Venice: January 1607

Pages 451-461

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 10, 1603-1607. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1900.

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January 1607

Jan. 3. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 654. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King and Prince returned to London four days ago, and Parliament was adjourned till the end of February. They are taking steps to raise a large sum of money for the needs of the Crown. The people show themselves very willing to contribute as long as this money is to be spent on a war with Spain or provided they are not forbidden to go privateering against the Spanish, but as matters now stand it will be very difficult to obtain anything from them. The King, however, has the power to reclaim upon just grounds so much land that has been usurped from the Crown that he will always be able to raise a considerable sum, or at least to induce his subjects to consent to his demands.
The King is highly indignant at the conclusion of peace between the Emperor and the Turk; he declares that is one of the results of that discord in Christendom for which the Pope is responsible.
Expulsis Papalistis. The secretary (fn. 1) of the English Ambassador in Venice has arrived. He must have travelled very fast. He was immediately received in a long audience by the King.
London, 3rd January, 1606 [m.v.].
Jan. 3. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 655. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I will carry out your Serenity's instructions as regards Steffano, the Frenchman from Toulon, who has carried off the ship laden with wine, belonging to the Pizzamani. I have already had him posted at all the ports. I fear he will not come here, however, for three years ago he committed a similar crime in England.
London, 3rd January, 1606 [m.v.].
Jan. 4. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 656. Piero Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Jesuits, through Father Cotton, the King's confessor, are endeavouring to persuade his Majesty to secure the return of their Order to the State of Venice.
Paris, 4th January, 1607.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 9. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 657. Ottaviano Bon, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
On Sunday last the English Ambassador (Glover) made his entry in honourable style, and in a few days he will be presented to the Sultan; I will enter on close relations with him as with his predecessor.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 9th January, 1606 [m.v.].
Jan. 9. Collegio, Secreta, Esposizioni Roma. Venetian Archives. 658. The English Ambassador having appeared in the Cabinet the Doge caused to be read to him the answer returned to Don Francesco de Castro.
The Ambassador returned thanks, and drawing a letter from his pocket he said he would communicate the news he had received from Rome from a priest who was intimately acquainted with that Court; “this news,” he said, “has kept me laughing for four days.”
The Spanish ministers have been proposing to the Pope that he should yield to Spain all the claims of the Church over Naples and Sicily in return for a large sum of money. It occurs to me that the mission of Don Francesco de Castro here may be to keep your Serenity in play until the negotiation is concluded at Borne. I, however, would point out that now is the time for your Serenity to form an alliance and that you will find my master ready.
The Doge replied that they had some information of this business, but did not see how the Pope could conclude such a bargain, which would be a violation of the Bull “Tories,” (fn. 2) which each Cardinal swears to observe.
As to an alliance, if they began to negotiate for an alliance while negotiating for an accord it would be thought that they did not desire the latter. All the same there was a desire to enter into an alliance.
The Ambassador then asked for explanation of a rumour that was going the round of the Piazza, namely that the King of England had refused to allow the Republic to export grain from England, a rumour encouraged by those unfavourable to an Anglo Venetian accord as a proof that the Republic can rely but little on the King. The Ambassador said that according to his information from England the contract was a private affair of the Ambassador Giustinian's.
The Doge replied that as the Republic was rather short of grain and, knowing that there was an abundant harvest in England, the Corn Commissioners had ordered the Ambassador to buy, but in a private name, so as not to raise the price, a small quantity of grain, and had sent thirty thousand crowns for this purpose. The Ambassador bought some, but not all the grain ordered, and then the prices suddenly rose to the statutory limit, beyond which export is forbidden without royal licence. The King was favourable to granting it; the Earl of Salisbury raised some difficulty. The Doge begs for the support of the Ambassador. The Ambassador consented. He then went on to say that Lord Salisbury had written to him, remarking that the Republic would have done better to have bought through Flemish merchants, who understand the business and the country and would not have bought in the neighbourhood of London, where the country is most sterile and grain consequently dear; but would have bought in the more fertile western counties, which are well known by those who are acquainted with England.
