Spain: June 1530, 1-10

Pages 570-585

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1, Henry VIII, 1529-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1879.

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June 1530, 1-10

1 June. 332. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 48.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 96.
Since closing the enclosed despatch news has come of the taking of Empoli, which surrendered to our men after two battles (batallas) fought under its walls. It is impossible to describe the Pope's joy when the intelligence came, for he thinks this a good step towards the subjection of the Florentines, who will naturally lose courage, &c. When the artillery reaches Volterra it is confidently expected, and the Pope shares the belief, that the town will surrender although the Florentines still persist in their obstinacy, and are encouraged by certain parties as the enclosed letter from Ferrara will shew.
The Pope has now spoken very warmly on the subject to the Venetian and French ambassadors. He told the former that he wondered how, being the Emperor's friends, they could allow such things to take place in their territory. The ambassador replied that he would stake his head that the report was false. As to the French ambassador he parried the blow by saying that as soon as his master, the King, recovered his sons, he would perform miracles to make the Florentines abandon their obstinacy (porfia).
Affairs of Naples.—Money to be paid by Uberto Squarciafico.—Recommends Francisco de Mañeri (sic). bearer of this despatch.—Intends going to Naples shortly.—Rome, 1st June 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
1 June. 333. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 849,
Duplicate of the above with some unimportant additions.
B.M. Add. 28,580,
f. 99.
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
1 June. 334. The Bishop of Chieti to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,308,
f. 148.
B.M. Add 28,580,
f. 102.
Has received through Rodrigo Nigno (Niño), the ambassador in Venice, the Imperial letter acknowledging his services in the cause of the queen of England. Has only done what he considers to be his duty in the affair "quel che mi ha parso dover al servitio de nostro Signor Dio, et a la reuerentia de la Sacra sede Apostolica et a la syncerità de la Catholica fide," and is very much pleased to hear he has given satisfaction. Has, moreover, considered it necessary to acquaint His Holiness the Pope with the request made to him by the king of England, and his own answer to it.—Venice, 1st June 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Pietro Ves [covo] Theatino."
Addressed: "Sacrme Impli Magti."
Italian. Holograph, pp. 1½.
2 June. 335. Rodrigo Niño to the Emperor.
S.E. L. 1,308,
ff. 45-6.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 103.
The Emperor's letter of the 22nd ulto came to hand on the 27th, together with those for the Doge, and for the bishop of Quiete (Chieti), (fn. n1) which were duly delivered. That for the Doge was read by him [Rodrigo Niño] in the presence of all the councillors and great sages—the sages of the land and the sages of orders—the Council of the Ten, which is the greatest shew of authority he can use on such occasions. Received a suitable answer. The reading over he (Niño) informed the Doge how very grateful the Emperor was for his conduct, and that of his Council in this affair of the Queen, and begged them to continue their good offices. The Doge's answer was thus worded: "You have seen with what alacrity and good-will I answered you and prothonotary Caracciolo when you first spoke to me on this subject. Long before you came to this city as ambassadors of His Imperial Majesty we were urgently requested by the English ambassadors to do something [in favour of their master] in this affair. This we refused as the case seemed to us then as bad as now. You must have observed what long audience I have this day given to the English ambassador. He has complained to me most bitterly of the uncourteous manner in which he has been treated, and of the orders sent to the doctors of Padua," &c.
On Ascension Day there is to be a great festival. The Doge and all the Signory go out to sea in barges to perform the ceremony [of the betrothal]. On his way thither and back he (Niño) happened to walk side by side with the English ambassador, with whom he conversed all the time respecting this divorce which the king of England is attempting from his Queen. The ambassador made all manner of excuses for himself and for his brother, the Chevalier (Sir Gregory Casale), saying how much both disapproved of the King's conduct in the affair. The Emperor (he said) knew it well, and they themselves (his brother and he) had written home to say so, in consequence of which both had incurred their master's displeasure. He (Niño) feigned to believe everything Casale told him, and exhorted him to persevere in his purpose of undeceiving the King on that score. It was the duty of all good servants to tell their master when he was in the wrong, and they were bound to point out to him the many inconveniences (inconvenientes) that might arise out of this step, the affair itself being odious and abominable to all those who knew of it, as calculated to bring discredit on Christendom and on the Papal authority. Little by little the conversation turned on the lawyers with whom he (Casale) had been in treaty at Padua as well as at Verona, Vicenza, and other cities. He (Casale) could not help confessing the great doubts entertained by all the doctors he had consulted. "No wonder (said Niño to him), for the affair in itself is as bad as it can be. I am, however, very curious to know what the bishop of London (Stokesley) and the Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber (Ghinucci) and this other ambassador (Dr. Edward Lee) lately come from the Emperor's court think of it after hearing from your own lips the opinion of the Paduan doctors." His answer was that his brother (the Prothonotary) had prevailed upon the Auditor (Ghinucci) to have ecclesiastical judges appointed to decide the case after hearing what the king and queen of England had to say "pro" and "contra." Did not allow him to proceed further. Interrupted him and said: "You had better say in the case between the king of England and our Mother Church, for after all it comes to this, that the whole of Christendom will espouse the cause of the Queen against the King, her husband, since she is the daughter of queen Isabella, and the Emperor's aunt. Your King must look twice before he executes the designs he has respecting her. And you may be sure, Monsieur the ambassador, that should your master persevere in his purpose, he will find the Queen's party in England so strong as to oblige him to weigh well his chances before he undertakes anything against her. To desert such a person as his wife the Queen! And what for? To marry another woman with whom he is in love."
