Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2, 1509-1525. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1866.
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M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
645. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
Abbia has been taken by his troops. Novara. Alessandria.
The Swiss, &c.
Richard Pace, the English ambassador, accompanies the army. He has written letters to the King of England in praise of the valour of the Imperial troops.
Victory in Lombardy is sure, and there is no doubt the Swiss will return to their own country.
The King of France is weak ; he has no troops, no money, no great reputation. The moment is come to beat him soundly. But it is necessary that he (the Emperor) should maturely consider, and resolve at once what line of conduct he will follow. He can choose one of three courses, viz., war, peace, or a long truce.
Above all things, it is necessary not to give time to the King of France to reconstruct his army. The Emperor on the frontiers of Spain and of Flanders, the King of England in the north of France, and the Italian army in Provence, must all at the same time attack the French. There is no other way in which the King of France can be forced to make a lasting peace on conditions which would satisfy him and the King of England. A short truce would be of no advantage at all. Has persuaded the Duke of Milan to give all the aid he can in the enterprise on Provence. The Viceroy (fn. 1) will not lose time, and will soon induce the other (Italian) princes to follow his example. Has written to the King of England, and asked him to succour the Italian army with money, and to attack France from the north. He (the Emperor) must do something on the frontiers of Spain. It would perhaps be more easy to invade France on the side of Narbonne and Languedoc than on the side of Bayonne.
Bayard has died from a wound produced by a musket ball, &c., &c.—Milan, the 2nd of May 1524.
Postscriptum.—Novara has surrendered to the Duke of Bourbon, &c. The King of England must be persuaded to act promptly.
Indorsed : "To the King. 1524. From Milan. Caracciolo. The 2nd of May. Answered."
Italian. Autograph. pp. 11.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
646. The Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Chancellor
Mercurino De Gattinara.
The moment is favourable. No time is to be lost.
The Duke of Bourbon, who has his estates near the Italian frontier, can do great things if he invade the south of France. His victories will animate and excite the King of England, and give courage to the Flemings.
Begs him to communicate all that has been done and all that is to be done, to the King of England. If the Emperor, the King of England, and the Duke of Milan can maintain the army of the Duke of Bourbon during three months in France, the victory is secure, and the Emperor can make peace on such conditions as he likes. Begs him to consider this well.
Private concerns.—Milan, the 2nd of May 1524.
Indorsed : "To the Chancellor. 1524. Milan. Caracciolo. The 2nd of May. Answered."
[Written in Latin :] "Those portions which are marked are to be shown."
In this letter and in the letter of Caracciolo to the Emperor those paragraphs which relate to the enterprise on Provence, and the aid of the King of England, are marked in the original despatch by a line on the margin.
Italian. Autograph. pp. 4.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
647. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome,
to the Emperor.
On the 4th of May received his letter of the 9th of April.
Is glad that Bernardino de la Barba has been well received by him, &c., &c.
The journey of the Chancellor to Rome will surely produce a good effect.
Money affairs, &c.
The Pope rejoiced very much when he heard the good tidings from Lombardy. Has repeatedly spoken with the Pope about the invasion of Provence. His Holiness is persuaded that in no other manner can the state of Italy be rendered safe, but he thinks it is necessary that the King of England should at the same time attack France on the north. France is so much weakened that she cannot resist a combined attack from two sides, and thus the victory is sure. Does not yet know whether his Holiness will aid actively in an attack on Provence, but it is clear he wishes it to be made.
News concerning the army in Italy.
The English ambassador has not spoken again to him (about the disbanding of the Imperial army in Navarra). Should he do so he will tell him what he (the Emperor) writes to him.
The Pope has told him that the Cardinal of England is plotting in France, and that even the King of England is discontented, because he (the Emperor) has disbanded his army (in Spain). The Pope says he (the Emperor) should try to keep his army together by all means, as in that way he will obtain great results, and his power will be greatly increased.
Turks, &c.—Rome, the 7th of May 1524.
Indorsed : "To the King. 1524. Rome. Duke of Sessa.
The 7th of May. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph, partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 6.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 202.
648. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa, his Ambassador
The Knight Commander Majorca arrived on the 1st of May. Thanks him for the letters which he has sent by the Knight Commander,
Has spoken with the Archbishop of Capua, and settled with him the conditions of the peace or truce (between the Emperor, the King of England, and the King of France). Sends him a copy of the memoir which the Archbishop has drawn up.
The Chancellor being prevented from going to Rome, he sends Monsieur de la Roche in his stead.
Church preferment, &c.—Burgos, the 9th of May 1524.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
M. D. Pasc. d. G. Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d. Esp.
649. The Abbot Of Najera to the Emperor.
News concerning the army.
It is decided that the Duke of Bourbon shall invade Provence with 600 lances, 7,000 Germans, 3,000 Spaniards, and 2,000 Italians. The rest of the army will remain in Lombardy. —Milan, the 12th of May 1524.
