Spain: February 1526, 1-20

Pages 561-576

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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February 1526, 1-20

1 Feb. 329. Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 14.
Their last letter was dated the 26th ult. What they have to advise since is that on the same day Gregory Casal arrived in this city from Rome, and was received twice at the College Hall, once in public, the other in private audience, immediately after which he despatched a courier to England. The Imperial ambassadors have not yet ascertained what the object of the audience was, but will do their utmost to find it out. (Cipher:) Meanwhile the rumour is that he (Casale) has something in hand not very beneficial to the Imperial interests, and is trying to bring about a league against the Emperor. He was seen, some nights ago, to enter in disguise the dwelling of the Bishop of Bayeux, ambassador of France.
(Common writing:) George Esturion has arrived from France, whither he was sent with a message. (Cipher:) The answer he brings is to this effect, that they (the French) are willing and ready to help with a certain number of Switzers, and with the Duke Maximilian [Sforza] at their head; but that this Signory ought, before all things, to persuade the Pope to enter the league, because without him no good can be done. Their informer adds that the Signory are not at all pleased with the result of Esturion's embassy to France.—Venice, 1 Feb. 1526.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo," "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From the Ambassadors at Venice."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher, mutilated. Contemporary deciphering on the same sheet. pp. 2.
3 Feb. 330. Praet to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224.
The Sieur de Bossu left last Thursday with such news as the ambassador had up to that time.
On Sunday morning (the 26th of January) Mons. de Montmorency arrived and brought to the Regent the news of the conclusion of the peace. All are very much pleased with it. The Italian emigrants pretended at first to be much distressed about it; but since then they talk of becoming the Emperor's loyal friends, in the hope, no doubt, of recovering their confiscated property.
On the same Sunday, in the afternoon, the Regent sent for him (Praet) to communicate the news to him. Could not attend owing to a slight indisposition, but waited upon her on the ensuing Monday, when she told him how pleased she was at her son's liberation and his marriage to Mme. Eleonor. Begged him (Praet) to write home and propose that Mme. Eleonor should approach the frontier of Bayonne. The marriage might then be celebrated immediately, and the bride accompany the King to France.
With regard to Burgundy she said that the opposition among people of all classes was so strong that she had been obliged to say to them that as soon as the Duchy should be in the hands of His Imperial Majesty the rights to it were to be discussed and decided by umpires. She begged him (Praet) to write and recommend a similar course [in Spain] until the said Duchy were fairly given up, after which the article concerning it might be safely divulged.
She also wishes the Viceroy of Naples to be the person appointed to conduct the King, her son, as far as Bayonne; he having had the honour of taking Francis prisoner would thus enjoy the privilege of setting him at liberty.
The ambassador's private opinion respecting the former of the wishes expressed by the Regent, namely, the immediate celebration of the King's marriage with Mme. Eleonor, is that although she (the Regent) appears sincere and in earnest, it will be safer to adhere strictly to the words of the treaty, giving some special reason and civil excuse for not granting her request.
With regard to the Duchy, it does not seem at all desirable to have a report spread which is neither consistent with truth, nor favourable to the Emperor's interests. For had it not been for the Regent herself and those of her party, Burgundy would never have been ceded either by treaty or otherwise, as it is a point on which there is but one opinion among Frenchmen, namely, that the cession of such an important territory will considerably weaken the kingdom of France, especially if the Emperor, from its vicinity to the county [of Burgundy] and to Germany, keeps it well watched and guarded. His Imperial Majesty, therefore, ought to insist upon the strict observance of the articles relating thereto, for which purpose it would be advisable to maintain the Italian army, and make it known to the Imperial ambassadors at Rome and in London how essential the cession of Burgundy is for the lasting welfare of Christendom.
The Regent leaves for Blois to-morrow, thence to proceed immediately to Bayonne with the Dauphin and the Duke of Orleans. She has already set the Prince of Orange (Philibert de Chalon) free on parole; he has gone to visit his mother [in Flanders], to return and be at Blois on the 15th [of February], there to obtain his full release.—Lyons, the last day of January 1526.
Since the above was written, Dormans has arrived with the Imperial despatches. In compliance with orders, Praet called on the Regent, offered his congratulations, and urged her to the speedy release of Mons. d'Autun, Mons. de St. Vallier, and the prisoners of war. Was promised that, immediately upon her arrival at Blois, orders should be issued for their release.
