Venice: July 1612

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1905.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.


, 'Venice: July 1612', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613, (London, 1905) pp. 385-401. British History Online [accessed 19 May 2024].

. "Venice: July 1612", in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613, (London, 1905) 385-401. British History Online, accessed May 19, 2024,

. "Venice: July 1612", Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613, (London, 1905). 385-401. British History Online. Web. 19 May 2024,

July 1612

July 5. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 567. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
News from Denmark with an account of the capture of Ellenborg on the 19th May. The King employed all his forces amounting to fourteen thousand infantry and horse. This success is considered highly important, as the place is on the sea. Five large ships chiefly laden with copper were found in the harbour, half sunk; orders have been given to recover them. The King then pushed on and invested Golberi, a castle one league inland from Ellenborg. He called on it to surrender; the garrison asked for fifteen days, which the King would not grant for fear lest succours should arrive in the meantime. He opened fire and in four days reduced the place; then having no other fortress to oppose him he pushed on into Sweden towards Incopen. During this time the Lord of Ranzo pushed on with six thousand foot and some companies of horse, towards a Fort three miles from Kalmar, called Fort Risbus, on a hill, garrisoned by two hundred foot. Ranzo, with some difficulty, placed his cannon in a commanding position, and after breaching the walls in several places, he assaulted and captured the Fort, which could not be succoured because of the artillery. Thus the King of Denmark is master of almost all Gothland, and the King of Sweden has only one place on the ocean and is cut off from all trade except with Poland, Danzig and part of Muscovy; Ranzo has moved on to join the King of Denmark. After the defeat which I reported and his various accidents in the river the King of Sweden is in bed with fever, though latest news assures us of his approaching recovery. It is held for certain that the two Kings must have met by now, for all the country is open right up to Stockholm, the capital. While this is going on negotiations also are afoot. The King of England has lately sent an Agent; the Hanseatic towns do not wish to see Denmark successful; and the Protestant Princes and the Dutch all wish for peace. All the English troops have left. Lord Willoughby, who commands them, has been delayed by the wind, along with twenty or twenty-five other gentlemen; but he must be across by now. Peace will certainly follow. The advantage to one side or the other depends on fortune which, as yet, has smiled on Denmark. When peace is concluded they will endeavour to bring both Kings into the Union. That will easily be achieved; for Denmark has long ago declared his readiness, and Sweden will be compelled by circumstances.
London, 5th July, 1612.
July 5. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 568. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The copy of the letter sent by the Dutch Ambassador at Constantinople to his Masters is enclosed. I send it because, though I suppose your Excellencies are already aware of its contents, the details in the actual words of the Ambassador may be of value. If I am fortunate enough, as I hope, to hear what the answer is, and what other orders are given I will at once inform your Excellencies.
The Archduke Albert's orders to his troops to hold themselves ready, are now less stringent, and will probably fade away now that the Imperial Election is over. In Holland they were much alarmed at news from Frankfort that Albert, with the support of Mainz, Cologne and Saxony might balance Mathias, supported by the remaining three Electors. They are relieved, however, by the victory of Mathias. Had Albert been elected he would undoubtedly have supported the claims of Saxony with the Imperial forces and those of Flanders against Brandenburg and Neuburg. One cannot say whether the Spanish are urging the election of the King of the Romans or not. It is certain they would have preferred Albert to Mathias, though they do not show it. As Mathias is powerful, it is hoped that he will maintain the Cesarean dignity, and will be able to obtain assistance from the Members of the Empire on the slightest movement of the Turk.
The Dutch have informed their French Majesties that the King of England wishes to bestow the Garter on Count Maurice and have enquired whether that is agreeable to them. They replied that the matter was indifferent, but they were favourable to Count Maurice. Accordingly the Dutch will give their assent and the Order will be sent. After the death of Lord Salisbury the King applies himself to business in a remarkable way. The French Ambassador told me that his Majesty had suggested to de Bouillon that the Queen of France should join the Union. The Ambassador did not deny that de Bouillon had spoken to the King and undertaken to handle the matter. He concluded that as the King is a minor the Queen will with difficulty be induced to pledge him to a policy. The Ambassador has asked for an audience, it must be on important business for the King has informed the Ambassadors that on weighty points they should refer to him, on minor matters to the Council, and for small points a Secretary of the Council will wait on them at home. All affairs that are not affairs of State are devolved to the Council.