Addressed : "To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1524. Milan. Abbot of Najera. The 12th of May. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 3.
P. Ac. d. l'Emp. K. 1639. No. 54.
650. The Emperor to Gérard De La Plaine, Seigneur De
Is desirous to conclude a general peace of Christendom, and to take part in a war of all Christian princes against the Turks. Gives him, therefore, these secret instructions, in addition to those he has already received. (fn. 2) These instructions mention the different ways in which the peace can be concluded. Having spoken with him about the manner in which he is to conduct his negotiations, he (de la Roche) is fully informed of his (the Emperor's) intentions, and is to select such a course of negotiating as shall be most approved by the ambassador of the King of England, his uncle and ally, and most calculated to satisfy the King of France as well as the Duke of Bourbon. The negotiations are to be carried on in common with the ambassador of England, and "under the direction, superintendence, and guidance of the Holy Father, who is the shepherd, guide, and mediator of the peace, security, and tranquillity of all Christians."
1. Before he enters into any particulars concerning conditions of peace, he can say that the best way of concluding it would be to have the different claims which the several princes pretend to have on one another decided according to law and equity by judges. This is the plan which was adopted in the conference of Calais, and it is the only one which can secure a durable peace. If every Christian prince gets back whatever belongs to him in strict justice, all causes of war will cease to exist in future.
2. He is to propose that each king and prince belonging to the belligerent parties shall choose two judges, and that the judges thus chosen shall investigate, under the direction of Pope Clement VII., the merits of their different claims and quarrels. Each of the belligerents is within a fixed time clearly to state what he demands, and to deliver to the judges the documents by which he intends to support his claims.
3. As soon as the judges have seen the documents and heard what the parties have to say about them, they are to try to bring about a compromise. Witnesses are not to be heard.
4. If a compromise cannot be effected the Pope is to swear in every one of the judges, who are to promise on oath to pronounce judgment according to law and conscience. That done, every one of the judges is to deliver to the Pope his opinion in writing, and the Pope is to pronounce judgment according to the majority of votes. Should the votes of the judges be equally divided, in such a case the Pope is to have the casting vote. The judgment thus given by the Pope is to be binding on all the parties concerned. An appeal is not to be permitted.
5. The parties are to bind themselves under heavy fines, and even to subject themselves to ecclesiastical censures in forma camerœ, to submit to the decision of the Pope. They are to nominate procurators, who are to be present in case the Pope should fulminate the censures against them. The Pope is to promise that he will call upon the other contracting parties to enforce his sentence by force of arms against any one of them who might be found disobedient. In such a case the Pope is also to contribute his contingent of troops to the executive army.
6. If, however, all the other parties are not strong enough to enforce the sentence against the disobedient party, the Pope is bound to declare the disobedient party to be an outcast from the community of the Church, and to treat him as a rebel and an enemy of Christendom. He is to convoke a general diet of all Christian princes, wherein the means by which the rebels of Christendom and the heathen Infidels can be conquered are to be agreed upon.
7. All the lords and other subjects of the different states which by the judgment of the Pope may be given back to their rightful sovereigns, are to be pardoned for all the political crimes and offences they may have committed or may be accused of. They are to have and to hold all their property and dignities in the same way and on the same conditions as they possessed them formerly, that is to say, the subjects of the duchy of Milan before the time of the expulsion of the Duke Francesco, commonly called Il Moro, and the subjects of other states before the commencement of these last wars.
As for the Duke of Bourbon, a separate article is to be framed, in which care will be taken that justice be done to his claims.
With respect to the Queen Dowager Germaine, the Cardinal of Liege, the Prince of Orange, the Marquis D'Arschot, the Seigneurs of Fiennes, Rieul, Lussa and his children, the Seigneur de Caumont, his nephew, and other seigneurs hereafter to be named, separate articles must likewise be con cluded.
8. In case this proposal be accepted, he is empowered to make known his (the Emperor's) claims on the duchy of Burgundy, as well as those of the Holy Empire and of the crown of Spain.
9. He is empowered to conclude a truce for three, or for two years, but not for a shorter space of time. His (the Emperor's) allies must be included in the truce.
If the first proposal should be rejected, he is to propose, as though the idea originated with himself, that all existing treaties should be abolished, and instead of them one new and general treaty concluded. He is to offer to the King of France the duchy of Milan, to be held as a fief of the Empire, with the exception of Genoa and those Milanese territories which are possessed at present by the Church. He is further to promise that he (the Emperor) will renounce his claims on all the territories which are in the possession of the King of France. As equivalent for these concessions he is to ask for the duchy of Burgundy, as the late Duke Charles held it, Tournay, the suzerainty of Flanders and Artois, and the rights which the French pretend to have on the kingdom of Naples, together with a general renunciation of all the claims of France on his kingdoms and territories.
