Spain: March 1530, 1-31

Pages 472-491

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1, Henry VIII, 1529-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1879.

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March 1530, 1-31

8 Mar. 268. The Emperor to the Empress.
S. E.L. 1,455,
f. 26.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 372.
Wrote on the 11th of February announcing his intention to go to Rome to be crowned; but considering that his presence is much wanted in Germany, to assist his brother against the Turk, and to procure some remedy against the Lutheran and other sects, he determined to take both crowns at this place [Bologna]. On Tuesday, the 22nd of February, St. Peter's Day, he was crowned king of Lombardy, and on the ensuing Thursday, St. Matthias' Day, he received the Imperial crown with the usual ceremonies and solemnities. Intends leaving for Germany as soon as the affairs of Florence, Ferrara, and others of minor importance are definitively settled.
Sends Pero Gonzalez de Mendoza, his steward, who having been present at the coronation will duly report all that took place. Will shortly send back Don Antonio de Mendoza with an answer to the despatches he brought.—Bologna, 8th March 1530.
Signed: "Yo el Rey."
Countersigned: "Couos."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
10 Mar. 269. Martin de Salinas to King Ferdinand.
M. Re. Ae. d. Hist.,
c. 71, f. 234.
On Wednesday the 23rd ulto Mons. de Trent (Clesi) arrived. He came in the morning as he said he wished to see His Imperial Majesty before his coronation, which was to take place on the following day. The Emperor ordered his steward (maestro de casa) and suite, with a guard of honour, to go and meet him. The cardinals also sent their mules and servants, and all the ceremonies used on such occasions were scrupulously complied with. The marquis of Brandanburque (Brandenbug), the bishops of Arca and Terracina, D. Jorge, the provost of Balcrique, and several gentlemen with their respective suites, went out of the gates, Miçer Andrea [del Burgo] and he (Salinas) having gone three miles out of the city. The Bishop arrived at the 15 hours, followed by a brilliant train of gentlemen and household servants, well mounted and attired in the most costly fashion; after conversing a while and learning from him the subject of his mission, he (Salinas)returned quickly to Bologna to inform His Imperial Majesty of his arrival. It was then agreed that the Emperor would receive him that very day, two hours after his dinner, which he did. As, however, Mons. de Trent brought no despatches or letters of credence from His Highness, some were instantly made out that he should not appear before the Emperor empty handed. Thus honourably escorted, Mons. de Trent proceeded to the palace, and was admitted to the Emperor's presence, Miçer Andrea and he (Salinas) walking on each side. Nothing could be more handsome and affable than his reception, the Emperor taking him afterwards into a private room where Mons. de Trent kissed his hand and delivered his credentials. Having asked His Imperial Majesty in what language he wished to be addressed, the Emperor said : "Let it be in German." Fancies that in this determination His Majesty was influenced by the fact of the ambassador coming from Germany, and the circumstance of almost all the gentlemen of that nation who belonged to the Imperial household being present at the ceremony. Accordingly Mons. de Trent delivered his oration in German in the manner and form generally used in that country, and the Emperor, having first conversed for a while with the provost of Balcrique, ordered him to reply in the same language, which he did, concluding with a speech addressed in the Emperor's name to the gentlemen of the embassy, who were highly pleased and afterwards admitted severally to kiss the Emperor's hands. The ceremony over the Emperor himself addressed the Bishop, welcomed him to his Court, and on his attempting to deliver his credentials refused to take them, saying aloud : "My brother's ambassador needs no letters of credence ; your Reverence may go and come whenever he pleases at all hours, and without ceremony or impediment of any sort."
After this the form and order of the approaching ceremony, as well as the question of precedence of the Austrian embassy over the English, were discussed, and the rights of each party weighed so as to give the English no reason for complaint, nor their King any ground to shew his ill-will. (fn. n1) After long and mature deliberation, no better expedient could be found than that of not giving a seat among the ambassadors to the Austrian, but upon Mons. de Trent representing that that was tantamount to losing his right of precedence, he having been already acknowledged as ambassador of the King, his master, it was decided that since the Emperor was to have a bishop on each side of him, Mons. de Trent could be one of them, and thus the question of precedence might be avoided. Matters being settled in this way, the Bishop, therefore, stood by the Emperor during the ceremony, and Miçer Andrea occupied his seat as ambassador to His Holiness the Pope, though on the following day he failed not to repeat the protest made on a similar occasion. (fn. n2)
The day after the coronation, which, as above mentioned took place on the 24th, His Imperial Majesty, wishing for detailed information about the state of Germany and so forth sent for Mons. de Trent, who, attended by Miçer Andrea and him (Salinas), went to the palace, and had two hours conference with the Emperor, who bade him and them sit down. Having listened to what the Bishop had to say, and inquired particularly about the progress of the Turk and the otherwise disturbed state of His Highness' patrimonial estates, the immediate help required, &c., the Emperor declared that within two days he would positively fix the hour for his departure after consulting with the Pope thereupon. And so it was, for on the fifth day after the audience (and it could not be done before), the Emperor announced his resolution to quit Bologna on the 14th inst. so as to reach Trent at the end of this month. Mons. de Trent got leave to go four days before, although His Imperial Majesty could have wished he had taken his cardinal's hat with him. But this being a thing already settled, and one which the Emperor and the ambassadors take much to heart, nothing shall be left undone to hasten his nomination. So sure is Mons. de Trent of his cardinal's hat that at the second audience, as he happened to be dressed in purple robes, the Emperor said to him in a familiar tone : "That colour no longer befits an ecclesiastic of your merits. I wish it to be red."
Wednesday, the first day of Lent, the ambassadors again waited on His Imperial Majesty, and discussed the affairs of Germany. He (Salinas) was not present at the conference, having felt indisposed and been obliged to go home ; but as both Miçer Andrea and Mons. de Trent write and give the substance of the conversation, there is no need of further comment.
