed to conclude a truce, even if the King of France should accept the proposals which he has made to him. He (the Duke of Sessa) is to put off the negotiations, saying that he is not instructed to conclude anything unless all particulars are arranged to the entire satisfaction of the King of England. The difficulties which the English ambassador will make offer him (the Duke of Sessa) the best pretext to excuse himself with the Pope. Wishes to reserve to himself his decision on the truce until he sees what will be the result of the war with France which has lately been decided upon by himself and the King of England. He (the Duke of Sessa) must not entirely break off the negotiations, and he must take the greatest care that the Pope does not even suspect he has other ends in view than to conclude peace with the King of France.
The answer which the Pope has given to the King of France and to the Cardinal of Auch is much to the purpose. Approves of it.
It is not necessary to give him new instructions concerning his negotiations with the English ambassador. He is to act according to his old instructions and according to circumstances. Should the King of France accept the truce on the conditions he (the Emperor) has proposed, and should the ambassador of the King of England declare that he also is ready to sign the treaty, in such a case he (the Duke of Sessa) is to see that the truce be concluded for a period of three or at the least two years.
Thinks it is right that the Archbishop of Bari should return to Rome, where he can render more valuable service than in France.
Antoniotto Adorno has informed him of the illness and recovery of the Pope. As the Pope is so well disposed towards him, it would be a great loss if he should die. Should, however, a new election become necessary, he must use his influence in favour of the Cardinal de Medicis, who has given so many proofs of his good will, that from his election nothing but advantages to the Church, to the whole of Christendom, and to his (the Emperor's) own interests could be expected. Wishes that the election should be a free election ; but if the French should try to make use of forcible means, he is to act with the greatest promptitude, and immediately to call upon the Viceroys of Naples and Sicily, as well as upon the army and the other Imperial subjects in Italy, to aid him.
Writes very friendly letters to the Pope, and treats his nuncio with great courtesy. Has excused the excesses of the Spanish infantry, by showing the impossibility of paying them as long as the Italians refuse to contribute money for the payment of the troops. He must try to obtain money from Florence, Siena, &c., and see that the army be not permitted to repeat their excesses.
Has written letters with his own hand to the Pope, the College of Cardinals, and to several cardinals, begging them to proceed against the Cardinal of Volterra and his accomplices with the utmost rigour.
Viceroy of Naples. Governor of the prison in Palermo. Quarta. Bishop of Zamora.
After having written this letter, he has concluded a treaty with the English ambassador, who was sent (to Spain) with post-horses. The King of England binds himself to invade France on the 20th of August with a numerous army, which is to be provided with the necessary artillery. This army is to be joined by 3,000 German foot and 3,000 horse, which are kept in readiness in Flanders. Has bound himself to assemble at the same time an army in Spain of at least 20,000 foot, 3,000 men-at-arms, and 2,000 light horse, together with the necessary artillery, &c. Writes by this courier to Prospero Colonna, ordering him to be prepared for immediate action. Waits for an answer from Venice. If the Venetians do not conclude the alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England), Prospero is to attack them without further delay. If, on the other hand, the Venetians conclude the alliance, Prospero is to invade France at the same time as the King of England invades her from the north, and he (the Emperor) from the frontiers of Spain.
He is to tell this to the Pope, and to say to him that he (the Emperor) is forced to make war upon the French, as the King of France refuses to conclude peace with him. He can tell the Pope that the war with France shall be continued until the King of France is forced to accept a general peace of the whole of Christendom, and will bind himself to send succour for a war with the Turks. Assures the Pope that he is animated by no other desire than to render services to the whole of Christendom, and that he is a good son of the Church.
Sees of Seville and Cordova. Alonso Manrique is elected Inquisitor General. Cesare Imperatore, one of the accomplices of the Cardinal of Volterra.
Bishopric of Bourg in Bresse.—Valladolid, the 13th of July 1523.
Guadix. Caspar Borghese.—Datum ut supra.
Indorsed : "By the King. To the Duke our Cousin."
Spanish. Draft, corrected by the Chancellor Gattinara. pp. 10.
