Spain: April 1531, 1-15

Pages 109-126

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.

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April 1531, 1-15

2 April. 674. The Emperor to the cardinal of Ravenna.
S.E.L. 1,558,
f. 357.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 133.
Has received his letters of the 12th ultº; learns from them and from what his ambassador, Miçer Mai, writes that a negotiation is now being carried on with the secretary of the Scottish King. Feels sure of his sincere desire to render service, as is very natural, he (the Emperor) being his warmest friend. The Imperial ambassadors have been instructed to speak with him on this business.—Ghent, 2nd April 1531. (fn. n1)
Indorsed: "To the cardinal of Ravenna, Ghent, 2nd April."
Spanish. Draft in the hand of Francisco de Idiaquez, Secretary of State.
2 April. 675. The Same to Miçer Mai, his ambassador at Rome.
S.E.L. 1,558,
f 358
B. M. Add. 28,583
f. 134.
His despatch of the 23rd ultº has been duly received.
Answer to the bishop of Tortona.
The Pope's contribution towards the expenses of the Turkish war.
Galleys &c.
(Cipher:) Has attentively read the proposals made by cardinal Ravenna to the secretary of the king of Scotland. Feels sure that the Cardinal means well, and intends doing service. He is to be thanked in his name; yet the affair is one which requires mature deliberation. Cannot, therefore, send a definitive answer just now. The Cardinal to be amused as long as possible with fair and friendly words until new instructions are forwarded.
Creation of cardinals.—Siena and Don Pedro de la Cueva. —Gante (Ghent), 2nd April 1531.
Spanish. Oiginal draft in the handwriting of Francisco Idiaquez.
4 April. 676. The Answer made to the Legate's Memorandum.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 154.
B. M. Add.28,583,
f. 138.
The Emperor has considered the proposals which the Papal Legate has made respecting the part to be taken by France in the war against Turkey. In his opinion this is not the time for such a measure, nor have the preparations been made to carry on an offensive warfare. In order to do that considerable delay and much money would be required. That and all similar plans are the invention of those who do not choose to help in the undertaking. What is wanted is money, and men to defend the frontiers of Christendom; the sooner the better. If the enemy is repulsed it will then he time to attack him in his own dominions. He, the Emperor, and his brother, the king of the Romans, will not fail to do everything in their power to check the current of Turkish invasion; but without the co-operation and help of His Holiness, and of the whole Christian Church, thus imperilled, they despair of success.
Respecting the galleys, the Emperor thinks that if those of His Holiness, of the king of France, Genoa, and the Order of St. John, were to join the Imperial fleet, and scour the Mediterranean and Adriatic, so as to clear those seas of pirates, and do the Infidel all possible harm, much good might be done to the general enterprize. The Emperor entirely approves of the plan, and is ready to second His Holiness views in this respect.—Ghent, 4th April 1531.
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 3.
3 April. 677. The Same to the Same.
f. 134.
With regard to the divorce, since the said Most Christian King and his Council persist in their refusal not to surrender the notarial acts and papers, which we instructed you to demand, it seems advisable to desist from all further pursuit, which in our opinion would be unavailing, for it is to be apprehended that in case of any measures being taken in that quarter the result would be injurious rather than beneficial to the cause of our aunt, the Queen. All that can be done in her favour for the present is to obtain, if necessary, sufficient proof and attestation of the various requisitions, instances, and demands made in our name, as well as of the refusals and impediments set up by the King, and by those who have mixed themselves up with the affair, as well as the intrigues, the coercion, and the violence employed in gaining the votes of the Parisian Faculty of Theology to our aunt's detriment. as we have frequently been informed by Doctor Garay himself. We doubt not that you will insist on proving the Queen's right, or at least in preventing any favour being shewn to the King.—Ghent, 3rd April 1531.
Spanish translation, pp. 2½.
5 April. 678. Miçer Mai to the High Commander.
f. 23.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 140.
Siena, Ferrara, duke of Albany, &c.
The news from Genoa is that the galleys of the king of France have returned to Marseilles.
Respecting the English business, refers him to his enclosed despatches for the Emperor. If the remissoriœ have already been forwarded to Spain, it would be advisable to write to the President of the Council, (fn. n2) the viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, and Catalonia to do everything in their power to have them executed at once.
Has seen a letter from France in which it is said that king Francis is very much offended, and so is king Henry of England, at the Pope having forbidden the Parliament of the latter country to proceed de facto in that affair. In consequence whereof there is a report that the king of France has used very strong language against the Pope, and speaks of the possibility of the Church of that country (England) renouncing its obedience to the Holy See.
Ferdinand, king of the Romans, &c.Rome, 5th April 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the High Commander of Leon, Francisco de los Covos."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 3.
5 April. 679. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
ff. 88.–9
B. M. Add. 28,583
f. 141.
His letter of the 23rd ultº has been duly received.
The more the affair of the Council is discussed the more is he (Mai) convinced that it will not be convoked, as he has had frequent occasion to write. Has been told that the king of England objects strongly to its being held in Italy, and asks that the place of meeting be Flanders, or the north of France.