Galeazzo Visconti, one of the Italian exiles (fuorusciti) in France, has called twice on him (Praet), and, after recapitulating what he calls his former services to the Empire, dwelt much on his having at all times tried to dissuade King Francis from going to war with the Emperor. He was about to proceed straight to Bayonne, there to meet the King and congratulate him upon his liberation, when he heard of the turn affairs were taking at Milan. He was desirous of returning to the Emperor's service if he could do so consistently with his honour. But, in the ambassador's opinion, Visconti's visit and offers had no other object than to ascertain, if possible, the contents of the treaty with regard to Milan, and the disposal of property confiscated from himself and other exiles.—3 of February 1526.
Signed: "Loys de Praet."
Addressed: "A sa Majeste de l'Empereur Roi d'Espagne, &c."
French. Original. pp.
6 Feb. 331. Deed of Investiture of the Duchy of Milan in favour of the Duke of Bourbon.
S. R. Patr. Milan,
f. 19.
[After a long historical introduction respecting the right of the Emperor to the duchy of Milan, the document goes on to say:]
Whereas Charles, Duke of Bourbon, has not only approved of the peace with France, which could not have been concluded without his consent, but has also resigned the hand of the Queen Dowager of Portugal (Doña Eleonor), in order to make the said peace possible: Whereas the Duke Francesco Sforza has, by his misdeeds, forfeited the estate of Milan which We gave him in fief, We hereby appoint Charles, Duke of Bourbon, to be Duke of Milan, &c.—Toledo, 6 Feb. 1526.
Original draft in Gattinara's hand.
7 Feb. 332. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera.
Arch. Hist. Cent.
Madrid. Priv. y.
Cart. Re. f. 381v..
Abbot of Najera, &c.—The Illustrious Marquis of Pescara (whom may God have in his glory!) mentioned in his will—and his relative, the Marquis del Gasto, has since confirmed the fact— that he had borrowed certain sums of money for the wants of that army. We have since been informed that, besides those sums, the Marquis del Gasto had taken on loan 6,000 ducats to help in the payment of our troops. Both these debts being so just, We order you to discharge them, as soon as possible, out of the first moneys that shall come into your hands, &c.—Toledo, 7th of February 1526.
"I, the King. By His Majesty's command. Pedro Garcia."
Addressed: "From the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty. To the Abbot of Najera, His Commissary General in Lombardy."
Spanish. Copy, p. 1¼.
8 Feb. 333. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa and Commander Herrera.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
ff. 294–8.
The King. Illustrious Duke, our cousin, and Vice-Gerent in Rome, &c. Commander Herrera, our Chamberlain and Councillor, &c.—We were glad to hear by your letters of the 16th December last that His Holiness is better disposed [towards us] than We had reason to expect, all owing, no doubt, to your prudence and ability on all occasions, and particularly on this last. Full answer is being prepared to all matters contained in your said despatches. Could not be done before owing to the press of business which the pending negotiations have brought on our hands.
Our affairs with the most Christian King of France, our brother, were almost settled when your despatch came to hand. They have since been brought to a conclusion, and on the [14th of January] last (fn. n1) the treaty of peace and alliance was definitively signed [at Madrid], together with the marriage contract between the said King and Queen Eleonor, our much beloved sister. Please God that this alliance may turn out to His service and to the peace and welfare of Christendom, so that our united forces may henceforward be employed against the Turk, our common enemy! Besides this new confederation with the most Christian King, our brother, such was our desire for universal peace that, setting aside all matters and things which might have urged us on to other designs and intentions, and with a view to the modification and amendment of the conditions which you, Commander Herrera, took to Rome, We have resolved to alter the treaty in some of its articles, viz., in the 12th, 13th, and 18th. We have likewise sufficiently solved and explained the doubts there raised about the Duke of Milan, for if it be proved that he [the Duke] has not failed in his allegiance to us, and he should recover from his present illness, things shall remain as they are. If, on the contrary, his guilt be proved, and he thereby lose his estate, We intend to appoint the Duke of Bourbon to succeed him, so that His Holiness' suspicions may at once vanish and his wishes, as expressed by his Legate, be accomplished. (fn. n2) Let the investigation of the Duke's guilt be proceeded with according to law, and His Holiness may rest assured that no injustice shall be done him. As when you, Commander Herrera, left for Italy, We had but a vague notion of the Duke's misdeeds, We could not then take much notice of this matter, that being the reason why no mention was made of him in the draft of the treaty which you first took to Rome.