M. Bi. N. MSS. E. 59. f. 124.
563. The Emperor to the Duke Of Milan.
Has not neglected anything that could render his (the Duke's) position more secure and more dignified, and assures him that he is still animated by the same friendly sentiments towards him.
Has decided to increase his army by new enlistments, and to invade France in common with the King of England from the frontiers of Spain, as well as from those of Flanders. It is his intention to occupy the King of France in such a way that he shall be obliged to abandon all thoughts of again invading Italy. On the 20th of August the Imperial and the English armies are to begin hostilities.
Begs him to believe what Prospero Colonna will tell him in his name concerning the war with France.
Has begun the war with France for his (the Duke's) sake, and promises not to conclude peace or a truce with France except on conditions which will secure his independence.
Begs him to send as much money as possible. Knows very well all his difficulties. Asks him, however, to mortgage the future revenues of the duchy.—Valladolid, the 14th of July 1523.
Latin. Register. pp. 2.
M. Bi. N. MSS. E. 59. f. 124v.
564. The Emperor to Antoniotto Adorno, Doge Of Genoa.
Has received his letters in which he informs him that the King of France intends to invade Italy in the month of September. Thanks him for the great solicitude he shows for the Imperial cause, but must at the same time beg him to preserve his dignity of demeanour, and not to betray too much fear.
Has concerted with the King of England measures which will render his allies and followers safe from all danger. On the 20th of August two powerful Imperial armies and an English army are to invade France from the side of Spain and of Belgium, and it is his firm will not to desist from carrying on the war in France until he has weakened the French so much that they can never again think of invading Italy. Begs him to persuade the Genoese to assist him in this war as much as they can.—Valladolid, the 14th of July 1523.
Latin. Register. p. 1.
M. Bi. N. MSS. E. 59. f. 125.
565. The Emperor to the Cardinal Julius De Medicis.
It is impossible in any other way to prevent the French from again troubling the peace of Italy than by invading France. Has, therefore, arranged with the King of England that on the 20th of August a combined English and Imperial army shall invade France from the north, whilst another Imperial army is at the same time to invade her on the frontiers of Spain.
Prospero Colonna and the Duke of Sessa will speak with him about this enterprise.—Valladolid, the 14th of July 1523.
Latin. Register. p. 1.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 381.
566. The Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez,
Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the
He (the Prothonotary Caracciolo) arrived at Venice on the 16th of June. On the 17th he went with Alonso Sanchez to the Signory, and asked them in a long speech to conclude the alliance, but they answered him in general terms. On the 19th of June the power of the Infante arrived. Returned next day to the Signory, and asked them to declare themselves on the conditions. (fn. 2) They said they could not increase the amount of their payments, and it was impossible to obtain any other answer from them, although the nuncio and the ambassador of the King of England exhausted every means of persuasion. Suspects that the Venetians still expect aid from France, and that their hopes are revived by the arrival of the Bishop of Bayeux.
Considering that it is of the utmost importance to come to a speedy conclusion with Venice, and that the Signory is informed that he (the Emperor) will content himself with what they offer him, the ambassadors were of opinion that they should not insist any further on the augmentation of the sum of money to be paid by the Republic. But before declaring themselves ready to accept the offer of the Signory, they (Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez) begged the nuncio and the ambassador of England to speak once more with the Signory. If the Venetians should turn a deaf ear to all their persuasions, in such a case he (Caracciolo) asked the English ambassador to tell the nuncio with great secresy, in presence of the Signory, that he had been ordered by his King not to delay the conclusion of the treaty for so small a difference, and that the King of England would take it upon himself to persuade him (the Emperor) to be satisfied with what the Venetians offer, promising to pay the difference, if he (the Emperor) should not be satisfied with the amount which Venice was to pay. The English ambassador did as he was asked, and the Venetians, who were much astonished at hearing it, promised to send their commissioners directly, and to order them to reduce the treaty into writing.