The King of England and the Duke of Milan must be persuaded to consent to such a treaty. As far as the King of England is concerned, he is to promise that he (the Emperor) will pay him the yearly pension which the King of France was in the habit of paying him. This promise, however, is to be understood to relate only to that portion of the pension which he promised to pay as indemnity in his last treaty with the King of England, and not to such payments as were due before the conclusion of the treaty, or to such payments as may fall due hereafter, or to the pensions of private persons, that of the Cardinal of England included. The Duke of Milan might be made a cardinal, and 50,000 ducats a year secured to him on the revenues of Milan.
1. If the King of France will not consent to the dismemberment of the duchy of Milan, he (the Emperor) would condescend to give him the investiture of the duchy according to the extension which it had when the French were expelled from it the last time. The claims of the Pope on Parma and Piacenza, and of Antoniotto Adorno on Genoa, could in such case be decided by the Imperial courts of law.
2. If the King of France should insist on having the whole of Milan without its being first subjected to the decision of a court of law, it might be seen whether the Pope could not be persuaded to renounce his claims on Parma and Piacenza, on condition that the treaty according to which the whole duchy of Milan is bound to buy all the salt they want from the Pope be revived. The claim of Antoniotto Adorno on Genoa would not offer any serious difficulty, as he might be assured of the peaceful enjoyment of his property in Genoa, and an appointment, with a good salary, might be given to him.
3. Genoa, however, is to be abandoned only if the treaty cannot be otherwise concluded. Wishes very much to retain so important a seaport as Genoa under his protection.
4. All the expedients mentioned in the first and second proposals, which might be judged conducive to an arrangement of the disputes with France, may be made use of in this case.
If the King of France consents to exchange the duchy of Milan for that of Burgundy, and, in spite of the concessions contained in the second and third proposals, refuses to renounce his claims on Tournay, Flanders, Artois, Naples, and other parts of his (the Emperor's) kingdoms, it would still be preferable to continue the negotiations than to risk coming to an open rupture. He is, therefore, in such a case to propose that the exchange of Milan for Burgundy be effected, whilst the other claims are to remain in suspense, on condition, however, that neither of the contracting parties try to make them good, either by force of arms or by the judgment of any judge whatever.
2. All the expedients contained in the second proposal might in this case be tried.
1. Should the King of France reject the proposal of an exchange of the duchies of Burgundy and Milan, in such a case he must ask the Pope to propose certain matrimonial alliances between the contending parties.
It is probable that the Queen of France will soon die ; he is, therefore, to ask the Pope to offer to the King of France the Queen of Portugal (sister of the Emperor) as wife. Promises to give the duchy of Milan to the Queen of Portugal on the conditions mentioned in the second proposal, and provided that the King of France gives him the duchy of Burgundy as equivalent for it. The firstborn son of the marriage between the King of France and the Queen Dowager of Portugal is to inherit Milan, without Genoa, as a fief of the Empire, and to swear the oath of fealty as soon as he is of age.
2. Until the first born son of the marriage in question has attained the age of 15 years, he (the Emperor) is to remain in possession of the duchy of Milan, and to convert the revenues of it to his own use, whilst the King of France is to do the same with respect to the duchy of Burgundy. Should he (the Emperor) die before a son of the marriage of his sister with the King of France is born, the government and administration of Milan would belong to the Archduke Ferdinand, his brother.
3. After the birth of a son begotten in that marriage, the Queen Dowager of Portugal, his sister, is to have the government and administration of Milan. She can in such a case appoint new officers if she likes.
4. The exiles are to be permitted to return to the duchy, and their property is to be given back to them.
5. If a son should not be born of that marriage, but only one or more than one daughter, in such a case the firstborn daughter is to inherit the duchy after the death of the King of France, to the exclusion of the Queen, her mother. The Duchess of Milan, however, is in that case not to marry without his (the Emperor's) express authorization.
6. If the marriage be dissolved by the death of the Queen, he (the Emperor) reserves to himself the government of the duchy until the daughter of the Queen has attained a marriageable age. Milan must on no condition be united with the crown of France.
7. As the marriage of the King of France, after the death of his present Queen, with the Queen Dowager of Portugal cannot well take place without the consent of the Duke of Bourbon, to whom the Queen of Portugal is promised, he is to beg the Pope to interpose his authority, and to persuade the Duke of Bourbon to renounce his pretensions to the hand of the Queen Dowager of Portugal.
8. The best manner in which that may be done is the following : All the property, offices, honours, and dignities which the Duke of Bourbon formerly possessed must be given back to him, and the lawsuits instituted and the judgments delivered against him are to be declared null and of no effect. Madame Renée is to be offered to the Duke in marriage, with such a marriage portion as the Queen of Portugal would have had had he married her.
9. Should the Duke of Bourbon prefer not to live in France, he is to be at liberty to spend his revenues abroad.
10. In case the Duke should prefer to marry the sister of Henry D'Albret, all means are to be employed to bring about the marriage. It is his (the Emperor's) earnest will not to conclude peace without satisfying the Duke of Bourbon.
