Spain: January 1531, 21-31

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.

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'Spain: January 1531, 21-31', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533, (London, 1882) pp. 31-47. British History Online [accessed 4 March 2024]

January 1531, 21-31

21 Jan. 602. The abbot of Llor to the Empress.
S. E. Pat. R. Trat.,
c. Ing. L.4,f. 130.
Dedication of his treatise "Super matrimonio Angliæ et illius validitate inventa Veritas," dat. Romæ, XXI Januarii, MDXXXI.
Latin. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
22 Jan. 603. MiÇer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 44.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 308.
Has forwarded to the sieur de Grandvela (sic) a full account of the proceedings in the cause of England, that he may report upon it to His Imperial Majesty. Has nothing to add except that yesterday cardinal Monte, whilst talking [to another cardinal] on the subject of the Queen, observed: That since God had been pleased to call to himself Madame Margaret [of Austria], Your Majesty could easily confer the government of the Low Countries and Flanders on this other aunt of your's, meaning Her Highness the queen of England. Is certain that the above words were uttered by that cardinal, and being persuaded that this and other similar overtures are in contemplation by these villains (bellacos). has thought it his duty to inform His Majesty thereof.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
22 Jan. 604. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
ff. 44–5.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 313.
The agreement about Modena, as in the preceding despatch. —Death of Alberto di Carpi, announced in letters of the 10th. His Holiness has felt it extremely because he considered him a good friend and servant of his.
(Cipher:) I wrote some time since that the French were arming 25 galleys. I now add that the enemy must have some secret understandings in Genoa, and that one of the Espinolas is suspected of being in the plot. Has written to Doria and Figueroa about it. Twenty galleys are already armed and fit for sea at Marseilles, but I do not believe it, nor is the news sent by Rodrigo Niño on the 12th inst. more credible, viz., that the Genoese had appointed ambassadors to France, because had there been anything of that Figueroa would not have failed to acquaint us, just as he has written that 25 fustees (futas) and two galleys from Algiers had anchored at the island of Ras.
Don Pedro [de la Cueva] and I spoke to His Holiness respecting the Council in the manner specified in our instructions. The Pope's answer was so liberal that there is ground for doubting whether he is in earnest or not. I am one of those who believe that he is dissembling, for only yesterday whilst I was talking to him about the business of the Palatine Henry, which Your Majesty recommended to me, he said: "I think it would be wise to grant the German princes some of their demands; that could be done by way of an arrangement with them, and without so much noise (estruendo).. My answer was: "It is now too late ; had Your Holiness and the cardinals been more liberal with them last summer, I have no doubt that they would have accepted such an arrangement."
Until fresh orders from Your Majesty we shall temporize with the duke of Albany, &c.
The Pope, it is said, wants to go to Bologna after Resurrection Day, some day in September.
(Cipher:) Respecting the marriage of the duke of Mantua the Pope told me the other day that he had done his utmost to persuade the Duke to marry Doña Julia, but could not prevail on him to do so; the case is therefore to be tried in a court of law, but before pronouncing sentence Your Imperial Majesty will be consulted. I have spoken to the advocates and proctor of Doña Julia, but they tell me that very little can be said in her defence.
Luis Gonzaga married Isabella Colonna last Sunday. He sent to invite me to the wedding, but I declined the invitation, not knowing whether Your Majesty approved of the marriage or not. Gonzaga was furious; he said it was a great offence done to him since Your Majesty knew of his marriage and approved it. He then sent cardinal Ippolito de' Medici and others to me and to Don Pedro de la Cueva, and at last after great importunities and many consultations with cardinal D'Osma, &c., it was agreed that I and Muxetula had better attend the ceremony, which we did, though we were too late for the espousals. What decided me to go thither was that 1 was told that the Pope upon hearing of my refusal was somewhat alarmed.—Rome, 22nd January 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Majesty of the Emperor and King, our sovereign Lord."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. pp. 5.
22 Jan. 605. The Same to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 46.
B. M. Add. 28,582
f. 312.
Duke of Albany, king of Hungary, &c.
(Cipher:) Hears that the king of England has lately quarrelled with his Lady [Anne], owing to her ill-treating a gentleman of his household in his presence, but it appears that they soon made it up again. As usual in such cases, their mutual love will be greater than before.
(Common writing:) Archbishoprics of Tarragona and Santiago.—Rome, 22nd January 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the very illustrious and magnificent lord the High Commander of Leon, first Secretary of State."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 3.
