Spain: July 1526, 26-31

Pages 811-824

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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July 1526, 26-31

26 July. 496. Lope Hurtado de Mendoça to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
ff. 92–3.
Wrote on the 18th, announcing that the King of France had refused the safe-conduct applied for by the Duke of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele), and that a second application had been made. Should he (Hurtado) not be allowed to pass through France, he begs for instructions how to act.
(Cipher:) M. de Bourbon's answer to the Count of Ginebra (Geneva) was that His Imperial Majesty would consider it a great service if he (the Count) were to raise 3,000 men and lead them to Bersse (Vercelli?). Money should be sent him for the stipend of that force. The Count, however, will not do this, and grows every day colder on the subject. Has communicated the affair to the Duke, his brother, who does not either feel disposed to grant us aid on this occasion. Nevertheless the Emperor ought to write to them both, offering favour and protection in case they should accede to the wishes of Mons. de Bourbon, for in times like the present it is necessary to cajole the few servants the Emperor has still left in Italy.
For the last fortnight the Duke has been talking of despatching this express, and has at last decided to send him through France. This he does no doubt for the purpose of communicating to the French King the contents of the Emperor's last letter to him, for the Duke evidently wishes to be on good terms with both parties, although he professes to be a good servant of the Imperial cause.
(Common writing:) Advices have come that the Switzers have held their diet. Those of the Lutheran sect refuse to supply men either to France or the Pope; three only of their cantons were raising eight companies of infantry.
(Cipher:) The enclosed is from M. de Bourbon. Has not heard from Milan since. Has been told that 6,000 men are collecting at Marseilles, and that the French fleet is to join that of Andrea Doria, and attack Genoa.
On the 19th inst. the Marquis of Saluzzo left Lyons posthaste to go to Carmeniola (La Carmagnola), where his forces, amounting to 8,000 foot between French and Italians, and 500 men-at-arms, were to join him. The King of France has written to the Duke [of Savoy] respecting the appointment of commissaries, who are to quarter his troops on their passage through his territory.
The bearer of this letter will be one of the Duke's secretaries, who is going to France on a message of his master's. He is to tell the French King to bear in mind his (the Duke's) close relationship to the Emperor and the many obligations he owes him; the solemn promises the King himself made at the time the peace was signed; and last, not least, the service of God and the welfare of Christianity at large. Should His Majesty of France accept his interference in this business, he (the Duke) would with pleasure repair to the court of France, thence to go to Spain to His Imperial Majesty.
Such is the message which the said secretary is instructed to deliver to the French King, and at the same time to ask him what his terms are. A similar message has been sent to the Pope, begging he will exert himself in extinguishing this great fire kindled throughout Christianity. The Duke, however, wants to know the Emperor's intentions, and offers, in case his mediation be accepted, to go to the King of France, and thence to any place that may be fixed for the conferences.
His (Hurtado's) opinion is that the Duke ought to be encouraged in this project of his. Things here are in such a plight that it would be far more advantageous and honourable for us that the overtures, if any are to be made, should come from the Duke than from any other quarter. Besides, the Imperial army would be greatly benefited by the Duke's absence, since owing to the Infanta's decided protection it might get supplies out of Piedmont, which could not be procured elsewhere. The Duke being at the Imperial Court, His Majesty would have frequent news of his army; besides which, if he goes on this journey, he is sure to take certain persons with him who whilst in France or Spain will be harmless, whilst if they remain here they will most likely side with our enemies. (fn. n1) He (Hurtado) enjoys some credit with the Duke; if his offer be accepted, will persuade him at once to undertake the journey.
Maintains his opinion, that unless proper provision be made in money and everything else for carrying on a vigorous war by land and sea, it would be by far more prudent to come to some arrangement with the confederates than trust to fortune for the success of our arms. Has written to M. de Bourbon that, since the enemy is doing all the harm he can, it would perhaps be advisable to set Hieronymo Moron at liberty, and make use of him. He (Moron) is in great distress (fn. n2) just now; not likely to trust the French, whom he hates, nor the Duke of Milan either, as he says; his release from prison cannot affect anyone, and may be useful to the Imperial cause. He is justly considered as the ablest politician in all Italy, and where treason is so much practised as here, it is often more profitable to forgive than to punish. Traitors know best how to deal with those of their kin, and he is sure to know how the conspiracy of the confederates began, and what they aim at now.
