Venice: April 1611

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1905.

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'Venice: April 1611', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613, (London, 1905) pp. 129-140. British History Online [accessed 20 April 2024]

April 1611

April 2. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 196. Giacomo Vendramin, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Warwick has advised the Grand Duke to secure the port of Leghorn by removing some forced land that was created by the Grand Duke Ferdinand with a view to building an arsenal, which, however, was abandoned when the mistake was discovered.
Florence, 2nd April, 1611.
April 2. Senato, Secreta, Mar. Venetian Archives. 197. Laus Deo, 1611. On the 22nd March.
The Governors and Guardians of the Arsenal (Proveditori et Patroni) have made a contract with Donna Paula, lead founder at San Salvadore, at the Sign of the “Spirito Santo,” widow of the late Piero Belzani, to cast sheets of English lead to the number of thirty thousand, to line the Galeons of State, as per sample.
April 7. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 198. The English Ambassador came to the Cabinet, and after apologising for the trouble he was causing in the midst of important affairs of State, he said: “Among other commissions given me by the King my Master on my departure for this city was the affair of the Prince de Joinville, who desires to enter into your glorious service. Although on my arrival I found this business in progress, both by letters from my sovreign and representations from my predecessor, I deferred raising the point and waited a fitting occasion. Now that I understand that the Queen of France has written letters to your Serenity and caused her Ambassador to approach you, and the Prince moreover has sent one of his gentlemen expressly for this purpose, I should be greatly wanting in my duty as a good Minister if I too did not concur with them in making friendly representations to your Serenity on behalf of the Prince who is so closely bound to his Majesty by affection and blood.” He then went on to point out that the Prince had weight with both Crowns; could easily raise troops; had shown himself ready to serve the Republic. It is the part of a prudent Prince to prepare for war in time of peace si esset nemicus ad portas. This is a special maxim of this Republic, which makes continual preparations in that arsenal of hers which is a wonder of the world and a terror to her foes. The Ambassador will not enlarge on the merits of the Prince nor the greatness of his house; both are well known to the Doge. Only this is no ordinary offer. The Prince will, should occasion require it, be able to draw the forces of the two Crowns to the service of the Republic.
The Doge replied that it was about three years ago that the Ambassador's predecessor, in his Majesty's name, mentioned this subject. The offer was gratefully accepted, but no further steps were taken for reasons of State. The question will now receive due attention. Nothing further can be said just now. The Republic is much attached to the Prince's house and to the Prince himself, who is known to be as frank a sword as there is in the world.
The Ambassador said “I will add nothing more, but will wait what may be decided on by your Serenity's wisdom. I must now return thanks for the favour shown to that merchant on whose behalf I sent to beg that certain bales of leather belonging to him and lying at the Board of Health should not be touched, but that his arguments should be heard. Further, as the skins are likely to be ruined if not attended to, being rabbit skins and very delicate, I now beg your Serenity to allow the merchant to remove them on depositing their value at the Board of Health.”
The Doge replied that immediately that the request was received orders were given that the goods were not to be touched. But as there was some small conflict of jurisdiction between the Board of Health and another office “we have not been able to wind up the affair; the matter would not any way have taken long, but now that your Lordship has pointed out the danger of the skins being ruined, these gentlemen will take information and give what orders may be necessary for the satisfaction of your Lordship.”
The Ambassador said that he would always try to encourage the trade of English merchants in Venice and therefore willingly appealed to the grace of the Doge, whose pardon he begged if he was sometimes troublesome. “There is a merchant here, master of an English ship which brought much goods from Ireland; and he has to recover his freights from various merchants here who have taken him into Court. Now it is most costly for him to lie here with all his crew on his shoulders and the procedure in the ordinary courts can be drawn out as long as the lawyers choose, and so this merchant begs your Serenity to name him a special judge who will hear and decide his suit and not put him to such worry and loss.”