Siena.—Bulls for the coronation of Ferdinand as king of the Romans.
The duke of Albany is now negotiating a marriage between his brother and the duchess of Camarino. When he (Mai) asked the Pope whether it was true or not he owned that it was, and added with a smile on his lips that the Duke had also proposed a marriage of his niece to the king of Scotland, or to the duke of Orleans, thereby intimating no doubt that in these matters the Duke acted lightly, and was not much to be relied upon. Such was His Holiness' declaration on this point, but he (Mai) is not quite satisfied with the answer.
Naples, &c.
Sanga has just come to tell him that the Pope is very much excited about Ferrara—Gonzaga, &c.—Rome 5th April 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the High Commander, Francisco de los Covos."
Spanish. Original, pp. 7.
5 April. 680. The admiral of Castille to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 22,
f. 241.
Your Majesty's protracted absence from your Spanish kingdoms, though indispensable perhaps for the safety of threatened Christendom, and the furtherance of your own political views, is a thing to which your Spanish subjects can hardly reconcile themselves; all desire most ardently Your Majesty's return.
To the queen of England I am so much indebted of old that, being unable to serve her personally as I might otherwise have done, I have thought of helping with all my power in the the defence of her case at Rome. For this purpose I have caused my nephew, Don Alonso [Enriquez] to study her case for the last six months. He is now completely master of the subject, and I am sending him to Rome, that he may there be employed in her service, and help the other lawyers.
Angelo, my servant, will inform Your Imperial Majesty of an affair in which I am much interested.—Valladolid, 5th. April 1531.
Signed: "El Almirante."
Addressed: " To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Spanish. Holograph, p. 1.
5 April. 681. Queen Katharine to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 22,
f. 145.
As the ambassador residing at this court will duly inform Your Highness of what has passed in this session of Parliament I will only mention here the advice I have received from those who wish for the tranquillity and welfare of the King, my Lord, and the good issue of the present cause. They tell me that the seals and votes of the Universities, which he has shewn to his subjects, have been procured for two chief purposes: one is that he may live with the woman he has under his roof, without the least particle of shame; and the other, in the hope that the endeavours he has hitherto made to justify his conduct will be enough to obtain the consent of this kingdom [to a second marriage], which is the thing he has been aiming at so resolutely of late. Indeed, I believe that this last consideration, coupled with the dishonour likely to fall on Your Highness and the rest of the Imperial family, are the only impediments standing in the way of his unruly passion, and which have hitherto prevented the execution of his plans, as most of my personal friends assure rue.
I have been told that the king of France has been asking His Holiness to grant a delay. If so, Your Highness must he certain that the means now employed by these people to procure the will and consent of this kingdom, are such that they will ere long obtain all they wish for, and accomplish my ruin at the next session of Parliament. If the delay has not yet been granted I beg Your Highness not to consent to it in any way, but to insist upon the Pope giving sentence before the month of October next, when Parliament is to meet again; otherwise the justice and truth of my case are in great danger of being overlooked, sure as I am that the delay they have lately solicited from His Holiness is for no other purpose than that of working my ruin.
Let Your Majesty forgive me if I have been, and am still, so importunate, knowing, as I do, the interest you take in what concerns me personally; but I shall not desist from my prayer until I see full justice done unto me, for, as Your Highness well knows, I have truth and right on my side. To uphold and defend these is a meritorious work in the eyes of God, and the greatest service man can do, and I sincerely hope that God Almighty will amply reward you in this world and in the other.
For God's sake I again entreat Your Highness to cause the sentence to be pronounced before the said period, and that evidence to be collected in Spain to prove the integrity of my body before I married the present King, my Lord, which is the thing I have so long wished for. (fn. n3) That evidence once obtained I confidently hope that the whole matter will end satisfactorily for me and mine.
The ambassador here resident shews very good will, and is disposed to give notice of the Papal briefs (recaudos) which we have by us. I myself, if necessary, shall go to Parliament and declare before its members the justice of my case, which, as Your Highness well knows, is founded on truth.—London, 5th April 1531.
Signed: "Katherina."
Addressed: "To the most high and most powerful lord the Emperor, my nephew."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2½.
7 April. 682. The Emperor to Antonio de Leyva.
S.E.L. 1,558, f. 47.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 143.
We hear from Venice that Jorge (George) Gritti has arrived in that city from Turkey, and that he is about to go to France under plea of certain moneys which the king of that country once lent to the Vayvod, but as there is reason to think that his journey to those parts has another object, and as it is highly important for our interests to stop him on his passage, and try to discover what plans and intrigues he may be connected with, I therefore pray and charge you that if the thing can be done, you manage his arrest without however saying that. it is done by our orders, and once in your power that you take possession of all the papers he may have, and send them to us, letting us know whatever else you think most convenient to gain the said aim.—Gante (Ghent), 7th April 1531.
Spanish. Original draft in the handwriting of Alfonso de Valdés and countersigned by Idiaquez.
11 April. 683. Eustace Chapuys to the Same.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u-Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep.P.Fasc.,
c 27, No. 19.