23 Jan. 606. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 51.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 317.
After sending to the sieur de Granvela (sic) a full report (fn. n1) on the proceedings in the English cause, I have learnt, both from the letters of the Imperial ambassador in England (Chapuys), as well as from those of the Papal Nuncio (baron de Borgo), which His Holiness has lately received, that there is danger of a new folly (locura) being attempted in that country de facto. I have consequently obtained from the Pope a fresh letter for his Nuncio, more binding and conclusive than the former, which may be forwarded to him along with one of the briefs enclosed in this despatch.
The first letter of the Pope to his Nuncio in England went on the 13th inst. This second one is fuller and more decided, since in the former the Nuncio was instructed not to present the brief unless he saw the King actually bent upon contracting a second marriage, or otherwise felt the necessity thereof, whereas, as I am told, in this second one he is particularly ordered to present the brief in case any attempt at disobedience is made in England.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the most illustrious and most magnificent lord the High Commander of Leon, &c."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
23 Jan. 607. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 51.
B. M. Add. 28,582
f. 317.
In addition to the report which goes by this post, addressed to Mr. de Grandvella (sic) upon the English business, and to what I myself wrote to Your Lordship yesterday, I must state that according to letters received from the Imperial ambassador in London, which I (Mai) have seen, and those which the Pope has received from his Nuncio in that country, there is danger of the King committing some rash and unprecedented act. To guard, if possible, against this, I have obtained from the Pope the enclosed letter (fn. n2) for his Nuncio in that country, which letter might be sent to him along with one of the two briefs which I forwarded yesterday.
The letter is not, as might be supposed, a duplicate of the one sent on the 13th inst. It is more full and explicit, for in the first the Nuncio is instructed to present the brief to the King only in case of his wishing to marry the Lady, whereas in this second one, as I am informed, the Nuncio is expressly told to exhibit it anyhow in case the King attempts to proffer an indictment. (fn. n3) —Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the very illustrious and very magnificent lord the High Commander of Leon, &c."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 1½.
23 Jan. 608. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 107.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 318.
The king of England, says His Holiness, is so taken up with the woman he intends for his wife, that having had a quarrel with her, he (the King) sent for some of her relatives, and begged them with tears in his eyes to try and adjust the difference between them. By which act the King has shewn so little regard for his own dignity and authority that scarcely one courtier can be found who does not despise him for it, as well as for what he is doing, or trying to do, against his honour and conscience.
The Pope also says that the King has had printed and hawked through the streets of London and other towns in England a summary of his own reasons and motives, as well as of the counsel he has received, for attempting to obtain the dissolution of his marriage, pretending that he is influenced solely by the voice of his conscience, and that several divines in particular, and almost all the universities of Europe, are of opinion that the Pope could not dispense in his marriage with Katharine. And the fact, says the proclamation, is thus made public to avoid scandal (para que no se escandalizen).
This new infatuation (locura) of the English king has caused His Holiness to laugh most heartily. He said to me: "It is now more necessary than ever to go on with the trial here, at Rome." His Holiness laughed still more when I said to him: "Perhaps it would have been much better after all that the King's excuses had been admitted and published, for if he has shed tears in consequence of a quarrel with his lady-love, it might be that his divines had counselled him to cry for the relief of his conscience." I confidently hope that His Imperial Majesty will come out as triumphant of this affair as of others.
The new election of king of the Romans has not been much to the taste of the duke of Albany and others here, but for that very reason, independently of others, all the Emperor's true and faithful servants are doubly glad.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacre Ces.. Cathol. Mti."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
23 Jan. 609. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
ff. 102–3.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 320.
In my other despatch I informed Your Majesty of the last English news. The Pope tells me that according to letters received from his Nuncio in France (Salviati), the king of that country perseveres in his plans about Italy, and is by no means well disposed towards Your Majesty. His wish is, as he says publicly, that you may spend all the money you received for the ransom of his children, thinking that then, though you may have the will, you will certainly not have the power of defending Italy, and checking his designs.
On this subject His Holiness said to me: "Were I the Emperor I would have the ransom money put in a tower on the French frontier, and after having the gate securely locked, would throw the keys into the sea, that the king of France might know at once that the treasure shall not be spent except upon a mighty enterprize."Many other things did the Pope say on this occasion, laughing all the time at the extraordinary inkling which he seems to have for Italy.