11. In all these proposals of an amicable arrangement it is always taken for granted that the King of England approves of them. Without the consent of the King of England neither peace nor truce nor any other treaty whatever can be concluded. Thinks the King of England will be satisfied if security for the payment of his pension is given him. Is ready to give such security in as far as the pension is concerned, dating from the day when the King of England declared war with France until the day of the conclusion of peace. The arrears of the time before the declaration of war, and the payments which may fall due after the conclusion of peace, are to be paid by the King of France. The King of France is also to be alone responsible for the payments to the Queen Dowager (Mary) which concern her jointure. All this can be stipulated in the best form in the new treaty of peace.
12. It may be that the King of England will not be satisfied with these conditions, and will ask for an indemnity of his war expenses, as well as the satisfaction of certain claims he prefers with respect to the kingdom of Scotland. His claims on Scotland are rather immoderate. If the King, however, cannot be persuaded to abandon these pretensions in any other way, he is to ask the Pope, motu proprio, to interpose his authority, and to induce the King to adopt more reasonable views.
13. If the Pope succeeds in inducing the King of England to accept reasonable conditions, the treaty of peace and the treaties concerning the marriages and dowers are to be concluded according to the form of law. The jointure of the Queen Dowager of Portugal is not to be less than 100,000 francs, which is the usual jointure of the Queens of France.
Supposing that the Queen of France is not dead (when these negotiations begin), or that the King of France refuse from other reasons to marry the Queen Dowager of Portugal, he is to ask the Pope to propose a marriage between the Dauphin and Madame Mary of Portugal, daughter of the Queen Dowager of that kingdom. The conditions of this marriage are to be the same as those spoken of in the preceding proposals. The marriage of the daughter of the King of England would not be an obstacle to the marriages which he here proposes, and the King of England could not reasonably object to them ; for it is not to be supposed that the King of England still intends to marry his daughter to the Dauphin, and to break his engagements to marry her to him (the Emperor). But even if that were the case, and if the King of France should come to an understanding on this subject with the King of England, the marriage of the daughter of the King of England could not well form a serious obstacle to the marriage of the Dauphin with another princess, as she is still so very young. Besides, it is not probable that the King of France will come to an understanding with the King of England about this marriage, as the King of England insists on the condition that the Dauphin be sent over to England, in order to be brought up there. The King of France will certainly not condescend to accept such a condition, except in case he is reduced to the last necessity, and sees that he can make peace with him (the Emperor) on no other conditions whatever.
1. In case the Queen of France is not dead, and that there is little probability that she will soon die, he is to tell the Pope that by bringing about two marriages he can reconcile all the princes of Christendom with one another.
2. The first of these marriages is that of the King of Scotland with the daughter of the King of England. It would put an end to all the quarrels between England and Scotland. It might be stipulated that the King of Scotland should be delivered into the hands of the King of England, to keep him in his power as security. It would not be difficult to persuade the King of France to cause the Duke of Albany to leave Scotland, and to give security for the payment of the arrears and of the future instalments of the pension due to the King of England, as well as for the payment of the jointure of the Queen Dowager (Mary) in the form and manner which is stated in the twelfth article of the fifth proposal.
3. The second marriage is that between him (the Emperor) and Madame Charlotte, daughter of the King of France, with the duchy of Burgundy and other territories as dower, and on condition that the King of France should renounce all his claims on Milan and all his other claims mentioned in the second proposal.
4. In the treaty concerning this marriage all the clauses of the other proposals which can be made to agree with it are to be incorporated.
1. It is possible that the Pope may not like the plan of depriving the Duke of Milan of his duchy, and would not consent that he (the Emperor) should get it into his power, founding his resistance on the investiture of Naples, which forbids the crowns of Naples and Milan to be worn by the same person. The Duke of Milan might also refuse to accept the cardinal's hat and to surrender the fortresses, hoping that he will be supported in the possession of his duchy by the Pope, the Venetians, and the other Italian states, according to the treaty concluded by Pope Leo X., Venice, and the Holy League. It might further happen that the war might not progress so favourably as could be wished, and that the King of England might reject all the proposals made to him. If such were the case, the Pope would, perhaps, repeat his overtures, and again propose the marriage of the Duke (of Milan) with Madame Renée. Under such circumstances it would be better that the marriage should be concluded through him (the Emperor) than through others against his will.
2. He is, therefore, to declare several times that this means of reconciliation is inadmissible. If, however, the other parties, in spite of his declarations, persist in proposing this measure, he is to send him (the Emperor) detailed information of the negotiations, and ask for new instructions. The best way to arrange affairs with the Duke of Milan seems to be this : He (the Emperor) will give the investiture to the Duke, who must pay the expenses caused by it. He will further encourage the Duke to hope that the duchy will be given back to him. The amount of the expenses of the investiture must be fixed, and the Duke must give him the duchy of Bari in part payment of them. For the remainder of the expenses the Duke of Milan must deliver to him certain places hereafter to be specified, the possession of which he (the Emperor) is to enjoy until all the expenses of the investiture are paid.