When the English ambassador had come to their (Caracciolo's and Alonso Sanchez's) house, in order to tell them what had happened, the Signory sent a secretary to them, and asked them to keep the whole affair very secret ; for, they said, if the French were to know it, they would certainly attack their galleys on their way home from England. Answered the secretary that if the Signory sent their commissioner with the power to conclude the alliance, they would keep the negotiations secret for eight or ten days, and render them other services if they asked them. The nuncio did not know that what the English ambassador had said to him in presence of the Signory had first been concerted with him.
The secretary of the Signory said the next day to the English ambassador that the commissioners would come and settle the articles of the treaty as soon as their galleys in England were set at liberty, and had left that country. Four days passed, and the Signory did not send their commissioners. Went to the Signory, and said that they (Caracciolo and Sanchez) were astonished that the commissioners had not yet been elected. The Doge answered that the negotiations would already have been begun if Georgio Cornaro, who is to be one of the principal commissioners, had not been ill.
The commissioners of the Republic came at last to them. After some observations on the one side and the other, the commissioners showed them a draft of a treaty, which was very unreasonable, and very different from what had already been settled with them. They asked to be free for ever, and offered to pay the 200,000 ducats in bad scudos, instead of good gold scudos. They likewise made difficulties with respect to the pardon of the exiles, &c.
In spite of their long debates, in which they (Caracciolo and Sanchez) said, among other things, to the commissioners of the Signory that they intended to protract the negotiations until the French had invaded Italy, it was impossible to elicit any favourable answer from them.
Asked the nuncio to be witness of the manner in which the Venetians behaved.
Send him a copy of a memoir which the English ambassador has delivered to the Signory. Enclose likewise copies of certain letters from France.—Venice, the 16th of July 1523.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Venice. From the Ambassadors, the 16th of July. Duplicate."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 8.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. ff. 386-393.
567. The Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez,
Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
This document is identical with the preceding despatch, put in cipher. The deciphering is contemporary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 399.
568. Richard Pace, Ambassador of the King Of England,
and the Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso
Sanchez, Ambassadors of the Emperor, to the
Signory Of Venice.
He (Richard Pace) and the ambassadors of the Emperor had believed that the Signory were sincere in what they said, and really desired to conclude peace on such conditions as would have satisfied the Pope, the Emperor, "the most serene and most mighty prince who is King of England," and the Infante Archduke. Knowing the true sentiments of the Emperor, they could not but think that the Signory also really intended to do what they professed.
Were the more inclined to believe what the Signory declared to them, as peace would be incomparably more advantageous to Venice than war. Peace would relieve the Republic from the heavy expenses which she is forced to incur : peace would increase her power, and render her present possessions secure, by giving her new guarantees for what she now holds : peace would augment her commerce and increase her fame. War, on the other hand, would cause great expenses to the Republic, cripple her commerce, place her in difficulties, and jeopardize her very existence as a state ; besides which, the calamities would be incalculable which the Venetian citizens would have to bear. Supposing even that the Venetians hoped against all probability to extend the frontiers of their states by a war, their territorial acquisitions would be too dearly bought, as the advantages would be more than counterbalanced by the sacrifices they would be forced to undergo.
An additional reason which made them believe that the Venetians earnestly sought peace was that the Signory had constantly said so to the Holy Father and the King of England, who are two of the greatest princes of Christendom.
Unhappily, the behaviour of the Signory during the last few days forces them to suspect that they do not intend to conclude the peace and the alliance with the Emperor and the King of England. The Signory seem either to prefer another prince to the Emperor and the King of England, or to have other ends in view which are carefully concealed ; for it is clear that the negotiations, as they are carried on by the Signory, are only a pretext for putting off the conclusion of peace. These endless delays cause great inconvenience to the Emperor.
Their reasons for suspecting the sincerity of the Signory are the following :—
The Signory at first refused to conclude peace and an alliance with the Emperor, unless the Infante should send his power and become a party to the treaty. They insisted on this condition, although the Pope, the Emperor, the King of England, the Duke of Milan, and the Doge of Genoa had offered securities that the Infante would ratify the treaty.
Further, the Signory promised, as soon as the power of the Infante should have arrived, to conclude the treaty of peace and alliance without any further delay. The power of the Infante arrived, but the Signory changed their minds, and permitted nine days to pass before they condescended to begin negotiations. At last they nominated the commissioners who were to discuss with them (the ambassadors) the clauses and conditions of the treaty. Scarcely had the negotiations begun when the commissioners made new proposals, and revoked all that had already been agreed upon.