London, 5th July, 1612.
Enclosed in preceding Despatch. 569. To the Illustrious and Potent Lords.
Has been at much pains to have an audience of the Grand Signor, but as yet in vain, owing to the Sultan's absence in certain pleasure gardens of his. The Grand Vizir has promised that he will obtain audience for me immediately on his Majesty's return. As yet no stone has been left unturned to undermine me, which they do by holding out ample promises. This I am told by my friends. They seek every means to thwart this good understanding, and your Lordships can not, and could hardly, credit the efforts that are made to oppose me. Luckily I have also good friends who recommend my affairs and might easily win over the great officers, only they change from day to day, and none of them knows anything about our country. Never could I have believed that this would have given me so much trouble. There is still a great difficulty ahead, for the Capudan Pasha, who was very well disposed, has been removed from his post and so cannot do what he would have done. The Turkish Court changes rapidly and it is difficult to count on support; the only course is to hit the right moment. The other Ambassadors have been so pressing that they have induced the Turk to make large demands and to enquire minutely into the condition of your Lordships' States. They have taken the opinion of certain nations such as Jews and Moors whom they trust on the ground that they have become Turks. The Moors spoke highly in our favour, and sent some of their leading men to beg me to present their thanks for the benefits and the loyalty shown them by the subjects of our nation, in assisting them to leave Spain for Barbary. They praise our nation to the skies for the magnanimity displayed in the war with Spain. There are a great many of them here who have learned the Turkish law. They beg your Lordships to be kind to those of their nation who go to Holland from France, and to send them here in your ships. All this Court has been in great travail over the ill-offices of the other Ambassadors. The moment I have had audience I will inform your Lordships.
Constantinople, 7th April, 1612.
Cornelius Haga.
July 5 Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 570. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Late the day before yesterday the Spanish Ambassador had a message from Don Pedro de Zuñiga to say he had reached Calais. He talks about the royal ships for his escort, the way in which he is to be met, his entry and his lodging provided by the King. The King had already given orders to prepare a lodging, but in a house that was not on a par with that prepared for de Bouillon. The Lieger, accordingly, is getting ready his own house to receive Don Pedro, who gives out that he will not accept lodgings from the King unless it be in the same house and on the same scale as that which was offered to de Bouillon. Here they say that as the King of Spain has not seen fit to send a Duke and a Grandee as France sent a Duke and a Crown officer, it is impossible to treat Don Pedro on an equality with de Bouillon, although he is a very great personage. They are very anxious to know what Don Pedro will say and the answer is a studied one, for the King has touched on the matter several times in Council held at Greenwich. It is not known whether Don Pedro will propose a match between the second Infanta and the Prince of Wales, although his Majesty has taken opinion of some of his Councillors in case he should. Sir Henry Wotton will be here in a few days, and then we shall learn the details of the Duke of Savoy's proposals of the Princess Maria for the Prince of Wales. Meantime the Duke's agent (Pergamo) is lodged at the King's charges, and he has been told that if this does not suit him he would be given twelve crowns a day, and he may lodge where he likes, which he has declined.
After the King had received the letters brought by Sir Henry Wotton's nephew, he has received still later ones, these contain two points; one that the Duke is doing all he can to raise a dower worthy of the Prince of Wales and is thinking of having recourse to his jewels; the other is that the Duke declares he is a Sovreign Prince and has no call to apply to Rome or to Spain. This makes the Tuscan negotiations to move apace; the offers mount up and a great quantity of gold passes into the hands of private individuals. The Queen told the Spanish Ambassador, who told me, that it amounted to a million. The French Ambassador has made some representations calculated to throw obstacles in the way of Tuscany, but with caution, though it is very well known, and I have discovered in conversation with him, enough to make it certain. Nothing further will be done till it is seen whether Don Pedro will mention the subject. The Lieger of Spain keeps silent and closely watches the French Ambassador. It will certainly displease Spain to see her Ambassador Extraordinary treated in a way so different from the reception given to the French Envoy but here they do not seem to pay much heed to this, and they are hoping to improve the royal revenue by four hundred thousand crowns a year, partly by the falling in of certain bounties granted by the King for a fixed period, partly by higher bids for farming taxes which are to remain at their present rate. The Spanish Ambassador has announced the arrival of Zuñiga at Calais and has asked for information as to the proposals for meeting and lodging him.
London, July 5th, 1612.
