Venice: March 1605

Pages 223-232

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 10, 1603-1607. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1900.

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March 1605

March 2. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 347. Nicolo Molin, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King left London yesterday for Royston. He stayed here some days longer then he intended, as he had to settle some differences between the Puritans and the Bishops. These differences present new difficulties every day, for the Puritans are firmly resolved not to submit to the Bishops. This attitude causes his Majesty and the Council much anxiety, all the more that their number is very great and they are led by chiefs of great position. His Majesty has been occupied every day in Council upon this subject, and pays attention to nothing else.
Recently, eight days ago, in Saint Paul's, the Cathedral Church of this city, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and other Bishops held a meeting, and summoned to their presence all the Puritan ministers and preachers. They called upon them to swear to observe the constitutions recently published by the Bishops, and to promise to recognise the Bishops as their superiors. As the Puritans resolutely and boldly refused, the more audacious were deprived of their benefices, and ordered to leave the kingdom within a month, others have been suspended, others granted twenty days to make up their minds. (fn. 1) This has caused a great turmoil in this city, which is full of people who belong to the Puritan sect. Daily meetings are held in private houses. The party shows a determination not to yield, but to take every step for the preservation of their freedom and authority. The King thinks of nothing else than of humbling the pride and audacity of this party; but he meets with much opposition, for among his Council are certain members of the sect, who while seeking to protect their fellows, point at to the King that it is unwise to raise such a hubbub about a matter of so small moment, for after all it is merely a question of ceremonies, such as the wearing of the biretta and the cotta, the use of the cross in baptism, and such like points, which are of too small importance to occupy so much of his Majesty's attention; in fact that it is desirable that his Majesty should favour the Puritans, for nothing would give such encouragement to the Catholics as the persecution of Puritans, who really are the King's most obedient subjects, whereas the Catholics, owing to their dependence on the Pope and other sovereigns, must always be the object of alarm and suspicion, and, therefore, ought never to receive the smallest encouragement to raise their heads. Others again, more sincere Councillors, advise his Majesty that the Catholics are quiet and pacific, who are content . . . . . nor seek for other liberty than for their . . . . . . but for the rest are most loyal subjects to his Majesty and his government, and ever will be, whereas the Puritans are insolent and bold, and deny all superiority, ecclesiastical as well as temporal, and this is the first and principal axiom of their religion, as may be seen at Geneva, the birthplace of this pestiferous sect. They recall to his Majesty's mind the intolerable conduct of the Puritans in Scotland, where the preachers had the insolence to tell the King to his face that unless he supported them they would appoint a Regent. If his Majesty does not now repress their pride and insolence he will not be able to do so later on, as happened in Scotland.
The King, after listening to the arguments on both sides, displayed extreme annoyance, and said he was amazed that a doubt should be raised as to his competence to punish either party if they showed themselves disobedient. He declared that he was resolved to proceed against the Puritans and their ministers, who refused to conform and swear obedience to the canons, and to deprive them of their benefices and expel them from the kingdom; on the other hand he is resolved to enforce against the Catholics the laws which are of great severity and bitterness, affecting property and life; and so the unhappy Catholics are preparing themselves for persecution; although some say that these threats will not be carried out, but that his Majesty employs such language partly in anger at what has occurred, partly because he heard that in Rome the Pope has named a Committee of Cardinals to discuss the affairs of England. A Scottish gentleman (fn. 2) called Lindsay (Linzi), is in Rome with the King's consent (con il consenso di Sua Maestà) it is true, but it seems that he has greatly exceeded his instructions. It appears that, in order to ingratiate himself with the Pope and the Curia, he is endeavouring to fill his Holiness' mind with all sorts of hopes that have no foundation; the King, desiring to show the world that he has no wish to become a Catholic nor any intention of favouring the Catholic religion, as perhaps Sir James has declared, now speaks in this tone and, issues these orders: God grant that things go well, but I greatly fear it, for it is only too true that these ministers desire the total ruin of the Catholics in England, where since the King's accession they have hitherto been well treated; but now, unless the reins be slackened, one must look for absolute destruction.