The duke of Albany has again importuned His Holiness on the subject of his niece's marriage, giving many reasons why it should be arranged now, and some secret agreement made about it. But the answer has been the same as at other times, at which the Duke is very discontented.
The said Duke is going the round of the cardinals, assuring them that if Your Majesty confer honours and pensions upon them, his master is prepared to do as much, or a good deal more, if they will only help him.
The briefs for England have been made out. I have done all I could in that affair, as well as in persuading His Holiness to answer the King's letter in the manner he has, and one of the two briefs shall be forwarded to England that the Papal Nuncio in that country may present it to the King. The Pope at first was rather reluctant, but I persuaded him that things had gone so far that he could not help it, &c.—Rome, 12th January 1531.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacre Cæsaree et Catholicæ Magti."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. pp. 2½.
23 Jan. 610. Pope Clement to the Emperor.
S. Pat Re. Bu. Su.
L. 1, 139.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 324.
Not only does he accept the Emperor's excuses for not having been able to settle differently the Ferrara affair, but has on the contrary to thank him for the care he has taken of his interests. He is quite satisfied with the resolution taken by His Majesty in this business, inasmuch as Miçer Mai and the rest of the Imperial agents are urging him to ask only for just and moderate terms. His Majesty may be certain that could he, without injury to the Apostolic See, or to his own honour and reputation, be contented with any other conditions except those which the bishop of Vasone (Vaison) has already proposed, or will hereafter propose in his name, he would willingly have got out of this troublesome affair (questo fastidio), and delivered him (the Emperor) from the great nuisance of having to settle that knotty question. But he finds that should he recover now what belongs to the Church, and allow the Duke [of Ferrara] through weakness or condescension to retain what he has usurped, he should he guilty of doing away with the patrimony of the Church, and binding the hands of his successors in the Papacy.
Thanks him for the settlement of the Florentine business. Condolence for the death of the Lady Margaret, and the loss which all Christendom has sustained.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Addressed: "Carissimo in Chr. filio nrō Carolo Romanorum Imperatori, Semper Augusto."
Indorsed by Idiaquez: "To his Majesty. From the Pope in his own hand, xxiii Jan. 1531. On the affairs of Florence." pp. 2.
Italian. Holograph. pp. 2.
23 Jan. 611. Muxetula to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 107.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 325.
I have received the Imperial letters announcing the election of king Ferdinand as king of the Romans. His Holiness was very glad at the news. He tells everyone who speaks to him on the subject that the son of the duke of Saxony had refused to be present at the Sacrament of the Mass on Nativity Day, had left church at the offertory, and then returned to accompany His Imperial Majesty; that then he was about to sit down to dinner, just as the other princes had done, when the Emperor said to him: .At this my table none but Christians and Catholics dine," and that the Duke's son had to go away. His Holiness has said more things about this than there is time to relate.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Spanish. Original. p. 1.
23 Jan. 612. The Same to the Empress.
S. E. L. 852, f. 107. B. M. Add. 28,582, f. 325. His Holiness has lately had letters from France in which they tell him that the king of England is so passionately fond of the Lady [Anne] whom he intends taking for his wife, that having had a quarrel with her, he sent for some of her relatives and implored them with tears in his eyes to appease her wrath, and induce her to make peace with him. By which action the King has shewn so much weakness and so little regard for his royal dignity and authority that people universally despise him for that, as well as for the things he is attempting against his own honour and conscience.
I was also told by the Pope that the king of England had caused to be printed and hawked about in the streets of London, and of other towns of England, a proclamation stating the reasons and motives which have moved him to seek the dissolution of this marriage, adding that he does it for conscience sake, and because many people in various Christian countries are of opinion that the Pope could not rightly dispense for his union [with queen Katharine], and that in order not to create scandal by his acts he wishes to make the thing public, &c.
The Pope laughs at this new folly of the King. He told me the other day that for this very reason it was more urgent than ever to go on with the proceedings, as is being done at present. He laughed still more heartily when I told him that it would have been far better to give publicity to the fact of the king of England having actually shed tears (fn. n4) after a quarrel with the Lady, as this might be made a sort of excuse for his conduct on the plea that his divines had actually advised him to cry for the relief of his conscience.
I hope to God that Your Majesty's good luck will ensure your triumph in this affair as in all the rest.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Spanish. Original. pp. 2½.
23 Jan. 613. MiÇer Mat to the Same.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 126.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 330.