(Common writing:) Has not heard from Milan since the 13th. The report is that the armies of the Pope and of the Venetians have retreated from before its walls; whither, it is not stated. Has heard also that the castle has surrendered to our troops. This he (Hurtado) believes to be true, for the intelligence comes from people who bear no affection to the Imperial cause.—Chamberil (Chambery), 26 July 1526.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Chamberi. From Lope Hurtado, 26th July."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 4.
27 July. 497. A. de Rup, Seigneur de Vaury, to the Emperor.
Lanz. Corresp. des
Kaiser Carl. V.
Vol. I. 218.
His master, Mons. De Bourbon, is writing to Spain. The situation of affairs on his arrival at Milan was almost desperate, as almost the whole of Italy was in arms against the Emperor. What can be expected from the King of France he cannot say; but certainly his ill-will to the Emperor increases every day. The taking of this castle will not be to his taste, though it will not prevent him from doing all the harm he can.
Begs the Emperor to supply his master with money; never will money be so well spent, as Bourbon is sure to make him master of the whole of Italy. Should proper provision be made, the Duke of Bourbon can have as many recruits as he chooses, for the men love him. The Prince (Archduke Ferdinand) offers to bring down 6,000 lansquenets if he has the money, but his master has none except what he (Rup) brought from Spain. Hopes with God's help that his master's services will be such that the memory of them shall subsist for ever.—Milan, 27 July 1526.
French. Copy.
27 July. 498. Prothonotary Caracciolo.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 100.
As both the Duke of Bourbon and Antonio de Leyva must have informed His Imperial Majesty of all the events of the war since the arrival of the enemy before this city (fino a li burghi), of their retreat and subsequent return to within one mile of this city, and lastly of the surrender of this castle, which took place before their eyes, and without their being able to prevent it, he (Caracciolo) need not dwell on this subject, save to say that his Imperial Majesty must be highly pleased with the prudence and foresight of his captains, as well as with the ardour (gagliardeza) displayed by the soldiers on this occasion. Would to God that, as he (Caracciolo) praises the indomitable courage of the men at the trenches and in the field, he could say as much for their behaviour towards the citizens of Milan, for certainly there can be nothing more unjustifiable or cruel than the treatment which the Milanese without distinction of classes or sexes have experienced at their hands. (fn. n3)
The Duke of Milan surrendered his castle on the 24th according to the terms of the capitulation, of which Mons. de Bourbon has sent a copy. After his interview with the Imperial generals he (Caracciolo) spoke to him, and advised him to trust in the Emperor's generosity and forgiveness, to which he replied that there was nothing in this world he desired so much as to do the Emperor's service, as future events would show. He is very weak and emaciated. Caracciolo accompanied the Duke to the enemy's camp, where he remained much longer than was anticipated, returning only yesterday with Scipione della Tella, who is to go [to Cuomo] with him to see that the Spanish garrison in the castle (rocca) give it up to him, as stipulated. Whilst at the enemy's camp the Duke had been much solicited by the captains of the Pope and of the Venetians to remain with them, they promising to reinstate him in his duchy, &c., which offers the Duke had rejected, saying that he trusted in the Emperor's generosity, and would live and die in his service.
(Cipher:) Thinks that the Pope and the Venetians seeing us in possession of the castle [of Milan], and that their united forces are not powerful or experienced enough to cope with ours, will now try to win over to their cause the King of France and ensure his co-operation. If they do, and the King of England joins them, as asserted, the gravity of the case cannot be concealed, and yet as long as the sons of the most Christian King of France are in the Emperor's hands, one can hardly believe that he will miss the opportunity of recovering them by means of an agreement.
