Spain: December 1531, 21-31

Pages 335-351

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.

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December 1531, 21-31

21 Dec. 863. Doctor Ortiz to the Empress.
S. E.L. 854,
f. 115.
B.M. Add. 28,584,
f. 107.
My despatch of the 10th inst. must have informed Your Majesty how the Rota resolved by a majority that the excusator (Karne), who acts in the King's name, should not be heard in court. No sooner was this decision known than the English ambassador left this post haste. It is to be feared that he has gone to England to procure and bring back sufficient mandate from his master for a further delay of the cause. Your Majesty may believe me when I say that the king of England is so convinced of the iniquity and injustice of his plans, that he has hitherto tried, and will try in future to obtain [from the Pope] as many delays as he can. It is a great pity that so much attention should be paid to vain and false honours, and that the honour and glory of God, of his Holy Church, Apostolic See, and true Catholic Faith should be thus postponed to wordly considerations, for in reality what the king of England aims at is nothing but heresy.
After the above resolution by the Rota the English am bassadors applied for a public audience, wherein the points already settled should be disputed and debated. The better to please them, this, their petition, was acceded to, and at a Consistory of Cardinals held on the 11th inst. it was resolved to grant them a further delay of three weeks, until after the Epiphany, when they might re-argue what had already been settled.
The news that has reached this court of the Queen being actually removed from the Royal Palace (fuera de la Casa Real), and the King's mistress having taken her place, is most afflicting, and has given me and the rest of the Imperial servants the utmost pain. It is reported that the Lady [Anne] has had a miscarriage. (fn. n1) Wish to God that the Most Serene Queen, and her most illustrious daughter, the Princess, were out of the kingdom, since the King and his paramour have thus lost all shame before God and the people! Should this present suit last long, and not be sentenced soon, it strikes me that the work of the Rev. bishop of Rochester (Fisher) and my own ought to be printed, that all may see clearly how iniquitously the king of England has acted in this affair.—Rome, 21st December 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the Catholic and Imperial Majesty of the Empress and Queen, our Lady."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
22 Dec. 864. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 120.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 109.
Told His Holiness that we, the Imperial ambassadors were of opinion that he, Your Majesty, and the King, your brother, might and ought to collect at this present juncture as much money as you could. If not wanted for the Turkish war it might be employed on the occurrence of some like emergency.
We also told him that our advice was that some agreement should be entered into with the Lutherans; but as Your Majesty has lately instructed me not to speak about this, I have since purposely avoided any conversation on the subject.
Told him also that he ought decidedly to ash all Christian princes to contribute, and since the principal difficulty lies with the kings of France and England, that he ought to treat them as they deserve, and as he has a right to do, which is, in case of their refusing, to excommunicate them, and deprive them of their respective kingdoms, for in such a manner were despots treated in old times, and more recently in the case of the king who was of Navarre. Those two kings were to be threatened with that, because the threats taking effect, the execution of the sentence would no longer be necessary. A man of quality, I suggested, ought to be sent to the king of France, to represent to him in the mildest possible terms what his real interest is, and that being such a great prince in Christendom His Holiness cannot but have every regard for him and, therefore, warns him beforehand. Such monition, I owned, was due to a king, who professed to be a servant and friend of His Holiness, and yet no consideration ought to be strong enough to spoil the negotiation. This was said in case of the French king attempting some disturbance; the Pope approved of the plan, and promised to send the message, but I doubt much whether he will do it. (fn. n2) —Rome, 22nd December 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
21 Dec. 865. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Wien. Rep. P. Fasc.,
c. 227, No. 52.
The Queen, who had been long thinking of writing to Your Majesty, as I did advise by my last—only sent me yesterday the two enclosed letters, one for Your Majesty the other for Rome, urging me at the same time to write in the same strain and implore your favour ; and though I consider this step as quite unnecessary and superfluous, knowing well Your Majesty's readiness at all times to labour for the good issue of the Queen's affairs at Rome, yet the Queen herself having intimated to me that any declarations made by Your Majesty at the present conjuncture might inspire courage (reuellieroit les esperitz) to those who are in her favour, as I had the honour of pointing out in my last despatch, I may perhaps be excused if I again refer to the subject, and beg Your Majesty to comply with the Queen's prayers and ray own suggestions.
The auditor of the Rota, who, as I informed Your Majesty, had been deputed by the Pope to go to Scotland, after a long stay in France arrived in this city three days ago, accompanied by the duke of Albany's secretary, and a Scotch gentleman. The sole object of his mission is, as I am told, the correction (reformation) of certain offences committed by clergymen, as well as laymen in that kingdom, against the pre-eminence of the Apostolic See. He has, as he himself asserts, no other charge, and his instructions are not to allude in any manner to this divorce question, unless the King himself should enter upon the subject, though it is generally said here that he has received positive orders in that case not to say anything to the Queen's prejudice. (fn. n3) I will take care to apprize him of the state of affairs in this kingdom, that he may write home and report to the Pope and to his own colleagues at the Rota how matters stand.