On the 4th, the duchess of Savoy (Beatrix) arrived and was pompously received by the Pope and the Emperor. The latter, with all his Court and many gentlemen gaily dressed, went one mile out of the city to meet her. The Duchess, who rode a white horse, was dressed in brocaded silk and followed by 15 damsels mounted on white steeds richly caparisoned in silver cloth, besides a numerous train of "dueñas," some on horseback and others in carts, and a handsome retinue of gentlemen and pages. Taking her by the hand, the Emperor led her into the city, conducted her to her lodgings, and returned to his palace. On the following day, which was the 22nd, the Emperor visited her in her apartments and took her to his own residence, accompanied by all her train of fair damsels. On this occasion the Duchess was attired (tocada) in Spanish fashion, with a cap (gorra) on her head and a feather hanging from it; he conducted her to the apartments of the Pope, who received her at the door and sat down. There the Duchess kissed his foot, after which both the Emperor and her sitting on each side of His Holiness conversed for upwards of a quarter of an hour; then came the damsels, who, after going through the ceremony of kissing the Pope's foot, retired, and were soon followed by the Duchess and Emperor, whom His Holiness conducted till out of his own apartments. After this the Emperor accompanied the Duchess to the very foot of the stairs, and as it was then dark, and she would not allow him to go any further, the Emperor took leave of her and retired to his own rooms.
The Duchess is a graceful dame, very much resembling the Empress in manner and looks. She travelled in a litter of brocade trimmed and lined with black velvet. Since her arrival at Bologna not one day has passed without the Emperor visiting her in the afternoon or at night, although his palace is very distant from the house prepared for her.— Bologna, 10th March 1530, at four hours of the night.
Addressed: "To the King, my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 3.
16 Mar. 270. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
c. 226, No. 20.
The bishop of Lincoln and an Italian cordelier, who went recently to Oxonia (Oxford), to obtain for the King the seal (sceaul) of that university, were driven away by the women of the place and pelted with large stones. The King, in order to punish this act of violence and prevent any more serious outbreak, also to intimidate the doctors of that university who dispute his opinion, has sent thither the duke of Sufforcq (Suffolk), and the treasurer of the Household, (fn. n3) charging them that where they could not meet the argumentations of the contrary party with reason, they should pay them with ready money. The Duke has committed the said women to prison, and is eagerly following up the King' commission in order to obtain the seal by bribes or threats, as it may be.
I hear, and there is much talk about it, that recently at Cantabrigie (Cambridge), whilst the point was being discussed whether the university doctors should give in their opinion as well as the seal in the King's favour, as they had been urged to do, there was a squabble and a fight, six or seven of them being left dead on the spot. This I have on sufficiently good authority, but still, as it is only a report, and I have no letters in confirmation of it, either from the place itself or from Court, I do not vouch for its truth. If the fire, however, should be thus lit, there will be hereafter more harm done and more execrable deeds perpetrated than the parties immediately concerned in the affair foresee. There can be no doubt, as I have already informed Your Majesty, that the King, by fair means or foul, will at last wring consent from the English universities, but there still remains that of Paris, which is said to have the privilege of the Apostolic See, and to be in great difficulty as to its decision; the fear is that the king of France, in fulfilment of the promise made here by his ambassador, will by "fas aut nephas" induce that university also to give her seal, and by threats or promises through those already on their side gain over many more, oblige their opponents to absent themselves, and then bring about a unanimous decision in favour of this king. To prevent which it would be well if the Emperor would represent to the king of France that he must refrain from giving any but strictly legal help to the king of England, for that, if this cause should be publicly disputed, any tampering with those who have written on the King's side will be brought to light. And also because the Queen has innumerable adherents, who fear to commit their opinions to writing until compelled to do so, it would be well that the Pope should issue a brief to the said university, commanding that this cause be brought forward for public disputation, and laying under sentence of excommunication any who should fail to speak the exact truth concerning it. Were this done, there is no doubt, I am told, that the case would be settled as desired.
The Cardinal has not yet gone to York, probably he does not wish to remove so far from the Court, as he would then have less facility for watching his opportunity and returning to it, the hope of which he has not yet relinquished, as I gather from his physician who came the other day to speak to me about a pension which the Cardinal still holds on the bishopric of Pallance (Palencia) in Spain. The earl of Childara (Kildare), first among the Irish nobles, who has been so long a prisoner in the Tower, is soon to be set at liberty, with permission to return to Ireland. The Queen is at Vinsor (Windsor) with the King, treated as usual. The duke of Norfolk has been ill of late, suffering from neuralgia (ung mal de teste), which has become almost chronic with him; his eldest daughter, the wife of the Seigneur d'Alby (Derby), died yesterday of the plague at a house near here, belonging to her husband; it will be one of the greatest blows the Duke has ever received.
There is a talk here of lowering the value of gold and reforming the coinage of that metal, which for some time has been of very bad alloy, as is the case with the rest of the coinage in this country. There is also a report that Parliament, which was to have been re-assembled on the 22nd of April, will be further prorogued. The King, as I am told, wished to do this on his own authority and without formality; but it appears that the consent of Parliament itself is required
Much anxiety is here felt about the object and result of this present mission. A rumour has been purposely spread that the embassy goes at Your Majesty's request, but in my opinion this is only for the sake of increasing their own importance, or satisfying their neighbours.
The King has heard from the auditor of the chamber (Ghinucci) since the coronation; but as the King has said nothing about it I conclude that the intelligence is not agreeable.
Jehan Jocquin has not been at Court since the day of the examination of the "fleur de lis." He can have but little business on hand just at present, for he is setting out on a pilgrimage to Our Lady of Vouchinguan (Walsingham).