(Common writing:) Owing to late events and to the incessant turmoil of war rendering the roads to this city insecure, he (Caracciolo) has been hitherto unable to attend to the commission which brought him [to Milan]. He will now proceed to the examination of Giovanni Angelo Riccio, the Duke's secretary, that he may join his master at Como, according to the terms of capitulation. Moron is at Trezzo, whither he (Caracciolo) cannot go at present, owing to the enemy having occupied the road to that fortress; besides which it is important that all witnesses in this case, besides others now at Rome or in Venice, should be examined together. Will, however, do his best, and his commission at an end, apply for a safeconduct to go to Spain to kiss the Imperial hands.—Milan, 27 July 1526.
Signed: "El Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Italian. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 5.
28 July. 499. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
ff. 114–5.
Wrote on the 10th inst. advising the arrival of the Duke of Bourbon [in Milan] and other occurrences up to that date. Since then the army of the Pope and of the Venetians, hearing that the castle was reduced to extremity, advanced again from Marignano on the 21st, and encamped four miles from this city, opposite to one of the gates called Porta Orientale, with the intention of introducing succour to the besieged. The Imperial army waited for them in the plain called Il Giardino, upon which the enemy halted and desisted from the attack. Next day, the 22nd, the Duke Francesco [Sforza] offered to capitulate, and on the 24th the castle surrendered on the conditions here enclosed. (fn. n4)
On the 25th, which was Saint James' (Santiago) day, the Duke Francesco delivered the keys of the castle to M. de Bourbon, and immediately after, at the 22 hours, left with the garrison in the direction of Como. He was accompanied by Antonio de Leyva beyond the trenches, and afterwards by Count Gayaço with 100 light horse. On his arrival at the enemy's camp the Duke expressed a wish to see the Duke of Urbino, and desired the said Count to return with his escort to Milan until he should send for him. He remained at the camp all that night and the following day and night, visiting his friends and inspecting (reconociendo) a force of about 3,000 Valesians which the bishop of Lodi (Ottaviano Sforza), his relative and the warder (castellano) of Mus, have enlisted in his (the Duke's) service. On the 27th, according to the report of our spies, the Duke left for Como, where we fancy he will not like to remain long, owing to the two companies of Spanish infantry who are there, not choosing to evacuate the place, firstly because the articles of the capitulation do not expressly make this stipulation, and secondly because Como is a very important position for the passage of troops from Germany, and other military purposes. The Duke, besides, has excited considerable suspicion by the fact of his remaining so long at the enemy's camp, where, as before stated, are a number of men whom the bishop of Lodi and the castellan of Mus have engaged for his service. It is not probable therefore that these generals will acquiesce in his wishes.
The castle was provided with food for a fortnight—bread, fresh meat, fowls, horses, &c. The Duke [of Bourbon] has appointed a certain M. de Catançan governor, an old man of sixty, with 100 Spaniards and an equal number of Germans under him. The appointment is not much to the taste of the Spaniards, who censure it openly, saying that the nomination ought not to have fallen upon a Frenchman, but on one of their nation or else on a German, since it was they who conquered the castle. The Duke, however, as lieutenant and captain-general of His Imperial Majesty, in the presence of the Marquis del Guasto, of Antonio de Leyva, of Juan de Urbina, Corvera, and other captains, received the customary oath of allegiance from the said Catançan, who promised to hold the fortress in the Emperor's name and for his service. The enemy still occupy the same positions, which they are strengthening, with a design no doubt to stop our supplies and destroy the resources of this city, so as to oblige us to attack them in their defences, and give them time to receive the reinforcements they expect from France and from Switzerland.
Our plan of campaign for the present is to re-victual this castle, and so to order our forces as to be able to march against the enemy and give him battle before he has time to receive reinforcements. But it must be said also that the soldiers of this army after the surrender of the castle, and having, as it were, the city at their mercy, will not easily be persuaded to attack the enemy in their positions, unless they first receive three or four months' pay, to cover which the funds lately brought by the Duke are insufficient. If His Imperial Majesty has not by this time made ample provision for the maintenance of this army, all our efforts will be unavailing. It is quite certain that when the Pope and the Venetians see the impossibility of maintaining the Duke Francesco in his estate they will offer it to the French King, and it might happen that the ambition of which that Monarch is possessed may make him forget his own children kept as hostages [in Spain]. The Marquis of Saluzzo, they say, is coming to Italy at the head of 500 spears. He is already at Lyons, and though he moves on slowly, his arrival is confidently expected.