It would appear that this king is not very sure of the continuance of the amity between England and Scotland, for after the return from that country of the bishop of Durham and others appointed to settle certain differences, numbers of engineers were sent to repair the castles and fortresses on that frontier, and have new ones constructed.
An English Austin friar, who has lived for a length of time with Luther and others of his sect, has lately arrived in this city. He has come with a safe-conduct, and it is added, at the King's express solicitation (au tres grand porchas du roy). He goes about Court dressed as a layman (en habit de seculier) in the company most times of another Italian friar of the Order of Saint Francis, one of those who are known to have written in favour of the King.
Yesterday evening, Brian (Sir Francis) and Dr. Fox made their appearance here from France and Dr. Benoit (Benet) from Rome; the arrival of the latter makes people suspect that the Pope has refused to comply with the King's impertinent demands.
Great pleasure has been felt here at the announcement that the Switzers had made some sort of compromise (appoinctement) among themselves, and especially that the French king had been the promoter of it, both parties being equally grateful for his inteference. The arrangement made by the king of Denmark has not been so much to the taste of these people.
Jean Jocquin has obtained leave to return to France, and will be succeeded by the Sieur de la Pommeraye. The former, I hear, has been three or four days at Court soliciting permission in his master's name to ship wheat for Bordeaux, also to complain of certain English seamen who had captured two French vessels. With regard to the wheat, he has been told that there was none to be disposed of for the present, but that later in the season they would see what could be done, and attend to his request; and respecting the two French vessels that, since the seizure had been made by fishermen on board an armed craft, the King was not obliged to make restitution, but merely to prevent his people from arming against their neighbours, the French.
The said Jocquin happening some time ago to talk to me about the proposed enterprize against the Turk, said that it was foolish to suppose that his master or this king would ever attend it in person considering the harm their respective kingdoms might suffer through their absence, nor even contribute with money towards the expedition, for both dreaded Your Majesty's aggrandizement. This Jocquin told me openly without reserve or reticence, and as one who was sure of what he said. May God by His infinite grace inspire better sentiments to those princes!—London, 21st December a. 31.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Holograph. pp. 2.
22 Dec. 866. The Same to the grand commander of Leon.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 121.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 110.
After writing the enclosed for the Emperor, the patriarch of Aquileia (Marco Grimani) arrived in Rome with the tremendous news that Your Lordship must already have heard. The very day of his arrival he saw the Pope in the evening. Having been asked how it was that the Grand Turk could fit out such a large fleet against Italy when he had not sufficient sailors for the one he destined for the Red Sea, his answer was that the Egyptian fleet would be manned with raw hands (gente inutil). whilst that destined for Puglia would have his very best sailors; in which statement there is evident inaccuracy, for we know as a positive fact that it is the Egyptian fleet which is best appointed as to provisions and ammunition, and has the best crews.
Being asked how it was that the Grand Turk, knowing the great warlike preparations being made against him, knowing also that the Christian militia was so superior to his that a few men would get the better of hundreds of Turks, dared invade Christendom, the Patriarch answered that according to Luigi Gritti, whom he quoted as his authority on all points connected with that subject, the Grand Turk hoped to bribe some of our own soldiers to desert and join him; besides which he had intelligence and friends here in Italy such as the son of Renzo [da Ceri] and others whom he (Gritti) named.
The Patriarch also said, and the Pope is of the same opinion, that it was a pity that George Gritti, when arrested, was allowed to go at large, because since all these doings in Turkey took place after his arrival at Constantinople, it is natural to presume that he was the bearer of instructions from France and Italy, the more so that his brother Luigi professes to be a good servant of the French king, and wished to give him (the Patriarch) a casket of pure gold filled with balsam to take to the French ambassador in Venice. The Patriarch further says that he met on the road a Neapolitan gentleman who was going to Turkey with 10 or 12 mounted retainers. He could not say who he was, only that he thinks he is one of the "fuorusciti" banished by that king.
Though all these news do not well cohere, and there is reason to think that they are propagated on purpose to accredit the Diet about to be celebrated in Hungary, and discredit the Imperial one [of Ratisbon], I have thought fit to record them here. (fn. n4) —Rome, 22nd December 1531.