I had heard that the King had only given one half of his [French] pension towards the ransom [of the sons of France], but the said Jocquin assures me that he has actually given, or taken off the King's debt to him, 100,000 crs., which comes to the same thing.—London, 16th March 1530.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "A l'Empereur."
Indorsed: "From the ambassador in England, xvi. March. Received at Mantua on the 15th April."
French. Holograph. pp.
16 Mar. 271. Martin de Salinas to Ferdinand, King of Bohemia and Hungary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.,
c. 71, f. 235 vo.
After the departure of Mos. de Trent, who cannot fail to give a full account of the Emperor's coronation, as well as of his hasty preparations for his journey, Miçer Andrea and he (Salinas) waited upon him, and received from his Imperial lips the assurance that in a day or two he would hasten to the assistance of his brother, the king of Bohemia and Hungary. Nothing can now possibly prevent his being at Trent on the first or second day of April, for from the day of his departure till the end of the month 14 or 15 days at the utmost will be sufficient for his reaching that city; for Mantua is only five days' journey from this place; there he will rest four or five days, and three or four after he will be at Trent.
For the expenses of this journey the Emperor has just received funds [from Spain], out of which he has put aside for Queen Doña Maria 4,000 ducats.
The revocation of count Felix' powers is enclosed, as well as letters for the cardinal Azburg (Augsburgh), and for the Palatine and duke of Bavaria. These last have been drawn out by the advice and direction of Mos. de Trent for the purpose for which they are wanted.
A courier came yesterday from Genoa, announcing that a few days before his departure news had been received of the arrival at Niça of the French fleet, which is a sign that king Francis is willing to observe the treaty of peace. The same courier reports that one night, no one knows how, a fire broke out in the arsenal, and that 12 new galleys that were ready to be launched were consumed. This is generally believed to have been a deed of the French, for they have borne much ill-will to the Genoese ever since their expulsion from that city.
The duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza) is dangerously ill. It would be a very serious affair were he to die now, whilst His Imperial Majesty is absent from Italy and engaged in this German campaign, though the castle [of Milan], being in the keeping of Juan de Mercado, no great harm need be apprehended.
The duke of Savoy did homage for his estates to the Empire yesterday. The Duchess, his wife, is daily visited by the Emperor.
Has been trying, though hitherto in vain, to procure bills of exchange on Germany, and remit to Queen Doña Maria the 4,000 ducats which the Emperor gives her.—Bologna 16th March 1530, at night.
Addressed: "To the King, my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 2.
16 Mar. 272. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d.Hist.,
c. 71, f. 236 Vo
To-day, at noon, His Highness' letter of the 5th was duly received. Immediately after, Micer Andrea and he (Salinas) waited upon His Imperial Majesty and read its contents to him.
With regard to the infantry, the Emperor will take with him all the Spaniards he has here, to the number of 2,000 men. He will take no Italians in his suite, but says that the 1,000 and more, if wanted, will follow him shortly. Respecting the captain who is to command them the Emperor approves entirely of His Highness' choice.
With regard to the 40,000 crs., the distribution has been made as follows: 5,000 on Milan have been handed over to the Bartholomé Belser (Welzer) and Co. to cash from Juan Mercado and transmit to Germany; the bills on Venice, amounting to 3,000, were given to Mos. de Trent (Clesi). Bills of exchange on various towns in Flanders are now being prepared for the remainder, and a banker from Rome has just arrived for that purpose. The same provision is being made for the money to be sent to Spain.
This morning His Imperial Majesty announced that his departure will take place on Monday next, the 21st instant, without fail. He purposes being at Trent about the 3rd of April. Thence he will proceed on his journey with more or less speed, according to the necessity there may be of his presence in those parts.—Bologna, 16th March 1530, at night.
Addressed: "To the King, my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 1½.
22 Mar. 273. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d.Hist.,
c. 71. f. 237 vo.
The present despatch is written at the very hour that His Imperial Majesty is leaving for Germany. He purposes reaching Mantua on the eve of Our Lady's Day; will stop there four days, attending to certain business which could not be concluded at this place, as likewise to rest his mind from the fatigues and worries of the recent ceremonies, and enjoy the pleasure of the chase, for which, it is said, there is every facility in the neighbourhood of that city.
The duchess of Savoy (Beatrix) left yesterday for her husband's estates, after being much feasted and handsomely entertained by the Emperor.
The confessor (Loaysa) has been created cardinal, and is to remain in Italy. He would have much preferred following the Emperor's Court, but His Majesty wishes him to reside for the present near the Pope at Rome, where he can be of much use.
The letter that came for Don Pedro de Cordoba was given to Don Antonio de Mendoza for him to take [to Spain]. Fancies that he (Don Pedro) will not be at Court when the letter arrives, firstly, because he has written to ask for leave to attend to the division of his father's property, and secondly, because, should the friendly terms on which king Francis seems now to be with the Emperor, and his readiness to fulfil the conditions of the peace continue, there can be no doubt that the Empress [Isabella] will move as far as Burgos or Valladolid, and if so Don Pedro is sure to go home to attend to his own private business. At any rate, Don Antonio has received instructions, in case the former should be absent from Court when he arrives, to break the seals, read the letter, and carry out the orders received by Don Pedro. Don Antonio will depart from Trent as soon as possible.
His Majesty takes so few of his Spaniards with him that those who remain behind are in more considerable number than those who accompany him; most of them having asked permission to quit the service and go home, first, on account of the dearth of provisions in Germany, and next, because they do not know how long the expedition will last.
(Cipher:) The galleys of France had anchored at Villa-franca de Niça. Two of them had gone to Genoa to inquire how the fleet would be received at that port. There seems to be some underground play in this movement; for the truth is that no trust can be placed in the French, nor in their asseverations of their willingness to keep the peace.