Respecting Switzers no certain intelligence has come, save that they were holding their diet, and deliberating whether the 10,000 men applied for by Treasurer Morleto (fn. n5) and by Il Sormano, in the King of France's name, are to be furnished or not.
Before M. de Bourbon's arrival, certain negotiations were opened by the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva, for a league with the Grisons. They have since continued, and we now hear that some parties in that country—the most principal and influential amongst them—have offered to furnish 2,000 and even 4,000 men, and to allow besides free passage through their territory to the 6,000 Germans whom the Archduke has ordered under Jorge Fransbergue (Fruntsperg) and Marco Cit (Sitig?). Would to God they might come soon, for we could then easily vanquish our enemies.
News from Rome is that the Neapolitans and the Colonnese were arming fast, and that the Duke of Sessa had gone to Naples. Don Ugo with the Colonnese was in the neighbourhood of Rome. The Pope and the Florentines had sent a considerable force with good artillery against Sienna, though pretending that it was the outlaws (foraxidos) of that city who had planned the expedition. By sea Andrea Doria has taken Porto Hercole, which belonged to the Siennese. This and a good deal more is to be expected from the Pope and the Venetians, who show themselves everywhere the sworn enemies of His Imperial Majesty.
The two secretaries of the Duke Francesco Sforza, Angelo Riccio, and Policiano are still in Prothonotary Caracciolo's hands to be interrogated and examined as witnesses, according to the commission given by the Emperor to the said Prothonotary.—Milan, 28th July 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Milan. The Abbot of Najera, 28th July."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3½.
28 July. 500. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 110.
Wrote yesterday announcing the Duke's departure for Como. However, as the Imperial generals do not consider themselves bound by the articles of the capitulation either to remove the Spanish garrison in keeping of that city, or give up the castle (rocca), it is believed that the Duke Francesco will not make a long stay there. The generals have shown him (Caracciolo) the article of the capitulation on which they rely for not recalling the Spaniards. The place is indeed very strong and important in a military point of view, and the general's suspicions have been aroused by His Excellency's long visit to the enemy's camp. When the Duke sees that the city and castle (rocca) of Como are not given up to him, he is sure to go in all directions where he can stir up the few followers who still remain under his banners.
In his (Caracciolo's) opinion the Pope and the Venetians will now turn their eyes towards the most Christian King, and offer him their help and assistance for the conquest of Milan. There is therefore urgent need that His Imperial Majesty make such provision as will ensure victory to his arms.—Milan, 28th July 1526.
Signed: "El Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Milan. Prothonotary Caracciolo, 28th July."
Italian. Holograph. p. 1.
29 July. 501. Antonioto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 128.
Congratulates the Emperor on the surrender of the castle of Milan, and the victory which the Siennese have lately obtained over the Pope and the Florentines. Has charged his ambassador at the Imperial Court to convey his congratulations, and to be the interpreter of his sentiments. Recommends Gio. Baptista de li Fornari, who at his solicitation has done, and is still doing, good service to the Imperial cause, lending money when required. He now goes to Spain to forward the suit of two of his brothers, Thomasso and Domenico, who are residing at the Emperor's Court. If rewarded, as they all deserve, His Majesty will always find the purse of the three brothers open for his wants.—Genoa, 29th July 1526.
Signed: "Antonioto Adorno."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Genoa. From the Doge, 29th July."
Italian. Original. pp. 2.
29 July. 502. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
ff. 123–6.
Wrote on the 25th and 27th inst. by a Catalonian bark (barca). Has since had a letter from Rome of the 17th stating that Vespasiano Colonna had arrived there and seen the Pope once or twice every day for the purpose of coming to a settlement about Sienna. Vespasiano was to go thither, and arrange matters between the citizens inside and the emigrants. The mediation had been gladly accepted by the Siennese, whilst the emigrants (foraxidos) objected that they could not feel secure within the walls of Sienna with such a governor as Vespasiano Colonna, a professed servant and vassal of His Imperial Majesty. Nothing therefore had been settled, and consequently the army of the Pope and of the Florentines had again marched against that city. On the 21st inst., however, and close to the city walls, there was a mutiny among the invading troops, who began to cry Paga! Paga! and refused to advance; so that for this time, at least, the attack on Sienna is postponed, though Andrea Doria still holds Porto Hercole and Talamon.