London, 2nd March, 1605.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 2. Original Despatch, Venetian. Archives. 348. Nicolo Molin, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
These last few days the case of the Portuguese ship captured by a vessel manned by Englishmen has been occupying the . . Court, the secretary to the Spanish Embassy and M. de Caron have been present. The question of criminality was raised; the Spanish declaring that the Captain and crew, being English, have broken the terms of the treaty of peace by serving the Dutch against Spain, and are, therefore, deserving of death. The Captain, on the contrary, has clearly established that he was born in Flanders, not in England; he is set at liberty, and the sailors had all escaped before the trial came on. They are now discussing the question whether the ship is fair prize. The cause is not adjudicated yet, but the Court is inclined to hold that the ship is fair prize [and need not be] restored to the Portuguese; the argument is that the King is not bound to restore prizes to the real owner unless they are made in the [harbours] of this kingdom. Now this event took place in the Downs, which cannot properly be called a harbour, but . . . formed by two headlands of this island. The question now under discussion is whether the Downs are a port within the meaning of the articles of peace . . . . . The Spanish are afraid that as the Captain has been acquitted so the prize will be held fair, for they are well aware that the English are most favourably inclined to the Dutch, a fact of which the Spanish Ambassador makes daily complaint to the King and to the ministers, but all in vain; for they hold that Dutch and English interests are identical.
The French Ambassador has had audience, and did all he could to persuade the King that the Duke of Lennox was received with all due honour, both as representative of this Crown and because he was born in France of a French mother (fn. 3) As to the fact that the Princes of the blood and the great nobles covered in the King's presence while the Duke was in audience, this, he said, was merely an ancient custom of the country, dating from the days of Charles IX.; it is true that during the reign of Henry III. it fell into disuse, but the present Sovereign has revived it. The King seemed satisfied with this explanation, and the episode came to an end.
The King has at last appointed his lieger in Spain. He is a gentleman of the family of Cornwallis (fn. 4) and a Catholic. He will start as soon as possible with the Admiral.
The Levant Company has again attempted to obtain a renewal of their patent; they have offered to pay to his Majesty the same amount as the Chamberlain pays; his interest at Court is so strong, however, that the company has again met with a refusal. The company will be dissolved.
London, 2nd March, 1605.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 7. Consiglio Dieci. Processi Criminali. Venetian Archives. 349. That Ser Nicolo Balbi be arrested.
Aves 8.
Noes 2.
Neutrals 0.
March 7. That the arrest of Ser Nicole Balbi, which took place to-day, be confirmed.
Ayes 14.
Noes 0.
Neutrals 1.
March 14 Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 350. Ottaviano Bon, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Ambassador tells the Venetian Ambassador that the Grand Vizir had asked him which would be the better intermediary for making peace with the Emperor, the King of England, the King of France, or the Republic; and that he answered that he knew nothing about France and the Republic, but that his master had not an Ambassador at the Imperial Court, and would be of no use.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 14th March, 1605.
March 15 Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 351. Anzolo Badoer, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Duke of Lennox went to an audience of leave-taking. He touched upon no business at all, but enlarged upon the subject of his master's good will towards France. The King did not say a word about the separate treaty with Spain. The Duke then went on to beg for the royal pardon for the Marquise (de Verneuil) and her father. The King, to please the Duke, promised to grant them their life, their property, and their honour; but their liberty here served, in order to grant it as a favour to someone else.
Paris, 15th March, 1605.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 17. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 352. Nicolo Molin, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King remains in the country, occupied as usual with the chase, nor will he come to London before the date for the Admiral's departure for Spain. That was arranged for the second or third day after Easter.
A Dutch ship has arrived off the English coast with a rich cargo of cloves, muscadells, and other spices. In fear of the Dunquerquers she will lie here till she gets an escort from Dutch men-of-war. The Dunquerquers, meanwhile, are arming as many as they can.
Recently in the harbour of Plymouth a quarrel broke out between some Dunquerquers and some Dutch ships. The Council intend to warn the Spanish Ambassador and also M. de Caron that his Majesty will not submit to this sort of thing.
A proclamation has been issued, authorizing all Vice-Admirals to employ force for the maintenance of order in the ports, and directing that the ships that first enter port shall be the first to leave, if so it please them, and that no ship shall follow them except after a day's interval.