To these words the English ambassador made no answer, but confessed that I was in the right. He and his brother had done all they could as the Emperor knew. It was (he said) the Auditor's fault, who was at Bologna with the rest of the embassy. What they may be doing there I cannot say for certain, but Your Imperial Majesty may be pretty sure of this, that every day that passes renders their position more difficult, for in reality the King's designs are generally detested.
Gave the Imperial letter to the bishop [of Chieti]. His answer is enclosed. He will do anything that is required in the matter. Having reported on the 25th ulto his conversation with him, and sent a copy of the conclusions, which the King wants to have maintained, I need not say any more on this subject.
Respecting the German of Padua, I can only say that he is as bad as Luther himself (el mismo Lutero). and so are his wife and children. He thinks of nothing else save preaching up his sect. His name is Michael Gormer. There is besides [at Padua] a Veronese priest (clerigo) named Prepaulo deudo, (fn. n2) who is as bad, or perhaps worse, than him. The Bishop tells me that he is negociating with this Republic to have them both brought to Venice, and punished as they deserve for their heresies. Here, at Venice, resides another German just as bad as the other two, who goes by the name of Joanes Pouber, and does, as they say, most terrible things. The Bishop, as I said before, is very confident that the Signory will take this affair in hand, and punish these and other Lutherans who are daily springing up in their territory; but as I informed Your Imperial Majesty in my despatch of the 25th I have my doubts about it, and until I see them act will not believe in their professions.
No further news of the Turk, except that the harvest [in Asia] will be a very poor one this year owing to the total want of rain.
Renzo da Ceri is at Padua. He left Venice the other day saying he was going thither to look after his son, and prevent his taking service under the Florentines. He has since written in great disappointment at his not having been able to convince him and bring him over. The French ambassador, who resides here, has given publicity to the fact, adding that Renzo is still at the head of the greater part of the "fuorusciti" of Naples, formerly in this city. Renzo's statement is very different, as I had occasion to say in my previous despatch. His Majesty, however, may be sure that the Neapolitan "fuorusciti" wish him all possible harm, and that here at Venice they do nothing else but circulate bad news from Florence, and from any other quarter if they can. Respecting Renzo's son they say that he has already enlisted such a force to march to the relief of the Florentines as might even be sufficiently powerful to destroy the Turk. The boastings of these people are all of the same stamp, and, therefore, no great reliance is to be placed in their words.
The duke of Ferrara is still here. The day after my writing to announce his arrival he came to see me accompanied by one of his servants. There is no end to his protestations of affection to Your Imperial Majesty whom, he says, he wants to serve exclusively of any other prince. He says that he has come to Venice for no other purpose than to amuse himself (á holgarse). He has called on the Doge with no more suite than he brought when he came to see me, and will not allow me or any other ambassador or private person to return his visit. The Pope's Legate is not at all pleased with his stay here, as he fancies that he has come for the purpose of asking this Signory to intercede with His Imperial Majesty that he may keep Modena.
Of the dukes of Milan and Mantua there is no longer any talk. If they do come at all my impression is that it will be with the same object as that attributed to Ferrara, viz., to get as much as they can out of us.
The French ambassador has sent word that he has letters from his King assuring him that on the 25th, or at the end of May at the latest, the liberation of his sons was to take place. —Venice, 2nd June 1530.
Signed: "Rodrigo Niño."
Addressed: "A la S. C. R M.."
Spanish. Original. pp.10.
2 June. 336. S. Balthasar Carducci to the Dieci.
S.E. L. 1,438,
f. 172.
B. M. Add. 28,580
f. 108.