Knight Commander Aguilera and Secretary Perez still remained at Rome negotiating with the Pope. The former kept going to and from the territory of the Colonnese, where Don Ugo now is. It is added that the Duke of Sessa has gone to Naples for the purpose of raising certain cavalry and infantry with which to march on Rome, besides manning the galleys still at Naples. Had these come down and joined those now in Genoa; had the fleet, lately commanded by Portundo, and which needs an able sea general to replace him, effected its junction, greater things might have been accomplished against the enemy, both by sea and land.
(Cipher:) Rumours are still afloat that the Venetian fleet is about to come to these waters for the purpose of attacking Genoa in conjunction with the Papal and French. Had the Neapolitan galleys come to this port there would be ample means of sending out to sea a sufficient force to take the offensive, as there are here, and on this coast, a number of caracks, galleons and other large ships, which might be armed in a very short time were it not that the Doge, though well disposed to do service, is entirely without resources. The faction of the Fregosi, on the other hand, is sure to work all the mischief they can so as to turn the scales against His Imperial Majesty. He (Soria) keeps writing continually to the Duke of Bourbon to send 500 Spaniards or Germans. If so Genoa would be secure against treason, whereas now it is in constant danger. No notice whatever has been taken of his application, owing no doubt to the circumstance of the Duke being at the time engaged in the siege of the castle [of Milan], and having also the army of the Confederates in front. Now that the castle is taken and the enemy has retreated, there is no longer cause for the refusal, especially as the Doge is willing to give the men the same pay as at the Imperial camp.
(Common writing:) The Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva write in date of the 25th, announcing the surrender of the castle [of Milan] and the departure of the Duke Francesco Sforza for Como. Encloses copy of the capitulation as it has been transmitted to him. The Duke (of Bourbon) had appointed a Frenchman, named Monsieur de Tançan, (fn. n6) to be governor of the castle, with 100 Spaniards and as many Germans under him. As soon as the castle is re-victualled the generals intend to march against the enemy, still encamped one league and a half from the city. The Marquis [del Guasto] and Antonio de Leyva had received letters from Cremona announcing the arrival of 6,000 Germans in the Mantuan territory. They had fought their way through a pass, called La Clusa, (fn. n7) on the banks of the Adige (Ladice) above Verona. (Cipher:) This piece of intelligence, however, the Imperial generals did not consider as positive, though highly probable, for the said Germans had been some time at Brixinon (Brixen) for the purpose of exterminating (para devorar) about 2,000 peasants, the relics of the Salzburgh mob, who were still infesting that country. (Common writing:) Encloses printed proclamation of the league made at Venice, which has been sent to him by Alonso Sanchez, and a letter, also printed at Rome, wherein the wicked plans and intentions of the enemy are fully developed.
Alonso Sanchez writes that no sooner did the Venetians hear of their army and the Pope's having been defeated on the 7th instant at Milan, than they sent orders to Romania to levy 6,000 more foot, and were doing all they could to reinforce their army. They gave out also that in case of the castle surrendering (cipher) they would offer the duchy of Milan to the King of France. He (Soria) has no doubt that they (the Venetians) will attempt anything rather than let His Imperial Majesty take possession of the Duchy, and that the Pope will favour their plans, and, if necessary, bring the Turk to Italy. The last advices from Rome are that His Holiness was about to send a certain personage to Spain, and that Andrea Doria had sailed six days ago for Provence in his own galley (galera capitana) for the purpose, as it was stated, of conveying the said ambassador to France.
At this moment the Doge receives a letter from Captain Sarzana at Sienna, informing him how on St. James' day the citizens sallied forth against the enemy, routed completely the Pope's troops and the Florentines, and their artillery captured.—Genoa, 29th July 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Genoa. Lope de Soria, 29th July."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 3¼.