(Common writing:) The governor (capitan) of Marano came here to give account of his mission to Venice. Miçer Andrea and he (Salinas) had occasion to peruse his instructions, which he exhibited without difficulty, and the truth is that they are limited to his receiving the money drawn upon the bankers of that city. The fact is confirmed by Rodrigo Niño, who resides there for the Emperor.—Bologna, 22nd March 1530.
Addressed: "To the King, my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 2.
17 Mar. 274. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.,
c. 71, f. 236 vo.
Received on the 8th His Highness' letter, addressed conjointly to Miçer Andrea and himself (Salinas), bidding them report to His Imperial Majesty on the state of affairs in Hungary. The letter arrived when Mos. de Trent (Clesi) was about to take his departure, as he actually did on Thursday, and when the Emperor himself was so engaged with the preparations for his journey that he had no opportunity or leisure to speak to him.
Mos. de Trent started on Thursday, the 10th. On the same day Andrea and he (Salinas) waited on the Emperor, who promised to leave on the 17th inst. without fail, and be at Trent on or about the 1st of April. From thence he will march in the direction and with the speed that shall be most convenient.—Bologna, 11th March 1530.
Addressed: "To the King, my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft. p.1.
23 Mar. 275. The Pope to the Emperor.
S. Pat. Re. Bul. S.,
Leg. 1o, f. 137.
B. M. Add.28,580,
f. 374.
Most beloved Son in Christ, &c. This morning the Revd. Fr. Hieronymo, bishop of Vaison (Vasionensis), our Nuncio at the court of Your Serene Majesty, left with our instructions. After his departure the orators of our beloved son in Christ, Henry, king of England, spoke to us of certain matters which ought to be communicated to Your Serenity. We now send the bearer of these present, Nicolas de Aragon, auditor of our Sacred College, for whom We beg full credence. We wish to know what answer to give to the English ambassadors, as We have declined giving one until we heard from you—Bologna, 23rd March 1530.
Addressed: "Charissimo in Christo filio nostro Carolo V. Romanorum Imperatori, semper augusto."
Latin. Original. p. 1.
25 Mar. 276. News from Mantua.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 106.
This day the Emperor has made his public entry by the gate of La Pradella, on horseback, between two cardinals, preceded by a number of the officers of his household. He was received by 50 noble youths, all dressed in white and on foot, under a daïs of white satin supported by the principal amongst them, and in this manner conducted to the cathedral church of San Pietro, whence, after performing his devotions, he was led to his apartments inside the castle, which had been splendidly furnished.
It is believed that in a few days the ceremony of creating the marquis [Federigo di Gonzaga] duke of Mantua will take place.
Italian. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
27 Mar. 277. King Ferdinand to the Emperor.
Lanz. Corresp. d.
Kay, vol. I., p. 424.
The advice contained in the Emperor's letter of the 4th, brought by Mr. de Bossu, respecting a treaty of peace or truce to be made with the Vayvod, is certainly very good and desirable. Has been working for some time to bring it about, for when Hieronimo de Lasco last came to treat of this matter on behalf of the Vayvod and of himself, orders had been already sent to the captains on the frontier to procure a truce, and if necessary give some castles as security. The negociations with Lasco, though much open to suspicion. I consented to place in the hands of the king of Poland (Sigismond), and of the duke of Sassa (fn. n4) (Saxony), until the cause of the dispute between the Vayvod and him should be properly investigated, as Your Imperial Majesty has been informed by my last. The negociations, however, had good issue and a truce of three months was concluded, the same which we at present enjoy, and which expires on the 21st of April. Lasco is gone to the Turk to procure, if he tells truth and does not deceive us, the prolongation of the same for one year or more, which I am most anxious to obtain, if possible, as it will give me time to breathe under present circumstances. But it is to be feared that Lasco will not succeed in his mission; for the Turk having made such immense preparations for war, and having already refused to grant the said truce unless I gave up all my rights on Hungary, is not likely to consent to its prolongation now that the influence of the Vayvod has completely vanished, and that neither he nor any one else in his name is likely to move him from his purpose which, as the Turk and Ibrain Bassá assure us, is to keep the Vayvod as his lieutenant in that kingdom. So it would be an offence done to me to say that I am the cause of the said difficulty, and that I reject all terms, since evidently the delay experienced in the making of this peace is for the above reasons more injurious to me than to anyone else. I have certainly done hitherto, and will continue to do everything in my power to bring about an agreement of some sort with the Vayvod; but should I be unsuccessful, it is for Your Majesty to decide whether I am to accept the terms proposed by the Turk, whereof I send Your Majesty a copy, or to reject them altogether. I need scarcely add that putting aside my own individual interests in this matter, which concerns me particularly, there will be greater danger for Christianity in thus delivering Hungary to the Turk than in our fighting for the possession of it; because once master of that kingdom the Turk will have a gate open for the invasion of Christian Europe. I am about to send again an embassy to the king of Poland (Sigismond), begging him to interfere in this affair; in fact, I am ready to do anything else Your Majesty may suggest; but as in spite of all my efforts the Turk may advance, it is not prudent or wise to be unprovided for the defence. Your Majesty advises and commands me likewise to deal with the Lutherans in such a manner that they may not unite and agree as to their religious ceremonies, and yet, at the same time, to avoid giving them occasion to rise or be angry with me. I will do my best to follow Your Majesty's instructions and counsel, which seem to me excellent; but the matter itself is so delicate, and the undertaking so fraught with danger, that I do not think there is anyone here who can treat this matter without some sort of scandalous publicity; because in having recourse to dissimulation with a view of turning aside the Lutheran princes from their opinions, it is impossible to match the sagacity of their malice; (fn. n5) neither is there anyone here whom we can trust with such commission, though several are on friendly terms with them, the sect being so widely spread in Germany. On the other hand, those who do not belong to it can do nothing, since they are suspected, as I myself am. To follow a more open course, it would be necessary to enter into new negociations with them, and cancel or modify the resolutions of the late Augsburg Diet, for which I have no powers, unless Your Majesty sends them to me, to that effect. Therefore if, notwithstanding our labours, I could not before come to any agreement with the Lutheran princes, it stands to reason that now with only letters from Your Majesty, and without leisure or disposition for it, I cannot do anything. Your Majesty has long experience of the obstinacy and hardness of these people, and knows that they are so pig-headed that no force will avail with them; they have lost all fear and shame; they are aware of what passed at Augsburg, and of what was concluded and determined therein; lastly, they did impudently ask at Cologne that the resolutions of the Diet should not be carried into effect, and that Your Majesty's fiscal officers should suspend all proceedings till the meeting of the Council, which might now be made a pretext for granting their request and entering into new negociations with them. If the above, or some other means, be not carried out, it will be a matter for Your Majesty to consider that I am no sufficiently strong to recall them from their opinions and bring them to mine one way or the other; though I fully promise to do in a covert and secret manner what Your Majesty advises me. If, however, the affair is to be conducted in an open and public manner, so that we may come to some new agreement independent of that which was contracted at Augsburg, then, in that case, I will beg Your Majesty to send me the mandate powers and instructions required.