The Doge asked if there was any news from Milan about Crema. The Ambassador said he was waiting the post. The Doge informs the Ambassador that in Lucca there is an Englishman who is contracting to supply powder to the Pope; the Doge supposes that the King will not allow this to go on.
The Ambassador promises to write and asks for some further notes as to this man's name, etc. He says he knows that an Englishman has recently arrived in Rome and had a long interview with the Pope.
Jan. 11. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 659. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I will seek audience as soon as possible both of the King and of the Earl of Salisbury. Rumours of an accommodation with the Pope are rife, and all the Envoys at this Court have the same news. The Spanish Ambassador, who, after the King of England's declaration in our favour, has been very reserved on the subject, now goes about openly asserting that the accommodation has been reached and affirming his master's determination to maintain the peace in Italy.
The mission of the secretary of the English Ambassador in Venice was to give his Majesty a minute account of the state of affairs there. Some months ago the Ambassador dispatched another secretary, who was attacked and badly wounded in Lorraine, where he was obliged to stay. The secretary who has just arrived confirms the news of an accord.
I heard last week from the Chancellor of Scotland (Seaton), to whom I had sent some copies of the pamphlets in defence of the Republic; he tells me that there is a unanimous opinion in favour of the Republic and he himself, though brought up in Rome under Bellarmine and usually considered a Catholic, declares that he is amazed at these unjustifiable pretensions of the Pontiff and at the feebleness of the arguments with which Bellarmine endeavours to maintain them; indeed throughout this controversy the Cardinal has fallen below himself both in form and in substance.
London, 11th January, 1606. [m.v.].
Jan. 11. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 660. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
At length after long waiting the Spanish Ambassador has demanded audience of the Council, in order to bring up his reply to the claims of the English merchants for damages suffered in their trade with Spain, but the has asked for it in such a way that it is clear he will give no satisfaction, and so the Council put off the interview in order to let him see that it is useless to come to them with inadequate redress. But meantime the whole affair is quieting down, and if nothing new supervenes it may die away altogether.
The Dutch lay in wait for certain Dunquerquers who were to sail from these ports, attacked and drove them back. The Spanish declare that while the terms of the treaty are rigidly enforced against them in trifles, in serious matters they are not observed in their favour.
The Court is entirely occupied with preparations for the marriage, (fn. 3) the King staying on for it very unwillingly, but as he himself says he consoles himself with dreaming of the chase. When the weather is better he will go to Scotland.
The ship with the six hundred quarters of corn left yesterday.
London, 11th January, 1606 [m.v.]
Jan. 15 Collegio, Secreta, Esposizioni Roma. Venetian Archives. 661. After mid-day the English Ambassador sent to ask audience that evening or next morning through the mouth of a gentleman of this suite.
The Doge replied that the Senate was sitting that afternoon, and so he did not see how the audience could be granted that day unless it was a matter of great urgency; in that case the Ambassador would be received before the Doge went to Senate; the gentleman was asked to bring back an immediate reply. He went, and half an hour after the Ambassador himself was announced at the door of the Cabinet. He was introduced, and drawing a letter from his pocket spoke as follows:—
“Most Serene Prince, in place of my secretary I sent one of my gentlemen this morning to ask for audience; I should like to know if he performed his mission satisfactorily.”
The Doge replied that he had. “He told me,” continued the Ambassador, “that if the question were not urgent I was begged to defer my audience till the morning. I holding that the question was not only urgent, but superlatively so, have come here at once under the impulse of that zeal and devotion which I bear to the Republic and which teaches me that I ought to come to the Cabinet not only at this hour, but at every hour, and not only to knock at the doors, but to burst them open in order to get in. Not half an hour ago I received the following letter from my agent in Milan written in cipher: 'Lodovico Gambaloite, the man who in conjunction with the corporals introduced into a house in Crema thirty men, with a view to seizing the Lodi gate.' From this I gather that some of my agent's letters have been lost, for this is the first I have heard of this Gambaloite.”