3. He (de la Roche) is to declare to the Duke of Milan that had he (the Emperor) still a sister to give away, he would give her to him as soon as he is firmly established in his duchy ; but as it is, he (the Emperor) offers him his niece, the Infanta of Portugal, in marriage. Nevertheless, considering the great youth of the Infanta, and the desirableness of soon establishing peace in Christendom, he (the Emperor) has consulted with the Pope and the King of England, and with their approval opened negotiations with the King of France, concerning a marriage between him (the Duke of Milan) and Madame Renée on the most favourable conditions possible.
4. The negotiations concerning this marriage would be best carried on by the Pope with the assistance of the other ambassadors, and even of the ambassadors of the King of England, as the King is in favour of the union. If the negotiations lead to the intended result, the King of France is to send Madame Renée, with such a wardrobe as is becoming her station, to Vercelli.
5. The King of France is to renounce his claims on the duchy of Milan and the county of Asti, and this renunciation is to be accepted by the Duke in lieu of a dower.
6. The firstborn son of the marriage is, after the death of the present Duke, to have the investiture of Milan. If no son but only daughters are the issue of the marriage, the eldest daughter is to marry, with his (the Emperor's) approval, a person who shall be agreeable to him, and he (the Emperor) promises to give him the investiture of the duchy.
7. If Madame Renée should die without having children, the present Duke is to remain in peaceful possession of the duchy, and the King of France is to bind himself not to disturb him. The King of France, however, can reserve to himself all the rights on Milan to which he pretends, which may be decided by a court of law at a later period. The Duke is not permitted to take another wife without his (the Emperor's) permission.
8. If the Duke should die before Madame Renée, and have no children by her, the duchy is to return to him (the Emperor), without prejudice to the pretended rights of the King of France, which, however, are not to be enforced during this peace, as is stated in the fourth proposal.
9. Until the marriage of the Duke takes place, and children are born from it, the five principal places of the duchy are to remain in his (the Emperor's) possession, and to be kept by his deputies.
10. During the same period the right of garrisoning the towns and fortresses of the duchy is to belong to him (the Emperor), and the King of France is to forfeit all his pretensions on Milan, if, during that period, he sends troops to Italy.
11. If the King of France breaks the treaty, all the other allies are to make war with him, as is more fully stated in the fifth and sixth articles of the first proposal.
12. None of the articles of this proposal are to be concluded without first asking his (the Emperor's) consent, nor until every expedient has been tried to obtain satisfactory conditions for the King of England and the Duke of Bourbon. It would be well to consult them in so far as their special interests are concerned.
1. It may be that no peace can be concluded on the conditions contained in any one of the preceding proposals without first concluding a truce, and it may likewise happen that the conditions of a truce contained in the instructions given to the Archbishop of Capua will be also rejected. The King of France, for instance, may perhaps refuse to reinstate the Duke of Bourbon in his dignities, and to give him back his property, in which case neither the Duke of Bourbon nor he (the Emperor) could consent to any arrangement. Or the King of France may, perhaps, have resolved not to pay the King of England his pension during the time of the truce. The King of England would in such a case certainly refuse to listen to any proposal, unless he (the Emperor) remained responsible for the payment. That, however, would not only be unjust, but it would also be scarcely possible for him to make the payments, as his means are all absorbed by other disbursements. Further, it is possible that the French may refuse to withdraw from Italy the French troops which are still in that country, hoping to obtain advantages. He (the Emperor) cannot permit such a thing to take place.
2. As far as the Duke of Bourbon is concerned, the Holy Father must try to persuade the King of France to give the Duke permission to spend the revenues of his property in any place whatever which he may choose out of France. If the King does not yield to these demands, the Pope must propose a certain sum of money to be fixed by the Pope himself, which the King of France must pay the Duke annually out of the revenues of the estates of the Duke as long as the truce lasts. The Duke has no property left him, and only lives on the salary he receives from him (the Emperor).
3. It is self-evident that it is neither reasonable nor just that the pension be paid to the King of England during the time of the truce, because whilst the truce lasts everything ought to remain in the state in which it will be at the moment of the conclusion of the truce. This affair, however, is of such great importance, that the possibility of defending Christendom against the Turks depends on its satisfactory arrangement. Begs, therefore, the Pope first to try by all means to persuade the King of England to conclude the truce without insisting on the payment of his pension ; but if the King of England remains obstinate, it would be better to satisfy him than to break off the negotiations, as nothing less than the security of Italy and the welfare of Christendom are at stake. If the pension to the King of England must be paid, in such a case begs his Holiness to make the following proposal : The pension to be divided into three equal parts, of which one part will be paid by the Pope, Florence, Siena, and Lucca ; the second part by him (the Emperor), Milan, and Genoa ; and the remaining part by France alone, as she is the original debtor of the whole pension. Hopes the King of England will be satisfied with so liberal an arrangement.