In favour and commendation of auditor Aragonia (Giovanni Lodovico) and of his brother [Nicolas] the advocate (advogado). both of whom have worked with much zeal in the matrimonial cause.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Spanish. Original. p. 1.
23 Jan. 614. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 128.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 331.
In favour and commendation of auditor Simonetta.—Rome, 23rd January 1531.
Spanish. Original. p. 1.
23 Jan. 615. Eustace Chapuys to the Same.
K. u. K. Haus-
c. 227, No. 6.
In this Parliament, in which almost all the nobility and clergy of the country, besides a great number of other people, are assembled, no motion has yet been made concerning the Queen's case. Hitherto all that has been done is reduced to certain ordinances to be observed in times of plague, and other police regulations; also to passing a Bill for a composition the Clergy (pour coumposer les ecclesiastiques), which seems to be after all the principal cause for the meeting of this present Parliament, this King intending that all priests, who have tacitly or expressly recognized the legatine powers of the late Cardinal (Wolsey), should be arrested, and their property confiscated. And although the priests know very well that in obeying His Holiness' decrees they have neither transgressed the laws of the country, nor done anything to deserve punishment, yet feeling that there is no escaping from the King, they have presented him at the first swoop with 160,000 ducats, (fn. n5) which sum, however, the King has refused to accept, swearing most solemnly that he will have full 400,000 out of them or else visit them with extreme rigour, so that the English clergy will in the end be obliged to grant this King's demands, and sell the very chalices and shrines of their churches, as otherwise they would be quite unable to pay one-fourth of that sum.
Five days ago it was agreed between the Papal Nuncio and myself that he should go to the place where the said ecclesiastics are now holding their congregation, and exhort them to uphold the honour, immunity, and authority of the Church; inform them about the state of the Queen's case [at Rome], shew them the letters which the Pope had written to him thereupon, and also offer his own services, and intercede with the King for the reduction of the tax he wants to levy upon them. And when the said Nuncio entered the room where the ecclesiastics were assembled, they were so astonished and thunderstruck (escandalizés) that without giving him time or leisure to say his errand, they begged and entreated him for God's sake to leave them in peace; for they had no permission from the King to hold any communication with him. If he came (they said) for the purpose of having a certain Apostolic mandate executed, against which they had already been sufficiently warned, he (the Nuncio) had better address himself to the archbishop of Canterbury, their primate, who was not present at the meeting. The Nuncio, therefore, left without being able to inform them officially of the object of his visit, though he failed not to acquaint with it the bishop of London, who acted as proctor to the congregation, and promised to report it, though I should think he will do nothing of the sort without first consulting the King and obtaining his permission, he (the Bishop) being, as is well known, one of the principal promoters of these affairs. (fn. n6)
Lately the bishop of Rochester sent me word that the King had made attempts to corrupt him, as well as the rest of those who stand up for the Queen, telling him and them a thousand lies and also most foolish tales, and among the rest that the Pope had promised to cardinal de Grammont that whatever mien he might put on of wishing to proceed against the King, they (the English) were not to be the least alarmed, for he promised to favour them with all his power, And, moreover, that he (the Pope) was secretly a bitter enemy of Your Imperial Majesty owing to your insisting on the convocation of a General Council, which is the thing in this world which His Holiness hates most, especially since he has heard that his own deposition from the pontificate and the election in his room of cardinal Campeggio had for some time been in contemplation. (fn. n7) The King tried also to persuade bishop Fisher and the rest that by means of the marriages which Jehan Jocquin was trying to promote, having lately gone to France for that purpose, as I have had occasion to write to Your Majesty, they would ultimately and without fail obtain from him [the Pope] anything they wished in that respect.
Having heard the above, and knowing by experience that news of this kind would soon spread about in public places, I thought of putting the Papal Nuncio on his guard, that he might better test the vanity of these people. He told me that he had already heard some vague rumours, but that the report being a nonsensical one altogether he had made no further inquiries. I acquainted him with the answer, which the said bishop of Rochester had by my direction made to the King's messages, (fn. n8) and begged him nevertheless, for the confirmation and corroboration of the said answer, since I myself was unable to speak with the Bishop, to go personally to him, and if he found a fit opportunity convince him of the falsehood of such reports, which the Nuncio has since done with very good grace. For I am told that no sooner did he meet him, than without the Bishop opening the subject he related to him in the most minute details how the thing had passed, and what the exact words were which the Pope had said to the Cardinal; so that he left him thoroughly informed and convinced.