From this conduct of the Signory it is clear that the Republic does not wish to conclude peace and to enter into an alliance with the Emperor and the King of England. Do not pretend to offer advice to the Signory, who have great experience in matters of peace and of war. The intention of the ambassadors is only to reduce to writing what they have so often declared by word of mouth, in order to justify their masters before God and the world.
The article of the proposed treaty which guarantees to the Venetians their present dominions states that they are to possess them pacifice et quiete sine aliqua molestia. The Signory now demand that the word "libere" be added. This new demand only shows that they wish to put off the conclusion of the treaty. Transcripts of the projected treaty have been made and sent to England, to the Emperor, and to the Infante. To add such a word as "libere" is impossible for the ambassadors, without asking new instructions from their masters. Not to speak of the loss of time caused thereby, it is not probable that the Emperor would consent to such an addition. The clause as it stands now is clear, but the addition of the word "libere" would afterwards be interpreted in a hundred different ways. The legate of the Pope and the ambassador of the King of England can bear witness that the Signory have never so much as hinted at such an addition until the last moment. The ambassadors beg the Signory not to forget what they have promised, and not to refuse to conclude the treaty under such frivolous pretexts. The Emperor promises them to fulfil scrupulously all his obligations towards the Republic. The Signory cannot reasonably doubt of the friendly sentiments which the Emperor entertains towards the Republic. Having been victorious in war, and being the master of the seas, the Emperor had it in his power to destroy Venice, but instead of doing so, he sent such a great personage as Hieronymo Adorno as his ambassador to them, offering them his friendship. Before they reject this offer, the Signory should well consider that the Emperor, who was formerly strong enough to conquer Venice, is still stronger since his alliance with the King of England.
The Signory have declared that they cannot conclude the treaty of peace and alliance before the places which, according to the treaty of Worms, are to be given back to the Republic are delivered to them. The ambassadors in answer to this demand say that the delivery of towns and castles is not a thing that can be done in a moment, although the Infante has already commissioned certain persons to carry out this measure. On the other hand, the conclusion of the treaty cannot be delayed, as the ambassador of the King of England has received orders to leave Venice, in order to transact important business in another country, and the Prothonotary Caracciolo must return to Rome. If, therefore, the Signory refuse to conclude the treaty of peace and alliance before the places mentioned in the treaty of Worms are given back to them, they virtually refuse to conclude the treaty at all. The distrust of the Venetians offends the honour of the Emperor, who may, perhaps, resent the offence and revoke the offers he has made to the Republic. If the Signory do not believe the word of the Emperor, who has never yet broken his promises, they should at least be satisfied by the assurances of the Pope and the King of England.
The Signory complain that the execution of the treaty of Worms has been delayed. They are not justified in doing so ; for when the treaty of Worms was concluded the Emperor was the sole possessor of all the dominions of the house of Austria. He has, however, since that time divided them with his brother, and it has, therefore, become necessary to ask the consent of the Infante to so important a measure of state. Thus, some delay has been utterly unavoidable, and the Signory have the less reason to complain, as the Infante has already given his consent. The Republic has not lost anything by this unavoidable delay ; for in the treaty of Worms it is stipulated that the Signory are bound to pay the Emperor 200,000 ducats, besides 56,000 ducats, arrears of former payments, as soon as the places in question are delivered to them. As the places are notoriously worth much less than the money which the Venetians are to pay for them, the delay of the execution of the treaty of Worms cannot have caused them any losses. The ambassadors, however, declare that the Signory shall not be obliged to fulfil the treaty of peace and alliance if the places in question are not given back to the Republic within a certain time to be fixed hereafter. If the Signory reject this offer, and offend thereby the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England, they must not subsequently complain if they find that they have earned very little credit and much less profit.
The Signory demand not only the places in question, but also that the revenues levied on them by the Emperor be given back to them, pretending that a sum of 18,000 ducats had been promised to them as an equivalent. The ambassadors declare most positively on this point that the assertion of the Signory is untrue, as such a promise was never made.