The Ambassador then communicated the news that the King of Spain was resolved to lend armed aid to the Pope unless an accord were reached with Venice; that Fuentes was raising three thousand men in the Trentino and Tyrol and other places; and other items of news.
He added that according to his information from Rome the Pope had begged the King of Spain to consign to him an Englishman, William Stanley, now in Flanders, who has a brother in Milan.
The Doge returned thanks for all this information and the Ambassador withdrew, the second bell having already rung.
Jan. 16. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 662. Piero Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The King pointed out to the Ambassador that the feeling in Europe was not so strongly favourable to the Republic as she supposed; and that the forces of England were not to be relied upon for service in Italy.
Paris, 16th January, 1607.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 18. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 663. Francesco Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The King resents the mission of an Ambassador from the Duke of Savoy to negotiate a marriage between his son and a daughter of England. His Majesty has pointed out that there is no lack of Catholic princesses of equal and greater rank. The Secretary d'Urbina, to whom this remark was addressed, feigned ignorance but communicated it to the English Ambassador, who told me in the course of a conversation on the injuries which the English received from Spain. The Ambassador declared that they were not averse from a Savoy match, for though the Duke was poor Ms blood was ancient and he had weight in Italy.
Madrid, 18th January, 1606 [m.v.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 18. Collegio, Secreta, Esposizioni Roma. Venetian Archives. 664. The English Ambassador spoke as follows:—“I hear that your Serenity is arming, as the Pope is beating the drum all over Italy. I have come to lay before you a suggestion of my own. To-morrow is despatch day, and I suggest that it would be as well for the Republic to negotiate through my master for an alliance with the German Princes, if not with all at least with the chief ones. If I remember rightly when the Ambassador Giustinian raised the subject in England the King did not decline absolutely, but merely said he doubted if the time was ripe. I believe that he would now think the moment favourable, and I offer to write to him.”
The Doge, while thanking the Ambassador, declared that the matter must be laid before the Senate and the time was too short to allow of an answer being returned by the next day.
The Ambassador replied that it did not become his years or his experience to make any suggestions to his Serenity, but he must say that he had served at the Courts of the Count Palatine, of the Landgrave of Hesse, and of the Duke of Saxony, and retained still some slight knowledge of that tongue, sufficient to make himself understood, and that it would be an eternal glory to him should the Republic permit him to negotiate an alliance with those Princes. “If I received credentials from my master and instructions from your Serenity I would set out at once in the firm hope of success in carrying out a negotiation which would be so advantageous to our cause.”
The Doge thanked the Ambassador and again said they would consult on this proposal.
The Ambassador said, “I must tell you what happened with a certain person who frequents my house and belongs to the Spanish party; this man said to me, 'Is the King of England really going to help the Republic?' I confess I was furious at the idiotic question, and told him I was amazed that the word of Princes should be treated like the word of a charlatan, and added that the King of Great Britain would send all his forces to support the Venetians, and should anyone attempt to bar his path he would get his head cracked. The fellow rejoined, 'Oh, then he would go to war with Spain?' I replied, 'And pray who tells you that? I have never said that my master has any desire to break with Spain; all I do say is that if Spain crosses our path we'll crack her skull, nor will she have any reason to complain, for she will have brought it on herself.' “
Jan. 18. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 665. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King has been so taken up with the wedding that I have not been able to obtain audience; and now I hear that he is to leave the city to-morrow. He has put off all audiences till his return.
Four days ago the Ambassadors of Spain and Flanders were in Council upon the subject of the complaints against Spain. Their declarations were not satisfactory, but they promise a more favourable reply from Spain in a few days.
The Spanish Ambassador, in his master's name, presented the bride, who is a granddaughter of the Earl of Salisbury and married to Hay, (fn. 4) a jewel worth six thousand crowns.
London, 18th January, 160G [m.v.].