23 Dec. 867. Cardinal d'Osma to secretary Covos.
S. E. L. 854, f. 78. Respecting the English business I delivered Your Majesty's message to His Holiness. His answer was that he would do Your Majesty's pleasure and grant no more delays. His Legate at the Imperial court had reported to him the kind words Your Majesty had uttered about him on the occasion, telling him that should sentence be pronounced, as you expected it would be soon, in favour of your aunt, the Queen, you would employ all your forces in the execution of it, not only for her sake, but on account of its being an Apostolic decree, which you were bound to obey and uphold. These words coming from Your Majesty, through his Legate, the Pope said he accepted most thankfully; had the offer proceeded from any other Christian prince but Your Majesty he might still have entertained doubts, but coming from a mouth that never told an untruth he prizes them as words from Heaven. He commanded me to write at once to Your Majesty, and say that he is quite ready to do justice in the English cause without any fear whatever of the King's refusing him obedience, since he has at his back so powerful a defender to see that the sentence is faithfully executed.
Indorsed: "Copy of a paragraph in a letter of cardinal d'Osma to the High Commander."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. l½.
23 Dec. 868. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 119.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 114.
I gave His Holiness the letter that came for him, and read to him besides the paragraphs relating to the matrimonial cause which came in mine, complaining as bitterly as I could of his conduct in this affair. He owned that Your Majesty had just reasons for complaint and I also, and promised not to grant any more delays; but Your Majesty must be persuaded that as long as the World remains in this troubled state these people will he glad of any excuse to prolong the affair. I have a spy among the English ambassadors and lawyers, and he brings me from hour to hour intelligence of their doings. It appears that now they pretend to have lawyers (letrados) from these neighbouring universities, and on the excuse of giving them time to arrive ask for a prorogation of the term; but I am on the alert and will parry their blows, incessantly asking the Pope to have justice enforced.
With regard to the cardinal's hat for the lord of Monaco a new petition has been addressed to His Holiness, though without success. The Pope, however, has no objection on the ground of his personal qualifications or morals, and promises not to create any other cardinal before him. In the last Consistory the application made in favour of Mr. de Toulouse was rejected.
I have just learned that four days ago, as the French ambassador was talking to a cardinal on the subject of the divorce case, he said that the King, his master, had particularly instructed him to help the king of England as much as he could, and the English have orders from their king not to move a step in the affair without consulting him first. And the report must be true, for they are often seen together, and very frequently also meet to deliberate on their affairs.—Rome, 23rd December 1531.
Spanish. Original partly in cipher, pp. 2½.
23 Dec. 869. Muxetula to the Same.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 1.36.
B.M. Add. 28, 584
f. 116.
Has no answer to give to the Imperial letters of the 26th ulto, having written on the 13th inst. on most points. The money from Naples has not yet arrived.
The Pope consents to part of the Imperial army being quartered on the Roman estates provided the remainder be distributed between Milan, Ferrara, and Mantua.
His Holiness sent yesterday for Miçer Mai and himself, and communicated to us the news he had from Venice respecting the Turk and his armaments.
[Repeats in substance the same arguments, and then continues :]
The Venetians who seemed inclined, as it was but proper that they should, to give permission for His Holiness to appropriate two-tenths of the ecclesiastical dues, begin now to cool down, and say that the Swiss Catholics having made an agreement with the Lutherans, money is no longer wanted. They perceive the Imperial ambassador has been written to.
The above being written, the patriarch of Aquileia arrived and had an audience of His Holiness, who interrogated him closely about the Turk, &c. Being asked how it was that the Infidel, being engaged in war with the Portuguese, could dispose of two more armies, one against Italy and the other against Germany, the Patriarch answered that he did not exactly believe what Luigi Gritti had told him at Constantinople; yet he thought the Sultan would invade Italy by sea and he himself approach Hungary in order to embarrass the Emperor in Germany, and prevent his succouring these parts of Italy.
(Cipher:) The Patriarch further told the Pope that George Gritti, he who had lately gone to Constantinople from France, was the principal instigator of the expedition which the Turk meditated, and the acknowledged agent of the king of France.
His brother, Luigi Gritti, had given him a golden vase full of balsam to take to the French ambassador at Venice, saying that king Francis himself had asked for it to relieve a certain rash on his face.
The above is the substance of what the patriarch of Aquileia said to His Holiness. With regard to the English matrimonial case Your Majesty's orders shall be punctually executed. The Pope has granted the English ambassadors the few remaining days of these Christmas holidays to prepare their allegations and state what they have to say. The term will be over after the Epiphany. Though we all tried to prevent this new delay in the proceedings, after so many had been granted with no visible result, yet His Holiness and the cardinals were of opinion at the last Consistory that it was expedient to accede once more to the wishes of the English for fear they should say hereafter that justice had been denied them.—Rome, 23rd December 1531.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacre Cæs. et Cath. Mti."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 5.
27 Dec. 870. Bernardus de Llauro Super matrimonio Angliæ et illus validitate inventa veritas.
S. E. Pat.Ee.Trat.
C. Ing. L. 4,
f. 130.