Respecting the dukes of Bavaria, with both of whom Your Majesty commands me to dissemble, as well as to interfere in the administration of the Empire, and temporize with the duke of Wurtenberg, Your Majesty's orders shall be strictly complied with. But I must observe that Your Majesty being now in Germany I cannot make any show or exercise of authority in these matters and those of the Lutherans, being at present engaged here in warlike preparations against the Turk as well as in other business relating to Hungary and Bohemia. Respecting the duke of Wurtenberg, if Your Majesty will only send me notice of the time or precise day in which the meeting is to take place, I will appoint a person of my court to go thither and treat the affair with the caution and prudence recommended.
With regard to the care which Your Majesty says ought to be taken with the Turk, so as to spy out his movements and know what his intentions are, I need not say that the advice has been followed.
Punishment of the inhabitants of Messingen not to be thought of for the present, but to be left for a better opportunity.
The papers and despatches brought by Mr. de Bossu have been received.—Prma (sic), 27th March 1530.
P.S.—Some of the Hungarians who are here with me tell me that some of their countrymen serving under the Vayvod in Hungary, and others who follow my interests there, have met together somewhere, and discussed the expediency of uniting for the mutual defence of that kingdom, and joining the army that is to go from hence. I have deemed it important to acquaint Your Majesty with the fact that you may know that if the means for this undertaking be speedily provided all those Hungarians who have decided to resist will be gained to our side, whereas if the Turk in the meantime takes possession of Hungary, he is likely to keep the said Hungarians so occupied that instead of being of help to us they will most likely prove an obstacle.
Don Luis de la Cueva is here with me. He came from Hungary, and intended going to Your Majesty's court; but since he heard that the Turk was likely to come down he is about to return to his governorship.
Spanish. Copy. pp. 5.
28 Mar. 278. Martin de Salinas to the King of Bohemia and Hungary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.,
c. 71, f. 238.
His Imperial Majesty arrived in this city (Mantua) as happy and contented as a man who escapes from prison. He made his entry on Our Lady's Day, and was splendidly received by the marquis (Federigo Gonzaga) as well as by the two legates, nephews of the Pope, by the duke of Ferrara, and by several Neapolitan nobles.
The Palatine Frederic arrived also on the same day, and had an audience from the Emperor the very night of his arrival. Next day His Majesty went out boar hunting, and on the following Sunday to an inclosed park of the Marquis, full of game, where a splendid entertainment was prepared for the Emperor and his suite, upwards of 5,000 were present. He (Salinas) could not attend being engaged in writing despatches.
Miçer Andrea remained at Bologna, whence he was to start for Piacenza in a week.
Captain Marino and his mission to Venice.
Encloses copy of certain acts (autos) which have passed between His Majesty and the English ambassadors, also of a letter to the ambassador residing at the court of England (Chapuys.)
Has often alluded in his late despatches to the readiness with which the Emperor undertook to take with him 3,000 hackbutiers to serve under His Highness in the present German war. Two thousand of them were to be Spaniards, and the remaining thousand, or perhaps two, if they could be got, were to be drafted from Italy. Everything was ready and in good order when the Emperor bethought him to pay the Italians in advance, that they might serve with more alacrity in the forthcoming campaign. Scarcely, however, was one month's pay issued to them, when out of the 2,000 enlisted nearly 1,500 deserted. The Emperor was in a great passion about it, inasmuch as this ignominious desertion of the hackbutiers will prevent his helping His Highness as he wished. There can be no other cause for this shameful defection than the belief under which those soldiers laboured that war would soon cease, and their wish to be present at the sack of Florence, which is said to be imminent, as well as to their fear of being sent as far as Hungary to fight the Turks. Should there be still time for an answer, let His Highness inform the Emperor as soon as possible of the state of his military affairs, and whether Italian hackbutiers are still wanted as much as before, for in that case there are at this court several trusty " condottieri "and Italian nobles who will undertake to enlist any number of them, and conduct them wherever they are needed.
The desertion of the Italians took place the very day of the Emperor's departure from Bologna. His Highness must already know of it, for the Emperor told him (Salinas) that he had written to His Highness from Castelfranco. Owing to this the Emperor will be obliged to stop here four or five days more, for he hears that part of his army before Florence has mutinied, and behaved shamefully (y hecho una gran bellaqueria), and he naturally wishes before quitting Italy to leave everything in peace.