Next day, early in the morning, the King sent for the Bishop to hear what had passed between the Nuncio and him. Eagerly interrogated by the King the Bishop answered that nothing particular had occurred, save that the Nuncio had called and told him that the Pope was exceedingly annoyed at having to assemble a General Council, and had requested him to use all his influence with the King and also with the clergy of England [to prevent its celebration].
Immediately after his interview with the King the Bishop called on the Nuncio, that he might, if interrogated, make his answer agree with his own. (fn. n9)
It is really incredible how much intrigue and deceit these people are carrying on for the sole purpose of suborning all manner of people; but whatever means they employ they do not succeed, which makes most people think that they will not attempt to bring the Queens case before this Parliament.
Some time ago the earl of Vulchier (Wiltshire) invited to supper Monsieur de la Guiche, (fn. n10) for whose amusement he caused a farce to be acted of the Cardinal (Wolsey) going down to Hell; for which La Guiche much blamed the Earl, and still more the Duke for his ordering the said farce to be printed. They have been ever since [Jocquin's departure] entertaining the said gentleman most splendidly, and making the most of him on every occasion, and yet I am told that however well treated by them he still says very openly what he thinks of them, and laughs at their eccentricities in matters of government and administration. (fn. n11)
Lately, at Calais, all the letters of merchants and others which a courier brought were opened, with the single exception of one small packet addressed to me from Flanders, which they could not discover. They took from him a document written on vellum, which he (the courier) believes related to the Queen's business, and about which we knew nothing here. This conduct on the part of the governors at Calais seems strange enough, if we consider that even during the last war such foul and disreputable means were never resorted to. I fancy that this has been done with a view to prevent Roman briefs from reaching this country. They have not yet answered the one relating to the convocation of the Council, and still affect to disbelieve in the election of Your Majesty's brother as king of the Romans. It is not difficult to guess whence this incredulity and the above measure proceed, and therefore something must be done to stop such proceedings.—London, 23rd January [1531].
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph partly in cipher. pp. 4.
28 Jan. 616. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress Isabella.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 120.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 326.
Wrote from Turin stating that he had induced the Councils, Universities (Estudios). and lawyers of all the duchy of Savoy to subscribe a true and judicial allegation in favour of the Queen's rights, for the upholding of which he (Ortiz) had come to this country by Her Majesty's orders. Though he found on his arrival that the king of England and his agents had tried to corrupt everyone, yet he was able to obtain from the Duke [Carlo] and the Infanta, his wife, an order to their ambassador [at Rome] to place himself entirely at his disposal, and meet him in consultation when required, the Duke having, as he (Ortiz) has since understood, written at the time to several Roman cardinals in commendation of the affair.
Mentioned at the same time that the university of Toulouse had given opinion in favour of the king of England, though with a good deal of precipitation and without having sufficiently examined the question. Has since learned that those of Bologna, Mantua, and Padua have been strongly urged by the King's agents to do the same; at least so the Imperial ambassador [Miçer Mai] informs him. However, all these steps of the English are of no importance whatever, being entirely founded on false opinions and erroneous arguments which he (Ortiz) will soon, by the favour of God, completely overcome, shewing besides how much the servants and agents of the king of England have, as common report goes, tried by bribery and other dishonourable means to gain their end.
Since his arrival at Rome, on the 23rd, he (Ortiz) has had no opportunity or leisure to go and kiss His Holiness' feet. Hopes to be able to do so to-morrow or after, and that the suit will go on briskly. In the meantime he has written all these particulars to the President of [the Council] of Castille, to whom he refers.—Rome, 28th January 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz.''
Addressed: "To the Catholic Majesty of the Empress and Queen, our Lady."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
28 Jan. 617. The Emperor to the Empress.
S. E. L. 496,
f. 91.
B. M. Add 28,582,
f. 327.
Closing of the Diet at Worms.—Election of his brother Ferdinand as king of the Romans.—Subsequent coronation at Aquisgran (Aix la Chapelle).
Council, &c.
Shortly before the death of Madame Margaret [of the Low Countries], the king of France sent one of his secretaries to her, proposing an interview, besides the inter-marriages of our children. No sooner did I hear of it than I caused a message to be conveyed to the said secretary, purporting that as the matter required consideration, and I was then on my way to the Low Countries, I could not until my arrival at Brussels give an answer. I have now dispatched Mr. de Praët with it.—Brussels, 28th January MDXXX. años." (fn. n12)
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
29 Jan. 618. Dr. Escoriaza to the Same.
S. E. L. 496,
f. 94.