4. The Pope must strive to the utmost of his power to persuade the King of France to recall his whole army from Italy. The independence and liberty of that country depend on this measure. If the French retain a single garrison in the duchy of Milan, they will not only continually menace the whole duchy, but also threaten the states of the Church and the dominions of all the other Italian princes, and it might not always be in his (the Emperor's) power to defend them. His army in Lombardy must be disbanded as soon as the contributions of the Holy League for its maintenance cease, and it would perhaps be impossible for him to send other lansquenets and Spanish troops to Italy before France has subjected her.
5. The Pope ought, therefore, to adopt one of these two measures, viz., he must either delay the conclusion of peace until the French are entirely expelled from Italy, and even send aid against the French, or it must be stipulated in the treaty of truce that the Spanish troops can be garrisoned in the places held by the Italians, whilst the Pope, the Florentines, and the other members of the league must provide that the Spanish troops remain in a state of efficiency during the truce.
In all other respects he is to take the instructions given to the Archbishop of Capua, and the general instructions to himself, for his guides.—Given in Burgos, the 14th of May 1524.
French. Autograph. pp. 30.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 31. ff. 320-324.
651. The Duke Of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome,
to the Emperor.
The pestilence is increasing in Rome.
Leaves it to those who were present to inform him of his victories in Lombardy.
The Pope rejoices much at the good news from Lombardy, and is of opinion that, in order to obtain a good and durable peace, France must be invaded. He does not, however, say that in his quality of Pope. His Holiness spoke to the English ambassadors much to the purpose, and the English ambassadors have written very favourable despatches to England, begging the King to make an attack on France in the north, and thereby to render the invasion of Provence more easy. Has begged Madame Margaret to write also to the King of England. His Holiness is much afraid, and believes that the English will not do their duty, as he is informed that the Cardinal of England begins to lend a willing ear to the overtures made to him by the French. The English ambassadors complained that he (the Emperor) had disbanded his army. They showed much less hatred to the French than was formerly their wont. The Pope thinks that the captain-general of the army ought to write letters to the King of England informing him of his victories, and inviting him to make common cause with him (the Emperor) against France. At all events, the Pope expects that he (the Emperor) will fulfil his promises. His Holiness does what he can to preserve the alliance and friendship between him (the Emperor) and the King of England. He says that the victories will be of very little value if that which has been gained by them cannot be preserved. The instructions to the Archbishop of Capua are given in this sense.
Bishopric of Granada, &c.—Rome, the 19th of May 1524.
Addressed : "To the most sacred and victorious Cœsar, King of Spain, &c., our sovereign Lord."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1524. Rome. Duke of Sessa. The 19th of May. Answered."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 3.
S. Leg. Suelt.
652. The Emperor to the Sieur De Courrières, (fn. 3) his Envoy
He is to go to England and to tell the King and the legate what follows.
God has given him a great victory in Italy over his enemies and the enemies of England. The victory is the more complete as it has been obtained without loss of life on the part of his army, whilst the losses of the enemy are so great that they could not be greater if a battle had been fought. The army of the enemy has suffered so much in different engagements, assaults of towns and castles, from want of provisions during eight months, pestilence and other causes, that it is no longer in a state to take the field. Out of 1,500 men-at-arms only 350 at the outside have returned to France. Almost all the captains, lieutenants, ensigns, and other persons of rank in the hostile army have either perished on the field or been made prisoners. Those who remain either suffer from maladies or are wounded. Of the Swiss more than 6,000 have been killed. The remainder of the stipendiary infantry have suffered so much that scarcely 4,000 have escaped by an ignominious flight. The principal advantage over the King of France however, consists in the circumstance that the Swiss have forsaken him, as he was unable to pay them, and had treated them harshly. It is said they have retained the Admiral Montmorency as prisoner, and carried away all the artillery, together with the ammunition. It is clear that the King of France will find it impossible for a long time to come to make use of Swiss troops.
Has done all in his power not to permit this occasion to pass without taking vengeance on their common enemy. Three things must be done.
Has written to the Duke of Bourbon and the Viceroy of Naples to carry out without loss of time the three measures of which the King of England has already been informed. They are to invade France with 800 men-at-arms, 1,500 light horse, and all the Spanish, German, and other troops of his (the Emperor's) army in Italy. They are to take with them 20,000 foot, the necessary artillery, ammunition, &c. A great number of influential Frenchmen, who are the friends of the Duke of Bourbon, will join him. The Duke will do all in his power to find the money necessary to maintain the army, which is powerful enough either to give or to accept battle.
Has already sent 200,000 ducats to Genoa for his army. Begs King Henry to pay whatever more is wanted for the invasion of France.
Expects that the King of England will invade France in Picardy.
French. Copy. The original draft from which the copy in Simancas seems to have been made is preserved in the Royal Archives in Brussels. pp. 2.