July 5. Capi Consiglio de' Dieci, Lettere di Ambaseiatori Inghilterra, Venetian Archives. 571. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Chiefs of the Ten.
I have received your instructions of the fourth of last month, ordering Scaramelli to leave England and to present himself before the Tribunal of your Excellencies to await their orders. I have communicated all to him, and will repeat the order in writing. He says he will obey. I tender humble thanks for the appointment of a good and able Secretary, and will retain a lively memory of the favour.
London, 5th July, 1612.
July 6. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives. 572. To the Ambassador in England.
A vote of approval to the Ambassador for his treatment of the second son of the Duke of Modena. General satisfaction with the Ambassador's conduct.
Ayes 149.
Noes 3.
Neutrals 5.
July 7. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 573. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The three privateers who arrived at Leghorn from Ma'amura have obtained the Grand Duke's leave to settle there with all their property which is in money. Others are expected soon.
The “galearata,” so they call it, of the Earl of Warwick has been launched in Leghorn. She is longer than the ordinary galley and swifter.
Coloredo is back from Rome.
Florence, 7th July, 1612.
July 7. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 574. Tommaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
Don Giovanni de' Medici still remains incognito, and is negotiating about the marriage of the Prince of England with the Grand Duke's sister. He finds the difficulties greater than he expected. The matter was in the hands of Cardinals Bellarmin and Millino, and now four others, Sauli, Arrigoni, Aracœli and Ascolli, will deal with it. The Confessor of the Dowager Grand Duchess and Lotti, who was Secretary in England, have also arrived.
Rome, 7th July, 1612.
July 10. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 575. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
On the 28th Don Pedro de Zuñiga left this for England. They are watching his negotiations jealously, as they fear he may propose the second Infanta for the Prince.
Paris, 10th July, 1612.
July 12. Consiglio de' Dieci, Parti Roma. Venetian Archives. 576. To the Ambassador in Constantinople.
We are informed from a good source that among the members of your household or among those who constantly and freely frequent it, there is one who writes matter of grave prejudice to our State and especially of most important machinations against it; we therefore order you to intercept letters and to see whether they contain matter affecting our State; if you find anything of moment you are to send it on to us; [and if you think fit you shall arrest the person and send him here].
The same to the Ambassador at Rome, with the Emperor, in France, Spain, England and Savoy, and the Secretaries in Florence, Milan and Naples, omitting the words in brackets and substituting “and you will carefully observe all the movements of the persons who have written the letters, until further orders.”
Expulsis Papalistis, and oath of secrecy administered.
July 12. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi, Venetian Archives. 577. The English Ambassador came to the Cabinet and after some compliments to the Doge he spoke as follows:
The death of the Earl of Salisbury is the reason why he has not been recently to pay his respects. Now owing to an event which has taken place in this City, he has come to beg two favours, one is to relieve me of my annoyance and the other is to set at liberty that individual who was arrested the other day for impertinence to me. As your Serenity deigned to order the arrest of this person so I hope you will consent to order his instant liberation, as the punishment he has suffered will serve him as a lesson.
The Doge replied that the fellow had been arrested at once in order to be tried for his foul words, but as the Ambassador had expressed a desire for his liberation, the Avogador, in whose hands the case was, would be summoned and steps taken to meet his Excellency's wishes.
The Ambassador said that the Earl of Salisbury held two posts, the Treasurership and the Secretaryship; the former had been placed in Commission, the King retains the other in his own hands. The Doge asked for news of the Prince's marriage; the Ambassador hoped soon to be able to give some.
The Ambassador went on to say that he must not omit to tender thanks for the favours he is constantly receiving, and especially in Padua, where he frequently goes, and where the Governors treat him in a way that leaves nothing to be desired. For this he is particularly obliged, and all the more so as his compatriots share in these favours; many of them went also to Palma, where they were so cordially welcomed by the Illustrious Signor Benetto da la Tagiapiera that they knew not what to say or do. “I wish to tell your Serenity what I hear, that is that in former times our English who wished to come to this city used to make a fund which at three or four per cent. gave them money to help towards the expenses of the journey; they came too in small numbers on account of the distance and the cost; now the journey is so easy that they come without any fund and in greater numbers, even ladies come; when they go back to their own country others, attracted by the report of the beauty of this city and by the fame of the new fortress of Palma, will I am certain arrive in hundreds and even thousands for where there was only one; flocking as it were to a hermitage. (Et voglio dire a Vostra Serenità quello che sento et è che siccome in altri tempi li nostri Inglesi che volevano venire in questa Città facevano una certa colletta d'oro, per avanzar tre o quattro per cento, che servissero per le spese del viaggio, et venivano pochi per la distanza et per il dispendio, hora l'hanno così facile che vengono senza la colletta et in maggior numero, et vengono le Donne medesime; et ritornando al paese tratti delle informationi, non solo della bellezza di questa Città ma dalla fama della nova Fortezza di Palma . . . credo certo che concorreranno, come alla visita d'un Eremo per uno cento et poi 'li migliara.)