The great wish, which as I wrote in my despatch of the 8th ultº, the Queen had of addressing a letter to the Pope, has been considerably increased of late, through the annoyance she has felt at the King being in constant communication with Rome, and having sent thither several couriers with despatches. She has therefore written to His Holiness the letter of which the enclosed is a transcript.
Since my last nothing important has taken place here. The ambassadors of France have just presented to this King in their master's name a very fine and artistic clock, on the dial of which the movement of several celestial spheres and planetary systems can be distinctly observed. (fn. n4) I fancy that if Jehan Jocquin has been the inventor of this device, Mars is sure to predominate over Mercury. I cannot say whether the report comes from Jocquin or not, but the fact is that the very day that the clock was presented to the King the Grand Esquire said to the Queen that the king of France had declared to the Imperial agent at his court that he (the French king) could never be a true and sincere friend of Your Majesty, owing to the very rude manner in which he had been treated. The said ambassadors went again to Court yesterday for the sake of one of them, La Guiche, taking leave before his return home; but they were not invited to the King's table, owing to his dining with the Queen on that day. The Princess has been for the last eight days suffering from indigestion (passion destomac). so much so that she can hardly retain what she swallows, but the physician who attends her tells me that, God willing, she will soon be free from this affection.
The Venetian ambassador has newly strengthened by some words that escaped him my very firm belief that these people desire above all things the arrival of the Turk in Germany. The Chancellor himself complained some days ago to one of my secretaries, in a very piteous tone, of the blindness of those princes who refused to assist Your Majesty against so cruel and implacable an enemy, and upon my secretary observing that perhaps those very princes, seeing Your Majesty engaged in the repulse of the Turk, intended to engage in some undertaking by themselves, or solicit and procure something else, the Chancellor replied that there was no actual danger of that on the part of this country at least, for there were no preparations or power to do so; which statement I really believe to be the fact, since their will is evidently stronger than their power.—London, 11th April [1531].
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French, Holograph, p. 1.
[—April.] 684. Consulta of the Council respecting the Scottish affair
S. E. Bo. L. 582,
f. 14.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 142.
According to what Miçer Mai, the Cardinal, and the rest wrote, the negotiations opened in His Imperial Majesty's name by the cardinal of Ravenna (fn. n5) with the secretary of the king of Scotland have had this result, namely, that the king of Scotland shews readiness to accept a wife from the hands of the Emperor, a daughter or a niece of his, as it may be, and that his secretary (Erskine) has already left [Rome] post haste, saying that the Emperor may at once either send his orders to his master, the King, or else declare his intentions to Mr. de Veyre. The above-named ambassadors beg that some qualified person be sent to Rome to continue the negotiations.
The Council is of opinion that it would be perhaps better that the negotiations should be carried on here at the Emperor's court, and that letters of thanks should be addressed to cardinal Ravenna, and the others.
Cardinal Cesarini, &c.
Queen Isabella and her daughter's marriage.
Spanish. Original, p. 1.
11 April. 685. Miçer Mai and Dr. Ortiz to the archbishop of Santiago [Tavera].
S. Pat. Re. Trat.
C. Ing. L. A.
f. 133.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 147.
Have sent by another messenger a copy of the articles presented by the queen of England in the matrimonial suit in order that Your Reverence may have time to look out in those kingdoms for witnesses to prove the said articles, or most of them, and that no time be lost. The remissory letters go to Spain by this post, but as the style of this court is not to trust them to the parties themselves, only to bankers, I have agreed with the manager of the bank of Simon Centurione, that they will first of all deliver this my letter into the hands of Your Reverence and ascertain to which of the judges the remissory letters are to be entrusted. In this manner the judges, before whom the examination of witnesses is to take place, will know beforehand what they are to do in this business. I beg Your Reverence to issue orders accordingly, and have this present copy of the articles well looked into, for after all Your Reverence may be said now to be the real judge in this case, since the success of it depends almost entirely upon the evidence that is to come from Spain. I say this much because the suit itself offers no difficulty at all in a legal point of view; the rub lies in proving the causes of suspicion that we have brought forward, and on such proof depends entirely the success of the cause, &c.—Rome, 11th April 1531.
P.S.—The judges, as I said before, ought to be selected by Your Reverence; to them the banker's correspondent (el mercader) will give the remissory letters. The same to be done respectively at Santiago, Valladolid, and Burgos, where the despatches are also to be addressed in the manner Your Reverence may point out, taking care that there should be two judges in each place.
Signed; "Dr. Ortiz et Maius [Vestræ Reverentiæ], Mancipui"
Addressed: "To the most illustrious and most Reverend archbishop of Santiago, president of Castille, at Valladolid."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2½
11 April. 686. Dr. Ortiz to the Same.
S. Pat. Re. Trat.
C. log. L. A.
f. 133.
B.M. Add. 28,583,
f. 144.