Close to the castle of this city, where His Imperial Majesty is at present residing, are 80 pieces of ordnance, large and small, besides 14 large ones (cañones principales) with the arms of France and other devices. The Emperor hears that they were all sold by Antonio de Leyva to the Marquis. He himself shewed them to him (Salinas) from one of the windows, explaining the whole transaction, and adding that many more that were missing had been disposed of in a similar way. From this His Highness will gather how difficult it will be to recover the artillery that came from his German states; besides, as the castle of Milan is still in the hands of the Emperor, it is impossible to say whether the artillery belonging to His Highness will not be sold like the rest.
The Imperial ambassador who resides at Genoa writes in date of the 26th inst., that the galleys of France had arrived at Savona, and were shortly expected at Genoa, which removes all suspicion of their tardiness being intentional as it was feared at first.
One of the Pope's chamberlains passed the other day through this city bearing a cardinal's hat for the bishop of Trent.— Mantua, 28th March 1530.
Addressed: " To the King, my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 2½.
27-9 Mar. 279. Gio. Ioachimo to King Francis.
I have told the King [of England] the news of Italy and Germany, at which he was much pleased. Respecting the deliberations upon, and answers to (deliberatione o resposta) the proposal of a conference to be held with the Emperor in Burgundy, the King thinks that Your Majesty ought to be very careful, and not expose your person to the dangers of an interview, especially before the restitution of the sons of France. In short, the King shewed by his words that he sincerely wished for Your Majesty's happiness and welfare. Mr. de Norfolk afterwards spoke to me in the very same terms, complaining bitterly of the ingratitude of the Emperor, who, he said, after the King, his master, had helped him with money, and enabled him to put down rebellion in his Spanish dominions, had not done one single thing to please him, and secure his friendship. The Duke then spoke at length (diffusamente) of the cardinal of York (Wolsey), and of the challenge and declaration of war sent to the Emperor, which, he observed, were entirely his doing. (fn. n6) Thanked the Duke in Your Majesty's name, but could not help remarking that the Cardinal had in these latter times shewn himself a friend to France, &c.
At the request of the said Cardinal, who for some days past had urgently desired me to call on him, especially as he said that he was to leave Richmond in a week, I decided to visit him as soon as I had an opportunity. He was then at the Chiartosa (Carthusian Convent) near that place where he had been for the last 20 days, on his way to his own diocese (York), which the King has fixed for his residence. (fn. n7) Consequently on my return from Windsor I visited him, and tried to console him in his misfortune. I found him so completely resigned, and so armed with patience that there was hardly any need for me to advise such a course. He thanked most humbly Your Majesty and Madame for the pity they have shewn him in the midst of his misfortunes, as well as for their kind and affectionate interference in his affairs, for the continuance of which he now most urgently begs and entreats, bringing to the recollection of both of you the many services he rendered at other times, as well as the offers and promises so often made by you, and lastly confirmed at Amiens, of cheering (amarlo), and helping him in times of need. He also promised to send me the three receipts for the three quarters of this pension due to him, &c.
To-day a courier has come from Bologna, dispatched on the 15th, advising the arrival in that city of the earl of Vulchire (Wiltshire) the day before. The Earl had been most graciously received by the Emperor and the Pope. The courier, who was dispatched by merchants, had brought no letter from him; but to-day, since the above was written, another courier has come, sent by Mr. de Vulchier (Wiltshire) himself, and though his despatches are still here [in London] to be conveyed to Moro (the More), where the King is at present, they have not yet been opened. I have reason to believe that the Earl is not very well pleased with his reception at the Imperial Court. Indeed, as far as I have been able to ascertain, the Earl has been unsuccessful in his mission. It is, moreover, reported that about the end of this month the Emperor intends leaving Bologna for Germany, and will stay four or five days at Mantua on his way to that country.
I have tried, as much as was in my power, to bring the matters pending between this king and His Holiness to a settlement equally satisfactory for both parties; but nothing, I hear, has been concluded yet. The affairs of Florence continue in the same state.—London, 27-9th March 1530.
Italian. Copy. pp. 3.
29 Mar. 280. Praët to the President of Burgundy.
S.E.L.27, f. 288.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 375.
Has received at Bayonne his two letters of the 20th and 23rd inst., and the copy of the memorandum sent to Mons. de Rocion, which seems very reasonable under present circumstances. That gentleman has not yet made his appearance, but is daily expected in company with Mons. de Laxao (La Chaulx).
On Saturday last the Gran'd Master of France (Montmorency) sent by Bayart the original of the bonds (seguridad) of the queen [Eleanor] in the event of a dissolution of marriage, that they might be read and examined; also the receipts (quitança) of the 400,000 crs. and assignation of her dowry (dote).
After examining the papers, called on the Grand Master and other members of the King's Privy Council, and pointed out to them certain irregularities observed in that instrument. The first being that in the original bond (seguridad), no mention is made of the King's promise to give that of the Dauphin instead of his own, if necessary, (fn. n8) but the estates are reserved in accordance with the Madrid Convention, where it is expressly declared that they shall be given up for this very purpose.
The second is that in the letters of "quittance and assignation " of the Queen's dowry there is one word erased, and another important one entirely suppressed; for in lieu of this sentence, " the said king promises never to aggravate, quarrel, or demand anything whatever," as the minute bears, (fn. n9) the word "to demand" (demandar) is erased, and instead of it two lines (rayas) are introduced in the following manner, —||——||—, as may be seen by the copy herein enclosed.