The Doge told the Ambassador to leave his petition and it would be attended to.
The Ambassador said he never meant his request to interfere with the course of justice; “and now that I have annoyed your Serenity with details, it is only right that I should conclude my audience by wishing a happy Easter to your Serenity and the whole Republic; begging you to be assured that if I attend you less often than others who hold a like office here I nevertheless serve you and revere you every day in my heart.”
After some further compliments the Ambassador took his leave and left.
April 7. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 199. Marc' Antonio Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations of the Ambassador of Savoy have been conducted here with great honour to him, and graciously received by the King. His chief commission was to propose an alliance and a bond of a double marriage, each of them giving a daughter, one to the Prince of Wales, the other to the Prince of Piedmont. The proposal was referred to the Great Council of State, but the question of the Prince's engagement was absolutely excluded; as he is so young the King means to put it off for some time, perhaps with the intent to give him a daughter of France or of Spain, both of which Crowns he plays with this hope. On the point of the marriage of the Princess, I am told by the Councillors themselves that the Ambassador pleaded that he was not commissioned to treat that question alone; but he held out good hopes. I know that on the topic of religion he has had long conferences with the King and with Lords of the Council. The King claims that it be stipulated, in a special clause, that the Princess and all her suite shall be free to exercise in private the religious rites of this kingdom; and yet I hear that he told the Ambassador that provided force were not used to her he would never be displeased if she attended Catholic Churches. On the side of the Duke there is a desire to pass over this point without making express mention of it, perhaps in the hope of finding less resistance in the Pope. It is thought that the fact that the Princess was brought up in the Catholic faith up to the age of six, will render it more easy for her to pass over to it. The Ambassador is leaving to-morrow in spite of the fact that he announced he was going to stay two months. He declares that the Duke will immediately send him or another Envoy to Rome to treat about a dispensation. It is believed that the King made him leave, for if the negotiation met with opposition from the Pope or any other hinderance, he does not think it would be for his dignity that the person who was negotiating the marriage should be here. One of the Council told me that there is another point to be resolved besides the point of religion; I have not discovered what, except that it is a proposal from the King to the Duke; it may be some objection to an attack on Geneva or on lands belonging to the Swiss. All the same, if the diversity of religion does not constitute an obstacle all other difficulties will be surmounted. Some say that as this affair was once before mooted by the Spanish, so the Ambassador Wotton on his passage through Turin, upon orders from the King, invited the Duke to send this Embassy. However that may be, he has received greater favours and honours from his Majesty than have been shown for a good while to any other Ambassadors. The King at a public banquet drank to the health of the Prince of Piedmont. The French have shown signs of great suspicion and have done all they could to damage the reputation of the Duke of Savoy and to upset an alliance between two Princes, both of whom border on France. And this happened that the French Ambassador after naming an hour when the Savoyard could return his visit, shut the door in his face on the ground that he had first visited Spain on the plea that Spain had been the first to visit him. The French don't admit this plea, especially as they say that the visit took place before the Ambassador had been presented to the King. Nor have other occasions of scandal and annoyance been wanting to the French, whereby the Spanish Ambassador has made advances. The Savoyard Ambassador told me he would make his journey by Flanders and Lorraine, leaving France on one side. He will travel as fast as he can. I must not omit to say that from the French quarter it has been remarked to me that the Duke's troops are still all on foot; that the French frontiers are well guarded; so too Geneva and the Swiss territory; therefore it is not impossible the Duke may have some designs on Italy supported by Spain. I, however, showed that I paid no more heed to such considerations than was required by mere politeness.