Although some time ago I made up my mind not to mention what I am about to state, yet, as duty compels me to report on all and every one of the incidents connected with the Queen's case, I must make an open breast, and inform Your Reverence that ever since my arrival in this city I have found in the Imperial ambassador, Miçer Mai, a certain reluctance to my prosecuting the Queen's suit, on the ground that my instructions are simply to negotiate about Luther and the General Council, not to mix myself up with the English affair, which, he says, is exclusively his own province, and must needs be tried and decided rather by Civil and Canon Law, than by Theology. It is true that he has procured me audiences, and also helped me, as was his duty, to put into his hands the letters I had for him; but those I had for the Consistory, and for the cardinals individually, he (Mai) never allowed me to deliver. When I begged and entreated him to let me fulfil at least this part of my official charge, threatening, if he did not, that I should be obliged in obedience to Your Reverence's commands to do it myself, he answered: "You may do what you like, I shall not present them." However, as some of the cardinals in consequence of the debates which daily took place before the Pope wished to communicate with me on the subject I felt bound to act against the ambassador's wishes. I called and gave the cardinals all the letters I had from the Empress and from Your Reverence. This was done, though late, entirely on my own account without having (as I say) ever obtained the ambassador's consent. Those for the Consistory I kept by me, in the hope that sooner or later the Imperial ambassador would see the advantage of acquainting that body with the Emperor's wishes. At last, through the intervention of Don Pedro de la Cueva, who kindly interposed his influence, the ambassador was prevailed upon to let me execute this part of my charge, though only two months after my arrival in Rome.
I need scarcely say that His Holiness has always shewn very good will in this business, and that he receives me most affectionally whenever I attend at his dinner hour, and argue the case in his presence; so do the cardinals. Yet I can easily perceive that the ambassador will not employ or consult me in this matter when in pursuance of the Emperor's orders he himself has to address the Pope or his cardinals; so much so, that on my entreating him some days ago to make use of me in this business whenever he happened to have to speak to His Holiness or his cardinals, he coldly observed that I had no mandate whatever for that, nor any more right to intervene in the affair than any other Roman lawyer retained for the case, for that my credentials were insufficient, and nowise empowered me to treat of this business conjointly with him. I have hitherto taken no notice of this for fear I should in any way prejudice the affair; but I cannot help feeling hurt and surprised at the conduct of the Imperial ambassador when he thus opposes and disregards the particular orders given by Your Reverence, and when I see that His Holiness and his cardinals, to whom I delivered the letters, are quite prepared to treat me as the person officially appointed by the Emperor to take charge of the Queen's defence.
I have entered into these details for no other purpose than that of faithfully acquainting Your Reverence with all the incidents of this affair, as I consider it my duty to do. Should Your Reverence deem it advisable to provide against this difficulty, let such step come at once in the shape of a letter from the Emperor, since those I brought from Your Reverence, as president of the Council of Castille, have evidently produced no effect on this Imperial ambassador.
Remissory letters to examine witnesses in Spain are now forwarded by this post. The ambassador has always been of opinion, that both the sentence which I am soliciting, and the prohibition of marriage between brothers and sisters-in-law are not matters of Divine right but of Canon Law. This, however, I cannot ask for until after the evidence of the witnesses has been produced. It is on that account that Miçer Mai is now sending the said remissory letters to Spain; meanwhile he wants those among the witnesses who happen to be at Rome to be examined. I wish this had been done long ago; God knows how much I regret the time that has already been lost. I feel more than I can say for that poor Queen whose husband, the king of England, has now been iniquitously living with a concubine for such a length of time, to the great scandal of the universal Christian Church. To obviate such evils no counsels are needed; all that is required is that the articles for which I have come here be once for all discussed, proved and declared, as I sincerely hope they will be, and then the whole matter will be cleared up.
Business of Fr. Francisco Ortiz, his brother, &c.
Yesterday the news came to His Holiness that a truce to begin this month of March, and to last for a whole year, had been concluded with the Turk.—Rome, 11th April 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the most illustrious and Reverend the cardinal archbishop of Santiago, president of the Council of Castille."
Spanish. Original. Partly holograph. pp. 5.
13 April. 687. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S.E.L.852,f. 131.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 149.
The news is that Mr. de Tarbes is coming here post haste and that his mission is entirely about the English marriage. I am of a different opinion; I think that he conies for something more. My impression is that as he (Tarbes) has evidently been the principal instrument in preventing the convocation of the Council, and fancies he has thereby done the Pope and his cardinals both a service and a pleasure, he comes now to Rome to reap the fruits of his labours, and induce His Holiness to grant the things the French king wants. I shall he on my guard, but I think that Tarbes will not gain his aim, for, as far as I can see, though the Pope's natural timidity has no doubt prevented his consent to the Council, a measure always odious to popes, yet the perfect knowledge he has of Your Majesty's rightful intentions does so far encourage and comfort him that he will in the end do your pleasure in this matter as well as in others.
Another reason I have for thinking that Tarbes will not succeed is that I have not failed, whenever there was an opportunity, to warn His Holiness against the French king's designs, for it is evident to me that the latter is not now aiming at the Pope's welfare and convenience but working entirely for his own unjust ends, very different from those which Your Majesty has in view. Indeed I keep telling him that for the sake of Christendom, and also for the sake of the Italian peace, and likewise for the maintenance of that sincere friendship existing between Your Majesty and him, it is imperative that any like proposals of that monarch should he rejected. The Pope has answered me that he is resolved not to grant any of Tarbes' requests.—Rome, 13th April 1531.