B.M Add. 28,582
f. 328.
Though Benavides, the messenger, bearer of this present, will be able to give better verbal account of the Emperor's health than I myself could in writing, I cannot let him go to Spain without saying something to the purpose. The Emperor is in better condition than ever he was, no doubt owing to the air of this his native country, and to the intercourse with people among whom he was educated. This, notwithstanding, he pines for Spain as we all do.
Let the sweets which the Emperor ordered by the last post, and which he tells me he has countermanded since, owing to the people about him taking them away from him, come all the same, such as quince marmalade, of which he eats a good deal at night (for dining late he hardly takes any supper), and the lemon or citron peel (fn. n13) preserved in sugar, &c, which he generally carries about with him when he goes out hunting. As to the apple food (pomada) there is no need of it, for here at Brussels we have found excellent apples, the juice of which is the principal ingredient of that food not to be procured anywhere in Germany. (fn. n14) —Brussels, 29th January 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Escoriaza."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
31 Jan. 619. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
c. 227, No. 7.
On Wednesday the 25th inst., Your Majesty's letters of the 11th from Aix la Chapelle, announcing the triumphal and glorious coronation of the most worthy king of the Romans, came to hand; and in pursuance of the orders therein contained I sent immediately and applied for a royal audience. The duke of Norfolk, however, told my secretary that the King being slightly indisposed he could not receive me for the next two or three days, but that if I told him what my errand was he would report to the King, &c. Hearing this I again sent my secretary with the Imperial letters for the Duke's perusal, who, I am told, was by no means pleased at the intelligence they conveyed. Now whether the Duke, who was then playing at cards, would not be troubled with affairs of this kind, or for some other reason, the fact is that he gave my secretary a very cold reception, such as he had never experienced before on the many occasions that he had taken verbal messages from me. Yet to make up for this, and in order the better to conceal his disappointment, the Duke the other day meeting at Court one of my attachés, paid him all manner of civilities, and told him among other things that he begged me to make use of him for anything I wanted, protesting at the same time that nothing would give him so much pleasure as to be serviceable to me.
The very same day on which I sent to ask for an audience the same answer and excuse were offered to the Nuncio upon his making a similar application, whereas it is well known that the King is just now in very good health. This circumstance leads me to conjecture, among other things, that the King's refusal to see the Nuncio on this occasion is entirely owing to his fear that somehow or other he will be served with some summons (mandemant) from Rome, of which he is terribly afraid, however he may swagger about it; so much so that I hear his intention is, as he cannot do otherwise, to give in, and of his own free will, before he is actually compelled to it, separate from the Lady [Anne]. For which purpose, as I am told, the King has ordered a house which he gave her some time ago to be fitted up and prepared for her reception. It is, however, to be presumed that his intention is not to separate from her altogether, but to recall her soon, though I think that if she is once sent away God and the Queen will take care that she does not return. I have not yet been able to ascertain whether the information received on this head is correct, but hope soon to know the truth.
Notwithstanding the help and protection which the Nuncio has given the Clergy, and the disputes and angry words he has had with the members of this Privy Council on their account, they have at last consented to give 400,000 ducats, payable in five or six years, as composition money. Now that they have been bled in this manner, the King is entertaining them and giving them some hope that they will be reinstated in some of the privileges that were taken from them at the last Parliament. This is not all; in order to carry out the plan he has lately formed, which is to bring about a union between them and the nobility so as to make of the two estates only one body, he is cajoling them. They, however, have not yet consented to the said union, considering that once effected, the nobles who hate and are envious of the Clergy, may give their support in Parliament to measures that will turn out particularly detrimental to their order.
When Parliament first met, the Queen fearing from all appearances and signs that her case would be discussed forthwith, asked the King's permission to have her own Council assembled. Since then, however, perceiving that no motion was made in Parliament, she has desisted from her purpose, waiting until it should be proper time for her said Council to meet. Now the King himself has reminded her of it, authorising her to summon her councillors to Richmonto (Richmond), where she is now staying, or, if she prefers it, to come here (to London) and consult them. Which courtesy in my opinion is only owing to the King's fear that she may have secretly received some brief from Rome, which fact he (the King) can easily ascertain by that means; and also to procure that such being the case her councillors should dissuade her from having the inhibition brief executed. Indeed, it appears that on the same day that the King sent the Queen the above permission, the duke of Norfolk told some bishops of the Queen's Council that she was about to send for them and consult them about her case, but that if they valued their lives they were on no account to advise her to bring any execution whatever against the King, and he promised them on his oath and honour that nothing should be attempted against her in this Parliament.