The Puritans cannot bear the present regulation, and are continually besieging his Majesty and Council with petitions. A Puritan minister recently presented one to the King in the country, wherein he blamed the King for attending only to the chase and his own pleasures. The King ordered his arrest, and has sent him to London to be examined. (fn. 5)
Orders have been sent to all the ports to arrest that Captain Pule, the pirate, who has plundered the Governor of Zante; but the name is not known here.
London, 17th March, 1605.
Date obliterated. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 353. Nicolo Molin, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I called recently on Cecil. He asked me if a certain Canon of Vicenza, by birth an Englishman, . . . . . . . . . . . whom I had commended to him, had crossed the water, for he had news from Paris that the man had reached that city; “For,” he said, “In this hunting of priests I would not have any mischief befall him.” I asked him what was the cause of this extraordinary movement against the Catholics, for I could see no reason which justified the persecution. He replied, “The King's excessive clemency has ended in this, that priests go openly about the country, the city, and private houses saying Mass, and this gives great offence to the others. Then there is the news from Rome that the Pope has appointed a congregation of Cardinals to deal with the affairs of England. This has led many to think that the King is about to grant freedom of conscience, and has caused an uproar among the Bishops and other clergy. The Pope took this step on the advice of that feather-brained fellow Lindsay; as his Majesty has no such intention it was agreed to use a slightly unwonted diligence, in order to repress the licence of your priests, and at the same time to assure ours that there is not the smallest intention to make any change in the religion of the country. Lindsay has offended the King, and the Pope will find him out for a feather-brained fellow.” “But,” said I, “I am informed that he went to Rome with the King's consent” “That is quite true,” replied Cecil, “and if your Lordship wishes to know the facts I will tell you them all. Lindsay, a year before Queen Elizabeth's death, asked leave of the King to go to Rome. This was readily conceded. When he reached Rome his friends procured him an audience of the Pope, to whom it is probable that he said many ridiculous things, as he has now done. In short the Pope made him a present, and he obtained a considerable sum of money, perhaps by promising to do what he can never do here. He also obtained an autograph letter from the Pope to the King, in which the Pope said that he had heard from Lindsay how favourably inclined the King was towards the Catholic religion, and that, if he could not openly support, at least he would never persecute it; for this the Pope rendered thanks, and promised that the King should have all his support towards the succession to the Crown of England on the death of the Queen. But if the King would educate his son as a Catholic then His Holiness bound himself to employ his substance and his very life to assist his Majesty, and to cause the Catholic Sovereigns to act in concert for the same purpose. Lindsay returned to Scotland two months before Elizabeth died; and reported to the King by word of mouth. The King was very well pleased with the letter, as it came from a Sovereign and contained many affectionate and courteous phrases, but he never dreamed of sending an answer, although Lindsay urged him to do so; the reason was that if the King had written he must have addressed the Pope by his titles of 'Holiness' and 'Beatitude,' which according to our religion are vain phrases, and so the matter remained in suspense. Then came the Queen's death, when Lindsay again endeavoured to persuade the King to answer the Pope's letter, declaring that he might promise himself much from the Pope's aid when the right moment came. However, it pleased God so to favour the King that he met with no opposition. Now a few months ago Lindsay again had the idea to go to Rome. He asked leave of the King, and obtained it; when he was on the point of departure he said, 'Sire, I shall have occasion to see the Pope, and he will surely ask me about that letter. What am I to answer?' 'You will say that you gave me the letter, that I was highly pleased with the love and affection it displayed, and that on all occasions I will seek to show my gratitude in acts' Lindsay replied, 'Sire, the Pope will not believe me; will not your Majesty furnish me with something that will convince him of the facts' Thus urged, the King made up his mind to take the pen, and with his own hand to write a memorandum addressed to Lindsay, instructing him, should occasion offer to speak to the Pope, to assure him that his Majesty nourishes the desire to prove to him by acts the affection which he bears, and the esteem in which he holds the Pope's person as a temporal Sovereign; and Lindsay is to enlarge on this topic as far as he can. As regards religion the King desires to preserve and maintain that in which he was brought up, in the conviction that it is the best; but as he has not a bloody mind he will not persecute the Catholics, either in goods or in person, as long as they remain obedient subjects. As