30 July. 503. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 130.
(Cipher:) Since sealing the enclosed of the 29th, advices have come from Lyons of the 27th inst., stating (cipher) that money had been received there from the King of France, destined for the army under the Marquis of Saluzzo, who was to leave for Italy in five days. Remittances had likewise been forwarded for the stipend of the Switzers, who were soon expected to join the army of the League. These were to hold their diet on the 3rd of August, and decide whether the forces applied for would be granted or not. The general belief was that the Switzers would at last furnish the contingent required. The Archbishop of Salerno (Fregoso) was going to Provence for the purpose of taking the command of the [French] fleet, now at Marseilles, and then coming down upon this city and port of Genoa. Money had likewise been remitted for the arming and victualling of the fleet in that port (Marseilles).
News has arrived that Andrea Doria on the 28th anchored with his galley at Antibo, put on shore the ambassadors of the Pope (fn. n8) and of the Venetians, (fn. n9) and then returned to Civittà Vecchia. He (Soria) has also heard that on the 26th some of the galleys coming from Marseilles had entered the port of Antibo, and that Pedro Navarro was on board one of them. There can be no doubt therefore that all these preparations are directed against this city.—Genoa, 30th July 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Received at Granada. From Lope de Soria, Genoa, 30th July."
Spanish. Original in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 1¼.
31 July. 504. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 38,
f. 81.
(Cipher:) Sends duplicate of his letter of the 20th inst. Though a suspension of hostilities has been negotiated with the Pope, nothing has yet been concluded in expectation of an answer from the Siennese, who have been consulted thereupon, also because the Duke [of Sessa] and Don Ugo [de Moncada] having heard of the late occurrences at Milan, have asked for new conditions which are not much to the Pope's taste.
His Holiness has here [at Rome] between five and six thousand infantry and some cavalry; the Duke and Don Ugo with the Colonnese are two leagues from this city, at a place called Grota-Ferrata, and the troops stationed on the frontiers of Naples have been ordered to advance. What their numbers may be he (Perez) cannot say, but they are reported as very efficient.
The Duke and Don Ugo have promised the Pope that in case of war being made on this side they will inform him a week before. Encloses copy of the Pope's demands respecting the suspension of hostilities, and also the answer made by the Duke and Don Ugo. The Pope declares that he will never grant what they ask of him, because he is so bound by the articles of the Italian League that his hands are tied and he cannot do otherwise, so that all negotiations have come to an end for the present.
Cannot send news from Milan or Genoa; all he can say is that the Pope is very much affected by the ill-success of his arms. He complains bitterly of the Duke of Urbino, and of the Venetians, and even of the French King, by all of whom he pretends to have been deceived. He sent, some time ago, a servant of the Datary (fn. n10) to France to request the King to send him troops and money for this war, and he is anxiously expecting his return.
He (Perez) thinks that if the answer be unfavourable the Pope will easily find some means of forsaking the League, and going over to His Majesty's side. Indeed it is the opinion of people experienced in such matters, and who wish for the success of the Imperial cause in these parts, that if the Pope should offer any reasonable terms they ought to be accepted from him, after taking, however, such securities for his future behaviour as may be deemed advisable. Should he refuse, His Imperial Majesty must wage war on him with the utmost vigour, expel him from Rome, and inflict on him all possible injury, (fn. n11) since by doing so, he will inevitably be led to sue for the Emperor's mercy, and place himself in his power. All His Majesty's good servants, however, think that an agreement of some sort with His Holiness is far preferable, nay, more advantageous for the Imperial interests than the above compulsory measures.
His Imperial Majesty has no doubt received intelligence from Genoa respecting the defeat of the outlaws (foraxidos) on St. James' day, with the loss of upwards of 500, and sixteen guns. The Siennese had made, besides, a good number of prisoners, who (it was said) had been executed on the following day. This last news, however, requires confirmation. The Siennese were very proud of their success, especially as the victory had been gained without the help of anyone. The man sent by Don Ugo to negotiate the return of the emigrants had entered the city the day before that event. He has not returned yet, nor is it likely that he will succeed in his errand, for after their recent victory over the Pope's troops and the Florentines, the Siennese will feel little disposed to admit the emigrants back into their city.