A discourse in favour of the legitimacy of queen Katharine's marriage addressed to the empress Isabella, and signed Bernardus de Llauro, Abbas, (fn. n5) sacrarum literarum debotissimus (sic) proimitator et Juris Utriusque doctor indignus.—Rome, xx Octobris, cum additis postea et finitis xxvii Decembris MDXXXI
30 Dec. 871. Jo. Ant. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 14.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 129.
It is absolutely impossible from the resources of Naples to provide the entire pay of the Imperial army.
The patriarch of Aquileia (Grimano) sends news of the great preparations now being made by the Turk. The Pope has invited all the foreign ambassadors in Rome to a most solemn audience, wherein he has fully explained to them the danger threatening Christendom. He has sincerely admonished all Christian princes to follow the example of their predecessors,·and join in a crusade against the Infidel, threatening at the same time those princes who should not do their duty, and especially the kings of France and England, with excommunication and the loss of their respective crowns. There was no time (the Pope remarked to the ambassadors) for long deliberations. He himself offered his person and everything he possessed, expecting, as he said, succours in money, if not in men, from those princes who had refused to take part personally in the undertaking, though he did not doubt that the Emperor and his brother the king of the Romans would march at once against the enemy of Christendom.
The Imperial ambassador (Miçer Mai) answered that the Emperor would certainly do everything in his power to preserve Christendom from danger. The ambassador of the king of the Romans made a similar declaration. The French one uttered some fine sentences, and expressed a hope that his master would not fail in his duty. The English one pronounced some unmeaning words full of malice, and maintained that his master, the king of England, had always been ready to do all he could for the welfare of Christendom, but that it was necessary that all Christian princes should begin first by keeping peace with each other and not looking exclusively to their own personal interest.
The Milanese ambassador dwelt much on the poverty of his master, the Duke, which he said would prevent his making great efforts. The Venetian (Marino Grimano) said nothing at all, having, as he said, received instructions from the Signory not to take part in the deliberations. The dean of the College of Cardinals (Farnese) made a very fine speech, and the ambassadors of the king of the Romans and France quarrelled about precedence.
The Pope has been informed that the king of France is highly satisfied and glad at two things which he has lately achieved. One is the reconciliation he has brought about between the two Swiss parties, and his remaining on good terms of friendship with both. The other is that he has made sure of the king of England, whom he has completely won over to his side. The Pope, on the other hand, thinks he has made a mistake in the manner of conducting the divorce case. He is now very sorry, for in his opinion the mistake may lead to serious inconvenience, and do harm to the general interest of Christendom.—Rome, 30th December 1531.
Signed: "Gio. Ant. Muxetula."
Indorsed: "Answered at Cologne on the 28th January 1532."
Spanish. Abstract for the Emperor's inspection, pp. 8.
30 Dec. 872. Doctor Ortiz to the Same.
S. E. L·. 854,
f. 101.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 123.
By the last post (fn. n6) I informed Your Majesty of the state in which the English business here was. Since then certain news has been received from England stating that the Queen was residing 20 miles away from Court by the command of the King, which proceeding is a manifest sign that he intends disobedience to the Apostolic See, and is consequently aiming at a schism or separation from the Church. This being so outrageous a step requires prompt action, and, in my opinion, His Holiness should at once issue a brief commanding the King, under pain of excommunication, to lead a conjugal life with his Queen, as before, and send away his mistress, who has just had a miscarriage. I myself earnestly begged His Holiness to take this step, and he answered me that my advice seemed good. I also communicated on the subject with the cardinal of Ancona, the best qualified and most learned of all those who compose the Consistory, and he answered me that the more sad and afflicting the news, the quicker and more efficacious should be the remedy which I pointed out. He was entirely of my opinion, and as far as he himself was concerned, should the Pope consult him on the subject would not fail to recommend the measure proposed, though he feared that such a brief would inevitably bring forth disobedience to the Papal See, schism and heresy, after which there would be no other resort left but to apply to arms: a serious impediment to the repulse of the Turk, of which we are all thinking just now.
My reply was that God's ministers on earth must not think that they can help Divine Providence by failing in the exercise of their respective duties; they ought to fulfil their charge and do their duty; the rest they must leave in the hands of God for Him to do His pleasure. (fn. n7) I afterwards related the substance of this conversation to the Imperial ambassador (Miçer Mai), and although I assured him that His Holiness had answered me as above, yet he being more experienced in these political matters than I am, fears that the Pope will not fulfil his promise. He, however, intends to press him, and I must say that if His Holiness refuse I shall be obliged to tell him plainly that he sins greatly against God, whose ire he provokes, because in the present case no plausible excuse can be alleged, no witnesses are wanted ; the brief can be issued and sent in virtue of his Papal office and authority; the excuse hitherto alleged that he is not sure of the King having proceeded to such extremities, having heard nothing to that effect from his Nuncio in England, is no longer admissible, the fact being certain, and he himself having confirmed it. Neither is it necessary to have the case consulted in Consistory, for cardinal Ancona, in whose judgment I trust mostly, has told me that the fact is notorious enough, and needs no consultation but a prompt remedy.