The suspension of hostilities concerted between His Holiness and you We approve of, and believe to be well intended, though We do not see much occasion for it, for between His Holiness and us there was no rupture at the time, nor were things in a state to cause apprehension, as We had the said King of France still in our power, and the negotiations for the treaty were in the meanwhile being brought to a close.
The sum to be contributed [by the Pope] ought to be fully 200,000 ducats; We cannot do with less, considering the expenses We have been put to by the late war.
Respecting Rezzo (Reggio) and Rubiera you will see by the enclosed articles the resolution We have come to. The Duke of Ferrara must needs enter this league, or else a door will be left open for new disturbances in Italy, which must be avoided.
With regard to the appointment of our Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) to be Captain-General of the League, We are glad to hear that the Pope approves of it. We have written to him in our own hand in answer to his last letter, and given him ample satisfaction on all points, so that you will at once conclude the proposed agreement, according to the articles We now send you, and in which no more changes or alterations are to be made. Should His Holiness raise difficulties respecting some points of this negotiation, you will firmly maintain your ground, and say that it is impossible to alter them. If, however, he (the Pope) should still insist, you will consult us as soon as possible.
We are not pleased to hear that Cardinal Colonna still keeps away from Rome. We have written the enclosed letter for you to forward to him, flattering him in all possible ways, and assuring him that you intend to follow his opinion and advice in this present negotiation, of which you are to keep him always well informed, adding that you do it at our express orders, and because We are convinced of his affection and love towards us; and that whenever he (Colonna) wants our protection, he will find us ready to assist him.
Respecting our army, all necessary provision shall be made; and the Duke of Bourbon is soon to set out, as our Lieutenant and Captain-General in Lombardy.
Our Viceroy of Naples [Charles de Lannoy] is to conduct His most Christian Majesty of France to Bayonne, and there receive the hostages. From thence he (Lannoy) will proceed to Naples, passing through Rome, where, if necessary, he will stop some days to bring about the said negotiation.
We write to Jacopo Salviatis the letter that accompanies this, thanking him for his good offices.
Until the arrival of the Duke of Bourbon you will keep the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva, as well as our ambassadors in Venice, well informed of the state of the negotiations, so that these latter may know whether or not they are to press the demands now being made to the Venetians in our name, before or after you have concluded with the Pope.
Respecting Sienna, We are only waiting for the result of the inquiry which you and Commander Herrera are about to send us, to make the required provision.
We cannot say how the Pope will take our proposal about Rezzo (Reggio) and Rubiera, nor whether the Duke of Ferrara will be pleased with the arrangement We have made. We have therefore written to Prothonotary Caracciolo to sound the Duke on this particular, and let you know the result of his inquiries, in order that you may push on the negotiations accordingly. Should the Pope agree to the said article as it is worded, well and good; you will immediately inform the Prothonotary that he may negotiate with the Duke accordingly. If the Pope, on the contrary, rejects our proposition, you are also to acquaint the Prothonotary with his refusal, that he may follow the instructions We have given him in case of the negotiation failing; but, in either case, the affair is to be conducted with great secrecy, so that the Pope may never come to know that We are in treaty with the Duke, for were he to find it out, there would be danger of the two parties (the Duke and the Pope) coming to some agreement together.
Should His Holiness ultimately refuse to grant the said article about the Duke of Ferrara, and that of the Salt at Milan, in the very words in which they are couched, you will propose to him to leave out the two said articles and pass on to the signature of the remainder; and on the Pope consenting to this, you will sign it in our name; as We would not, for the sake of those articles, lose the chance of making a league with His Holiness.
The article concerning Naples being of such kind that it may be left as it stood before, in conformity with the privileges and uses of that kingdom, there is no occasion to insist upon its amendment, should the Pope refuse to sanction it as it is now worded.