regards the education of his son as a Catholic, to that he will never consent; for he would merit chastisement from God and censure from man if, while professing one religion which he held to be the best, he allowed his son to be bred in another full of corruption and superstition. That,” said Cecil, “is the substance of the memorandum which was sealed with the King's seal, so that the Pope and everyone else should be obliged to give it credence. But now Lindsay, according to our information, in order to ingratiate himself with the Pope and to draw money, has so far overstepped his instructions that he has induced the Pope to name a congregation of Cardinals to sit upon English affairs, and thus has caused us to keep a sharper look out upon the Catholics, and more especially upon the priests.” (Hora alcuni mesi sono entrò il Carvaliere di nuovo in pensiero di andar a Roma; dimandò licenza a Sua Maestà, et l'ottene assai cortesemente, quando fu per partire le disse, Sire, io haverò occasione di veder il Papa, il qual so certo che mi dimanderà qualche cosa di quella lettera, che cosa ho io da risponderle? Disse il Rè, che mi havete dato la lettera, et che io resto molto obligato all'amore et affettione che mi dimostra, alla qual io in tutte le occasioni procurerò con qli effetti di corrisponder. Replicò il Cavaliere, Sire, il Papa non mi crederà, Vostra Maestà si contenti di trovar modo con il quale io posso assicurar it Papa delta verità del fatto; da che mossa ella si resolse di prender la penna et far di propria mano un memoriale al Cavaliere dicendo che se le veniva occasione di parlor con il Papa le debba affermar che vive con desiderio di dimostrarle con gli eff etti l'aff ettione che le portava et la stima che faceva della persona sua come principe temporale; che in questo concetto dovesse estendersi quanto piu poteva; che quanto a la religione voleva conservar et mantener quella nella quale era nodrito tenendo per fermo questa essere la migliore, ma che non havendo anmio sanguinolente non haverebbe perseguitato ne nella robba ne nella vita li Catolici mentre vivessero obedienti suditi; non [? ma] quanto al far istruire il principe suo figliuolo nella Cattolica Religione, questo non lo farà mai; poichè crederebbe di dover ricever gran castigo da Dio et biasimo appresso il mondo se, mentre professa una religione stimata per la migliore, volesse permetter che il figlio fosse alevato in una piena di corrutelle et superstitione, [questo] disse il Signor Sicil è la sostanza del memoriale, il quale fu anco sigilato col sigillo del Rè affine che il Papa et ogni altro potesse prestargli fede sopra quei punti. Hora il Cavaliere per mettersi in gratia et per cavar danari ha trapassato tanto questi ordini, per quanto intendemo, che ha dato occasione al Papa di dessignar una congregatione di Cardinali sopra le cose nostre, et a noi qui di haver l'occhio un poco più aperto alli Catolici et alli preti particolarmente.) I replied that I could not believe, all the same, that his Majesty would break his word so often given that for questions of religion he wanted neither the property nor blood of any man. Cecil replied, “As far as blood goes rest assured, provided the Catholics keep quiet; but as regards property the laws must be enforced; though even here we shall go dexterously to work and far more gently than in the days of the late Queen. For the rich Catholics, who refuse to attend the established Church, will not think twenty pounds sterling (that is eighty crowns) a month a heavy fine; the less rich, who cannot pay this fine and are, therefore, subjected to the loss of two-thirds of their property during their lifetime, will now have this advantage from the clemency of the King, namely that, whereas under the late Queen the sequestrated property passed to strangers who, in order to wring as much out of it as possible, ruined the houses and lands of the recusants, now the sequestrated property will be let to its owners at a very moderate price, and so they will not lose two-thirds nor even a quarter of their property. This device has been adopted so as not to crush the Catholics utterly on the one hand nor yet to inspire a belief in the Protestants that the Catholic religion is going to be tolerated, which would inevitably ensue were the fines removed altogether.” (Quanto alla robba non si puo far di meno di non osservar le leggi che sono in questo proposito; ma anco in questo si anderà molto destramente et più dolcemente assai che non si faceva in tempo della Regina defonta; perche li Cattolici che ricusano di venir alle nostre chiese et che sono richi non stimeranno molto il pagar le 20 Le al mese, che sono 80 scudi, quelli che non sono tanto richi et non hanno il modo il far questo pagamento, a'quali in virtu, delle leggi le sono levati li doi terzi della robba in vita loro, haveranno hora per la clemenza del Rè questo avantaggio che si come in tempo della Regina li beni che le erano levati davano a genti stranie le quali per cavar quel più che potevano non stimavano il rovinar le case et possessioni di questi, ma al presente saranno dati a loro medesimi patroni, et a buonissimo mercato, in tanto che non solo non pagheranno li doi terzi della robba ma ne anco il quarto. Si è trovato questo temperamento per non affliger tanto li Cattolici et per non dar da creder alli nostri