All this I intend telling the Pope the first time I call upon him unless he grants my petition and that of Miçer Mai at once.—Rome, 30th December 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed : "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, my Lord."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 3.
30 Dec. 873. The Same to the Empress.
S. E. Roma 854,
f. 101.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 123.
Reported by the last post on the state of the English matrimonial cause. Since then reliable information has been received here [at Rome] of her Most Serene Highness the queen of England being by the King's express commands removed 20 miles away from London, which proceeding being, as it is, a manifest act of disobedience to the Apostolic See, as well as the commencement of a schism in the Church, and a most outrageous proceeding besides, demands a prompt and hasty remedy. This can be no other than to obtain from His Holiness a brief enjoining the King, under pain of excommunication to live with his legitimate wife as before, and separate from his mistress (manceba), who has lately had a miscarriage. (fn. n8)
Has solicited such a brief from His Holiness, who approved of it at once, and offered to consult the cardinal of Ancona about the case, he being the most learned and of best repute among the members of the Consistory. The Cardinal owned to him (Ortiz) that the case was grave ; he promised, however, to speak to the Pope on the very first opportunity, though he very much feared that the King's disobedience to the Papal injunctions could not fail to provoke in England both schism and heresy. After that (he said) there would remain no other resource but that of arms, which, in his opinion, would be a very serious inconvenience under present circumstances, when all the powers of Christendom were being summoned to resist the Turkish aggression. His (Ortiz's) answer was that God's ministers on earth were not called upon to help Providence out of their own priestly sphere; they were only bound to fulfil their duty and leave the rest to our Lord [Christ], who would no doubt provide the remedy. This last observation and the Pope's answer being communicated by him (Ortiz) to the Imperial ambassador (Miçer Mai), he at once promised to help as much as he could in the affair, though having greater experience of affairs and knowing better His Holiness' character and disposition, he could not help remarking at the time that he did not think His Holiness would consent to the brief. If he do not he (Ortiz) intends telling the Pope to his very face that he sins greatly against God Almighty and is daily provoking His wrath, because this happens to be a case in which no witnesses are required, and the brief can and must be issued in virtue of Papal authority. The excuse hitherto alleged by the Pope, viz., that he was not sure of the news of the King's behaviour towards his Queen being true, as he has not heard from his Nuncio to that effect, no longer exists, for having been interrogated the other day as to tidings from England, and asked whether he had any, he deliberately answered that he had received letters from his Nuncio stating that the Queen had been sent out of London. Nor is there any further need for him to consult the Consistory about this, since the evil is evident, and the remedy at hand.
Has great confidence that the cardinal [of Ancona] will ultimately persuade the Pope, for the latter never fails to consult him on all grave matters.—Rome, 30th December 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the Sacred and Catholic Majesty the Empress."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 3.
30 Dec. 874. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 117.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 117.
Duplicate of the preceding, with a few trifling alterations.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the Catholic and Imperial Majesty the Empress and Queen."
Spanish. Original, pp. 3.
30 Dec. 875. News from Poland.
S. E. L. 635,
f. 130.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 127.
Señor Lascky (Lasco ?) has a nephew named Lobozky, who has been sent by him to Turkey. (fn. n9)
Lately, on the 22nd inst., the said Lobozki returned from Turkey and from Transylvania from the court of the Janux (?), and stopped two days at Cracovia (Cracow), saying that he was about to join Lasky.
About the same time the landgrave of Hassen (Hesse) and another count had two servants in Cracow, where they stayed for nearly six weeks. The Munckwitz (?) has there with him 12 mounted retainers. Lobozki with the Landgrave's men and the servants of the Mynkuitz (sic) went away in haste by way of Pomerania to Lubeck, where they are to meet with sundry captains and princes. There Lobozki is to receive messengers from the Turk and from the Janux. (fn. n10)
It seems strange that the said Laski (sic) should be now negotiating peace or truce with king Ferdinand, when his own nephew, who is in his service, is making all manner of alliances and confederacies, and promoting rebellion against the king of the Romans.
For God's sake give no credit to what this Lascky (sic) may say should he go there ; he is drunk every night, and, therefore, it would be the easiest thing to dispatch him on the road. His servant, Lobozki, has just returned from Turkey and from the dominions of the Janux, and is going to Lubeck and to the landgrave of Hassen (Hesse). He has commissions from the Turk for various princes, which by the way sounds very unlike the peace for which, they say, Lasky is striving.
The Oppel Vicedmis (?) of Transylvania is gone to meet the Janux ; his servants are here. Hardly a week passes without the German post bringing letters from various captains and from the landgrave [of Hesse], and on the other side letters are equally frequent from Transylvania and the Janux.