Jan. 18. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 666. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Three days ago the King sent one of his gentlemen with express orders to inform me of an event which, although it closely touched his interests, had only reached his ears the day before, and which he did not intend to communicate to any Envoy other than your Serenity s Ambassador. The affair is that the Pope is adopting towards his Majesty and his kingdom a line of conduct similar to that which he is following towards the Republic. This gentleman then handed me a payer, folded like a letter, which he held in his hand, and said, “His Majesty begs your Lordship to read this, which is a brief address by the Pope to the Catholics of this kingdom. It was called forth by the legislation of the last Parliament and by the oath of allegiance, which were designed to meet the well-proved machinations against the peace of the kingdom and his Majesty's life. His Majesty finds in the brief much that is prejudicial to his authority and to that perfect liberty which every Prince is bound to sustain. Moreover he notes in it various doctrines which are calculated, to feed and foment the spirit of machination.”
I took the letter and returned suitable thanks to the King for this fresh proof of confidence. I began to read the brief, and send herewith a copy. As I read the gentleman pointed out to me that his Majesty was especially offended at the prohibition to take the oath, which seemed to imply that the Pope did not hold him for a legitimate Sovereign and claimed superiority even in matters temporal, and further there are phrases which appear to the King to approve the late conspiracy. Any way it is certain that this brief has greatly incensed the King and all his Ministers; and this will confirm them in their intention of supporting the Republic should occasion arise.
The King has received a letter from the new Grand Duke of Muscovy, in which he violently attacks the Jesuits as the authors of all the disturbances that have taken place in his dominions.
London, 18th January, 1006 [m.v.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed in preceding Despatch. 667. Brief of Paul V.
Catholicis anglie Paulus P.P.v. Dat. Rom. apud S. Marc, sub an. pisc. X Kal. Octob. 1606. Pont. nri. ii.
Jan. 20. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 668. Francesco Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The fall of Franquezza is thought likely to bring about peace with the Dutch; for the war was kept alive chiefly by him on account of the money he made by it. In this opinion the English Ambassador concurs.
Madrid, 20th January, 1606 [m.v.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 25. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 669. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After his Majesty's departure from the city the Council has been seriously occupied chiefly with the affairs of Flanders. The Dutch point out that unless they receive more vigorous support they will be obliged to come to terms.
London, 25th January, 1006 [m.v.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 28. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 670. Francesco Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Sherley, who on his first arrival gave out that he had important business to conduct with his Majesty on behalf of the King of Morocco, has now been proved a man of straw, and his plans for causing a port in Africa to fall into Spanish hands receive little attention. It is generally believed that his chief object is to raise money, an opinion confirmed by the presence of a number of his creditors, who are suing him here for frauds committed in Africa and in Portugal. These creditors, acting in accord with the English Ambassador, publicly declare that Sherley deserves severe punishment. The Government, however, do not agree, as they are unwilling to disgust a subject of a nation about whom they are suspicious, and yet on the other hand they thwart him in his negotiations; and so his debts compel him to live very quietly in his house and greatly diminish the repute he originally acquired by his splendour of living.
Madrid, 28th January, 1606 [m.v.].
Jan. 28. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives 671. Piero Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I hear that the Pope is endeavouring to secure the services of M. Valeran, an expert in cipher. M. Valeran has not made up his mind yet, being uncertain whether this would please the King or not. It was M. d'Alencourt who suggested him to the Pope. (fn. 5)
Paris, 28th January, 1607.
Jan. 29. Minutes of the Senate, Roma. Venetian Archives 672. That the English Ambassador be invited to attend in the Cabinet and to hear what follows :—
We desire to give information to his Majesty of the state of our relations with the Pope. We are very desirous of peace, and to obtain it we have informed Don Francesco de Castro that we are ready to give all just satisfaction to his Holiness, and we have condescended to make those proposals of which you are aware, and to go even further, provided our independence is not attacked. But we cannot repeal our laws without a serious injury to our liberties. All the same the Pope continues to arm, and Spain in her greed for extension urges him on; we, therefore, are also obliged to arm and to look to our own safety. As regards the proposals for an alliance, which your Lordship has often advanced, we are now ready to join with his Majesty upon terms to be discussed; and we have said the same to the King of France.