P. Ac. d. l'Emp. Neg. Pap. d. Sim. K. 1639.
653. The Emperor to Gérard De La Plaine, Seigneur De
He is to go as soon as possible to Rome by land. As soon as he arrives at Genoa he is to enter into communication with the Viceroy of Naples, who is to be his co-commissioner in this business. He is, however, first to hear the opinion of Lope de Soria, Hugo de Moncada, and the Doge Antoniotto Adorno as to the intentions of the Genoese. If he thinks it advisable, he can enter into negotiations with the Doge and the citizens of Genoa, concerning the assistance which may be expected from them in the war with France.
He can tell them that it is his (the Emperor's) intention, in addition to the galleys he has at sea, to man a new navy, which is to carry from 6,000 to 8,000 well equipped soldiers on board. As he succours them it is only reasonable that they should succour him, especially as the war is carried on for their liberty and independence. [More particulars follow concerning the navy.]
After having terminated his negotiations in Genoa he is to go and see the Viceroy of Naples, if he should not be far out of his way to Rome. He is to communicate to the Viceroy the whole of his instructions, and if Monsieur de Beaurain is in the neighbourhood, he is also to be admitted to the conference. He (de la Roche), the Viceroy, and M. de Beaurain are, according to the state of the Italian affairs, to decide what he (de la Roche) is to tell or to write to the Duke of Bourbon, the Duke of Milan, the Marquis of Mantua, the Marquis of Pescara, and other personages of great importance. He must never forget that it is his (the Emperor's) intention not to betray the Duke of Bourbon.
He (de la Roche) and the other persons whom he is to consult must constantly bear in mind that it is his (the Emperor's) firm will either to conclude a durable peace which shall satisfy all the parties concerned in it, or to have a complete victory and to drive the French out of Italy. Should the French retire, or be beaten during the negotiations, and should the invasion of France under the command of the Duke of Bourbon be feasible, the Duke of Bourbon is to invade Provence, which would greatly facilitate the negotiations with the King of France, and secure more favourable conditions.
He (de la Roche) is to see that the instructions which Monsieur de Beaurain has received be executed as punctually as circumstances permit.
If it is impossible for the Viceroy to leave the army, he (de la Roche) is first to concert with him all and everything concerning his mission, and then to go to Rome in the company of Monsieur de Beaurain, or one of the other persons mentioned in his credentials. If it is possible, he is to confer with the Duke of Sessa before he enters Rome, and to see that due honour be paid to him (de la Roche). He is to concert with the Duke all the measures to be taken concerning his (the Emperor's) oath of obedience to the Pope in his quality of Emperor, and his oath of fealty for the kingdom of Naples and the other territories which he holds. The offensive and defensive league, the affair of Modena and Reggio, and the good offices of the Pope to bring about a truce or peace, are to form the principal subject of his deliberations with the Duke of Sessa.
If the Archbishop of Capua has sufficient power from the King of England and the King of France to conclude in their name a truce or peace, he is to show his power, and to begin with the negotiations of peace, as a peace would be preferable to a truce. He is to give the Pope to understand that he (the Emperor) has the greatest desire to conclude a general peace of Christendom, in order to make war upon the Turks.
If the other parties concerned in these negotiations are disposed to conclude a peace, he is to act according to the instructions given in French to Monsieur de Beaurain, and the instructions in Latin sent to the Duke of Sessa, setting aside only the article touching Fuentarabia, which has been recovered since the instructions were given. He is also to enter into negotiations about the articles which the King of England and the Duke of Bourbon may have sent ; for without the consent of the King of England and the Duke of Bourbon no treaty can be concluded. Is quite resolved to forsake none of his allies, and desires nothing more ardently than that the peace which is to be concluded should be an everlasting peace.
If, however, a treaty of peace is not likely to be concluded soon, and if the war takes an unfavourable turn, or if the Turks threaten to invade his states, or if another great calamity to the common affairs of Christendom is to be apprehended, he is to enter into negotiations about the speedy conclusion of a truce. These negotiations must be carried on with the approval and co-operation of the ambassadors of the King of England and of the other allies. He is strictly to comply with the instructions given to Monsieur de Beaurain and the Duke of Sessa, and with the written answer which the Archbishop of Capua has taken with him. If some unexpected difficulty arise, he is to send a report by a flying courier, together with his opinion, and wait for his (the Emperor's) answer.
As far as the business of the Duke of Bourbon is concerned, he is empowered to conclude the peace or truce without asking for new instractions, if only the Duke declares himself satisfied, even in case the conditions differ from those which he (the Emperor) has proposed.
If some new marriages or other alliances which have not yet been considered by his Privy Council of State should be proposed, he (de la Roche) is to ask new instructions. Should, however, the business be so pressing that any delay would be dangerous, and should he think well of the new proposal, in such a case he is to conclude the treaty, reserving to him (the Emperor) the right of approving or rejecting it. He is, however, in such a case to consult the ambassadors of the King of England, and not to conclude the treaty if they make objections to it. If the English approve of the new proposals, he can even in his own name give a positive promise that he (the Emperor) will ratify the treaty.