The Dean and Chapter of Tudela have lately found a way for having the priorate of Saint Marçal, which forms part of our Royal patronate, incorporated into their church. You shall earnestly request His Holiness, in our name, to annul the said incorporation, which is against our rights. You will likewise use all your influence with Cardinals Cesarini and Rangone to obtain for our faithful secretary, Alonso de Soria, the archdeanship of Belchite, with which We some time ago thought of rewarding his long and eminent services.—Toledo, 8th February 1526.
"Yo, el Rey."
Addressed: "To the Duke of Sessa and Commander Herrera, our Ambassadors in Rome."
Spanish. Original draft, corrected by Gattinara. pp. 8¼.
8 Feb. 334. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
ff. 292–3.
The King. Illustrious Duke, our Cousin and Vice-Gerent in Rome.—The enclosed is an answer to your and Commander Herrera's joint despatch; the present refers to your other despatches of the 5th, 12th, 13th, 18th, 23d, 28th, and last day of October, and of 30th of Nov.
Cardinal Colonna's absence from that Court is, as you observe, very inconvenient for us at the present moment, he (the Cardinal) being such a good friend and servant of ours. We now write to him, as stated in our letter to you and Commander Herrera, and will continue to place our confidence in him, as hitherto.
Respecting your return to these our realms, We have not answered you before, owing, first, to our many engagements, and, secondly, to the affairs of Italy not being in such a state as to allow of your coming [to Spain]. You will, as soon as possible, bring the present negotiations to a close, acting with your usual prudence, and We shall then do our utmost to hasten our departure for Italy, where—God willing—We shall be able to bring all matters to a favourable issue. In what concerns the jubilee, and the amalgamation of the priorate of Exea to the monastery of Santa Engracia, you shall do all that is fit should not the affair be settled when this our letter reaches you.
Lope Hurtado [de Mendoça] has written to inform us of what passed with the Pope. Since the affairs are taking such a good turn, there is no occasion to say anything more about the matter, but wait patiently for a favourable issue of the negotiation.
The negotiations of the English with France were not, after all, so detrimental to our interests as was reported there; We see this in the agreement they have lately made with us. Nevertheless We approve of your zeal, and thank you for the information.
The Duke of Ferrara has not been able to obtain a safe-conduct through France, and has, therefore, returned to his estates. He must, of necessity, be included in the present treaty.
Respecting Sienna, We are only waiting for the result of the inquiry now being made by Captain Herrera to take such measures as will restore tranquillity to the place. We have likewise given orders to our Viceroy of Naples to provide money for the expedition of couriers from Genoa, though, in future, they will be able—God permitting—to come by a land route.
About the overtures and offers which you say the Venetians are making to the Turk, that is a matter which We leave entirely in God's charge. Should they come to an agreement with that Infidel, they will no doubt experience His wrath, and We shall be glad to be the executor of it.
We are displeased to hear that the Archbishop of Capua (el Capuano) is away [from Rome] and that the Pope is angry with him. We hope that His Holiness will be brought to a sense of his duty, and learn how to treat people according to their rank and deserts. (fn. n3)
Fresh orders in writing have been sent out respecting the payment of all sums borrowed on the occasion of the Duke of Albany's threatened invasion of Naples. If, on the arrival of our Viceroy [Charles de Lannoy], all such debts are not discharged in full, he has orders to look into it himself and have also the arrears of salaries to the advocates, abbreviator and procurator paid.
We have duly received the Pope's brief of dispensation for our marriage with the most Serene Empress, our beloved wife. It was as full as required, and as complete as the one concerning the jubilee.—Toledo, 8th Feb. 1526.
Spanish. Original draft, docketed by Gattinara. pp. 3.
8 Feb. 335. The Emperor to Commander Herrera.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
f. 291.
Commander Miguel de Herrera, our Chamberlain and Councillor, &c.—We have received your two despatches, in date of the last of November and 16th of December, to which, as well as to those of the Duke (of Sessa), We have replied at full. We have nothing more to add, save to praise your diligence in what regards our service, and to approve your leaving in the hands of Lope Hurtado de Mendoza the powers you took for the Marquis of Pescara, since there was no longer occasion for them.
Respecting other matters and the news contained in your letter of the 16th of December last, We thank you for the information, hoping that you will continue to do the same as long as you remain there [at Rome].
We have given orders for a letter to be written in our name to Cardinal Colonna, in the terms specified in our answer to both you and the Duke.