The Signory offer to pay the 200,000 ducats which they owe to the Emperor, and the 50,000 ducats which they are to pay to the exiles, in bad scudos and common ducats, instead of paying them in good gold ducats. The ambassadors declare that it would be as much below their dignity to accept such an offer, as it is below the dignity of the Signory to make it.
Twenty-eight days have passed since the power of the Infante arrived, and although the Signory declared that they would conclude the treaty of peace and alliance ten hours after its arrival, nothing has been done. The ambassadors are, therefore, resolved not to wait any longer for the decision of the Signory, and to ask them immediately to answer by yes or no, whether they accept the treaties of peace and alliance in the form and on the conditions on which they are offered to them. Their behaviour has hitherto been unworthy of the government of a great republic, and the Emperor is strong enough to carry out his plans without their aid.
Indorsed : "Read to the Signory of Venice on the 16th of July 1523."
[Added in Spanish :] "Transcript of the paper which we delivered to the Signory on the 16th of July 1523." "1523. Memoir of the ambassadors in Venice."
Italian. Official copy. pp. 16.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. A. 28. f. 410.
569. Memoir of Richard Pace and the Imperial Ambassadors
This memoir is a contemporary transcript of the preceding document.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 427.
570. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
He and Alonso Sanchez have done all in their power to induce the Venetians to conclude an alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England). The English ambassador has behaved perfectly well, and has always been on their side. As the English ambassador proposed to them to ask the nuncio to be present at their negotiations with the Signory, they consented to do so. The nuncio, who is the brother of the Cardinal Campegio, is a good Imperialist.
An alliance with Venice would be a great advantage to them (the Emperor and the King of England). They would thereby be saved much money, which they could employ in the war with France. If he (the Emperor) attacked France on one side, and the King of England on the other side, and if his (the Emperor's) Italian army, being available in consequence of a treaty with Venice, marched to the very heart of France through provinces which could offer little resistance, France would be unable to bear the cost of the combined war. As the best part of his provinces would soon be in the possession of the invading armies, it would be beyond the power of the King of France to levy taxes in them, and he would not find bankers or merchants bold enough to lend him money. Thus, he would be entirely at their (the Emperor's and the King of England's) mercy, and it would depend only on them whether France should cease to exist, or be permitted to continue as a state on the conditions they would offer her.
If Venice should conclude an alliance with them (the Emperor and the King of England), the Swiss would soon be forced to follow their example.
The danger with which the Turks threaten the states of the Infante in Hungary and his (the Emperor's) dominions in Sicily and Naples is one of the greatest obstacles to the intended enterprise on France. This obstacle, however, would be removed by their (the Emperor's and King of England's) alliance with Venice. Without Venice the Pope and Italy are powerless, but with Venice the Pope and Italy can resist the Turks.
The Pope, the ambassador of England, the Duke of Sessa, Prospero (Colonna), and all the other Imperial servants in Italy know well the great importance of an alliance with Venice, and urge him (Caracciolo) to waive certain demands, only that he may the sooner conclude the treaty with the Republic. Has not insisted on minor points with the Signory, but thinks it incompatible with his dignity as Emperor to make concessions in matters of importance. Thinks that the demand of the Signory to hold all their territories as free and independent property for all time to come is one of these important points which cannot be conceded. Another article which he considers as very important is that concerning the pardon of the exiles. The Signory offer to pardon the exiles who left Venice at the beginning of the war with the Emperor Maximilian and until the conclusion of the truce (of Worms), but refuse to grant pardon to those who have offended against Venice since that truce. Although he (Caracciolo) thinks that his (the Emperor's) honour is engaged not to forsake the exiles, he is, nevertheless, of opinion that it ought to be considered whether the conditions of the Signory should not be accepted if peace cannot be obtained otherwise.
Thinks he would act only as becomes a great prince if he ordered the Infante to send his power in such a form as the Venetians ask it, and if he fulfilled all his promises contained in the treaty of Worms.