Since his last of the 11th ulto, which, according to late advices from the Panciatichi, (fn. n3) was by them duly forwarded to Genoa, whence it could easily be sent to Pisa by means of Luigi Alamani, nothing new has occurred. On the 15th the mandates came, but as Bernardo Altovitti (fn. n4) could not, as he says, conveniently go, or send to the appointed place for the letters, I fancy he has preferred paying the money to Geo. Francesco de Bardi, (fn. n5) and Geo. Girardi, who thought it best not to send an express on purpose, but have the mandates addressed to them, to avoid any demonstration, such being, as they are informed, the wish of that king. Bernardo has signified that I ought to send powers to the said individuals (a quelle). assuring them that this affair would be more successfully conducted through them than through other people's hands. Though I have received no specific commission to that effect, yet that the good that might come from their labours should not be entirely lost, I will send them a copy of my instructions. And as the said Bernardo tells me how much the thing is desired, and how hopes are entertained that the affair may better be done here than there, because it has been settled between this king and the count ambassador of England, (fn. n6) not to allow that city to perish, towards which they bear so much affection, it has been agreed that each of the two kings will annually contribute a sum of money until the total liberation of that city is effected. The king of France will give 20,000 ducats and the king of England one half of that sum, so that having obtained from Giuliano Bonaccorsi a consignation of 20,000, I firmly believe that this count (the earl of Wiltshire), with the approbation of his king, will contribute 10,000, which sums are to be continued until the complete liberation of the city.
Mr. de Tarbes has lately sent one of his secretaries to say that the Pope complains bitterly of this king who, he says, supports the Florentines, sends them money, and secretly encourages them to resistance. He begs that an order be sent to Malatesta, Stefano and Giovan Paolo to quit Florence at once, &c.
The King has answered that those captains not being in his pay, but only in that of Florence, he could not possibly send them such orders, but that he would have the affair discussed in Council and let him know the result. It is not yet known what the result of the deliberations has been, but it is generally believed that the King intends not only not to harm your Signory in any way, but on the contrary to help the Republic with all his means. To this effect he has sent back Malatesta's secretary, if not with actual facts, at any rate with very good words and many assurances that he will faithfully fulfil all his promises to him.—Di Myrambee (Mirambeau?) il giorno II di Giugno MDXXX.
Signed: "Balthasar Carduccius."
Italian. Original, pp. 5.
3 June. 337. Protest made by Sir Francis Brian in the name of the King of England.
Arch. d. 1'Emp.
Neg. Pap. de Sim.
K. 1,640.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 112.
At Bayonne, in the year 1530, the third day of June, in the presence of the undersigned notary and witnesses, "Messire François de Brian, chevalier et gentilhomme de la Chambre du roy Henry huytiesme," declared to "Messire Loys de Flandres, seigneur de Praët, conseillier destat et chambellan ordinaire, and to Maistre Guillaume des Barres, "seigneur de Recim, secretaire de l'Empereur," that according to the words of the treaty of peace concluded at Cambray on the 5th of August last, the king of England, wishing as much as possible to be agreeable to both parties, the Emperor and the king of France, has actually given his letters patent of "quictance" of whatever sums the Emperor might owe him and full powers to cardinal de Tournon, Messire Anne de Mont-morency and Monseigneur the bishop of Bayonne (Jean du Bellay) to deliver into the hands of the above Imperial ambassadors whatever obligations, pledges, and jewels he may have belonging to the Emperor.
[Follow the King's letters patent dated London, 19th February 1529.]
The Imperial ambassadors then declared that they had seen among the obligations one of 32,000 florins of gold lent to the Empereur Maximilian II. by the king of England in 1512, which they could nowise admit nor deduct from the sum to be paid by the king of France, inasmuch as, though in the obligation subscribed by the Emperor Maximilian it is stated that the sum was borrowed as guardian of his grandson Charles, and for the purpose of putting down the rebellion of Ghelders, yet the obligation has not the seal used at that time by the present Emperor, nor was it issued by the clerks of the Finances, besides which the Emperor Maximilian left other heirs to whom a similar application might have been addressed. The Imperial commissioners, therefore, could not possibly accept the said obligation without consulting the Emperor, or his aunt Margaret [of the Low Countries], for which they demanded a delay of 20 days, upon which the said Messire Fraçois de Brian, in the name of his master, the king of England, declared that, notwithstanding the refusal by the Imperial commissioners to receive the said obligations, he was ready to give up his general receipt, "quictance," under protest; however, that he does not intend thereby to abandon his claim upon the Emperor for the said sum of 32,000 florins of gold.
Witnesses: Anthoine de Bourg, "docteur en chascun droit, lieutenant civil de la Prevosté de Paris et president du council de Madame, mère du dit Roy tres chrestien;" Maistre Phelippes Vaucher, greffier de Dole, secretaire de la Royne; Jehan de la Sauch, secretaire ordinaire du dit seigneur Empereur et de Madame l'archiducesse; et Maistre Guillaume Preudhomme [ministre], general des finances du dit seigneur Roy tres chrestien et tresorier de son epargne;" et Gilbert Bayart "secretaire de ses finances, general de Bretaigne."