We have also ordered that a letter of condolence should be written to the Marchioness of Pescara (Vittoria Colonna), for verily she has sustained a great loss by his death, as We ourselves have.
We appreciate in their full value the services of Secretary Perez, and will bear him in mind, whenever an opportunity occurs of promoting him or otherwise rewarding him for his zeal.
You shall go, as soon as you can, to Sienna, there to make the inquiry committed to your care, for We are only waiting for the result of your investigations to take such measures as will ensure the tranquillity of that city.—Toledo, 8th February 1526.
Addressed: "To Commander Miguel de Herrera."
Spanish. Original draft. p. 1.
8 Feb. 336. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 17.
The King, &c.—We have duly received your letters of the 27th Oct., 25th Nov., 15th, 17th and 23d December last, and thank you for your great diligence in informing us of whatever occurs in that army and estate [of Milan].
God was pleased to permit that a treaty of peace and alliance should be concluded between ourselves and the most Christian King of France, our brother, on such conditions and with such ties as are likely to ensure its duration; such as the marriage of the said King to Queen Leonor, our most beloved sister, and others. The Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) is to accompany the King to Bayonne [in France], and thence start for Naples. The Duke of Bourbon, likewise, will soon take his departure for Italy, as our Lieutenant and Captain-General; and the affairs of Milan and its Duke will be finally settled. We intend that full justice be done in this case.
Respecting our army and other matters, provision shall be made as required, and in the meantime you will support yourselves as best you can with the ordinary rents of that Estate, and what may be obtained from the Pope and Venetians.
We should be glad to show Giovanni and Francesco di Galara all the favour they deserve; but We cannot move in matters of that Estate until it be clearly proved whether the Duke is guilty or innocent of the charge brought against him. We have perused Morono's confession, and the Duke will take our instructions respecting the whole affair.
Orders have been sent to Naples concerning the pay of the men-at-arms; besides which, the Viceroy's arrival is sure to give an impulse to this and other matters. We have also ordered Lope Hurtado to remain [at his post] until the arrival of the Duke of Bourbon.
M. de Labret's flight from prison was a very hard case. Those who will be found implicated in it ought to be severely punished.
With regard to Federico di Capua, the affair ought to be decided according to law, and those who suffered on the occasion properly indemnified for their losses.—Toledo, 8 Feb. 1526.
Indorsed: "The King. 1526. Toledo. To the Abbot of Najera, 8 Feb."
Spanish. Original minute. p. 1.
14 Feb. 337. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp., f. 63.
On the 22d January last he had occasion to mention, among other things, the little credit of the Imperial army with the merchants of Milan, Venice and Genoa, owing to the bills of exchange drawn by the late Marquis de Pescara, the Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva, and himself having been dishonoured. He can but return to the subject now, and add that the wants of the army have so increased of late, and the country is so completely exhausted and ruined, that it is next to impossible to procure any food for either soldier or native. And yet, notwithstanding the general distress, the Emperor's ministers in Milan have contrived to raise about 100,000 gold cr. in the Duchy, as His Imperial Majesty will see by the enclosed memorandum. (fn. n4) Had it not been for a rich Cremona merchant, named Ludovico Afeyta, who has lately bought, and paid for in that district a village called Romanengo, the Germans in front of this castle would never have got their last month's pay. Whence the money is to come in future to cover their monthly stipend nobody knows, for Naples cannot, or will not, give one farthing; the Genoese refuse to advance any sums on the bills of exchange that are to come from Spain unless they hear first of their having been accepted by bankers of that locality. The Milanese themselves will not lend any money until the bills drawn by the Marquises of Pescara and del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva, and himself (the Abbot) be properly discharged, notwithstanding that the tax known by the name of dacii, amounting to about 4,000 gold cr., has been made over to them in payment of the 27,000 gold cr. now owing. A similar tax at Cremona, yielding about 2,000 cr. monthly, has, in a like manner, been consigned to a Venetian merchant, who, through the mediation of Alonso Sanchez, lent, last October, 6,000 gold cr., so that neither from the bankers of this city nor from the already mortgaged resources of the Estate is any money to be expected.
In such emergency he (the Abbot) can but humbly beseech His Imperial Majesty to have pity on his army, and make such provision, either from Naples or from elsewhere, as may relieve its present distress and sufferings, whereof Arana, the bearer, is a good witness, as he will be able to report how the men are distributed so as to get their daily food, and how the inhabitants, upon whom they are at present billeted, can only bear this burden for a few days more, until the Emperor be pleased to decide what is to be done with this army and Estate.