Cannot omit to tell him his opinion that the Venetians would not conclude the alliance, even if all the demands which they prefer were to be conceded to them. Thinks that stronger measures must be employed.—Venice, the 18th of July 1523.
Indorsed : "To the King. Venice. 1523. Prothonotary Caracciolo. The 18th of July 1523."
Italian. Autograph. pp. 7.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 422.
571. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
This document is a duplicate of the preceding letter.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 463.
572. The Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez,
Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
Have written to him and informed him of all that had been transacted between them and the Signory of Venice up to the 16th inst. Considering that the great majority of the Venetians wished to conclude the league, and that only some persons who had much influence prevented it, they decided to deliver a memoir to the Signory, and to beg them to read it in the Pregai. The Signory promised to do so, but when the next Pregai was held the Signory excused themselves, saying that they had not had the time necessary to read all the papers relating to the matter in question, and postponed the reading of their memoir to the next Pregai.
Meanwhile, the Signory received letters from their ambassadors in Rome, by which they were told that the Pope, in contemplation of the great dangers with which the Turks threatened Christendom, had concluded a defensive alliance with him (the Emperor), the King of England, the Infante, and the Duke of Milan, with Florence, Genoa, Siena, and Lucca. As Venice is so important a state in Italy, his Holiness asked the Signory to say whether they wished to become a member of that league or not, and to send ambassadors to Rome with power to declare their accession to it.
The request of the Pope, although well meant, offered only a new pretext to the Venetians to postpone their decisive answer. They said that they must first confer on the proposals of the Pope before they could answer them.
Received on the 18th a letter from the Duke of Sessa, in which two briefs of the Pope were enclosed, one directed to the Doge of Venice, and the other to the Papal nuncio. His Holiness declares in both his briefs that he is inclined to conclude an alliance with him (the Emperor), the King of England, &c., but that he did not wish that their (Caracciolo's and Sanchez's) negotiations in Venice should be interrupted. On the contrary, he said that the negotiations in Rome depended on those carried on in Venice so far as the Republic is concerned. The Infante has also written to them. Went two days ago, in company with the nuncio and the ambassador of England, to the Signory, and delivered a second memoir, begging them to read it likewise in the next Pregai. A copy of the memoir is enclosed. Added by word of mouth as many reasons as they (Caracciolo and Sanchez) could imagine, and tried to persuade the Signory soon to give their final answer. Showed them also the letter of the Infante, in which he promises to restore to Venice all the places claimed by it, and says that his commissioners will soon leave for Venice. After having conferred during three hours with the Signory, it was decided that the matter should be debated in the Pregai, and the final answer given within three days. The majority of the Pregai wishes to make peace with him (the Emperor) ; fear, nevertheless, that the result of all their negotiations will be very unsatisfactory.
Have written to the Duke of Milan and to Prospero Colonna, and have asked them to send some person to Trent. He (the Prothonotary) cannot go to Trent, as he is obliged to leave soon for Ferrara and Rome, and he (Alonso Sanchez) must remain in Venice.
News concerning the army of Milan, &c.—Venice, the 23rd of July 1523.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Venice. From the ambassadors, the 23rd of July."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 5.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 469.
573. The Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez,
Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
This document is a duplicate of the preceding letter.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. ff. 512-520.
574. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome,
to the Emperor.
The news that the King of France intends to invade Italy is confirmed on all sides. An ordinance has been published in France forbidding any person to travel or to write to Rome without special permission from Robertet. Not a single letter of the nuncio has arrived, whilst letters of merchants are full of details concerning the warlike preparations of the King of France. Under such circumstances, the Pope has resolved to conclude the league. The articles of it were debated and agreed upon by the Pope, the Cardinal de Medicis, the ambassador of the King of England, the ambassador of the Duke of Milan, and him (the Duke of Sessa). Encloses a copy of the articles. The Viceroy of Naples has been consulted by him.
Each member of the league is to pay him (the Emperor) for the maintenance of the Italian army 1,000 ducats a month, besides 100,000 ducats which are to be paid in one instalment. The turn which the negotiations in Venice has taken has materially contributed to facilitate the conclusion of the league in Rome. The "cause of God," his (the Emperor's) greatness, and the interests of the whole of Christendom are identical. Hopes the new league will help to favour them.