London, 7th April, 1611.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 7. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 200. Marc' Antonio Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides his other negotiations the Ambassador of Savoy has said that the Duke, his Master, had during the life of Henry IV. contracted a marriage between the Prince of Piedmont and a daughter of the King. The Prince had never liked this contract nor consented to it; and now that the Queen of France wishes to defer the marriage till the King is of maturer age, both their Highness have thought it well not to bind themselves to an event so exposed to accidents. The Ambassador then went on to say that the submission made by Prince Filiberto did not take place as declared by the Spanish and such would have been entirely contrary to the orders of the Duke. The Duke has had to complain of the Prince for allowing himself to be persuaded by the Nuncios to go so far in their desire to preserve the peace of Italy. The Ambassador also asserted most positively that the troops massed in Piedmont have no other object than the protection of that State; that their number is not large and that they are all, at present, on the Milanese frontier, where the Spanish garrison is extraordinarily strong. This last statement has given great satisfaction, as also has the news that the Duke of Saxony has accepted the proposal that he should be placed in “possession” of Cleves along with Brandenburg and Neuburg and should submit all claims to the Emperor along with the Electors.
The King has insisted that before he returned to London Lady Arabella should set out for Durham. For this purpose he has sent repeated messengers and has declared that he will not enter the city till his orders have been carried out. But as the lady refused to rise from her bed, being partly crushed by grief and partly pleading illness, she was taken a few miles out of London in a litter, and will continue her journey slowly.
The King has gone back to Theobolds and on Monday will be followed by the Prince. The Queen has gone to Greenwich and will stay there three weeks.
The city is almost quite free of plague, contrary to general expectation, for the great damp of the winter led people to look for much sickness.
London, 7th April, 1611.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 14. Minutes of the Senate, Constantinople. Venetian Archives. 201. To the Ambassador in Constantinople.
Praising his action in the question of the negotiations between the Capudan Pasha and Count Maurice. He is to find out the opinion of the French and English Ambassadors. If they take the same view as the Republic the Ambassador is to act in their support.
Ayes 161.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 18.
April 14. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 202. Marc' Antonio Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The point in the negotiations for the marriage of the Princess to Savoy which, as I wrote to you, still remained to be settled, is that at the same time a daughter of his Catholic Majesty should be given to the Prince of Wales. On this point I have been confidently assured by one of the Council that it will be difficult to reach a conclusion. Opinions are so divided among them on this subject, that no one can be sure of what will be the upshot. This request was put forward while the Ambassador was showing unwillingness to come to terms expressly as to liberty of conscience for the Princess and her suite. At that juncture he was informed from the King that he would give his daughter to the Prince of Piedmont if he received a daughter from his Highness on like conditions as regards religion. With this answer the Ambassador left, by way of Flanders. He received many presents of gilt plate; and on his special request two months' time was granted, during which his Majesty promises to listen to no propositions that may be made to him from other quarters. The Ambassador announces his intention of returning soon with ampler powers, and a greater assurance as to what the Duke can promise. This idea of an alliance with his Highness has its roots in a large degree in the suggestions of his Catholic Majesty's Ambassador, moved, I know not whether by a sincere desire for it or by a wish to further his own affairs and those of the Prince of Piedmont. However that may be he has in this way made great advances in the favour of the Court; and special signs of graciousness from the Queen have been observed, such as the honours paid to a sister, and to the daughter-in-law of the Ambassador, whom the Queen constantly had with her, and to whom she gave presents of some value. The French Ambassador is receiving constantly couriers on this business; nor does he omit aught that might hinder the issue. He has announced that he is confident of being able to do so. His Lordship is urging the suit of the Count Palatine and in this he is supported by the Scottish nation, always attached to France. He hopes that a Spaniard will never be preferred to the sister of his Master. All the same he knows quite well that the desire of the Queen and of the English nation is against him; one hears it openly said that French women have never succeeded in England. Large remittances from Spain have at last reached the Spanish Ambassador to enable him to make the usual presents to many persons about Court; those presents, it seems, had been suspended on account of the report furnished to his Catholic Majesty by Don Pedro de Zuñiga as to the little support he had always found in them. This event has increased the popularity of the present Ambassador.