Two couriers, who left Lyons on the 28th January last, and passed, the former through Asti on his way to Rome, the latter by this city, with despatches for the Duke of Ferrara, have brought news of the arrival of Montmorency in that city (Lyons) with the articles of the peace just concluded between His Imperial Majesty and the French King. A letter from M. de Prata (Praet), the ambassador, confirms the intelligence, and adds that immediately after that nobleman's arrival, on the 28th, one of the above messengers left for Rome.
There can be no doubt that the news of this peace has given general satisfaction, though many [in Italy] are sorry for it. fearing that it will turn out to their disadvantage and ultimately work their ruin. Their fears are greatly increased by the fact of their not having yet received letters from the Emperor concerning the said treaty and the provisions therein made about this Estate and its present ruler, the Duke Francesco Maria (Sforza). They hope, or at least feign to do so, that the clauses of the treaty are different from those divulged since Montmorency's arrival; which hope has so revived them that the Duke Francesco and his partisans, both in this castle and at Cremona, their friends and relations—though not very numerous or important in this Estate—all share the same opinion, and believe themselves safe from any danger.
Owing to the above consideration, his (the Abbot's) humble opinion is that His Imperial Majesty should, as soon as possible, send his instructions and orders to the Marquis del Guasto and to Antonio de Leyva as to what they are to do with this army, and how to proceed against the Duke Francesco, because Hieronymo Morono is ill and confined to his bed, and the rest of the witnesses—called to give evidence in that criminal suit, and show reason why the Emperor ought to seize on the Duke's Estate—though in good health now, might possibly be carried off by death before the examination.
As the troops that hold this castle and that of Cremona are continually firing guns and doing all possible injury to the Emperor's servants and soldiers, the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva have published a ban, enjoining all subjects and vassals of His Imperial Majesty who may be inside the said castles to come out within four days' time and return to their dwellings in the city, under pain of death and confiscation of their property. He (the Abbot) went on the 8th instant to the trenches cut in front of the castle, there to converse with two Milanese gentlemen especially summoned for that purpose. Having read the ban, and requested them to give notice of it to their friends and comrades inside the castle, besides announcing to them the conclusion of the peace with France, they promised to acquaint the Duke himself—by whom they had been sent, and not anyone else—with the intelligence just imparted. With regard to the ban (monitorio) and its threats, they said that, as far as they were personally concerned, they did not intend to leave the castle or forsake the Lord and master given them by the Emperor, but would stand by his (the Duke's) side until he was declared rebel or otherwise summoned to surrender the castle into other hands.
It is remarkable that the Duke Francesco, before he shut himself up in his castle, held similar language, though it maybe conjectured that he spoke thus the better to accomplish his object. But, however this may be, it would be advisable for the Emperor to write him a letter enjoining him to quit the castle and surrender it to his generals. It might then be ascertained whether his professions are sincere or not, and if so, the trouble and expense of the German infantry now surrounding the castle might be avoided, since, quartered as the soldiers are on the citizens, they are a source of annoyance to them as well as to the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages, whose houses they pull down, and whose substance they devour, that being one of the reasons why the citizens have hitherto delayed taking the oath of allegiance.
Another cause of delay in the new oath of fidelity now demanded is that many of the citizens imagine that the Duke Francesco is not to be dispossessed or punished for his criminal conduct, since His Imperial Majesty, after so long a time, has not yet had his guilt investigated and proclaimed. This notwithstanding, as they see the Emperor approve and sanction all the acts of his generals, before and after the peace, some of them begin to think that the reports about the Duke are true, and that he will ultimately be punished for his misdemeanors. In consequence whereof, most of the parishes in this city and the neighbouring suburbs have begun to appoint people to swear the required oath of allegiance; and he (the Abbot) has already in his hands no less than 72 powers of attorney, granted by as many parishes in this city. Only 12 parishes are wanting, and they are quite ready to give their powers of attorney when solicited; as soon as they are obtained the oath will be administered. The delay has arisen from right and justice having been appealed to in this case rather than force. Indeed, all the inhabitants of this Duchy are persuaded of the Emperor's justice, and would willingly obey his commands and submit to his rule if liberated from the excessive annoyance of having the Imperial troops quartered among them. So intolerable is this burden to the Milanese that they have decided upon sending to Spain two of their number, humbly to remonstrate with the Emperor, and beg to be relieved from it. Want, however, of sufficient means to allow their ambassadors to appear at Court in due state has made them desist from the idea, and they now propose writing a letter instead, which the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva are to read first. They have not sent it in yet, and, therefore, it cannot accompany the present despatch.