Indorsed: "Copy of original paragraph in Muxetula's letter of the 13th."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 1½.
14 April. 688. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 852, f. 25.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 156.
Wrote on the 5th inst.; since then letters have been received from the marquis [del Vasto] and Don Pedro de la Cueva announcing the agreement made with the Sienese. Believes that those gentlemen have done for the best, and yet in his humble opinion there still remain several causes for further disturbances.
Quarters to be provided for the Imperial army, &c.
Letters have been received from Venice about the prorogation of the truce with the Turk. Cannot help thinking that it would be advisable to profit by the circumstances, and come to terms with the Lutherans, and bring that affair to an end, either by granting them some delay or by obtaining a modification of their claims, because in this manner the Turk himself, and the Christian princes would become more moderate and reasonable in their demands, for experience has shewn that the Emperor's enemies have at all times settled their hopes on them (the Lutherans) for their own wicked ends and views, in which they still persevere and will remain in future, and also because wisdom counsels when one has the remedy at home not to look out for it elsewhere. (fn. n6)
Begs the Emperor's forgiveness for proffering his advice on matters which do not concern him; his zeal for the Imperial service carries him away.
(Cipher:) A rumour is current here that the Emperor and the Most Christian Bang are soon to meet His Holiness, some say at Milan, others at Nice. The Pope himself said so the other day to one of his most confidential servants. He (Mai) cannot conceive why the Pope or any Italian can wish for the conferences, (if they are to take place at all), to be held in this country, unless it be that His Holiness wishes to put off the convocation of the General Council, or to prevent the meeting of the Emperor with the king of France; or, again, because they imagine that the duke of Albany's predictions will be fulfilled, for, as I have already informed the Emperor, he is known to have said to the Venetian ambassador that if the interview was held here [in Italy] Your Majesty would derive greater advantage than elsewhere. (fn. n7)
Cardinal de Grammont is coming here post haste, some say to negotiate with the Pope about the English business; others to obtain the hand of the Pope's niece (Catherina de' Medici) for the duke of Orleans. The former supposition appears the more probable, for some time ago a letter came from the court of France saying that Tarbes was very much affronted (afrentado) in consequence of his having promised in the Pope's name when he went from hence much more than he was authorised to do. As after that the inhibition brief was gained, and the rejection of the English excusator took place, the kings of France and England naturally turned against that ambassador and complained of him, upon which he at once offered to come back and remind the Pope of his promises. All this happened more than six weeks ago, and although he (Mai) paid no attention to the fact at the time, it might be that it is somewhat connected with Grammont's mission. Will be on his guard and try to ascertain what he comes about. Suspects that His Holiness has some sort of secret understanding with them, but is inclined to believe that it is sheer diplomacy, for the Pope knows the French as well as he knows the Emperor.
(Common writing:) Letters have been received from the court of France of the 27th and 30th ultº reciting the answer given to Mr. de Praët [about the Council], at which answer all those who are against the Council have greatly rejoiced. (fn. n8) Also that the King had given money, though in a very small quantity, to Sigismondo Malatesta and to Stephano Colonna, and that the Neapolitan emigrants (foragidos) had lost all hope of success (andaban perdidos). Has also heard that cardinal de Grammont having said in France that he was coming to Rome purposely for the English business also expressed his firm conviction that the king (Henry) would never appear at Rome, and that he (the Cardinal) was coming for the sake of saving that king and kingdom from perdition.
The duke of Mantua's matrimonial suit, &c.—Rome 14th April 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Original, pp. 5.
14 April. 689. The Same to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 852, f. 93.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 159.
Affairs of Siena. Guevara to remain in command of the Spaniards there.
Quarrel of Andrea del Burgo with the Venetian ambassador. High words were exchanged between them in consequence of the latter having spread the rumour that the Turk was not coming at all this year. He (Mai) managed to interfere and set them at peace together. Andrea wishes to go back to his master and spend this year of truce (in Germany), as he says that his services are no longer required at Rome. Is trying to persuade him (Burgo) to remain at his post, for he is a very wise and prudent diplomatist, and may be of use on many occasions (cipher:) the more so that there is one Fr. Geronimo de Fonseca, who goes about saying that he will be appointed ambassador in the room of Andrea, and if so it will be a very grave inconvenience
After closing his despatch to the Emperor he (Mai) heard that a squire of the king of France had come to the duke of Albany. Has not yet been able to learn what he comes about and fears there is some intrigue, for the thing is kept very secret. Will not be long before he knows what the Squire's mission is, but this he can affirm, that if through the exertions of the French the Council is not convoked the Pope will have to acknowledge himself under great obligation to the king of France, and that they may treat together as announced in his (Mai's) despatch to the Emperor, though not much to the purpose. Yet I would entreat Your Lordship to look sedulously to and procure or even purchase an agreement with the Lutherans, for these people confess, and the duke of Albany has lately repeated it to me, that there lies all our glory. (fn. n9)
Petition of the bishop of Calis (Cadiz) (fn. n10) nephew of the Nuncio, archbishop of Cosenza.