Before us Françoys Bouret, chantre et chanoyne de Tournon, diocese de Valence, aulmonier et chapelain ordinaire du diet seigneur Roy tres chrestien, secretaire du Revme Cardinal de Tournon, et Jehan de Larrandoette, curé de Saint Martin de Bomint (sic) diocese de Dax, presbitres et notaires apostoliques.
French and Latin, pp. 2.
6 June. 338. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 41.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 117.
Wrote on the 18th, 19th, 22nd, 26th, and 28th ulto and on the 1st inst., giving a full and detailed account of the siege of Florence from the letters of the Prince and other correspondents. He (Muxetula) is now at Rome procuring money for the pay of June. Seventeen thousand five hundred ducats of the "decimas" of Naples have already been secured. The 10,000 remaining are not forthcoming, for although cardinal Colonna writes to say that he intends getting them out of the Monopoli district, it seems to him (Muxetula) that the plan proposed is impracticable and can hardly be approved by His Imperial Majesty, for the possession of Monopoli must needs be given to the "pharaon" who bought it, notwithstanding that His Majesty at Bologna refused to sanction the sale. As to the 10,000 to come from Ferrara, he (Muxctula) has not yet found any merchant willing to discount bills at so long a date.
Ever since the taking of Empoli, the people of Florence have been very much agitated, and begin to say to each other that it would be wise to accept the Emperor's terms.
If the attack on Volterra should end as prosperously as is anticipated it will no doubt precipitate the surrender of that city.
The Pope has had letters from France of the 25th ulto, stating that the ransom-money was quite ready, and that there remained only to be settled the manner and the place of the payment conjointly with the delivery of the sons of France. At first the Grand Constable and Mr. de Prat wanted the money to be deposited at Fuente Rabia, then it was decided to send it in one boat and the King's sons (fn. n7) in another, this latter having as much iron in the bottom as required to make up the same weight, so that one boat should not be lighter than the other and the two should reach the shore at the same time. It had also been agreed that for further security 2,000 foot and 200 men-at-arms should witness the delivery on the Spanish frontier, and as many on the French, &c.
The same letters state that Renzo da Ceri had written to the King asking his permission to go to France, and that the King had answered that he (Renzo) had better abandon the enterprize of Brescia, and had sent him 2,000 ducats for his maintenance. That Malatesta had again sent his secretary to France to claim his arrears of salary for the time he had served the King, and that it was presumed the King would on this plea send him remittances of money to be used at Florence.
The Neapolitan "fuorusciti" who were at Bologna and at Mantua, are all here, and dare not go to Naples, alleging that the Imperial commissioners in that kingdom have seized and imprisoned several of their comrades, who were evidently included in the pardon (indullo). They pretend that they are afraid of going to a place where they will find no advocates to defend them.
Duties and salary of the office of "Regente" conferred upon him.—Rome, 6th June 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula."
Addressed; "Sacre Ces.. et Cathce. Mti
Spanish. Original, pp. 6.
6 June. 339. King Francis to the Emperor Charles.
S. Pat. Re. Nap.
L. 1.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 122.
Approves and ratifies the cession and abandonment made in his name by the Marshal of France to the Emperor, or to his ambassadors, of all his titles and rights to Naples, Genoa, and Milan.—Bourg, 6th June 1530.
Signed: "François."
French. Original, p. 1.
7 June. 340. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 831,f. 40.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 125.
Has received the Emperor's letters of the 22nd May, and another of the 29th, from the High Commander (Covos), enclosing copy of Niño's despatch.
What has since happened in the business of the queen of England is that Dr. Benet, who came straight from the Emperor and the bishop of London (Stokesley), who had orders to return from France, (fn. n8) went to Bologna, and there, with the aid of Raphaele Casale, a Bolognese, have been since endeavouring to obtain the votes of the lawyers. The Pope being forewarned, had ordered his Legate, governor [of Bologna], to counteract their designs, and they have managed so well that the English have only been able to obtain two or three votes. Has given the Pope notice that the English intend trying the same sort of thing at Perosa (Perugia), and measures have been taken accordingly. Has, moreover, written to Don Lope de Soria at Siena to obtain all the opinions he can there, or at least that of Philippo Decio, who lectures in that city, and is the greatest lawyer of all Italy. Has sent a copy of the case to the president of Castille, (fn. n9) that the lawyers may take more time to study it, and now sends another to the Emperor, that the president may be instructed about what is to be done in Spain. Has had two or three conversations with the advocate and proctors of the Emperor and Queen; the suit has been resumed, proceeding for two of its terms by contumacy, as no one appeared for the King. So shall we proceed, although we have little time before us, the holidays being close at hand.