At this moment there are many Scots at Court. Some are here on Scottish affairs, others in search of the posts vacant by the death of the Earl of Dunbar, some again about the succession to his fortune. That is to be divided between two daughters; one of whom is married in Scotland and the other engaged to a son of the Earl of Suffolk, the Great Chamberlain, and this threatens to raise a contest between the two nations. Already steps have been taken to dissuade the young lady from this match. This came to the King's ears and has angered his Majesty all the more so as the Scottish have declined to allow the King to settle the question of the said inheritance, which he desired to do in order to remove bitterness.
His Majesty informed of the evil plight of the Lady Arabella, and fearing to be generally judged to be too harsh, has given leave to her to remain for a month longer in the place where she is a few miles out of London, and has changed her place of confinement from Durham to a house belonging to Lord Cavendish (Candich), brother of her mother, which lies in the middle of the kingdom. To this last resolution Arabella does not assent, owing to the quarrels she has always had with her uncle, from whom she claims large estates. She hopes that within the time appointed her she will find new access to the King's grace.
As it came to my knowledge that in the hands of certain merchants were about three thousand ducats, the property of one of the sureties condemned to indemnify the plunder of the “Reniera and Soderina,” I obtained an order in Council that they were to be handed over to me, and I hope to get them in a few days. Perhaps before I leave I may be able to exact the rest of the credit, or at least to receive such securities as will ensure its safely reaching the hands of the representatives for the interested parties within a brief period, and to them I will remit whatever may be paid to me.
Their Majesties and the Princes will return to London in the early days of May, and will leave again about the 10th. If my successor's purge prevents him from arriving before that date, as I fear may be the case, I shall perhaps be forced to wait here many weeks longer owing to their Majesties' absence.
London, 14th April, 1611.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 15. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Zante. Venetian Archives. 203. Michiel Priuli, Governor in Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
Is sending on board the English ship “Mariana,” the base coin found when the melting took place. They are in six cases with the sign of St. Mark on them.
Zante, 15th April, 1611.
April 21. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 204. Marc' Antonio Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The extraordinary drought in the country has deprived the King of his sport. He will return next week to London to stay till the weather changes, when he will go out again with M. de Vitry, who is coming on an invitation from France and is greatly desired, as he is a famous sportsman. The Spanish are not without some suspicion that he may be charged, on this occasion, to make some representations about the marriage; this suspicion is increased by their knowing that many persons about the Court are in favour of the Palatine on the score of religion. I hear that the eldest son of the Duke of Neuburg will soon be in London to ask for the Princess in the Palatine's name, while he will take the opportunity to make various representations on his own behalf in the matter of the Duchy of Cleves and his claims to the guardianship of the Palatinate. The Spanish Ambassador has sent his Secretary in haste to Madrid and this gives rise to conjecture on this matter of marriage. His Lordship told me that he is about to call attention to some difficulties over his remittances; and I know quite well that as yet not a penny of the pensions which he was to distribute to various courtiers has been paid so far. The Treasury is in want of money and there is a new debt of four hundred thousand ducats. The Lords of Council have been in long consultation. It has been proposed to create one hundred knights (Cavallieri) on payment of four thousand ducats each, but no one has been found to offer the price. It seems now that they are not inclined to accept a donative of eight hundred thousand ducats offered by the merchants on condition that the customs are consigned to them for eleven years and are not altered. All the same the King continues his usual liberality, and in these last few days pensions have been granted to many persons, mostly Scottch, to the amount of eighty thousand crowns a year. The Earl of Salisbury, on the instigation of the Earl of Northampton, to meet the present difficulties, has resigned into the King's hands the Wardship of Minors, and to him, unless Lord Salisbury repents, will be paid all the revenues, which amount to a great sum. Lord Salisbury, however, retains the governorship in conjunction with some other personage. While the King was in the country in company with the Chancellor of Scotland (fn. 1) and many other subjects summoned from that kingdom, it was determined to establish a Council of Nine, with the Chancellor at their head, for the management of all Scotch affairs. (fn. 2) They did not choose to elect great subjects, and so already there is some murmuring. Nor does there seem to be complete satisfaction here either among the chief ministers; for the King more often orders execution of decisions than submits the decision of affairs to his Council as was wont to be done in the past; and so suspicion of the Scotch nation grows; and it is believed that as in the past some few Scots were admitted of the Council as a mark of honour but never took any active part in affairs of State, so now those same persons are endeavouring to draw themselves apart with the King in order to govern in this way and to rule the rest. (Ne anco da questa parte pare che sia intera sodisfatione nelli principali Ministri; commandando il Re più tosto ben spesso l'executione che remettendo al suo Consiglio la risolutione de' negocii, come è stato solito per il passato, onde si accresce la gelosia che tengono della natione Scocese et credono che si come per il passato alcuni di essa sono stati introdotti nel consiglio per lo termine di honore non si essendo mai molto ingeriti nelle cose di Stato, cosi hora procurino di ristringersi a parte con la Maestà sua per governar di questo modo, et comandar a gli altri.)