Permission for himself to bring from Naples two horses.
Suit at Rome of prothonotary Gatinaria (Gattinara).—Rome, 14th April 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Original, pp. 4.
14 April. 690. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852, f. 95.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
ff. 150–6.
After writing the enclosed to the Emperor and to Your Lordship, I have ascertained that the messenger said to have come from France was an ordinary courier (cipher:) but I have heard from Lord Leonelo del Carpio (Lionello Pio), that (cipher:) Tarbes was soon expected from France with great overtures to make the Pope prevaricate, and set the whole world in confusion with new devices. (fn. n11) Was greatly inclined to believe this, inasmuch as there is now news from the court of France that a secretary of the duke of Saxony (George) had arrived there with powers and letters. Having inquired from His Holiness what he thought of it, he answered that he believed it to be true, that he had received some intimation of the object of the Frenchman's mission, and had already begun to counteract him by means of the duke of Albany. He said more; he told me that I was on no account to think seriously of the affair. These were mere reports without foundation. Replied in conformity that this was generally the nature of the rumours spread by the French, and yet suggested that His Holiness ought to undeceive them at once, and not encourage them in their views.
Such is the intelligence alluded to in my despatch to the Emperor as most likely existing between His Holiness and the French. Great care should be taken there, at Court, to persuade the Emperor to come to terms (tomar concierto) with the Lutherans, and since the king of Hungary (Ferdinand) purchases truce so dear as to relinquish part of his own, let the Emperor do the same with the Lutherans, for after all the sacrifice will not be as great.
The Pope further told me that Marechal Triurcio (Trivulzio) (fn. n12) was also about to come [to Italy] on a mission from the king of France to the duke of Savoy (Carlo), the object of which was to ask for Piedmont in exchange for equal territory in Burgundy. It appears, however, that either the Marshal has died or resigned his commission since; the fact is that another ambassador is come in his room, for the French think they have now a good chance, the Duke being very much molested by the Switzers on his frontiers. The application, however, was (I hear) refused. All which proves, if I am not mistaken, that the French have still their eyes fixed on Italy, and that by creating all manner of difficulties to the Emperor, and proposing alliances, they will again try to put their foot in it.
The duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza) is levying troops lest the marquis of Mus (Ma) should snatch Como from him. The latter captain has now in his pay 3,000 lanskenets, 1,000 Spaniards, and 1,500 Italians, notwithstanding which it appears that the Grisons the other day gave him a good thrashing.
Told the Pope my information about Tarbes, and the promises he (the Bishop) had made in his own name concerning the English cause. His answer was that the report (informacion) had been corrected, and the whole matter set right (estaba ya saneado); what he (the Pope) had promised was to have the divorce trial suspended for three weeks; he (Tarbes) had wrongly understood three months. Replied that this ought to be an example of French exaggeration and boasting, and induce him to do justice at once.
The execution of Captain Montanyes by order of the marquis of Vasto has been much applauded by the Pope that it may be an example to others.
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
14 April. 691. King Ferdinand to the Emperor,
Arch. d. Royme.
d. Belg.
Ref. rel, 11, f. 41,
p. 438.
Encloses advices from Ragusa, sent by his agents in those parts, shewing that, notwithstanding his immense preparations, the Turk is not likely to come down this year. It may be so; but as the enemy is so powerful, he may send on some of his bashaws, and, therefore, one ought to be on the alert. Encloses the letters received that the Emperor may judge for himself.—Budbays (Budweiss), 14th April 1531.
Spanish. Original.
— April 692. Memorandum which the Legate put into the Emperor's hands at Brussels.
S. E. L. 854,
ff. 151–4.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 132.
The Turk threatens Christendom more than ever; he has broken the truce, invaded and conquered part [of Hungary]. The only safety consists in the union of all the Christian princes. A common army and a common treasure must needs be collected.
It is difficult to persuade all princes to obey one head; it will be advisable to undertake various enterprizes headed by the Emperor, or perhaps by the king of the Romans and king of France. It is to be decided to which enterprize each prince will be bound to contribute oxen and money.
Venice is reluctant, and must be gained over.
As the Turks are likely to make an attack before the general enterprize is prepared, the Emperor, the king of the Romans, and the Pope, besides such princes as would join them, ought to conclude at once a defensive league. (fn. n13)
Indorsed: "The Legate's memorandum concerning the enterprize against the Turk. Delivered at Brussels. Answered at Ghent."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 3.
14 April. 693. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 852,
ff. 91–2.
B. M. Add. 28,583
f. 153.
A rumour is afloat here that Your Imperial Majesty and the Most Christian King [of France] are to hold an interview with His Holiness, some say at Milan, others at Nice. I cannot persuade myself that the Pope or any Italian can wish for such an interview; if they treat of it it must be in order to prevent the Council taking place or to put off the other interview of Your Imperial Majesty with the king of France; or perhaps they imagine, as the duke of Albany once said to the Venetian ambassador, that if they once had you in Italy their common affairs would go much better.