The Doge said all nationalities and especially the English were welcome.
The Ambassador tenders thanks for the favour granted to the English merchant, recommended by his Majesty's Ambassador in Constantinople; as he wishes to be brief, in order to spare the Doge fatigue, he will merely recall the case of the Vicentine gentleman on whose behalf he some time ago presented a petition. As he has had no answer he fears there may be some difficulty in his case owing to the rules of the Republic, from which he had no desire to derogate. He would take it as a favour if they could come to some decision, so that the subjects of Venice might understand that his Majesty's Envoys are held in consideration.
The Doge said that if they knew the name of the person they might recall the matter.
The Ambassador replied that he was one of the del Monte family who desired a safe conduct. The Doge said that was an affair for the Ten, in which he had not been sitting lately owing to his ill health. The matter would be recalled. It was a point that required a very large majority.
July 13. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 578. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marquis de Flores Davila, Ambassador Extraordinary of Spain, arrived on Tuesday. He was met at Dover in the King's name by the Master of the Ceremonies and two royal carriages. Twenty miles out of London the Earl of Dorset met him with the royal barges. The Ambassador is lodged in the house of the Lieger, who went to meet him, along with the Flemish Ambassador, many miles out. In this way the difficulty of a royal lodging, in one house rather than in another, is overcome. On Sunday he will have his first audience at Hampton Court where the King arrives on Saturday, and at Theobalds his Majesty intends to give him his conge. I can say nothing certain as yet about the commission he holds from his King. When he has spoken to his Majesty I will send a full report to your Serenity. I can only say that as the King has prepared an answer to anything he may bring forward and as the Ambassador is to receive his congè after a few days, and as his Majesty shows little inclination to wait his arrival, the Ambassador may possibly proceed with reserve. At Hampton Court, however, he will be well received and, I believe, lodged for the few days he is there. I have not failed to send to visit him and to pay him all due compliments.
Wotton's nephew must be now many days in Germany, whither he was sent by the King with letters for his uncle, who is to be here shortly.
The Agent of Savoy, who dined with me on Tuesday, said that he still hoped for some result, but that nothing could be settled for certain till Wotton arrived. And in truth the rumours of a Savoy match are growing louder; the King, the Queen, and the Prince seem inclined to it. There are, however, no further details than those already sent to your Excellencies. The Florentine Secretary says that Lotti will be back here in less than a month with very satisfactory particulars. The Palatine will certainly be here on the King's return from Progress. Prince Harry, brother of Prince Maurice, will accompany him; Prince Maurice would have liked to come in person to kiss the King's hand for the favours bestowed on him, to see the Prince to whom he bears a singular affection, and to enjoy for awhile the grandeur of this Court and the kindness of the royal family.
There is here a gentleman sent by the Duke de Bouillon to the King; and there is a rumour that the Duke may come back to England when the Elector is here. The English Ambassador in France reports that de Bouillon gave to the Queen the most favourable report of the King's desire to continue and to weld still closer the bonds of perfect understanding. The Queen used most affectionate terms and promised that by the first of October a hundred thousand crowns of the debt would be paid off, and that if the Dutch did not presently come to a decision, she would see that his Majesty recovered his credit, which is a large sum. The French Ambassador has had audience and has conveyed these expressions to the King.
The Marquis of Spinola has gone to Cologne; one knows not whether with the intent to pass on into Germany, or because of the continued hostility of the inhabitants towards the two “possessioners.”
The King's progress will not be confined to Nottingham but will be continued to York, which is upwards of fifty miles further on. The Council, the Prince, the Duke of York and the Queen also will attend him. The Progress will begin at the end of this month, and I am more than ever of the opinion that I should follow them, as I think I can thus best serve your Excellencies.