On this account I besought the Pope the other day to give a "signatura" for the cause to proceed, notwithstanding the holidays. He answered that he wondered that neither the Queen nor we had deemed it opportune to ask for extraordinary action in this matter. Replied that neither the Queen nor Your Majesty required a special form of judgment, and that until now our sole object had been to endeavour to soften (ablandar) the King. We were bound to go on with the cause, because, after all, were we to gain our suit, the execution and fulfilment of the sentence would still require the King's gracious approval. Neither Your Majesty nor the Queen wanted privileges or extraordinary measures in this case; those were granted [by Rome] so often, and to so many, that they had become quite common. If His Holiness would not, or could not, grant us such privileges, I hoped he would not refuse us the ordinary terms of justice. The Pope promised to see to it, and it was agreed between us that I should solicit the prosecution of the suit during the holidays, and then it would be seen what the English ambassadors, who, as I am informed, enter the city to-day said to the proposal.
The Pope has been given to understand, as he tells me, that the mission of the ambassadors is reduced to this: the King will be content to promise not to attempt anything in England, provided the Pope and we, the Imperial ministers, consent to suspend proceedings at Rome. I told the Pope that this proposal had already been discussed several times in the Imperial Council at Bologna by Your Majesty's command, and that I could not possibly desist from demanding justice unless I received express orders from my court.
Not satisfied with this explanation of the Pope, I secretly dispatched one of my own people to the Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber (Ghinucci) in order to learn from him what the object and mission of the English ambassadors could be. All I could ascertain was that they had come to Rome to see this matter of the divorce settled, since Your Majesty would not have it at Bologna, and that he (the Auditor) believed the king of England would be content to agree with us about the appointment of persons to look into the affair. If such be their mission, I shall certainly not consent either to one or to the other of the above proposals without special orders from Your Majesty. For with regard to the former, the same reason exists here as at Bologna for rejecting it, which is, that the Queen's just cause ought not to be thus made public without the appointment of a judge to give sentence in it immediately. (fn. n10) The second reason is, that any concession made to our opponents at this moment might be dangerous; besides which I strongly oppose the measure for the three following considerations: first, the gravity of the case; second, the efforts made by the English, their offers and bribes; third, that the cause is now safely lodged, as it ought to be, in the Rotta, to be referred afterwards to the Consistory, wherein justice is sure to be obtained, for cardinal Ravenna assures me that were he alone and by himself he would perform wonders.
The Pope, moreover, has again repeated to me in still plainer terms than he did before (for he has obtained more credible information since) the strange piece of news which I once communicated to Your Majesty, namely, that owing to the death of the lady to whom the duke of Norfolk had married or intended to marry, his son, the English have now negociated, and were on the point of concluding, a marriage of the said son with the princess of Wales, in consequence of which Bolan (Boleyn) and the others have lost much hope of the marriage of Mrs. Anne (la maestressa Anna) with the King. It would appear besides that the King himself has spent considerable sums of money in buying property and lands for the maintenance of the Lady (Anne), which, in the opinion of some, is a proof that he begins to give up his purpose, because if he still meant to make her his queen, why have the property and estates been bought for her own private use? I have written to the ambassador in London (Chapuys) about these rumours, that he may ascertain the truth of them, and report to Your Majesty.
In some letters I have seen from Ferrara it is stated that an ambassador named Benet is coming from France. We have made inquiries to know who he is, and nobody can tell us. We, therefore, suspect that he is the same who was at the Imperial court, and remained some time at Bologna, for his name was also Benet. He has perhaps gone to Ferrara for the purpose of keeping the Florentine fire alive for their own purpose. I have written to Ferrara and to Venice about him, and the Pope has likewise instituted inquiries.—Rome, 7th June 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ, et Catholicæ Maiestati."
Spanish. Original, pp. 9.
8 June. 341. Giovan Antonio Muxetula to the Emperor
S. E. L. 849, f. 43.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 138.
This morning the Pope made the bishop of Tarbes (Gabriel de Grammont) a cardinal. He might have refused him the hat on more than one account; but His Holiness has no doubt been influenced by the hopes which that ambassador has very adroitly thrown out, that his master will help in the reduction of Florence. May God forbid that a Florentine should have been cheated by a Frenchman, as I had occasion to tell the Pope the other day!