Antonio de Leyva has recovered from his late illness; he rides about the city, and visits the outposts, attending with solicitude to the wants of the army. The Marquis del Guasto does the same, and is lately gone to Asti to inspect the quarters of the Italian infantry and light cavalry in that locality, reduce to about 2,000 the number of those who took part in the last affair, and chastise two of their captains, who have been arrested on the charge of promoting mutiny and sedition among their men. One half of the Italian infantry is to be quartered on the marquisates of Mala Espina (Malespina) and Pontremoli, in the mountains beyond Parma. They will cross the territory of Piacenza after obtaining the permission of the Vice-Legate in that city. The Pope's Nuncio, Bernardino della Barba, has, moreover, written to His Holiness about this, and the Duke of Sessa has instructions to explain to the Pope the reason of their passage through the lands of the Church, in order to reach Pontremoli, in the confines of the Parmesan and Florentine territory.
From Venice there is no new intelligence, except that the Signory is so frightened at this peace just concluded between the Emperor and King of France that they have sent forces towards Frigoli (Friuli), no doubt from their having heard of military preparations made by the Archduke (Ferdinand) in that quarter.
The Switzers have held several diets of late, but have not come to any decision yet. What may have been the object of those assemblies, no one knows, but certain it is that there is no rumour of war in Switzerland; on the contrary, the report is that they wish to be on good terms with His Imperial Majesty.
(Cipher:) Four thousand pioneers are being employed, by the Pope's order, to fortify Parma, and it is added that Piacenza is also to be put into a state of defence. At Castil San Joan, a place between Piacenza and Pavia, and bordering upon the last city, similar works have been commenced within the last ten days, and the report is that the Pope will try to take possession of certain fortresses of the Piacentino and Parmesano, now held by Count Federico del Verme and Orlando Palavicino. But as both are friends to the Imperial cause, and are strong and determined to defend their castles, there is no fear of the Pope being able to accomplish his plans.
(Common writing:) The Duke of Ferrara has had rejoicings made at the news of this peace.—Milan, 14 Feb. 1526.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Milan. The Abbot of Najera, 14th Feb."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 8.
14 Feb. 338. Charles de Lannoy to the Governess of the Low Countries.
K. u. K. Haus- Hof-
u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224. No. 1.
The Emperor arrived here yesterday. King Francis went outside the city to meet him. After supper they remained together two hours in conversation, and seemed pleased with each other. The King begged permission to see Queen Eleonor, which was granted, with the assurance that as soon as he had set his foot in Provence, as stipulated, she would be delivered over to him.
Has been ordered to attend the King on his way to France, and to receive Monseigneur the Dauphin and Monseigneur D'Orleans, or, in the room of the latter, twelve more hostages, who are to be placed under the custody of the Constable of Castille. (fn. n5) The Queen (Eleonor) is to proceed as far as Vitoria, when he (Lannoy) is to conduct her to Bayonne, a very responsible charge, which, however difficult, he is ready to execute as best he can. After that he has orders to go to Naples.
As Nicolas Perrenot (fn. n6) keeps her well informed of the state of affairs in general, he need not say more. Recommends the said Perrenot as a good servant of the Emperor, and also Jean Lallemand, whom he has known to be such ever since he (Lannoy) came to Spain.—Madrid, Ash Wednesday, 1526.
Signed: "Charles de Lannoy."
Addressed: "A Madame la Gouvernante des Pays d'en Bas."
French. Original. pp. 2.
15 Feb. 339. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 20.
Neither he nor his colleague (Sanchez) has written for many days for want of news. If anything has occurred [at Venice] worthy of record, the intelligence has been communicated to the gentlemen in Lombardy. (fn. n7)
There is a report here that the Turk is making immense preparations, and that this year his fleet is to come down upon Naples and Sicily, knowing those kingdoms to be at the present time without provision and almost defenceless. Let not His Imperial Majesty fancy that the peace recently concluded with the French King is likely to delay the proposed invasion; on the contrary, the Turk is sure to anticipate it this year, for many reasons. Have long been without letters from Spain. The last they have received is of the month of November.—Venice, 15 Feb. 1526.