An Agent of the Elector of Brandenburg is here; he has presented their Majesties with some roe-deer, rather different from those which are found here. The Landgrave also continues at Court. The Persian Ambassador will leave in three months by sea. He will go to the Persian Gulf with three vessels with people who desire to trade there, but I am sure they will take to piracy, and will inflict damage on the Spanish ships which are absolute masters in those seas. The Spanish Ambassador, when last I saw him, told me he was staying on here much against his will; and went so far as to say he would not go to audience, neither now nor before his departure, were it not that the presence of the Ambassador Extraordinary made it necessary.
London, 13th July, 1612.
July 14. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence, Venetian Archives. 579. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations for a dispensation for the marriage of the Princess to the Prince of England seem to meet with growing difficulties. The Pope wishes to refer the matter to the Holy Office. He is urged on by the Spanish. The Pope has sent here expressly Mon. Vulpio, Archbishop of Chieti, who arrived two days ago. He is to dissuade the Grand Duke. He has with him Padre Castelficardo, a Fransiscan, theologian to Cardinal Montalto, an excellent preacher, Councillor to the Holy Office, to which post he was admitted in the place of Cardinal d'Ascoli. So far Mons. Vulpio lodges with Mons. Grimani.
Florence, 14th July, 1612.
July 14. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 580. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
On Sunday the “galearata” was tried. She was launched and after some slight changes, which are necessary, they think she will do; though experts tell me that as her proportions are faulty she will not be able to stand a gale.
Florence, 14th July, 1612.
July 14. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 581. Tommaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
The Pope is still opposed to the Anglo-Tuscan match. He will inform their Highnesses of the grounds for his objections, but those who know say the consent will be given after a decent interval.
Rome, 14th July, 1612.
July 14. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 582. Piero Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The death of Secretary Cecil gives pleasure here, both because a bitter enemy of the Catholic Religion is gone and also because it is hoped that now they will be able to negotiate more advantageously with that crown about navigation and other interests.
Madrid, 14th July, 1612.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 14. Original Despatch. Venetian Archives. 583. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Ambassador to the Dutch was here last week; he had been sent for by his Majesty, with whom he has had frequent interviews. There is a rumour that he is to be given one of the Secretarial posts which are vacant by the death of Lord Salisbury. At the same time the Dutch Ambassador here received letters with particulars from Barneveldt. He is to urge the King to insist on peace between Sweden and Denmark. He is also to assure his Majesty that the moment they had notice of the appearance of a little book which might have annoyed the King they suppressed it, and will take further proceedings. Three days ago the Ambassador had audience, in spite of his bad health. He thanked the King for his kind enquiries during his illness, and then carried out his instructions. He dwelt on the risks if the Swedish war was continued. Poland, which is fully armed, might easily push ahead; it would not suit any of its neighbours, least of all Denmark, to have on their borders so powerful a King as Poland would be if he conquered Sweden. The King's Agent and the King's succours had both reached the King of Denmark at the same time, and he had thought it more advantageous to employ the arms rather than the diplomatist; Sweden hearing of these succours would treat the English Council as suspect. The King replied that he had always sought to bring about peace, and that he had made it clear to Denmark that these succours were for this summer only, and if peace be not declared before autumn he will withdraw them nor allow others to be sent for the future.
I have heard that the omission of Sweden to send to announce his succession and coronation is not pleasing here.
The States are anxious for peace above all others on public and private grounds as well, for the war cuts them off from the benefits of commerce with those countries; both powers seize the shipping that goes to either of them.
Two ships have arrived from Virginia; and they are thinking of sending out others to assist the development of the Colony.
London, 14th July, 1612.
July 18. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 584. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Saturday Grotti, who was here as Secretary for the Archduke Albert, came to see me on behalf of the Marquis of Flores Davila. He told me the Ambassador was well and intended to stay here some weeks, and indicated that he had business which would require this. The Lieger of Spain sent to apologise for not having visited me on the ground of his occupations.
On Sunday afternoon both Ambassadors went to Hampton Court to audience. The Archduke's Ambassador was also with them, as well as the Florentine Secretary; all the same the suite was poor. They were received by their Majesties and the royal household in a gallery, standing up, and without ceremony. The audience lasted a very short time, and was confined to compliments. The King told the Ambassador he would receive him again on Thursday, and with that he took his leave without a single other favour, neither lodging nor invitation, which is much commented on. The King's brief reply put an end to the audience and gave indications that the past annoyances are still rankling. The Ambassador kissed the Queen's hand, but said merely a couple of words as is fitting in the presence of the King. It is certain that he brings more than one proposal, besides giving an account of the reciprocal matches.