Hears that the king of England is getting the colleges and the divines in France to declare that the Pope could not give dispensation in the marriage of the Queen, and that having obtained the declarations of the canonists, he is now procuring that of the divines, and says that when he has both, including some of Italy as well as of his own kingdom, he wishes to effect the divorce without further declaration from the Pope. He (Muxetula) hearing this, has told His Holiness that this is a most diabolical intrigue, more directed against him than against anyone else, because it will indirectly create a practice of having councils assembled against his authority, and that of the Roman court, having only exclusive judges in this matter. A private man may give his legal opinion as an advocate, but for divines or canonists as a college or corporation to determine that which belongs exclusively to the court of Rome to declare could not for a moment be tolerated. Did accordingly urge him as strongly as he could to do two things: first, to proceed with the cause as diligently as possible, so that a speedy declaration from him should at once put a stop to those informal opinions; secondly, to prohibit the colleges, under censures, from giving any opinion upon the subject without first intimating it to him.
His Holiness promised to do so, and Miçer Mai, with whom I have communicated, has already begun to solicit the same.—Rome, 8th June 1530.
Signed: "Geo. Ant. Muscetula."
Spanish. Original, pp. 2½.
8 June. 342. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 851, f. 38.
B.M. Add. 28,580,
f. 140.
After writing the other three letters that go with this, a Spanish friar arrived from England with letters from the ambassador (Chapuys). He had offered to discuss in the General Chapter of the Dominicans, which is to be held here, the matrimonial cause of the King and Queen of that country, and to argue the question whether the Pope could or could not give dispensation, and the ambassador, wishing to promote the Queen's interests in the affair, had given him a letter for me. I mentioned the fact to cardinal d'Osma, who knows all these Dominicans well, and he thought that the friar was unequal to the task, and that his presence in the Chapter might create disturbance. The Pope, Muxetula, and myself shared this opinion, for it was to be feared the English, who shew such activity in the matter, might look out for an opponent as well or perhaps better qualified for the task, and set him up against him, and thus the game would be equal. This very step Your Majesty did once disapprove at Bologna, and, therefore, leaving that on one side, I have requested the Pope of his own authority, and without any interference on the part of us (the Imperial ambassadors), to order the general of the Dominicans to obtain the opinions of the friar theologians now in Rome before they go away, or, at all events, of those whom the general himself may consider most prudent and conscientious. We may make use of these opinions afterwards if, as it is to be feared, the English persist in their determination of procuring them also on their side, for I am told that when they (the English agents) at Bologna heard that the Pope had forbidden the lawyers and canonists to give an opinion on the subject they exclaimed: "We see that the Pope wishes to lose the obedience of our island."
Yesterday the bishop of Vaison, once Papal Nuncio at Your Majesty's court, arrived here. I met him in the palace, and thanked him before the Pope for his good services in Venice, both to Your Majesty and to His Holiness. I fancy that your letter of commendation will be exceedingly acceptable to him.
Your Majesty must be informed of events as they occur or come to our notice. In one of my last despatches I related what the Pope had told me in conversation, namely, that he had now good hopes of the English matter terminating well, in consequence of the new marriage spoken of for the Princess Yesterday he shewed me some paragraphs of a letter from France, stating that the king of England had sent a man expressly to search the archives (camara de las Scripturas) in Paris, in the hope of finding therein papers and documents relating to a case similar to his, when a king of France and England did divorce his queen and marry again with the Pope's consent. The letter also stated that the king of England is actually soliciting the votes of the Parisian doctors in a body, pretending that this is done with Your Majesty's consent. He was sure (he said) of all the votes individually; the matter had already been decided in his favour in a college of canonists, and he was now trying to get the opinion of the divines. Another university of France, called, I believe, Anges (Angers), had stated that in an old book, composed by a Spanish friar, contemporary of Saint Dominic, in which the case was fully discussed, there was a passage establishing the King's right to divorce. Lastly, Fr, Jacopo di Lodi, a Carmelite, who had gone to Scotland upon I know not what business of his own, had returned [to England], and was now soliciting the same thing for the king of England, whilst a Frenchman, of the name of Musior de Giles, had come on the part of the French king. This last friar asserts that the king of England told him in secret something which it would he well for the Pope to know, for it would be worth more to him than a million of gold. He (the friar) would not say what it was, but declared that the King was only waiting for the decision of these (estas) universities [in Italy] to justify himself here at Rome, and then carry out his purpose. The letter alluded to was from Alberto di Carpi to the Pope; he gave it to me to read, but particularly requested me to keep this matter secret, because, he said, he did not like Your Majesty to imagine that it had been written purposely to annoy you. Faithfully promised to keep the matter secret, and since the Pope desires it, I humbly beg Your Majesty not to mention this to anyone, for fear the Pope should withdraw his confidence from me.