Yesterday the duchess of Norfolk sent a message to the Queen to say that those of the opposite party (partie adverse) were trying hard to win her over to their opinion, but if the whole world were to set about it they would not make her change. She was and would continue to be one of her party. At the same time she warned the Queen to take courage, for her adversaries were at their wits' end, being as much amazed and bewildered in this affair as the first day it began. (fn. n15)
The Jew, whom this king sent for, as I informed Your Majesty in a former despatch, notwithstanding all the precautions taken by Messire Mai to prevent his passage, arrived here in London six days ago. He has already seen the King twice, and been very well received, though not so well on the first as on the second audience; most likely the graciousness of his reception will gradually decrease unless he has more agreeable news than he brought at first, for I am told that his opinion is that the Queen's marriage ought not to be disputed or dissolved, but nevertheless that the King may and can very well take another wife conjointly with his first, which opinion the King has found so extravagant and absurd that he has openly declared to the Jew himself that this will not do, and that he must devise some other means of getting him out of the difficulty, for that he would never adopt, indeed would rather die than resort to such expedient, as it would be an infamous and blameable act for him to have two wives at the same time. I hear that the pith of the Jew's argument is that although the King's marriage with the widow of his brother was a true and legitimate act, yet he does not style himself properly husband of the Queen, inasmuch as according to [Jewish] law the posterity issuing from such a union is ascribed to the first husband; and as it would be unreasonable that in order to preserve the name and race of the deceased, the survivor should be prevented from having posterity of his own and bearing his name, Law allows him to take another wife. (fn. n16) So that the said Jew who pretends to have been baptized some time ago, (fn. n17) would now under the cloak of charity, spread his Judaizing doctrines. He said to the Venetian ambassador, who reported it to me, that he had spoken to Your Imperial Majesty at Augsburgh, and had received a present from your hands, which, if it be true, is not likely to promote his credit and reputation in this country. He also pretends to have spoken to Your Majesty at Bologna. —London, the last day of January [1531].
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph. pp. 4.
31 Jan. 620. MiÇer Mai to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 53.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 332.
Cardinal de' Medici.—Ancona.—Duke of Saxony. Has written to Mr. de Granvelle about the English business.— Rome, the last day of January 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the High Commander of Leon."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
31 Jan. 621. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 55.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 330.
Writes in commendation and favour of auditor Aragonia, and of his brother, the barrister, who as he (Mai) had occasion to record at Bologna, are doing much service in the divorce case. (fn. n18) —Rome, 31st January 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Holograph. p. 1.
31 Jan. 22. Muxetula to the Same.
S. E. L. 852,
ff. 109–10.
B. M. Add. 28,582
f. 333.
No money from Naples, though so often promised by cardinal Colonna. The Pope has done all he could and fulfilled all his promises. Not only has he paid his quota of 10,000 crs. every month, but he has actually given quarters to the men within the lands of the Church.
(Cipher:) It appears that king Francis has sent a message to the duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza) to this effect: That since he refuses to restore the property and lands which he (the King) gave away when he was lord of Milan, he (the Duke) must not wonder if one of these days he takes his revenge some way or other.
It is also reported that the French are in secret understanding with the disaffected at Genoa. Indeed, His Holiness begins to be much concerned about it, for the Genoese have made a certain Spinola, (fn. n19) belonging to the party opposed to the Doria, their Doge (Duque). A Frenchman here has been heard to say that there was hope of gaining this last captain over to their side, but I cannot believe it, nor can the Pope either, for although the present Government is certainly more in the hands of the Adorni than Doria would have wished, there is no reason to suspect that captain's fidelity.
The duke of Savoy and the Switzers.
The affairs of Siena are still very unsettled. Believes that Fernando Gonzaga and Lope de Soria have reported thereupon.
Was about to close this letter when he received one from Naples announcing that three days ago, on the 28th instant, the 30,000 crs. mentioned at the beginning of this despatch had actually left, that city 20,000 are still wanting to complete the sum of 90,000 subscribed by that kingdom.—Rome, the last day of January 1531.
Spanish. Original. pp. 2½.
31 Jan. 623. MiÇer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 54.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 337.