There is still another difficulty which he (Praët) has not mentioned to the King's councillors, namely, that in the letters of "security," which are dated the 7th of February 1530, it is expressly declared that on that very day the Emperor's "quittance" of the 400,000 crs. had been exhibited, which assertion is false, for the "quittance " is still in his (Praët's) hands, and has not been produced, and it may be doubted whether a false statement of this kind would not in after times invalidate the Papal bull itself. Has not told the councillors anything, for fear they should answer that the words objected to were likewise in the minute given to them.
With regard to the "verificaciones," told them that he could not say whether they were duly made or not, as he confidently expected that the King would have ordered them to be made in the fittest form for the Queen's security.
The answer as to the first-named difficulty was that the ratification by the Estates General of France of the Madrid Convention and treaty of Cambray was sufficient for all purposes, and that it would now be too late to recover them (seria muy tarde para los recobrar) That the Madrid Convention did not stipulate that the King was to make two different ratifications for this purpose only. The contrary was proved to them, or, at any rate, that the ratification by the General Estates ought to have included expressly the above-mentioned clause, which was omitted in the "seguridad." He (Praët) shares the same opinion as the President in his letter to Des Barres; a protest ought to have been entered at once respecting this point, but it has not been done, as he dared not do so without first consulting the Queen and him (La Chaulx) thereupon.
Respecting the second point, the councillors said that the erasure of the word demandar was of no consequence at all, because the other two verbs, "aggravar y querellar," meant one and the same thing.
The erasure, they maintain, was not in a suspicious place, and does not affect the validity of the deed. Yet it seems to him (Praët) that it argues little respect for a princess who is to be their queen, when the King's principal secretary cannot transcribe a document of such importance without making mistakes of that kind and erasing words. In fact the erasure in question, at the place where it is, makes him (Praët) very uncomfortable indeed.
With regard to the "verifications," they affirm that they are in due form. That may be, but nevertheless he (Praët) considers it his duty to inform the Queen thereof, and has already done so. Begs for an immediate answer to the objections which he has raised. La Chaulx himself might come over to [Bayonne] and inspect the original documents. Should there be, as he (Praët) has reason to believe, some flaw in them, there is still time to rectify it, for the deliverance of the King's sons has again been prorogued to the 25th of April.—Fonterrabia, xxix. March [1530].
Signed: "Loys de Praët."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
281. Commission and Instructions to Prothonotary Caracciolo, Jean de Montmorency, and Rodrigo Niño, to treat with Venice.
S. E. L. 848, f.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 306.
What you, Marino Caracciolo, Apostolic Prothonotary, Jean de Monmorncy (Montmorency), sieur de Currières, our steward, and Rodrigo Niño, gentleman of our Household, all three members of our Council, and our ambassadors to Venice, are to treat and negociate with that Signory is as follows: —
After presenting your letters of credence to the Doge and Signory, you will tell them that the principal object of our visit to those parts is to undeceive the Italians in general and them (the Venetians) in particular, respecting our wishes and intentions, which are only to pacify their country. That, knowing how generously the Signory has hitherto co-operated, and will co-operate in future to so laudable a purpose, We now send you to them.
After delivering your peroration in public in the above or similar terms, you will call on the illustrious Doge (Andrea Gritti), our cousin, and explain to him that so intense was our wish for the pacification of Italy, and so great our anxiety to settle as soon as possible our differences with the Signory—then of paramount importance to us—that We neglected to inform our brother, the king of Hungary, of what had been negociated at Cambray in that particular case, persuaded as We were that if anything wanted amendment— though the treaty might be already concluded and signed—the Signory could not fail to do our pleasure in this respect, as We should have done to them in a similar case. Since then, though the King, our brother, has readily ratified the treaty of Cambray, which We sent him, he has nevertheless requested us to have certain clauses of it modified or remodelled in what personally concerns him and his estates. And since the Venetians know our intentions you will request them to reciprocate our good-will on this occasion, and accede to the wishes of the king of Hungary.
What our brother wants in the first place is that the term for the election of the arbiters who are to decide the accomplishment of whatever remained unfulfilled by the capitulation of Wormacia (Worms), be conveniently prorogued, and the period of one year, allowed for their giving sentence, shortened.
Extradition of Lutherans and other heretics who should happen to seek shelter in Venetian territory from Germany and Hungary; equal extradition of Venetian subjects from the kingdoms of our brother [king Ferdinand].
Another reciprocal article to be added to the treaty, namely, that all wheat and other species of grain or food from the Mantuan and other parts of Italy, destined to the estates of our brother in Austria and elsewhere, should be allowed to pass free of duty through Venetian territory. The same free passage to be allowed by the Archduke and King to all provisions and goods going to Italy through his estates.
All subjects of the Signory and of the king [Ferdinand] in Istria to be allowed the same privileges enjoyed by the natives of Friul.
Order to be given that the Trigestines (Triestines) and other subjects of the King inhabiting the coast [of the Adriatic] may be allowed to navigate to and sell their merchandize in Venice and its territory after paying the customary duties.
All sentences obtained by the subjects of our brother [the king of Hungary] from judges properly constituted, or other Venetian magistrates, to be punctually executed, and all suits-at-law which the King's subjects may have in Venice to be promptly decided and sentenced, so as not to cause the ruin of the parties concerned. (fn. n10)
The usual roads between Trigesto (Trieste) and Marano, and between Marano and Trigesto, to remain open and free for the subjects of both powers.
The subjects of our brother (the King) who may have property in Venice to enjoy the same freely, as likewise the Venetians who may have possessions, lands or merchandize in the estates of the King.