The duke of Albany has sent forward all his heavy luggage and suite to the baths of Loretto, whither he himself intends going in a few days, and from thence to France; meanwhile he is staying at the Palace. Cardinal Agromente (de Grammont) is coming post haste to replace him, and his people are already trying to get him apartments within the Pope's Palace, as he writes that he will not stay long. Some say that he comes entirely for the English business, others for the conclusion of the marriage of the Pope's niece with the duke of Orleans. But the French are so light-headed and easy in all their doings that there is no knowing what his mission may be. When Albany came we were all of us upon thorns, and after all it turned out that he achieved next to nothing.
Some time ago I heard that a letter had come from France stating that Tarba (Tarbes) had been very much blamed because whilst here, at Rome, he promised more than he ought to have done in the matrimonial cause of England, and because after that we gained the inhibition and the rejection of the excusator. The kings of France and England naturally complained of his having exaggerated and outstripped his commission. On this very account Tarbes is, they say, now returning to Rome for the purpose of reminding the Pope of what he had told him on the subject. This was related to me more than six weeks ago, and I paid no attention to it at the time, as it seemed to me that the report had no importance. It might be after all that it had some foundation.
I will be on my guard and try and ascertain what Tarbes comes about. I have no doubt that His Holiness is in secret understanding with the French, and perhaps with the English too; but I fancy that all this is sheer diplomacy on his part, and that he wishes to take advantage of them in the negotiations, for after all he knows both kings well, and understands what they are about.
Letters from the same country (France) of the 28th and 30th of March mention the answer given to Mr. de Prat (Praët) about the Council, at which Your Majesty's enemies are heartily glad. It is also reported that king Francis has given money, though in small quantity, to Sigismondo Malatesta and to Stephano Colonna, and that the " fuorusciti" of Naples were very much broken down (perdidos).
Will put an end to this long letter by adding that the other day, upon the cardinal of Agramonte (Grammont) saying in France that he was coming here (to Rome) on purpose to have this English affair settled, he added that the king of England himself would never come and appear in judgment, and that he (the Cardinal) was now coming to save that king and his kingdom from perdition. (fn. n14) —Rome, 14-th April 1531.
Signed; "Mai."
Addressed: "S. C. C. R. M.."
Spanish. Original, pp. 5.
— April. 694. The president of the Council (Tavera) to the Emperor.
S. E. Cast. L. 22,
f. 93.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 154.
(Cipher:) By Your Majesty's letter of the 10th March I am commanded to specify any suspicions I may have or rumours that may be afloat about the loyalty of certain people here [in Spain]. I must declare that when I mentioned the fact I had no idea that I should be called upon to particularize those rumours. Such as they are, however, they seem to have no solid foundation, and I myself attached no faith to them at the time. Yet in obedience to Your Majesty's commands I will say that a servant of the duchess of Medina (fn. n15) told me some days ago that a number of knights were endeavouring to form confederacies and alliances with the said Duchess, as well as with Don Juan Alonso and other grandees of Andalusia, and that it was agreed between them that they should meet together and discuss their own affairs. I attached no importance to the news, and therefore did not mention it in my letters. But since then a canon of Seville, once a servant of the Archbishop, (fn. n16) my uncle, an honest and well-meaning man, has written to me what Your Majesty will see by the paragraph of his letter which I transcribe. (fn. n17) I must own that though the canon's report confirmed me in my former suspicions, yet the guilt of the parties did not appear to me as clear as I thought it at first, though on the other hand it is very strange, and I should say reprehensible, that in a country like this, at peace with everyone, and where Your Majesty is universally obeyed, the interviews, meetings, and confederacies alluded to in the canon's letter should be necessary. Having asked my informers whether the meetings could not have been designed for a good purpose, I was told that if the occasion offered itself they would be made the commencement of a civil war. I have purposedly avoided making further inquiries on this delicate subject, and therefore humbly beg Your Majesty to tear up the canon's letter and mine that no traces may remain of such denunciation, which after all might prove to be unfounded.
Among the deeds and papers of secretary Almazan relating to the queen of England and her marriage I saw once a letter of the Catholic king (Ferdinand) to his ambassador at the court of England, in which that king alludes to many foolish plans which the said lord (Medina Sidonia) meditated carrying out in these kingdoms. That letter gave me the clue to the Duke's present aspirations, because after all old age does not change a man's temper and habits, and certainly the letter of the Catholic king to his ambassador sufficiently shews what that lord's intentions were at that time. And if it were true that he once attempted to enter into an understanding with the nobles of Andalusia it may be conjectured that he also tried in this instance to engage his kinsmen and relatives for some wild plan of his own, especially at the time when he was known to be dissatisfied. These are things of small moment, and to which no attention should be paid, but on the other hand, as Your Majesty very wisely said in your letter to me, kings should know the intentions and dispositions of their vassals. (fn. n18)
14 April. 695. Miçer Mai to the High Commander,
S. E. L. 852, f. 93.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 159.
My despatch to the Emperor, as well as letters from other Imperial agents in this city, will sufficiently inform Your Lordship of what has been done at Siena. Guevara is to go thither and remain in command of the Spaniards. I do not know him, and therefore cannot say whether he will do for the purpose or not; all I can say is that if the Emperor's interests are to be protected at Siena, a man is required, who besides being a good soldier, must know how to govern. I recollect that at other times, and when the affairs of the Imperialists and Spaniards were in a much worse plight, most honourable treaties were made. This was simply owing to the people then being afraid of us; now that they know the Emperor's benevolence and good temper, they affect to love him and no longer fear his furies, and I must say that I should prefer to see him more feared and less loved.