After the death of the Earl of Dunbar, Robert Carr, also a Scot, a youth of a most modest nature, and always beloved by the King, has made such strides in his favour as it would seem that he alone is to dispose of everything. A few days ago he was created Viscount Rochester, and therefore takes precedence of all Barons of the kingdom. He is the first of that nation to receive an English territorial title as being naturalized by grace. All this is displeasing to the English; all the same everybody is endeavouring to secure his favour and good will. (Dopo la morte del Conte di Dunbar il Signor Robert Car, pur Scocese, giovine di modestissima natura et sempre amato dal Rè, si è avanzato nella gratia sua, che pare che solo sii per disponer d'ogni cosa. Fu dichiarito pochi giorni sono Visconte di Rochester, con che preciede tutti li Baroni del Regno; et è il primo di quella natione che ha ottenuto il titolo di provincia in Inghilterra come naturalizato per gratia. Vengono queste cose mal volentieri vedute dogli Inglesi tuttavia ogn'uno s'ingegna di acquistar la gratia et la benevolentia li lui.)
Viscount Cranborne, son of the Lord Treasurer, was no sooner in. London than he came to see me, even before he went to see the King at Royston. He omitted nothing that could make me understand his gratitude and the memory he preserves of the favours received from your Serenity. I replied in a suitable manner, and will not fail to cultivate this friendship, as it cannot fail to be of great service to this Embassy. On his way back he came through Flanders, where he was lodged and highly honoured by the Archdukes, who gave him on his departure a very beautiful jewel.
London, 21st April, 1611.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 21. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 205. Marc' Antonio Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
There has been published recently the defence of a priest who was in prison for the oath of allegiance he had taken. His Majesty was greatly pleased and desired to see it before it was issued. He wished to alter some words, but the author refused and declared that if that were done he would write again against it. From France comes another book in answer to his Majesty's. This makes him more indignant than ever, and alienates his mind more and more from the Catholic faith. On this late Easter he was at great pains that his Council should communicate according to this rite. He took note of those who absented themselves from Court and complained bitterly of them, declaring that he would never love an apostate, so they call those who have abandoned the Protestant to embrace the Catholic faith.