Has written to Prospero Colonna.
The league was concluded in the following manner. His Holiness sent to him on the 19th of the present month, and told him that he wished to see the Viceroy of Naples. Went to the Pope. It soon became clear to him that his Holiness was not disinclined to conclude a league. Wrote to the Viceroy, who arrived in Rome on the 24th. He (the Duke of Sessa) and the Viceroy went to kiss the foot of the Pope. His Holiness said to the Viceroy that the whole of Italy was in a very dangerous state, and that it was necessary to form a powerful army to defend her against the French. The Pope begged the Viceroy to take the command of the combined Italian armies, as the Marquis of Mantua, who is captain-general of the Papal troops, refuses to obey any other commander-in-chief. The Viceroy answered that he would gladly accept the commander-ship-in-chief if he (the Emperor) would order him to do so. When the Viceroy had finished his speech, the Cardinal de Medicis said that he was astonished to find that the Viceroy made difficulties, and proposed that he should at least accept the commandership-in-chief ad interim, until his (the Emperor's) commander should have arrived. The Viceroy agreed to it. It was further arranged that the Pope should propose the conclusion of a league in the consistory of cardinals which was to be held next day, and that done, that the articles should be discussed and drawn up by the ambassadors (of the Emperor, the King of England, and the Duke of Milan).
Whilst the Viceroy was on his way to Rome the Pope received a letter from the King of France. Has begged the Pope to give him a copy of that letter, but the Pope has not given it to him.
This day fresh news of the warlike preparations of the King of France has arrived.
Monsieur de Beaurain has written to him, but does not speak of affairs of state. It is said he brings news that the French will not invade Italy, as the King of England is about to invade France.
The Pope begs him (the Emperor) instantly to attack France on the frontiers of Spain.
The Infante has written and complained that he is falsely accused of making difficulties about concluding an alliance with Venice. He speaks of certain negotiations between the Duke of Milan and Prospero Colonna.
Sicily. Figueroa.—Rome, the 28th of July 1523.
Has just received letters from Venice. Encloses them.
Addressed : "To the Invincible ... King of Spain ... Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Rome. Duke of Sessa. The 28th of July."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 516.
575. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome,
to the Emperor.
This despatch in cipher is a duplicate of the preceding document.
S. E. L. 2016. Lib. d. Berz. xxvi. f. 357.
576. Treaty between the Emperor, the King Of England,
the Archduke Ferdinand, the Duke Of Milan, and
the Republic Of Venice.
1. Peace and free intercourse between the contracting parties and their dominions.
All measures of reprisal are to be suspended. All captains of vessels of the contracting parties are to give security that they will not attack vessels belonging to subjects of the other contracting parties if they encounter them at sea.
2. Venice is to remain in the undisturbed possession of all the towns, territories, &c., at present held by her.
3. Venice binds herself to pay the Emperor 200,000 gold ducats, in yearly instalments of 25,000 ducats, payable on Christmas Day.
4. All the partisans of the Emperor Maximilian, of the present Emperor, and of the Infante Ferdinand, who have been punished by the Venetians since the beginning of the war are to be amnestied, and their goods are to be given back to them, with the exception of such property as has been confiscated by the state.
5. The Signory is to pay the exiles 5,000 gold ducats a year, as indemnity for their property which has been confiscated by the state.
6. The treaty of Worms is to be executed by both contracting parties, and the places which are to be given back on the one part and the other are to be exchanged as soon as possible. The Venetians bind themselves to pay the Emperor the 38,000 ducats in gold scudos, or Venetian florins, if they prefer it (four florins to be counted as one ducat), for the conclusion of the four years truce (at Worms).
7. The contracting parties relinquish to one another all claims for revenues from the towns and territories which, according to the treaty of Worms, should have been earlier restored.
8. The contracting parties bind themselves to defend one another, if attacked in their states in Italy. If Naples is to be defended, the Venetians bind themselves to send 15 galleys in her defence. The Emperor binds himself to send 800 men-at-arms, 500 light horse, 6,000 foot, and the necessary artillery, &c., in succour of Milan, if that duchy is attacked. The Venetians bind themselves to send the same succour.