Ayes 125.
Noes 5.
Neutrals 19.
Jan. 30. Collegio, Secreta, Esposizioni Roma. Venetian Archives 673. The English Ambassador, after a long introduction, informed the Doge that the night before he had been in company of the Secretary of the Duke of Lorraine, who told him that he had come to Venice in order to contribute his bucket full of water for the extinction of the fire. The Ambassador praised the object and declared that he had never taken any steps in a contrary sense, except to urge the Republic to act like a prudent Prince. The Ambassador declares that he had not come to Italy to set the country in a blaze, but it was the duty of all who loved the Republic to urge her to remember herself, her glorious past, the justice of her cause, her duty to her friends. “I must say for my part I beg the Senate to make proof of me, for apart from what I have said so frequently before, I am bound to your service by a bond you do not know. There ! the word is out by accident. I will tell you what it is. A few days ago a gentleman of wit and ability, who was recommended to me under pretext of negotiation with Rome, came to my house and said that he was commissioned by some of my friends, who wished me well and offered to give me five or six thousand crowns for a certain service, on condition that I kept the matter secret and did not display curiosity as to the source of the money. I confess I don't know what this service may have been, for I flew out into a perfectly justifiable rage (though perhaps it would have been wiser to draw him on) and said, 'Sir, I don't know you, I have never set eyes on you before nor you on me? “Oh ! yes, you have,' he replied, and I added, 'I don't remember it and it does not signify, for I must tell you that I am a poor gentleman, but bred among the nobler arts, not venal, no traitor, and I would advise you to leave my house and never to return nor to venture to speak to any of my people.' 'I will,' he said, 'but I am not to blame, as I have only fulfilled my orders.' I do not say this in search of compliments, for I desire nothing more than the inward satisfaction a good man feels in the approval of his conscience; but I tell you this to show that our enemies use all means at their disposal, and so I am come to urge your Serenity to adopt the true way to put an end to this mischief. We have two open foes, the Pope and the King of Spain, who mutually support each other, not for their common, but for their individual interests, and as our foes are two so the defences are two, a Council and a League. As to a Council I will explain my humble opinion. I am persuaded that it would offer no difficulties and that the conjuncture of affairs is favourable, owing to the position of the Emperor, who is in great confusion at present. On the one hand the King of Spain is very anxious about the election of the King of the Romans, on the other the Duke of Savoy is urging forward the marriage of his daughter to the Emperor. The Emperor, as I am very well informed, is taking time to make up his mind about a future Diet. He is jealous of his brother Mathias and hates his brother Albert. In this confusion it would suit the Emperor very well to convert the Diet into a Council, to which all the Princes of Germany would have recourse. This in parenthesis, for it is not the true object of my presence here.
My real object is a league on the lines which I caused to be laid before the Senate a few days ago. I propose a league upon a basis which is both highly popular and honourable, namely the conservation of the direct temporal jurisdiction of all independent States and Princes. I cannot see a single drawback or objection. If it is urged that it is a lengthy business I reply that without a beginning you can't reach an end. If it is said that this will annoy the King of Spain I answer, 'A pretty plight we should be in, by God, if we are to abstain from what is advisable through fear of him!' Nay, I will go further, and affirm that when the King of Spain and the other Italian Princes who don't stand with us see a compact body of allies banded for the liberation of Italy, they will give up their designs, for it is not their policy to throw their possessions into confusion. I, as always, offer to write, to run, to fly, were it possible, to lay these proposals at my master's feet; and I must inform your Serenity that not a post passes without my master speaking with the greatest possible heat about the affairs of Italy. Only yesterday the Secretary of the Duke of Lorraine told me that when the Count of Vaudemont was in England the King, both in private and at table, discussed the matter with a vehemence which amazed him. Your Serenity may rest assured that my master will prove himself not only the ally, but the advocate of this Republic. I beg your Serenity to receive my humble representations in that spirit of affection which I bear you.”