The King received despatches from Spain, and the two Ambassadors have sent despatches this morning. Perhaps they have found out what kind of answer the King and the Council had settled to give to his proposals, as they may have sent word of this to Spain, as well as their views on the King's attitude which they have gathered from his Majesty's words and their treatment as regards their reception and lodging.
The King is expected to-morrow in London, summoned by important business. He will remain two days, and will give the necessary orders before leaving for his Progress. On Friday he will grant the first business audience to the Spanish Ambassador. I do not know whether the Florentine Secretary imparts his affairs and whether the Spanish Ambassador is to treat of them. The French Ambassador is opposed to Florentine aims. Both Tuscany and Savoy are waiting to hear what the Spanish Ambassadors say. I pay the closest attention to what is going on, but since the death of the Earl of Salisbury things are changed, and I have to seek new instruments; in truth, by his death I have lost much, for he used to keep me informed, and in his household I had many friends who were valuable in your Excellencies' service. It is not clear who is to be Lord Treasurer, nor yet who will be appointed Secretary of State. Yesterday the King was hunting within three miles of Windsor, and to-day he sent me his bag, a fine stag, accompanied by a message which enhanced the honour.
London, 18th July, 1612.
July 19. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 585. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King of Spain has given Don Emmanuel of Portugal twelve thousand crowns in addition to the six thousand crowns of annual income already bestowed. The Spaniards hope to induce him to live in Antwerp, or if he continues in Holland to use him in the negotiations for a final peace. If he would consent to live in Spain they offer to pardon those followers of his father, Don Antonio, whom he may name as his servants. As far as can be seen at present Don Emmanuel will enjoy the offers made him without leaving his brother-in-law, Prince Maurice. He entertains hopes of further favours, and peace is not to his interest. On the fourth, an Ambassador from the Elector of Brandenburg was at the Hague. My informant tells me that he has very important proposals for France, England and the United Provinces. The Secretary Grotti has told me about the Imperial Election, that had Treves stood with the other Ecclesiastical Electors the Archduke Albert would have been Emperor. As to the King of the Romans there seems to be no chance of speaking about that just now, as there is a rumour that the Empress is with child. So the issue must be waited. Albert, like a good brother, has sent to congratulate the Emperor. All this Grotti said with a shrug of the shoulders, meaning that nothing else could be done. Should the rumour eventually prove false they will think of proceeding to an Election.
There is a report that goods plundered by English vessels have been sold in Leghorn and taken to Ancona and Goro, where the prices are higher. Many see the only remedy in the marriage of the Grand Duke's second sister to the Prince of Wales; but generally this match is loathed and it is very openly said that if a Tuscan woman comes here she will counsel taxation and will cause the same notable damage which another Tuscan woman has brought about in France. This is common talk.
The King, moved by his own interests, has sent fresh and urgent orders to Sweden and Denmark that his agents are to endeavour to bring about peace between the two Kings. The Royal Progress is fixed for the end of this month, and the list of places (fn. 1) where the King will lodge is already published; all the same the Spanish Ambassador Extraordinary does not seem inclined to depart. Today I ought to return the visit of the Lieger and himself, and I shall, perhaps, learn something.
A personage who knows the King's mind asked me what I thought about peace between the Persians and the Turk; he showed that he did not place much reliance on it, and added that in case of need your Excellencies might count on the assistance of his Majesty against the Turk or against anyone else. When the King came to the throne of England he had a great desire to form a league of Christian Princes against the Turk, and would have done his share by paying ten thousand foot if everyone else had done his duty. I replied that your Excellencies relied on his Majesty's help and, as occasion offered, promised themselves everything from his aid; I was glad to hear the confirmation from his lips. As to the peace I had heard nothing more than this vague rumour. I must not omit to report again, as I have already done, that his Majesty has frequently expressed to me in the hearing of others that he desires to be united in the same interests with your Excellencies.
The Spanish Ambassador Extraordinary, from whom I am just returned, told me he intended to stay here two months at least. He says he has a long affair to deal with and that in September the Lieger's successor will be here. He told me that when here as Lieger he had more honour shown him than now.
London, 19th July, 1612.