The Pope has been more affected by the late events at Sienna even than by the loss of the castle of Milan. The enemy expect reinforcements from France, and will then try to recover Milan, and pass it over to the French King, which has always been the favourite plan of the Venetians.
Ten thousand Germans, sent by the Archduke, are coming by forced marches. On the 20th of June last they were two days from Trent. They are commanded by a captain called Jorge [Fruntsperg]. Sanchez, however, writes from Venice on the 26th that unless money is immediately forwarded they will not proceed on their march. Eight thousand of them belonged to the late army of the Swabian League, now disbanded; the rest have been levied by the Infante (Archduke). The report here is that they muster 15,000, but the fear caused by their arrival naturally tends to exaggerate their number. Great discontent prevails against the Pope at Rome, and the people would be glad of a change (holgarian de cualquier revolution). However, as popular humour is not to be depended upon, he (Perez) dares not say how they would act in case of such a change occurring. Most people think that when the Romans see the war begin in earnest, and their territory invaded, they will rise in favour of His Imperial Majesty. Vespasiano Colonna, however, perceiving that the proposed suspension of arms is not agreed upon, and that the affairs of Sienna remain in the same state as before, has gone back to meet the Duke and Don Ugo, and is now with them.
The Duke of Ferrara well-nigh came to terms with the Pope the other day. He was to receive Ravenna and 200,000 ducats in ready money, and obtain besides the command of all the forces of the League, on condition of restoring to His Holiness Rezo (Reggio) and Rubiera; but up to the present nothing has been concluded, nor is it likely that the Duke will consent, now that affairs are taking a better turn than was expected.
Cardinals Campego (Campeggio), La Valle, Tortosa (fn. n12) and Sienna, now residing in Rome, show much good will to the Imperial cause, and ought to be written to in acknowledgment of their good intentions. Cardinal Cesarino is absent, but is equally well inclined.—Rome, 31st July 1526.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Rome. Secretary Perez, last day of July."
Spanish. Holograph entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2¼.


  • n1. The original has: "Con el Duque iran personas que si acá está, estarian con los enemigos."
  • n2. "Que mire si seria bien sacar [de prision?] á Geronimo Moron, que si quisiese podria servir bien; tiene harta necesidad y creo que lo haria por fuerzas, por que de Franceses el no se fiaria ni tampoco del Duque segun su dicho; por libralle á nadie se hace agravio."
  • n3. "Non è cosa piu aspera, ne iugo piu insopportabile, ne crudeltà maggiore quale se usa con li homini de questa città; ne habeno respecto ne a qualità ne ad gentilhuomini, ne ad età ne ad sexo per che sono tutti augariatissimi (aggraviatissimi?)."
  • n4. See above, No. 493, p. 806.
  • n5. "El tesorero Morleto y el Sormano." Morleto is evidently a mistake for Moretto or Mons. de la Morette, at this time ambassador of France to the Swiss Cantons.
  • n6. See above, p. 817, where he is called Catançan.
  • n7. Probably La Chiusa, which Leandro Alberti Bolognese, in his Descrittione di tutta l'Italia (Venetia, 1577, 4to), p. 469, describes thus: "A man sinistra (del Ladice) euui la Chiusa, Chiusura Stradella, stretissima via fra l'Alpi."
  • n8. Zuan, or Giovanne, Baptista Sanga, who, as appears from a letter of the Doge and Senate of Venice to Gasparo Spinelli, their secretary in England, dated the 28th July, was going to France to urge King Francis to send his men-at-arms and Switzers into Italy. After performing this office in France, Sanga was to proceed to England to press Henry to join the league immediately. See Rawdon Brown, Venet. State Pap., III., 590.
  • n9. The appointment of Sebastian Giustinian and Lorenzo Bragadin as ambassadors to France about this time is also recorded in Rawdon Brown, III., 586.
  • n10. Capino?
  • n11. "Sino quisiere venir en esto V. Mag. debe de hacerle la guerra muy de veras porque haciendosela asi le sera forzado venirse a poner en sus manos; ó sino le echará de Roma y le podrá hacer todo el mal y daño que quisiere."
  • n12. Wilhelmus Enkenvoërt Bishop of Tortosa, Cardinal of St. John and St. Paul.