Wrote on the 22nd inst. and gave an account of affairs at Siena. Things are still very unsettled there, and no definitive agreement has been come to with regard to the Imperial troops. Malatesta [Baglione] has sent one of his secretaries to offer the services of his condotta in case an attack on Siena should be decided upon. Has written to him in answer that no force is required for the present.
Saw the Pope about the Modena business, and found him very unwilling indeed to enter into negotiation. He said and repeated many times: "If I am to lose Modena and Rezo (Reggio) through the proposed agreement with Ferrara, I had better leave things as they are at present, and wait for an opportunity and a better chance."
The matrimonial cause of the duke of Mantua has not been tried yet. The Pope says that if the proctor of the Infanta Jullia (sic) again takes charge of the affair the trial is sure to last one year or more.
French intrigues.—Duke of Albany and the Pope.
The Milanese ambassador here says that his colleague at the Court of France has been dismissed, the reason is not stated. — Rome, 31st January 1531.
Signed: "Miçer Mai."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 1½.


  • n1. The report or memoir here mentioned is not at Simancas.
  • n2. Not in the volume.
  • n3. "Por que en aquella solamente se le dize que presente el breve en casu (sic) que el Rey se quiera casar, 6 haya necesidad, y de esto me dizen que dice particularmente que lo presente en casu que alla quieran indicar (indiciar ?)."
  • n4. "El papa riese de esta nueva locura, y me dixio (sic) que tanto mas conviene que Be proveha en la causa aqui como se aze, y por cierto riyose el papa quando yo le dixe [que] el Rey segun mis noticias habia llorado, &c."
  • n5. "Et combien, sire, que iceux ecclesiastiques sachent certainemant navoer en ce moment meffayt ne transgresse, toutes foys voyant que c'est ung fere le fault, ilz ont presente de premier sault cent et soixante mille ducatz."
  • n6. "Que luy dit en feroit le rapport, de quoy yl se gardera tres bien sans en avoer commandemant du Roy, car cest le principal promoteur de ces afferes."
  • n7. "Et que plus est pour ce quil a entendu que vostre Majeste avoit dehu desia [machiner et proposer de le depointer et fere pape le cardinal Campeggio."]
  • n8. "Je luy dis la response quen avoye fayt fere audit [evesque], le priant ce non obstant."
  • n9. "Et quil luy avoit prie bien a certes dy vouloer tenir la main de son possible tant envers icelluy [roy] que ausy vers les [ecclesiastiques], de quoy yl advertyt incontinent le dit nonce, &c."
  • n10. "Claude de la Guiche, more correctly La Guische or La Guysche, a French gentleman, who, after the departure for France of Jean Jocaquin (Giovan Gioaehimo di Passano) remained in charge of the French embassy in England.
  • n11. "Toutesfois ils nen sçauent tant fere quil ne sen gaudisse et ne leur die ce quil pense de leurs folles entreprinses en matieres de gouvernement et conseil."
  • n12. Thus in the original, but most likely in this instance the Emperor's secretary in Flanders reckoned in the old style. According to Vandeness (in Gachard's Journal des Voyages de Charles V., p. 98) the Emperor arrived at Brussels on the 25th January, and remained there until the 13th of March.
  • n13. "Como la marmellada que V. Mt. mando proveer, y los mas dias que va al campo manda que le lleven diacitron ó de las costras de las cidras."
  • n14. "La pomada no ay necesidad de la enbiar porque en esta villa de bruselas hemos hallado camuesas, y harto buenas, y el çumo dellas es principal parte que entra en ella, y en todo Allemania no la podimos hallar."
  • n15. Et davantage aduertissoit la dite royne quelle print bon cueur car ses aduersaires estoint au boult de leurs sens estans plus estonnez et nonneaulx en cest affere que le premier jour quilz le commençarent."
  • n16. "Le fondement pour le quel soy esmeut [le dit juif], a ce quay peu entendre, est que combien quil soyt [vray et legittime mariaige auec la vesue de son frere] toutesfoys yl ne se dit pas etre proprement [mari] pour autant que selon [la loy la lignee que en sort se dit estre du pere deffunct], et pour ce quil ne seroit raysonable que pour conserver le nom et rasse du mort le suruiuant] ne peust avoer [lignee dicte et reputee a luy] que la dite [loy aussi permect quil pregne autre femme."
  • n17. "Le dit juif que se dist estre pleça baptizé soubs ombre de charité vouldroit semer telle dragee iudaique."
  • n18. Duplicate of No. 613, p. 38.
  • n19. Giovan Battista.