che si voglia permetter la Religione Cattolica, come senza dubbio crederiano quando fossero lerati aff atto li pagamenti.) I said, “My Lord, it is a great matter that though the Catholic religion is prohibited in many countries in none is it persecuted as here; for as a matter of fact the loss of property, if not entirely, yet in part, is a hard fate, and to those who suffer from it must seem monstrous.” “My Lord” he replied, “It cannot be helped; there are laws and they must be observed, and there is no doubt but that the object of these laws is to extinguish the Catholic religion in this kingdom; for we hold it undesirable in a well-governed monarchy to allow the increase of persons who profess obedience to the will of a foreign sovereign, as the Catholics do; for there is nothing their preachers insist upon so much as this, that a good Catholic must nurture in himself the firm resolve to be ready, for the preservation of his faith, to attack the life and the government of his natural sovereign. This is a pernicious doctrine, and we shall never admit it here; nay, we shall do all we can to root it out, and. we will punish severely all those who go about to impress such teaching on the minds of good subjects.” (Signor, mi rispose egli, non si può far altro; vi sono le leggi, bisogna osservarle, le quali hanno per fine, non ha dubbio, di estinguer la Cattolica Religione in questo Regno; poiche non stimiamo a proposito in una monarchia ben governata di augumento di persone che professano di pender dalla volontà d'altri principi come fanno li Cattolici; non predicando li preti nissuna cosa più constantemente di questa, che il buon Cattolico bisogna che habbia questa ferma rissolutione in se medesimo di esser per conservar la Religione pronto a solevarsi etiam contra la vita et il stato del suo prencipe naturale. Questa è una dotrina molto pericolosa, et qui certo non l'admetteremo mai, anzi procureremo con tutto il spirito di spiantarla aff atto, et castigaremo anco severissimamente quelli che la vano insegnando et imprimendo nelli animi de buoni suditi.) I answered that I could not believe that priests taught any such doctrines, for in fact the Popes did not meddle with such affairs. Cecil replied, “Read history and you will find it full of examples. Your own Republic, was she not excommunicated more than once and her subjects freed from their allegiance?” “I said that it was true, but our subjects had never risen against the government for all that; for their hearts and wills are bound to us by good government and the good treatment they receive; and that this is so, we have the proofs, in the fact that our people have served the Republic in war against the very Popes that had excommunicated us.” “That is true enough,” said Cecil, “but it does not alter the fact that the Popes claim this unjustifiable right, and exercise it, too, whenever it pleases them, though always on the plea of religion. In short if a way be found to restrict this claim of the Papal authority, which they have usurped,—I know not by what right,—and if the world can be assured that Papal superiority will be confined exclusively to affairs spiritual—this point once established, I assure you that the next day the King would concede liberty of conscience and permit the exercise of the Catholic religion, but on no other terms can it he thought of.” This idea Cecil repeated several times. I thought it best to make no reply to it. (M soggionse egli leggete le historic, che le trovarete piene de casi simili. La vostra Republica non fù ella più volte escommunicata et assoluti et liberati li sudditi dal giuramento. Le dissi io che era vero, ma che per questo li sudditi non si solevorno mai contra la Republica, perchè in eff etto li animi et volovtà loro sono conservate con il buon governo et buon trattamento che le viene f atto, che ciò sia vero, li popoli servivano in guerra la Republica fedelmente contra li medesimi papi che l'havevano escommunicati. Evero, disse egli, ma non è per questo che li papi non habbino questa ingiusta pretentione et che ad ogni loro beneplacito, se ben sempre con il pretesto della Religione, non l'esercitino; in somma se si troverà modo di restringere alli papi questa auttorità che si sono usurpati non so con che fondamento, et che il mondo possa restar certo che la la superiorità del papa non si estendi in altro che nelle cose spirituali, fermato et stabilito che sia questo punto, vi assicuro che il giorno seguente sua Maestà concederà la libertà di conscienza, et permetterà la Religione Cattolica. Ma di altra maniera non occorre pensarvi.” Questo concetto mi fu re plicato più volte da Sua Signoria, alia quale non stimai bene replicar altro.) I merely said that your Serenity would be glad to know that the Catholics were treated with all the gentleness possible; that I had instructions to address his Majesty on the subject, but I had not done so because I thought the Catholics might rely on his Majesty's word, that he did not desire either blood or property of any man for religion's sake. Cecil said, “Your Lordship has heard what I said about blood; you may rest assured no one will be punished without serious cause; as to property the laws must be observed; but they will be enforced very dexterously, as I have explained.” (fn. 6)
London (date illegible). On docquet, “17 March.”