So far the slight alterations which our brother of Hungary wishes to have introduced in the treaty about to be made with Venice, and which We have no doubt the Signory will not refuse to grant: all and every one of them being just and reasonable, and the concessions for the most part reciprocal
You must be aware that in virtue of the treaty newly concluded with that Signory, the Venetians are bound to pay us 25,000 at the end of last January, out of the 200,000 ducats stipulated by the treaty of 1523, and that in addition to that, our most Holy Father promised to give us 25,000, so as to make together a round sum of 50,000 out of the 200,000. The Pope, however, only engaged to pay that sum in case the Signory refused to pay. You will endeavour to obtain payment of the said sum, not only to free the Pope from that obligation, but also to cover our present wants, and you, Rodrigo Niño, individually will take particular care that the remainder of the 200,000 ducats be paid as soon as possible by the Signory.
You will also procure the ratification of the last treaty in the clause concerning count Gambara, our chamberlain, and his brother, the bishop of Fortuna.
The sum of 5,000 ducats which the Signory is bound to distribute every year among the "fuorusciti " of Padua and Piacenza, to be annually deposited for their use in the Mont de Piété of Padua.
The Signory to pay also the dowers (dotes) of the wives of the said " fuorusciti."
As Miçer Antonio Bagherotto has always served us well, you will try to have his confiscated property returned to him. The same may be said of Captain Pedro Crusich, a subject of our brother, from whom last year the Venetians took everything he possessed.
You will also try to get the property of count de Nugarole (Nogarolo), now in the service of our brother [Ferdinand], immediately restored to him.
That Juan Baptiste de Taxis and his brethren, David, Mafeo and Symon, our postmasters, be reinstated in the property confiscated from them in Istria, in accordance with a sentence of the Council of Preghadi in their favour, and you also will
see when the restitution is fully carried out, that no one brother be benefitted to the prejudice of the others.
Similar restitution to Miçer Nicolas Tripolino of all property confiscated from his family.
Juan Fermano to be recalled from exile.
Angela de Portonaon, the wife of vicar Gradisca.
Dr. Pietro Lavorgnano [Brasco Antonio di Muzan] of Vicenza, also in exile, to be allowed to return to Venice, since it is understood that the manslaughter of which he is accused was committed in defence of the Guelf party in the times of the Emperor Maximilian, our grandfather.
The inhabitants of Porto de Novo, a town formerly belonging to the House of Austria, have been and are still much molested and ill-treated by one Bartholomew d'Albiano. You will request the Signory to take the said town under their protection and government, paying, if required, an indemnity to the aforesaid Albiano.
Pedro Rain, our consul in Venice, having complained to us that the privileges, exemptions, and so forth, which our consuls once used to enjoy are not kept and observed, you will inquire into the nature of his complaint, and see that the Signory do act towards him as We act towards her consuls in our dominions.
Should Joan de Aurobello (sic), a native of Saragossa, in Sicily, apply to you for redress respecting a ship laden with sugar, which he says was captured from him in the Jacinto (sic), you will lend him all help in your power.
Joan Antonio Lombardo, an exile, to be allowed to return to Venice, and be reinstated in his house and property.
The Signory having promised to the marquis of Musso an annual pension of 2,000 ducats a year as indemnity for certain taxes he remitted to the Grisons at their passage into Italy—which pension was taken away from him the very moment he took our side and entered our service—you will do your utmost to have the said pension restored to him, for it would not do to have him suffer on our account.
You will do your best in favour of Ferrer Beltran, a Catalonian merchant residing at Venice, who, We hear, is greatly attached to our service.
After negociating the above matters, and especially those concerning our brother of Hungary, you two (Caracciolo and Currières) will come back, whilst you, Rodrigo Niño, will remain at Venice as our resident ambassador.
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 12.


  • n1. " Luego se platicó la forma que se avia de tener en la fiesta siguiente en lo que tocaba á la precedencia con los yngleses y fue muy debatida, y mirando los ynconvenientes y como se podria hazer de manera que no faese causa de que el Rey de Inglaterra tuviese esto por principal punto para començar su mala entencion, &c."
  • n2. Salinas alludes, no doubt, to the question of precedence raised by the English ambassadors, and which seems to have been decided by the Emperor in their favour, for in his despatch of the 27th of December 1529, he says to the Archduke: "Mr. de Bredan has not behaved well on this occasion, for one Sunday that the Emperor happened to go to mass with the Pope, he (Bredan) went and placed himself among the ambassadors and gave precedence to the English, at which the Emperor and those of his Privy Council were very much displeased, as well as all those who wish for Your Highness' best service. Next Sunday as the Emperor was preparing to go to St. Francis to hear mass and treat of peace with the English ambassador, he saw Bredan dressed in a morning costume standing among the courtiers, and observed that it was not the proper dress to appear as his brother's envoy, and advised him not to go to that church, fearing, as it happened, that if he went he would be obliged to give up his seat to the English. And so it happened, for having gone to St. Francis against the Emperor's injunctions and his own promise, he actually went to the ambassador's bench and sat below the two English, to the great disgust of all those who witnessed the humiliating scene."
  • n3. "Aussi le tresorier de l'Hostel avec charge que les arguments contraires que ne se pourroint payer par rayson se paient è beaulx deniers contens (sic comptauts).
  • n4. Always written Jassa, being a mistake for Sassa or Saxe.
  • n5. "Porque para apartallos ó divertillos de sus opiniones por vias disimuladas y secretas no ay prudencia que baste para la que ellos tienen eu su malicia."
  • n6. "Et della disfida e guerra ultimamente mandate et fatta a S. M.; la causa et origine d'essa in tutto et per tutto attribuendo al preditto sig. cardinale."
  • n7. " Quanto che fra otto giorni el se parte da Richemont, ove già a xx. giorni el si tiene alla Chiartossa, per andarsene alla sua chiesa do Diorch."
  • n8. "Queda el Rey con promesa de hacer dar el [la?] del Señor Dolfin."
  • n9. "Agravar, querellar ni demandar."
  • n10. "Jueces, potestados ó rectores de Venecianos."