9. The Kings of Portugal, of Hungary, and of Poland, the Duke of Savoy, the state of Florence, the Cardinal de Medicis and his family, the Doge of Genoa, the Marquis of Mantua, Siena, Lucca, and the Marquisate of Monferrato are included.
Latin. Partly a bad copy and partly a worse abstract, copied and extracted from the original document in the Papal Archives in Rome, at the command of King Philip II. of Spain. The abstract is in Italian. pp. 4.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 524.
577. The Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez
Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
The negotiations with the republic of Venice are at last concluded. The treaty is signed and will soon be published. Send him a copy of it. In the Pregai, which numbers more than 250 members, only 25 have voted in favour of the French.
The Venetians desire particularly that Meran and Gradisca shall be given back to them. Have promised them in a separate paper to beg him (the Emperor) to do the will of the Venetians in this particular, and the nuncio and the ambassador of England have given them the same promise.
The ambassador of the King of England has behaved very well during the whole of the negotiations with the Republic. Begs him to thank him for his good services, and to reward him as soon as an occasion offers itself. The English ambassador will soon leave Venice. He is going to Ferrara, Milan, and Switzerland.
The nuncio, who is a brother of the Cardinal Campegio, has also deserved reward.
It is customary to make presents of money to the secretaries of the Signory when treaties with the Republic are concluded. The Venetian exiles.—Venice, the 29th of July 1523.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Venice. From the ambassadors, the 29th of July."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 4.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 527.
578. The Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez,
Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
This letter is a duplicate of the preceding document.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 537.
579. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
Is glad to inform him that on the day of the date of this letter, at one o'clock at night, the treaty with the Republic has been signed. The consequences will be very important and very favourable to him. The negotiations were attended with such difficulties that he often despaired of a good result. Alonso Sanchez has not only behaved as a faithful and diligent servant of his, but he has also shown great capacity.
Thinks it would be "sacrilege" if he did not here mention Richard Pace, the ambassador of the King of England, who has made use of the utmost sagacity, prudence, and dexterity to bring the negotiations to a satisfactory conclusion. He could not have shown more zeal in his (the Emperor's) service if he had been all his life his servant.
The Imperial army in Lombardy. — Venice, the 29th of July 1523.
No address. No indorsement.
Italian. Autograph. pp. 4.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 542.
580. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
This letter is a duplicate of the preceding. It is indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Venice. From the Prothonotary Caracciolo, the 29th of July. Duplicate."
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 28. f. 535.
581. Richard Pace, Ambassador of the King Of England in
Venice, to the Emperor.
Congratulates him on the conclusion of peace with Venice. Does not think that the Venetians would have been able to do him much harm. Nevertheless the conclusion of this treaty shows that he is the "Elected by God" (fn. 3) who is to punish the disturbers of peace, and to secure tranquillity to the Christian world, like Augustus, during whose reign the Temple of Janus was shut. During his stay in Venice the King of France has sent a great number of ambassadors, envoys, confidential agents, &c., to try to persuade the Republic not to make peace with him (the Emperor). (fn. 4) Being an Englishman, and being persuaded that he (Pace) is predestinated to be the cause of ruin to the King of France, he was not afraid of the French machinations. His (the Emperor's) ambassadors will tell him how much he (Pace) is devoted to his service, and what pains he has taken, in common with them, to resist the machinations of the French. Has contributed his part, not only in preventing the Venetians from forsaking him (the Emperor), but also in persuading them to become his allies. Venice, powerful at sea, is his (the Emperor's) most valuable ally in a war with the Turks.
Is going to Switzerland, and will try whether he cannot persuade the Swiss to enter into an alliance with him (the Emperor) and the King of England. Has no great hope, as the Swiss are divided into different parties, and as their character is full of inconsistency. On the other hand, it is clear that the peace with Venice will have much influence on the Swiss.—Venice, the 29th of July 1523.
Addressed : "To his Sacred and Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1523. Venice. Pace. The 29th of July."
Latin. Autograph. pp. 2.