The Spanish Embassy (fn. 3) has been frequently surrounded by the officers of the Bishop and the Sheriff of London, in order to arrest those who frequent it at time of mass; the Ambassador has raised loud complaints in a note to the King, almost as though his freedom had been interfered with. On Monday he was introduced into the Council by the King's order, and was told that the Bishops and Magistrates of the City were greatly scandalized at his toleration of the English who frequented mass in the Ambassadors' houses, and that they desired to consult on the remedy to be applied without injury to his privileges. The Ambassador replied that he neither invited nor knew any of those who occasionally attended his chapel at the hour of mass, nor were they known by his servants; that it was not for him to drive out those who came to his house; that he had always done his best to live modestly, nor had he made any innovation on the practice of his predecessors. “Very well,” it was answered him, “if it is not for you to take care who comes in and who goes out, or if you do not intend to provide on this point we shall send and arrest them in your chapel”; but as the Ambassador showed great annoyance at this and declared that he had always lived quietly and bowed to the King's will and that they ought to treat him with a like consideration, these words were, as he himself told me, withdrawn, and the conversation closed pleasantly. They took this occasion to discuss the matter with me and with the French Ambassador. I was received by the whole Council at the stairs and was made to sit in the King's chair; the Earl of Salisbury, having first, in the name of all, begged my pardon for not having come themselves to my house, on the plea of avoiding talk in the town, and having abundantly professed the esteem in which your Serenity's representative was held, went on to say that the Bishops and Magistrates had complained, and that the King had sent an answer to the Spanish Ambassador's note, and had ordered the question to be discussed with the other Ambassadors to see how the abuse might be remedied, especially at the present juncture, at which a new Ambassador from Flanders was expected. They therefore asked me what privileges I claimed for the Embassy. After making a suitable reply to the compliments, I said that I thought, as far as I was concerned, there was no need to address such a question to me; for besides having only one mass at my house, and that at no fixed hour, I had always given orders that at that hour the doors should be shut, and the English who came near should be gently sent away. Their Excellencies therefore might be assured that if someone occasionally came in in the crowd of foreigners unobserved, it was not a matter worthy of any consideration, either for the number or the quality of these persons. I knew very well that in so delicate a matter the King himself desired that all violent or abusive language should be avoided and I would follow his example. I felt sure that as in the past it had never been needful to have an eye on my house, no more would it be in the future. That where the King's satisfaction or service was in question I had no desire to enquire what were my privileges, for this Embassy was established here only to serve and honour the King. I had always found in him great tokens of affection, and in all their Excellencies great prudence; and so I replied cheerfully that I esteemed no other privilege more highly than the King's benevolence and his satisfaction. The Earl of Salisbury said, and the Council almost with one voice confirmed him, that they had never expected any other answer from your Serenity's representative; that this was not a question raised for me especially, but for all Ambassadors; and while all applauded, Lord Salisbury said he was well aware the Venetians were not the Pope's greatest friends. I replied: “Nay, they are his most obedient sons in matters spiritual, but in matters temporal, after God, they depend on none but the Republic itself.” For me it was enough to look after the religion of my household, for my sole mission in England was to preserve the true affection which united these two powers. After that I thanked the Council for its support of the parties interested in the ship “Soderina” and took my leave.
London, 21st April, 1611.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 22. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives. 206. That the English Ambassador be asked to attend in the Cabinet to hear as follows:
Reply to the request of the Prince de Joinville to be taken into Venetian service. The Republic will take into consideration the request when occasion arises.
Ayes 117.
Noes 15.
Neutrals 44.
April 22. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives. 207. To the Ambassador in England.
The English Ambassador came to the Cabinet on the 7th of last month and in his Majesty's name made a request in favour of the Prince de Joinville. You will make representations to the King in the sense of our answer to his Ambassador, which we enclose.
Ayes 142.
Noes 2.
Neutrals 3.
April 23. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 208. Giacomo Vendramin, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Warwick is actively at work on his ship and, they say, on the excavation of the port of Leghorn; all the same it seems that this operation is harmful for the present on account of the stench of the excavated earth; and some think he will make the place uninhabitable, at least for a time.
Florence, 23rd April, 1611.
April 28. Collegio Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 209. The resolution of the Senate of the 22nd touching the Prince de Joinville having been read to the Ambassador of the King of Great Britain, he said that he knew not what to add save that the King his Master would be well pleased with so gracious a reply, as his Majesty's sole desire was the convenience of the Republic. He asked for a copy of the resolution, if that were permitted, or at least that it might be re-read to him so that he might the more correctly transmit it to the King.