Between Andrea del Burgo and the Venetian ambassador there were high words the other day, the former accusing the Signory of having said that the Turk would not come into Europe this year when they knew it to be otherwise.


  • n1. "Del presente mes," says the minute; but the answer was probably written in March, though dated the 2nd of April, because of its being signed on that day, when the courier was leaving.
  • n2. The president of Castille at this time was the archbishop of Santiago, Tavera.
  • n3. "Y mande proveer para España a que se aga mi provança cerca de la yntegrydad de mi cuerpo quaodo vyne al Rey, mi señor, que es lo que por tanto tiempoes por my deseado."
  • n4. "Les ambassadeurs de France ont ces iours presente a ce roy de la part de leur maystre ung orologe fort artificieux, la ou lon voyt le mouement de plusuers (sic) spheres celestes et le cours daucungs planetes. Ie Pense que si Jehan en a este le deviseur que mars [sera] plustot le predominates que mercure. Ne sçay sil procede du dit Jocquin ou non, mays le jour meme quil fust [en court] fere le dit present le grand escuyer dit a la royne," &c.
  • n5. There is on the margin, the following note in the handwriting of secretary Covos: "A gracious letter to be written to the Cardinal [of Ravenna] asking him to entertain the Scots with fine words until we can see more clearly through the English affairs. Nota bene.—The whole of this to be communicated to Mr. de Granvelle before making out the despatch that he may give his opinion thereupon." Covos.
  • n6. "Pienso que seria su servicio que se aprovechase [del calor de esta tregua para con lo de los lutheranos, y que se tomasse con ellos ó conclusion final, ó alguna dilacion y temperamento de sus cosas, porque con esto el mismo turco y todos los otros christianos se pornian mas en razon como avemos visto por experiencia, que ha tenido esperanças en ellos para sus vanos y malos pensamientos en los quales han estado, y estan y estaran siempre, y es gran cordura podiendo tomar el remedio en su casa no quererlo de la agena]."
  • n7. "Que teniendole aqui en Italia á V. M. sacaria del mayor partido."
  • n8. "De la qual se han alegrado aqui los que no le quieren."
  • n9. "Que a no hazerse el concilio el papa queda prendado al rey de Francia, y trataran, como digo en la carta cesarea, ahunque no cosa de efecto. Con todo querria suplicar mucho a V. S. que parage mieutes no solo de procurar, pero de comprar el assiento con lutheranos, porque estos mismos confiessan y a mi me lo ha dicho dias ha el duque de Albania, que de allá depende nuestra gloria
  • n10. This bishop's name was Hieronimo Teodolo; the cardinal archbishop of Cosenza was Thaddeo Gaddi. See Emporio del Orbe Cadiz Illustrada, by Fr. Geronimo de la Conception, Amsterdam, Joan Bus, 1690, fol., and Gams, Series Episcoporum Ecclesiæ Caiholicæ (Ratisbonæ, 1873), pp. 18 and 878.
  • n11. "Y que viene con grandes partidos para hacer prevaricar al Papa."
  • n12. Theodor Trivulzio, marshal of France, who died in this very year,
  • n13. There is no date whatever to this paper, which seems to be a translation from the Italian. The Emperor was at Brussels from the 28th of January to the 13th of March; on the 16th he was at Louvain, from the 17th to the 20th at Mechlin (Malines), and on the 20th at Antwerp. On the 24th he was at Ghent, where he signed the answer to the above memorandum which must have been presented before he left Brussels.
  • n14. He sabido que diziendo el Cardenal de Agramonte allá que venia por las cosas de Inglaterra dixo tambien que venia para qne aquel Rey y aquel Reyno no se perdiesen."
  • n15. Most likely Medina Sidonia, for although there were at that time, and are still, dukes of Medinaceli, Medina de Rioseco, Medina de Pomar, Medina de las Torres, &c, the purport of the letter indicates that a Guzman duke of Medina Sidonia must be here meant.
  • n16. Tavera was the nephew of Alfonso Fonseea, archbishop of Seville.
  • n17. The letter itself is not appended
  • n18. "Y alli quenta disparates, y cosas tan vanas y tan sin fundamento que este señor intentava en estos reynos, que ver aquello me ha dado mas ocasion para sospechar en lo presente, porque la edad no muda del todo le condition, la qual en aquellas cartas se declara bien por entero, y si fuese verdad que con los del Andalucia tentó alguna inteligencia de creer es que acá con sus debdos no dexaria de trabar alguna platica en aquel tiempo que estuvo descontento. Cosas son sin ningun tomo, y de que se debe hazer poco caso; mas tambien como Su Mt. me escrivió es necesario que los Reyes sepan las intenciones y propositos de los suyos."