July 21. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence, Venetian Archives. 586. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations for the English match are so far advanced that only the Papal dispensation is needed. Mons. Vulpio has had a long audience, and their Highnesses declare that they cannot go back upon what has been arranged. Yesterday the Secretary Ottaviano Lotti was sent to England. Secretary Chioli is to be sent back. They are proposing compromises.
Florence, 21st July, 1612.
July 22. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy, Venetian Archives. 587. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The King of England told Pergamo to beg his Highness to suspend all negotiations for marriage until Wotton had reached England, and could give his Majesty full information.
Turin, 22nd July, 1612.
July 23. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 588. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
One of the points which the King of Great Britain chiefly insisted upon when the Duke de Bouillon was in England was the restitution of the Scotch Guards, who had been cashiered for some trifle and had made their offence worse by having recourse to the King of England—a very bad example as the French thought. However, it was settled yesterday that to please the King of England the soldiers should be replaced but for two months only, after which time they should be again dismissed with a money indemnification to the value of their posts, which are sold here like all other offices. The English Ambassador is quite upset at this decision and has loudly complained to de Bouillon and others that, trusting to de Bouillon's word, he had written to the King that he would be gratified, and in a blaze of fury he has written home to England in such strong terms that it will make a commotion. De Bouillon excused himself on the ground that it would be dangerous to place the King's person in the care of soldiers who considered themselves offended; and he said that the King of England ought to be satisfied with restitution for a couple of months. Villeroy speaks more clearly and says that at the time the Scotch Guard was established Scotland was independent of England and even hostile to her, and as circumstances are changed so the attitude must change. The English Ambassador declines to deal with Villeroy on the subject and represents the whole as an attempt to suppress the Scotch Guard and to sow discord between England and Scotland. The Queen of France has also sent special instructions to her Ambassador in England on this subject.
Paris, 23rd July, 1612.
July 24. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 589. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Pope, through the Nuncio, expresses a desire that he should be named in the contracts as the chief promoter of the Franco-Spanish matches. The Nuncio has encountered some difficulty in the matter, as the French Ministers have always affirmed the contrary to England and to others who were suspicious of these matches. It seems that this was really the case, but now that the matches are concluded the Pope thinks it becomes his dignity as the Common Father to make it appear that they are the result of his hands and his authority. The Queen will assent, and will tell England that this is merely a compliment to his Holiness. Parliament has finally decided that Richer is to be maintained in his post.
Paris, 24th July, 1612.
July 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 590. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King, on Friday morning, gave audience to the Ambassador Extraordinary of Spain, who informed him of the reciprocal matches with France. He dwelt on the nearness of the two Kingdoms, on their common interests, and added that his Catholic Majesty believed he was doing the service of God and of Christendom by concluding these matches, which would not alter in the smallest way the good peace and friendship with his Majesty. He then went on to excuse the answer sent by his Master as to the request for the Infanta for the Prince of Wales. He swore that it was not lack of regard that caused it. The negotiations with France were then nearing a conclusion, the preliminaries being signed. What the Lieger had said in urging his Majesty to make the request was said for himself, and without any conceivable order from Spain, where they were highly displeased at his method of conducting business. He then went on to excuse himself, saying that he knew there were rumours that he had made very unfriendly representations to the King and his Council, which he denied with many an oath and imprecation, and asserted that he had always made most favourable reports. The audience lasted an hour and the Ambassador spoke nearly the whole time; he would have liked to introduce some business, but his Majesty broke it off. The Ambassador received no sort of favour, but just an ordinary audience, nor did he see the King afterwards. On Tuesday he kissed the Queen's hand, but stayed a short time. To-morrow he is to see the King again at Theobalds. He hopes after audience to go hunting with the King as the Master of the Ceremonies told him was intended, and he has prepared a new livery for the country. I hear that the King will endeavour to exclude all business, as he holds that the Ambassador cannot have any commission that would be satisfactory. If the Ambassador insists the King will reply that he is going on Progress and will refer him to the Council, which would in that case stay on here a few days and would bring on the Ambassador's proposals to the King, who would come to a decision. I shall regulate my conduct as regards following the King or staying on here as I think best for your Excellencies' service.