The Doge replied that it was not the custom of the Republic to give copies of resolutions, but the Secretary would re-read it to the Ambassador in the next room.
The Ambassador then went on to say that there was an English merchant involved in smuggling along with the head of the Lazaretto, and it seems that there is a report that others of our nation are inculpated. If this were true it would be absolutely contrary to his Majesty's intent. This merchant assures me that at all times he has observed the rules of the Republic in this respect. If I have asked that this should be seen to by your Serenity I have not done this with intent to contest the authority of any magistrate, but merely that your Serenity might be assured of the innocence of his Majesty's subjects.
The Doge replied that to gratify the Ambassador they had resolved to hear what the merchant had to say, and it might be that he would be introduced into the Cabinet shortly after the Ambassador.
But it seemed clear from the trial that the Englishman had had a hand in the smuggling. “As your Lordship is well aware, this city is governed by laws, to which we must adhere. If anyone is aggrieved by the sentence of a magistrate there is appeal. Nevertheless to gratify your Lordship we will hear what the merchant has to say, and will endeavour to come to a reasonable conclusion, and leaning more to clemency than to rigour in order to please your Lordship.”
The Ambassador retired, and the resolution was read over to him twice in the neighbouring Senate Chamber, and he declared that the King and the Prince would be content, as no one was elected by the Republic to fill the post to which the Prince aspired.
April 29. Senato, Secreta, Terra, Venetian Archives. 210. That Moderante Scaramelli, who has served as Secretary to the Embassy in France and is to continue the same service in England, be allowed to keep the present given him by his Most Christian Majesty.
Ayes 161.
Noes 2.
Neutrals 2.
April 29. Senato, Secreta. Terra, Venetian Archives. 211. To the Ambassador Foscarini, appointed to England.
Leave to Foscarini to keep the presents given him by the King of France.
Ayes 162.
Noes 0.
Neutrals 2.
April 30. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives. 212. To the Ambassador in France.
In addition to our despatch of the 22nd. The gentleman of the Prince de Joinville, who came with the French Ambassador to present his master's request, left the city immediately after the audience in order to avoid receiving a chain worth three hundred crowns, which we sent to him two hours after the audience.
Ayes 138.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 6.
The same to England.
April 30. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 213. Giacomo Vendramin, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
At Leghorn the excavation of the harbour goes on, in order to enlarge it and to make it safe, but also to get rid of the seaweed which the libeeeio brings up in vast quantities; and though it stopped short of the city, it stank and made the air unwholesome. The point where they are working just now is along the Mole by the braccio Ferdinando; but to avoid the great expense they employ few hands at a time; and the business will be a long one. Pray God it be not also useless. As to the expense, some put it at two, others at four and some at eight hundred thousand crowns. Although the work is intended to benefit the town there is some complaint of the Earl of Warwick as its author, as though he were trying to secure his continuance here as long as he has no other asylum. His ship is now nearly finished. It is like a galleasse but much smaller. It is to have twenty oars per bench. She is certainly meant for privateering.
Florence, 30th April, 1611.


  • 1. Alexander Seaton, Dunfermline.
  • 2. See Cal. S.P. Dom., Royston. Ap. 4, 1611. “The King thinks of revoking the lieutenancy granted to the Earls of Dunbar and Cumberland and of governing by commission as before.”
  • 3. See Cal. S.P. Dom, Ap. 6. Royston. “The masses at foreign Embassies to be considered.” On Feb. 2nd Sir Henry Montague, Recorder of London, had reported the discovery of “things prepared for a mass” in Lockey's house, near Aldersgate. On Feb. 22nd the Keeper of Newgate was to be severely punished for allowing masses in prison. On Feb. 24th “the King would have the Spanish Ambassador's house watched to see who goes to mass, but not openly, so as to attract his notice.”