I could not, however, help observing to the Pope that the writer of the letter was not thoroughly to be credited in such matters. He (Carpi) had always been a hot-mouthed fellow, and just the sort of man to be carried away by his affections or dislikes (quemarse con loco fuego). Being naturally ingenious and quick he exaggerated things, especially when they had reference to political changes and revolutions of states, to which he seemed particularly inclined. Yet it might be advisable to act upon his information as if it were substantially true, and hasten the decision of the cause in order to put a stop to the chimerical ideas of the English king. I also told the Pope that unless he forbade the universities giving opinion on these matters, kings in future would have no need of the Holy See in their affairs, but would obtain from two or three universities an opinion in favour of anything they wanted. That was a bad state of things, which concerned His Holiness much more than it did us, owing to the consequences the measure might have. He promised to look into it, and said he had already written to his Nuncio to call upon the king of France and make the necessary representations.
The Pope begins to be afraid that Florence will be ultimately sacked by the Imperial troops, and he is right. He told me the other day to write to Your Majesty about it, and beg that orders should be sent to the Prince to prevent that catastrophe. I, myself, have done so already, but His Holiness begs and entreats that a letter should also come from Your Majesty to the Prince. I cannot help thinking that this is for Your Majesty's best service, because he (the Pope) being at present in treaty with France, and the English [king] saying "that the Pope would give one million to know his secret;" that proves to me that if over and above what he has already spent, he saw Florence sacked almost before his eyes, and perhaps also without any warning (fuera de tiempo), for such is the insolence of the soldiery, I really believe that he would go into despair.
At Siena, from letters I have just received, there has been a most scandalous riot and cries of death to the Spaniards! The thing, I hear, originated in a dispute about private interests (por intereses començados (.) de particulares); but as I have heard that the Florentines have been soliciting the Sienese of late to enter into a league, the movement may have some importance. Lope de Soria writes about it, but gives no details. To-day the ambassador of France, bishop of Tarbes, has been preconized in Consistory. Had two more hats been given to Pistoia and to the Auditor of the Chamber (Ghinucci), as announced, they would be in equal number to those created at Bologna. If the game is to continue thus, one white the other black, it will be our turn next to mix up the cards.—Rome, 8th June 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original, pp. 7.
9 June. 343. The Same to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 851,
f. 45.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 143.
Wrote yesterday to the Emperor. Went this morning to compliment cardinal Tarbes on his promotion, and was received by him in the most friendly manner. Took, however, occasion to tell him that he (Mai) understood that his master was endeavouring to obtain votes in favour of the king of England, and although I could not possibly believe it, yet that in fulfilment of our promise to tell each other whatever might occur to us respecting the preservation of friendship, I could not do less than mention the report, for, I said, "it is doing no good service to the King, your master, that Mr. de Langeais should solicit votes in his name." The Cardinal (Tarbes) said he did not believe the report, but was thankful for the information, and that he would write next day by express. He then produced certain letters of the most Christian King to him on this very subject, which seemed to say the very reverse, and told me in secret that the King, his master, as well as Madame [his mother], and the other lady, whom they style queen of Navarre, (fn. n11) all thought very ill of the affair.
Intends by the same post to inform the Imperial ambassador and the Papal Nuncio in France of all this.
Sanga is just now leaving my room; he tells me that the Pope has sent for the general of the Dominicans.—Rome, 9th June 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "S. C. Cath. Maj."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
10 June. 344. Miçer Mai to the High Commander of Leon [Covos].
S. E. L. 851,
. 25.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 20.
Wrote about a month ago, (fn. n12) but having had no answer he (Mai) thinks proper to repeat here part of what he then said inasmuch as something new has occurred.
After writing from Ferrara by a servant of Castaldo, he (Mai) loft for Rome with cardinal Osma (Garcia de Loaysa). Arrived at Rome only two or three days before the Pope. Found on his arrival the Imperial courier with the letters of the 21st ulto. Gave the Emperor's letters to the Pope.
The Pope's adcogado fiscal has hitherto done good service, and shews great affection for the Emperor. A year ago, as a French treasurer was at Spoletto distributing money and engaging men for the expedition to the Abruzzi, he (Mai) had occasion to have him appointed Papal commissary, and he managed so well that all those who had taken money had to give it back, and the French were baffled in their purpose. He may be of great use under present circumstances. A letter of thanks ought to be addressed to him in the Emperor's name.
Fray Felice de Prado is the name of the Anconitan friar (el fraile, de. Anchona,), who wrote in behalf of the queen of England. As his naturalization was not required We did not apply for it. He wants a letter of recommendation to the Pope, that ho may get a reserve of 500 ducats. It ought to be sent to him, for although the Pope is not likely to grant what ho asks, yet it is important to keep him (Fr. Felice) content and in good humour.