Signed: "Il Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ, Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Prothonotary Caracciolo, 15 Feb."
Italian. Holograph. p 1.
15 Feb. 340. Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
Have not written for many days, especially since the news of the peace [with France] arrived. Everyone is in suspense, waiting to know what His Imperial Majesty (in cipher) will do next, and as no letters come, either from the Emperor or from the many Italians residing at his Court, hence it is that people here are full of apprehension and fear.
By letters from Constantinople, of 6th Jan. last, intelligence has come that the Turk is preparing to invade Naples and Sicily; and as it might be that, under the present circumstances, somebody was the instigator of such movement, (fn. n8) it would be but prudent to have the coasts of Pulla (Apulia) and Sicily properly fortified. They (the ambassadors) will be on the alert, and inform the Viceroys of Naples and Sicily of any danger threatening those kingdoms.—Venice, 15 Feb. 1526.
Signed: "El Prothonotario Caracciolo," "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. From the Ambassadors, 15 Feb."
Spanish. Original. p. 1½.
19 Feb. 341. Jonglet to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224. No. 3.
Received yesterday (the 18th) His Imperial Majesty's letter of the 22d January last, in pursuance of which he (Jonglet) waited upon the King, presented the Emperor's letter, and announced to him, in the best manner he could, the peace just made and sworn with France, the great advantages likely to arise from it, and how it was the Emperor's most ardent wish to live in amity and harmony with the King of England, his brother and ally. All this he (Jonglet) did in strict obedience to his instructions, and after exhibiting the article relating to the indemnity. The King showed much satisfaction at hearing the news. He had to thank the Emperor for the proofs of sincere affection he had just given him by thus advising him of his affairs, and informing him of his agreement with the French King, whence, he had no doubt, universal peace would ensue. Both King and Legate ended by assuring him (Jonglet) of their constant affection for the Emperor, &c.
After which, the King having asked the ambassador whether he had brought with him a copy of the treaty between the Emperor, his master, and the French King, as he heard that one was shortly to be forwarded to England, he (Jonglet) said he had not, but was daily expecting a personage from Spain to succeed him in his post, who, no doubt, would bring a copy of the treaty and anything else that might be wanted. The King replied that although he had not seen the treaty, yet the common rumour was that its clauses were greatly to the Emperor's honour and advantage, at which he rejoiced extremely.
As the King said nothing about the indemnity—though the article relating thereto was, as above stated, read to him— the ambassador deemed it necessary to wait next day on the Cardinal, and inquire what was the King's opinion on the subject, that he might report to his Court The Cardinal said to him: "The King is about to write to his ambassador in Spain, that he may declare his intentions to the Emperor."
When the above question was asked and answered, the Cardinal happened to be in the Council Room with the Duke of Norfolk, the Marquis [of Dorset], the Lord Chief Chamberlain, and many other members, in the presence of whom he openly declared that all Englishmen were glad to hear of the peace having been made, and that he fully intended—in commemoration of such an event—to order processions, bonfires, illuminations and other public rejoicings to be held throughout the kingdom.—London, the 19th of February 1526.
Signed: "Jonglet."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Holograph. pp. 3.


  • n1. There is a blank in the original draft for the date, which was, as above, the 13th of January.
  • n2. "Y habra optado (conseguido?) su intento quc nos hizo decir por su Legado."
  • n3. "De andar fuera el Capuano nos desplaze y hase parecido bien en las cosas. El Papa, esperamos que se reduzca en lo que debe, y que assi tratará á cada uno como quien es."
  • n4. Not in the volume.
  • n5. The preceding letter of Praet to the Emperor, and another of the 19th February, were published by Bradford, pp. 206–15, and are also abstracted by Brewer.
  • n6. Sieur de Granvelle, by which title and name he is better known.
  • n7. "Quelli Signori sono in Lombardia," thereby meaning the Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva, Najera, &c.
  • n8. "Podria ser que con lo que ahora anda y ha andado por el tablero que alguno lo moviese."