Some days ago a Spanish carvel was captured off the coast of Portugal by two English ships; her cargo was taken and sent on board one of them to England, which she reached twelve days ago. Her consort remained out. Their owner, John Davis, claims that this is lawful prize in reprisals for damage inflicted on him by Spain after the conclusion of peace. As Davis is one of the merchants on whose behalf his Majesty caused his Ambassador in Spain to talk so high, threatening force if he was not indemnified, it is thought that the captured cargo of sugar will be recognised as fair prize and also all other plunder he may take up to the amount of the damage he suffered. The Lieger of Spain went to the Council on Monday and said that Don Diego di Sarmiento, his successor, would soon be here. He praised his prudence and ability and then, speaking of himself, he said that all the time of his sojourn here he had had two objects, the first to serve his Master and then to serve the King. In Spain he was held to be too favourable to the English, and so he was molested; he swore before God that he had had always first in his heart his Master's service and believed that he could not do his duty better than by promoting a good understanding between the Sovreigns. He ended by saying he had some business to deal with, but that he would not waste words, and so he handed in a memorandum signed by himself; he said he did not expect an immediate answer, but looked for a favourable one, and that shortly; all that the memorial contained was also absolutely true. The memorial petitioned for the restitution of the stolen cargo. There were four or five articles of proof. He begged for a conclusion of the affair, but no answer was returned and so the courier left yesterday. As far as I can see there is no inclination here to take any steps about the stolen goods; and if this beginning is tolerated your Excellencies may imagine the consequences, for there are many who claim indemnification from Spain, and who desire nothing better than to be allowed to make reprisals.
A member of the Council tells me that the King having reported the Ambassador Extraordinary's oaths and objurgations to some of the Council, they are only grown more suspicious.
London, 26th July, 1612.
July 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 591. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Saturday the 21st the King's Ambassador to the United Provinces (fn. 2) left London, and yesterday their Ambassador here took his leave of the King at Theobalds and will return to Holland next week. Meantime he will endeavour to find out what the Ambassador Extraordinary of Spain will do at his audience. It is not generally thought that he will get any satisfaction. The Kings of Sweden and Denmark write to the Dutch in terms which show that they are not far from coming to a peace.
As regards Florence they have agreed to a secret and limited exercise of her religion for the second sister of the Grand Duke should she ever marry the Prince of Wales. The Duke of Savoy would grant the same. The Lieger of Spain, in conversation with me, said that both Florence and Savoy were acting without energy and show that they do not like this proposal. It is also certain that a million of gold has been offered. The business stands where Lotti left it at his departure. He is expected back in twenty days, and if the negotiations are really going on, an Ambassador will accompany him. The Secretary Chioli continues an assiduous attention on the Queen and the Prince.
The agent of Savoy is waiting the arrival of Sir Henry Wotton, and is still at the King's charges. The Ambassador in Paris writes that Mayenne has been in Spain some days, but not at the King of Spain's charges, which gives offence. The Marshal de Bouillon often writes to the King and informs him of Spain's most secret designs in France. His Majesty has great confidence in the Marshal. The King has settled the religious differences between the Huguenots of France which arose about the Minister of Sedan. M. de Molins, a leading Minister, first put himself in the King's hands, then the Minister of Sedan. By this time Prince Maurice will have left to meet the Elector Palatine, who will be at the Hague in ten days.
Some servants of the late Don Antonio of Portugal, who were living here, have left to join Don Emmanuel in the hope of finding better fortune.
London, 26th July, 1612.
July 28. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 592. Tommaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
Mons. Vulpio has conferred with the Grand Duke and the Dowager Grand Duchess and has sent express to his Holiness.
Letters also arrived for Don Giovanni de' Medici, who that evening went to see the Pope, and after being some time with him the Cardinals, who have to deal with the English match, were summoned to the Pope's presence next morning; we do not know what has happened beyond that the majority of the Cardinals are of opinion that the Pope cannot give his assent. Most people, however, consider that it is settled. The Pope must bear in mind that one day he will have to make Don Carlo, brother of the bride, a Cardinal, and it would not do for a Cardinal to be brother-in-law of the King or the Prince of England.
The Grand Duchess' Confessor is employed by the Pope to reply to Mornay's book called “Mysterium iniquitatis seu Historia Papalis.”
Rome, 28th July, 1612.
July 28. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 593. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Mons. Vulpio is still here. Since Lotti left Vulpio has given up negotiating, as he finds the matter so far forward. The Pope, however, for his own reputation insists on his remaining still at this Court for a while. He will await the arrival of Lotti in London.
Florence, 28th July, 1612.


  • 1. See Nichols, Progresses. II.
  • 2. Sir Ralph Winwood. See Birch, “Court and Times of James I,” Vol. 1, p. 186.