Don Juan de Borja has come to claim the duchy of Camenino which, he says, belongs to him, and is now possessed by a niece of the Pope and sister of cardinal Cibo. Told him on the road to Rome that he expected letters from Court in recommendation of his suit, and was very much disappointed at not receiving them.
His Reverence, cardinal Ancona, is still at his see, and it is doubtful whether he will return this summer. If he does not we shall miss him greatly for our affairs, though if your Lordship forgets him entirely, as well as Monte and La Valle, it will be just as well. (fn. n13)
These postmasters say that they have no orders to dispatch couriers, which is contrary to what Salinas told him at Castelfranco.
Rome just now is very gay and full of Spaniards. There is no longer any fear of their being insulted by the inhabitants, on the contrary, some of them are at their old tricks again; but he (Mai) will try to prevent as much as possible their becoming obnoxious to the people and giving cause for disturbance. (fn. n14)
Is anxiously expecting the ambassador of the king of Hungary, Miçer Andrea del Burgo, who is again coming to Rome to reside with his wife, the Countess. (fn. n15) Is now writing to the Abbot that he may see him [the Commander] and inquire what is to be done with mine. (fn. n16) —Rome, 10th June 1530.
(Holograph:) Has travelled all the way in company with cardinal Osma, to whom he (Mai) has explained all the Roman affairs.
Spanish. Original, pp. 4.


  • n1. At this time Felice Trophimo, mentioned in vol. iv., part 2, p. 9, as archbishop of Chieti or Theata was dead, and had been succeeded by Guidone de' Medici. See Historia della Citta di Chieti by Girolamo Nicolino, Napoli, 1657, p. 181-5, and yet this letter being signed "Jo. Pietro" (Giovan Pietro Caraffa?) would shew that there is some mistake in that statement, for the last-named ecclesiastic is known to have preceded Trophimo (1504-24) and to have again been appointed to the archiepiscopal see of Chieti in 1536, after the decease of Guidone de' Medici.
  • n2. Thus in the original; perhaps prē [Patre] Dendo.
  • n3. "There were at this time two parties at Pistoia la Pandatica and la Cancelliera, who disputed the power. The former followed the Medici. "E la Città di Pistoia già, gran tempo divisa en due fazioni; l'una delle quali si chiama la Parte Panciatica, e 1'altra la Parte Cancelliera; i Panciatichi sono da quella delle Palle, cioè seguono e favpriscono la casa e lo Stato de' Medici; i Cancellieri seguono la Parte di Marzocco, cioè seguono e favoriscono il governo del Popolo." Varchi, Storia Fiorentina, p. 326. Hostages from the two hostile factions were sent to Florence during the siege.
  • n4. "Elper no havere potuto, secondo dice, commodamente andare ne et mandare al luogo destino per quelle, ben che io penso habbia piu tosto voluto satifliare a Gio. Francesco dc Bardi.".
  • n5. A captain called Francesco de' Bardi is mentioned by Varchi (p. 299) among those appointed to the defence of Florence. The Girardi, named immediately after, might be one of the Gherardi da Pistoia.
  • n6. "Si e stabilito tra questa maesta e il signore conte oratore del Re de ingnu-terra." By Il signore conte in this passage, the earl of Wiltshire is meant.
  • n7. "Porque dice quo cl Gran Constable (sic) y Mussiur de Prata pedian los dineros primero en fuenterrabi (sic) y quo despues 'e era tratado que se diessen juntos con los yjos."
  • n8. "Lo que despues sucedió en el negocio es que los mesmos embaxadores llegaron á Boloña, ansi el Dotor Benet, que vino de V. Mt. como el obispo de Londres que mandaron volber desde Francia."
  • n9. The president of the Royal Council of Castille at this time was D. Juan Tavera, archbishop of Santiago.
  • n10. "Quanta á lo primero es aca la mesma razon por la qual Va. Mt. lo mandó desviar en Bologna, por no poner [el] buen pleito ó la buena justicia de la Reyna á vozes sin tener juez."
  • n11. Marguerite de Valois married to Jean d' Albret
  • n12. See above, No. 300.
  • n13. "Pero meior será si le olvidnis, y á él y á Monte y á La. Valle."
  • n14. "No solo no temo que les hagan sobras, mas [que] alguno dellos no haga algun desorden; yo lo trubajaré a desviar y prevenir todo lo que fuere posible."
  • n15. Micer Andrea del Burgo had been made count of Castiglione (Castil Leone).
  • n16. "Que se deve de hacer de la mia." Mai had a brother who was an abbot (abad). "Queu fist auparavant ung peu de leffroye."