It must be settled in the first conference that none of the negotiating parties shall intercept a courier of any other negotiating party.
Before or after the conclusion of the peace or truce, he is to propose to the Pope another more intimate offensive and defensive alliance, and he must try to learn what the Pope thinks about Milan, Ferrara, the invasion of the Turks, &c.
He is to speak with the Pope about the mortgage of Modena.
When passing through Florence and Siena he is to thank those cities for their good intentions.
The money levied by the Emperor sede vacante. Bull of St. Peter. The Jubilee.
As it is unbecoming for the inquisitors to take their salaries out of the confiscated property of heretics, they ought to be provided for out of the revenues of the mensœ capitulares of the cathedrals.
Daughter of the Duke de Termes. Abbacy of St. Janus and other church preferment.
Lodovico de Gonzaga. Bishop of Nice, &c., &c.
The whole house of Burgundy, the Prince of Orange and the Marquis D'Arschot are to be included in the treaty of peace or truce.
He is to take care of the interest of the churches and chapters in Spain and of the Inquisition.—Burgos, the 25th of May 1524.
Indorsed : "Instructions and memoirs for our trusty friend, Knight, Councillor, and Chamberlain, Gérard de Playne, Seigneur de la Roche and Magny, concerning what he is to do and to say on his journey to Italy."
French. Autograph. pp. 15.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Muñoz. 56. f. 206. 5°.
654. The Emperor to the Duke Of Sessa, his Ambassador
Has received his letters up to the 17th of April.
It was not his intention to send another ambassador to Rome ; all he intended was to permit his Chancellor to go to Rome, and to assist him (the Duke of Sessa) in concluding the general peace. Thought he was rendering him thereby a service, as it was most necessary to have the advice of a lawyer who is so well informed as the Chancellor on all the subjects of his (the Emperor's) long quarrels with the King of France. The Chancellor cannot go. Sends, therefore, Monsieur de la Roche, one of his privy councillors, in his stead.
Cannot prevent people from speaking out what they think, nor is it possible for him to prevent them from thinking that he (the Emperor) is going to Italy, but the Archbishop knows, and his (the Emperor's) power to conclude peace or a truce, as well as the projected treaty which he (the Emperor) has sent to Rome show, that his (the Emperor's) intentions are very different from what is said.
He is always to treat the Pope with the greatest courtesy, but at the same time he must press hard upon him to send his (the Pope's) contribution towards the maintenance of the army. As the French are driven out of Italy, the Pope will no longer be in fear of them, and it is to be hoped that he will act with more energy.
Thanks him for the efforts he has made to procure money for the payment of the troops.
Is fully persuaded that the King of England will change his mind and give up his intention of making peace, when he hears of the victories in Lombardy. If the Duke of Bourbon invades Provence, the King of England will invade France in the north, as he had already promised to do before the victory was won. The army under the command of Monsieur de Bourbon must be paid by him (the Emperor). Sends, however, a gentleman of his bedchamber to the King of England with very ample instructions, begging the King to give orders to the English to invade France.
He is right in what he says concerning his (the Emperor's) honour, which must at all events be guarded. He may rest assured that it shall be done. The time has not yet come for him to go to Italy. When that moment arrives he will first write to the Pope.
Church patronage. Cardinals of Lorraine and Bourbon. Quarta. Church preferment.
Has been forced to disband his army in Navarra. As, however, the French are driven out of Italy, he is to ask the Pope openly to declare himself an ally (of the Emperor and the King of England). A better opportunity to lower the pride of the French never existed. Promises to begin a war with the Turks as soon as the French are humiliated.
Hopes that the Swiss, after the defeat of the French in Italy, will be more inclined to live at peace with him (the Emperor). Has therefore asked them to convoke a new Diet, and begs the Pope, the King of England, the Infante, the Duke of Milan, Venice, and others to send their ambassadors to be present at that Diet.
Hospital of the Conception of our Lady, &c. Bishop of Tarazona, &c. Pedro Pache, &c. Francesco Ursino, &c.
A courier from Genoa has just arrived with his (the Duke of Sessa's) letters of the 22nd and 26th of April, and of the 7th of the present month. Is glad to hear what he writes about the Swiss. He (the Duke of Sessa) says that the Cardinal of England is secretly negotiating with the French. Hopes that the gentleman whom he sends to England will make an end of these negotiations, especially as the French are beaten, and the Duke of Bourbon is invading Provence. Church preferment. Army. Siena. Palencia. He is to insist on the Pope helping in the enterprise on Provence, even should it be clandestinely. Turks. The Datary Balthasar (Castiglione), &c.—Burgos, the 25th of April (fn. 4) 1524.
Spanish. Draft, with corrections in the handwriting of Francisco de los Covos. The first leaf of this despatch is cut out, but Hieronymo Zurita has copied it, and thus supplied the defect. pp. 11.