Believe me when I say that they are plotting something, I mean the Janux and other princes.
Should the said Laski achieve nothing this time, and succeed in stopping king Ferdinand's victorious career with mere words and hopes for the future; should he return home without a treaty of peace being fairly concluded, you may be as sure as God is in Heaven that Lasky himself will bring the Turks into Austria, and further on perhaps than they came last time.
Of all that has been said above I have most positive information. Let the King's ministers write to the places he frequents, and my statements will be confirmed. Lobozky, I repeat, can do much harm.
The Vicedom (Witzthum ?), who forged bad coin in Bohemia, and was accordingly condemned by all the [German] Estates arrived here on the 30th of December of last year, and greatly complained before the Estates here assembled of king Ferdinand and his doings, saying that all his property and lands has been confiscated against all justice and reason, without allowing his case to be tried by a court of law. It appears to me that king Ferdinand ought to write a letter to this king [of Poland] requesting him not to shelter so notorious a forger (falsario) in his kingdom.
The above I write down that His Majesty [the king of Bohemia and Hungary] may take the advice of his Council, and see what is best for him and the rest of Christendom to do under present circumstances. I do not append my signature to this paper because my handwriting is well known in those parts.—30th December 1531.
Spanish. Original, pp. 2.
30 Dec. 876. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 121.
B. M. Add. 28,585,
f. 131.
Wrote on the 23rd advising about the Turk, reporting news that had come through Venice, and announcing that His Holiness had ordered a congregation of cardinals. This took place on the 28th inst. (fn. n11) Thirteen cardinals only attended; Osma did not because he was unwell at the time. All the foreign ambassadors were present except the Venetian and the Ferrarese. I fancy that the former was not invited out of consideration (respetos) for the Turk ; the latter owing no doubt to the Pope's claims against the duke (Alfonso d'Este).
The French ambassador was among the rest, but before going thither sent word that he would on no account sit below the ambassador of the king of the Romans, Ferdinand. His master, the Most Christian king of France, (he said) acknowledged no superior in such matters save the Emperor and the king of the Romans, but only when both dignities were united in the same person, not when they were separate and distinct. Hearing this I sent word to the Pope by Muscettola (sic) not to allow such an innovation as this to be introduced, as no doubt the whole thing had been planned to bring on a dispute and cause delay. The Frenchman was then sent for, the Pope and the others talked him over, and he consented to sit below Miçer Andrea del Burgo, and even below Muscettola.
Reports the Pope's speech on the occasion, and the answers of the ambassadors, &c.
After all the congregration was held more "pro formâ" than with any hope of success. Your Majesty, therefore, must take your measures as if there were only three [princes] to join in the undertaking, namely, the Pope, Your Majesty, and the king of the Romans. The former is rather weak and vacillating, so that in reality, and if the affair is more closely looked into, it may be safely asserted that the whole business rests with Your Majesty and with your brother (Ferdinand) That is why, in my last despatches, I have ventured to put forward the expediency of a peace both with the Turks and with the Lutherans.
The French ambassador in conversation with me the other day committed himself by saying that the man who had come from the king of Hungary—for so do they call the vay-vod (Sepuseo) (fn. n12) —had told him that Luigi Gritti would join the enterprize of Hungary with a large body of cavalry. The ambassador perceived when it was too late what effect the news had on me ; he was ashamed at his indiscretion, and tried to retract.—Rome, 30th December 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
31 Dec. 877. Queen Katharine to the Same.
S. E. L·. 22,
f. 149.
God knows how much I regret troubling Your Majesty with my frequent importunities in so many different ways, knowing, as I do, the many favours I have received at your hands without any special merits of my own; but when I think of Your Majesty's pious feelings [towards me], and of the need I have of Your Highness' help and assistance (if I am to escape from the many perils by which I am surrounded) I really cannot refrain from being over importunate. It is not only my own dangerous situation, which Your Majesty well knows, but, as I have had frequent occasion to write, that of the whole of Christendom, which encourages me to be so pressing, and to pray and entreat, as if I actually begged for charity, that no time be lost, but every haste made in bringing this business of mine to a close. The causes of this, my most earnest request, Your Majesty will hear in more detail by the letters of your ambassador here resident (Chapuys), to whom I refer, humbly begging Your Majesty to give him credence, and order that the necessary steps be taken in my behalf; now is the time to act, otherwise everything will be lost.—Mur (More), the 31st of December [l53l]. (fn. n13)
Signed : "Catharina.''
Addressed: "To the most high and most powerful Lord the Emperor and King, my nephew."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
[31] Dec. 878. Sir Gregory Casale to prothonotary Casale.