The Doge replied that these schemes of Council and League which occupied his Lordship's mind were generous and worthy of his noble spirit. As to a Council it would be of the highest advantage to Christendom were it not for the difficulties presented by the tempers of the various reigning Sovereigns. It was well known that the King of England desired a Council on account of the benefit it would confer on all who believe in Jesum Christum Crucifxum; that, as the Ambassador had ably remarked, a Council would suit the Emperor's policy, as a check on all those who were endeavouring to enlarge the borders of their own authority at the expense of others; but, in view of the objections, the Cabinet (questi Signori) had not dwelt long on the scheme, which, as a matter of fact, they had fully discussed when first laid before them by the Ambassador. Yesterday the Senate had come to a resolution, which would now be read to him. It so clearly expressed the views of the Government that there was no need to enlarge upon it; and had the Ambassador not sought audience of himself, he would have been invited to attend, in order that the resolution might be communicated to him.
The Doge then assured the Ambassador of the full confidence which they reposed in him; and praised his answer to the individual who had tried to corrupt him, though it would have been better to have first probed deeper into his designs.
After the resolution of the Senate had been read the Ambassador said that he was very glad to see that the Senate fell in with his views, but he observed a difficulty of some importance, which, however, might easily be surmounted; “the league which I proposed to your Serenity was an idea of my own and not submitted upon the orders of my master, though I am fully aware that it is impressed upon his mind. The difficulty I feel is this that I see the Senate accepts the proposition not in an equality of desire, but as emanating originally from the King. Now I am of opinion that it is highly important that your Serenity should appear as the principal; for the chief difficulty will be to convince the allied Sovereigns of the intention of the Senate. If I were to propose this negotiation to my master without being assured of the intention of the Senate, and then in the meantime the Republic should yield, so to speak, to the Pope, that would be a very serious matter. To proceed securely it is but right that your Serenity should order me to write to my master that you are ready to treat with him, and that you assure him of the resolute determination of the Senate; for the King cannot embark on the affair without some further security as to that determination, in the absence of which he is unable to approach his allies and the King of France.”
The Doge replied that the resolution of the Senate was so clearly expressed that there was no need to interpret it, “for it exactly coincides with your Lordship's own propositions. You propose a League and the Senate answers that it will enter on the necessary negotiations when it is assured of the attitude of your master. If you like the resolution shall be read to you again. We do not see what can hinder this league even if we did come to terms with the Pope; for he cannot prevent us from forming an alliance for the protection of our States: the one event would not hinder the other. If your Lordship should write to the King and if the answer is that he is content, then we can enter on negotiations and draw up the usual treaties, Your Lordship may say that we shall give orders to our Ambassador to lay before his Majesty the same resolution that the Senate has just submitted to you.”
The Ambassador declared himself satisfied and said he would lay the whole before the King as warmly as possible, at the same time he begged that the Ambassador Giustinian might be ordered to add his good offices.
He then opened a letter from Milan, containing information on the proposal to surprise Crema. Edward Stanley was one of the surprise party. He is an Englishman, brother of the Stanley who is serving the King of Spain in Flanders and whom the Pope wants to bring to Italy to serve him in the present crisis.
There was also news from Milan that the accord was considered as concluded and that the whole and sole honour thereof belonged to Don Francesco de Castro, and that neither France nor de Joyeuse had any share in it.


  • 1. Sir Albertus Morton, nephew to Sir Henry Wotton.
  • 2. Forbidding the alienation or re-infeudation of Church property.
  • 3. The Ramsay-Ratcliffe marriage
  • 4. This is a confusion between Hay and Ramsay. James Hay was already married in 1604 to Honor Denny. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1604. Sept. 15. He married secondly Lady Lucy Percy. See Carlyle, “Historical Sketches,” p. 50.
  • 5. On the 30th January, 1606, the Council of Ten passed a resolution adopting the new cipher invented by Pietro Parthenio, in preference to the cipher proposed by Franceschi. See Cons. x. Secrete. Reg. xiv. 8. 130.