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 25. Original Despatch Venetian Archives. 354. Francesco Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
News has arrived that, far earlier than he was expected, the High Admiral of England has landed at Corunna. The King has sent to delay his journey till preparations are complete.
Valladolid, 25th March, 1605.
March 30. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 355. Nicolo Molin, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
One Monday evening the King came to Greenwich to be present at the . . . . which is to take place on Sunday, Accession day. It is not thought that he will go far away again, as the Queen is so near her confinement.
The Puritans are more than ever troublesome and annoying to the King. They do all they can to disuade the King from enforcing conformity. [They] have recently compiled a book entitled “The Errors of the King of Great Britain,” (fn. 7) in which they recount all his Majesty's actions, which seem to them blameworthy; but more especially the persecution of the Puritans, which they endeavour to demonstrate as unjust and injudicious, while they praise to the skies the virtues of the late Queen, who, though a woman, never let herself be drawn to persecution, but attended herself to the affairs of her kingdom, and knew quite well that the Puritans were most faithful subjects, and that she might rely on them; whereas the King thinks of nothing but the chase and his own pleasures, neglecting his affairs and leaving them entirely in the hands of his Council; and so on. The King and the Council are excessively annoyed. The author has been committed to the Tower and examined. It seems that he is one of the principal gentlemen of this country.
Articles have been drawn up, and the Puritan ministers are called upon to sign them or to lose their benefices. There are many gentlemen who administer justice in their various counties and towns, and it is intended to make them sign these articles, and to promise to put down the Puritans within their various jurisdictions; if they refuse they will be removed from the Commission of the Peace. Many ministers and many justices refused to subscribe, in the hope that the King would mitigate his orders, but seeing that he stands firm they have finally yielded and obeyed. On the other hand the persecution of the Catholics is vigorously conducted, all suspect houses are searched, and if crosses or anything indicating the Catholic religion is found the owner is imprisoned. The search for priests is also keen, and all that are found are imprisoned and threatened with execution; as happened recently at Oxford when a priest was actually taken up to the gallows to terrify him and the others, and to induce them to leave the country. On all sides one hears nothing but complaints and laments.
The Marquis of Doncla (?) has come to Court spontaneously to justify himself. He says he has never been disloyal; that his Majesty is master of the property and lives of his subjects, but not of their minds; and besides he relies on the repeated assurance of the King, that he desired no man's goods nor blood for conscience' sake.
This gentleman is of royal blood and of great power in Scotland, and the King treated him with great gentleness, saying that if he wished to exercise the Catholic religion he ought to do so quietly, so as to avoid a scandal. Finally the King said he would tell the Council to find out some way of settling the business.
An Ambassador from the Archduke is expected.
London, 30th March, 1605.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]


  • 1. Gardner I., 195–200.
  • 2. Sir James Lindsay, Gardiner I., 221, 225. See Cal. S. P. Dom. July, I605.
  • 3. Catherine de Balzac d'Entragues.
  • 4. Sir Charles Cornwallis.
  • 5. Thomas Bywater. See Cal. S. P. Dom., 1603–1610., pp. 203, 204, 206. The libel was presented to the King at Ware.
  • 6. On July 30th, 1604, arrears of recusancy fines were remitted to the thirteen gentlemen who were fined £20 a month. The fines were enforced again on Nov. 28, 1604. See Gardiner I., 203, 224. For Lindsay's missions, see Gardiner I., 97. 224.
  • 7. Written by Thomas Bywater, and presented to the King at Ware. Cf. Cal. S. P. Dom. March 5, 12, 24.