S. E. I . 857, f. 56.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 138.
Such sad news about the Turk have just been brought here by Mesire Marino Grimano, the Venetian ambassador, that the Pope and all his court were frightened out of their wits. The Pope asked me what would France and England do under the circumstances, and my answer was, as on a former occasion, in consonance with my general instructions and my own judgment.
The Pope then observed : "Why should France complain ?if the King has paid the ransom [of her children], (fn. n14) he ought not to let himself be caught." Answered that not even the Emperor should desire to burden the king of France with such a contribution as must materially weaken his kingdom and expose him to ridicule, as he is now doing. (fn. n15) With regard to the king of England, I observed, it was impossible to give him greater offence than the Emperor is now trying to inflict. Should the Emperor or any other prince make war upon him, and try to conquer his kingdom, the enmity would no doubt be great, but not such that the quarrel could not be made up some day, whereas the course the Emperor is taking nowadays of opposing by his authority the king of England's suit for divorcing [his Queen] and thus humiliating the King-by wanting the case to be tried and sentenced at a place where the judges are sure to pronounce against him, are so many wounds (pugnalate) aimed at his heart.
The King knows full well the injustice done to king John [Zapolsky], his protest, and the offers he himself has made of settling all disputes, and making peace with the Turk. He (Casale) thinks, therefore, that neither France nor England will willingly take part in that undertaking. He, himself, would never have dared speak his mind on such a subject, or insinuate what the intention of both princes may probably be, had he not considered it a duty to the Pope, to himself, and to the whole of Christendom frankly to state his opinion on this matter that His Holiness, who has the remedy in his hands, may at once and without loss of time apply it; otherwise he (the Pope) may be sure that he will not get any assistance from either of those princes.
Yesterday the Pope summoned a congregation of all the cardinals, which all foreign ambassadors were requested to attend. He told them the news brought by Marco Grimano, and since confirmed by Aluise Gritti, of the great warlike preparations made by the Turk ; but he also added that the latter had written that should the Christian princes agree between themselves and be of common accord on this occasion the danger of a Turkish invasion might still be averted : and that if the Christian princes granted him their powers he had no doubt he should succeed in obtaining peace on good conditions. This last part of Gritti's assertion Grimano affected to disbelieve.
The Pope then addressed the ambassadors and said that in the present piteous and miserable condition of Italy he had resolved to ask all Christian princes for assistance in money and men, offering if necessary to go in person wherever the Christian princes should wish, either for the purpose of frightening the Infidel or of attending a conference. He would moreover, do all he could in the Estates of the Church, and most earnestly begged them to write to their respective masters informing them of his views and mode of thinking. The Emperor's ambassador (Mai) answered that his master was ready to obey the Pope's commands. That of his brother (Ferdinand) said the same thing. That of France dealt only in common-places. As to myself I began to treat generally of my master's good-will towards the Pope and the Holy Apostolic See, that I might afterwards better declare all my mind. The matter, I said, seemed to me of such gravity and importance that I could not possibly give a definite answer, but begged with his permission to remind the Pope of what the King, my master, had signified to him (the Pope) on a different occasion, when other matter was under discussion; and although this threatened invasion of the Turk might seem to have no reference whatever to the said question, yet I could not help alluding to past events. Upon which I failed not to remind the Pope of all that had been done since we went to Bologna, both there and after our return from that city, and that His Majesty the king of France, on being told of the Pope's suggestions, had answered that the Pope and the rest asked for these provisions only by outward shew, but that in truth they asked for the contrary. (fn. n16) His Majesty thought that this was the time for the adoption of such salutary measures. Let, therefore, the Pope admonish all Christian princes to be in good friendship and amity with each other, so that all may help in so mighty an undertaking as the repulse of the Turk, and should there be again other measures required to raise the spirit of the Christian princes, and make them work in the common cause, let the Pope promote such with all his might. Such measures I needed not (I said) point out to him, they were the restoration of king John, &c. When it was seen in what direction and for what purpose the said measures were taken, I (Casale) had no doubt that the King, my master, would place his treasures and realm as well as his own life at stake for the defence of Christendom.
Neither the Pope nor his cardinals replied to this speech of mine, and it was resolved that the ambassadors should write to their respective sovereigns, whilst His Holiness and the cardinals should try to raise funds.
I hear from Jacopo Salviati that he has a letter from Pimpinello advising that he had seen the ambassador of king-John [of Hungary]. The Turk had sent a considerable force to the frontier of Hungary, so that it may be feared that the King may become his tributary. Luigi Gritti had arrived at Buda with a large quantity of provisions, but since then advices have been received, dated the 5th and 28th ult., by way of Florence, confirming the former statement of the immense preparations made by the Turk.—Rome, no date. (fn. n17)
Indorsed : "Capitulo de carta del cavallero Casala en Roma al protonotario Casal, embaxador de Inglaterra en Venecia."
Italian. Contemporary copy. pp. 3.
879. The Emperor's Debt to the Count Palatine.
S. E. L. 365,
f. 142.
B.M. Add. 28,584,
f. 166.
13,750 florins as equivalent to 10,000 ducats which Your Majesty ordered treasurer Vargas to pay over to him, and he never received Flors.
27,750 florins remainder of the 40,000 which Your Majesty gave him as indemnity for the office of viceroy of Naples once promised to him. Don Ramon de Cardona having paid him 10,000 on account, 30,000 are still owing to him 27,750
50,000 florins as arrears of his pension of 5,000 florins every year, in the enjoyment of which he has been 12 years, though he has only been paid two, so that 10 are still owing - 50,000
Making a total sum of - 90,000
He confesses having received—
1st. 10,000 florins, Spanish money, in bills of exchange on the Fuggers, making 9,375 gold florins.
2nd. From His Highness the king of Hungary, on account of Your Majesty's debt to him, 2,000 gold florins, and 8,500 of current coin (de moneda) making together l0,468¾
3rd. At Innsbruck by Your Majesty's order 4,000 ducats, making - 5,250
4th. At Augusta (Ausburgh) in September last 2,000, equal to - - 2,625
5th. From the Welzers and Fuggers - - 20,000
He has received in all - - 47,7182/3
So that there remain due to him 42,280⅓.
Spanish. Contemporary copy. (fn. n18) pp. 2½.


  • n1. "Dicese que la dicha manceba ha malparido del Rey."
  • n2. "Esto deciamos a fin que si el humor se mueve por el Rey de Francia, se derretiese por esta via y el mismo procurasse de remediarlo por no venir al rigor de estos terminos. A Su. Santidad le paresció bien, pero dudo que lo haga."
  • n3. "Toutesfoys si le dit sieur roy savance luy en parler, yl a este si souffìzantemant embouche qu'il ne dira chose preiudiciable a la royne."
  • n4. The remaining paragraphs are only a duplicate of his letter to the Emperor.
  • n5. The same abbot of Llor whose letters to the Emperor may be seen under Nos. 371, 506, 602, 642. His discourse must have been sent to Spain in an unfinished state long before, for in 1530 Mai alludes already to it, besides which the dedicatory letter prefixed bears the date of the 21st of January. See above No. 602.
  • n6. See his letter of the 10th, No. 855, p.325.
  • n7. "Yo respondi que los ministros de Dios no an de pensar ayudar la divina providencia con falta de sus oficios, sino que deuen hazer lo a que son obligados , y lo demas encomendarlo á nuestro Señor, que él lo proveera de su mano.
  • n8. "El qual serie que Su Santidad enbiase un breve en que manase al Serenissimo Rey so pena de excomunion usar de la Serenissima Reyna como antes, y apartarse de la manceba que dél a malparida (sic) y de su coitacion (?) frequente."
  • n9. "Y es criado del señor Lasky, y ha sido embiado por él en Turckia."
  • n10. "Y de alli tiene el dicho Lobozki mensageros del Turco y del Janux (?)"
  • n11. "La quarta fiesta de Navidad."
  • n12. John Zapoli or Zapolski, vayvod of Transylvania, who disputing the crown of Hungary with the archduke Ferdinand, of Bohemia, was some time acknowledged as king of that country by the Pope, as well as by the kings of France and England.
  • n13. This letter, the original of which is to be found at Simancas, not in Viena, is wrongly placed among papers of the year of 1530, whereas it evidently belongs to 1531, when Katharine had been sent to More, in Hertfordshire.
  • n14. "Et a questo proposito dicendomi 'I Papa di che si puo lamentar Francia se ha pagato la taglia no doveva lassarci pigliare."
  • n15. "Non doveva anco un Imperadore a un Ré di Francia tirare i testiculi per fargli pagar tanta taglia, et voler che debilitasse il stato suo et altri statii et ogni di fargli una burla come hora fa."
  • n16. "Ma si bien io ricordava a S. taS quello che 'l Re non haveva significato per li altre occorrencie se gli era significate per queste cose Turchesche. Et quì io narrai tutto quello si era fatto nanzi adussiano (andassiano ?) a Bologna, in Bologna, et poi toruassimo da Bologna, et che a questo S. Mta ne respondent che S. Sta et gli altri con le parole sulamente domandauo si facimo delle provisioni ma ch' in l' effetti si doman tutte 'l contrario."
  • n17. No date, placed in Bergenroth's volume, after the 29th December. It is evidently a copy of some intercepted letter from Sir Gregory Casale to his brother Giovanni, the prothonotary.
  • n18. No date, but placed among papers of 1531, as a note from one of the clerks in the Archives of Simancas leads me to suppose. In Bergenroth's volume, the 13th of the collection, it may be found after Fonseca's letter, No. 710.