Venice: April 1613

Pages 516-529

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12, 1610-1613. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1905.

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April 1613

April 6. Minutes of the Senate. Venetian Archives. 805. That the English Ambassador be invited to attend in the Cabinet and to hear what follows:—
We have always considered the King of Great Britain's affairs as our own. We offer our hearty congratulations on the marriage of the Princess to the Palatine. We return thanks for the continued favours shown to our Ambassador. As regards Giovanni Vicenzo Gaetano you have only to dispose of him as may be most pleasing to his Majesty.
Ayes 123.
Noes 2.
Neutrals 42.
April 6. Minutes of the Senate. Venetian Archives. 806. To the King of Great Britain.
Congratulations on the marriage of the Princess with the Elector Palatine.
Ayes 123.
Noes 2.
Neutrals 42.
April 6. Minutes of the Senate. Venetian Archives. 807. To the Ambassador in England.
Instructions to present letters of congratulation, and to express our satisfaction at the marriage of the Princess and the Palatine.
Ayes 123.
Noes 6.
Neutrals 42.
April 6. Original Despatch. Venetian Archives. 808. Piero Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Persian Ambassador has gone to Lisbon to embark; and the Envoy destined here for Persia will wait till September.
The Jesuit Fathers are endeavouring here to open a seminary for young English Catholics. The English Ambassador is opposed, on the ground that they would end by going to England to disturb the Kingdom, owing to their vow to preach the faith. The Ambassador has succeeded in preventing the design from going ahead.
Madrid, 6th April, 1613.
April 6. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy. Venetian Archives. 809. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marchese Villa left for England two days ago. He had a large suite. I have not been able to find out the precise nature of his instructions, but it would seem that beyond condolences and congratulations for the death of the Prince and the marriage of the Princess, he has orders to resume negotiations for a match between one of these Princesses and the Prince. Gabaleone is also to go to England in a few days on the same errand. The Duke is sending as a present to the King a splendid tiger and lion which he bought from some Spaniards; they are the same as were in Venice about a year ago, and the majority of your Excellencies must have seen them. For the Queen the Marchese is taking a casket of rock-crystal, jewelled and filled with curious nicknacks fit for a lady. The rumour grows that the King of Spain would like to marry one of these Princesses. It gains little credence, however, as the Spanish game is well known to be merely to prevent the English match. For when the match with the Prince of Wales was on foot the Spaniards proposed that both Princesses of Savoy should be sent to Spain, and great hopes were held out, but on the Prince's death the suggestion was allowed to drop.
The English Corsair is in Vercelli with his Highness. There are many who affirm that he is disposed to surrender all his property to the Duke, on condition that the Duke should give him for life four thousand ducats a year in fiefs, and in case of his having children, two thousand to his descendants. This leads people to believe that as he is content to take so little in comparison with his reputed wealth, this may well be far inferior to what was rumoured, or that he finds himself in such a position that he is obliged to accept any terms. No more dangerous resolve could have been taken than this, if it be true; for it is believed that it will be the means of depriving him not merely of his goods but of his life. He has already become aware of his error and regrets that he ever came here; but as it is out of his power to remedy it he is obliged to adapt himself to necessity and the course of events.
Turin, 6th April, 1613.
April 9. Collegio. Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 810. The Ambassador of England came to the Cabinet and spoke as follows:—
Has come to wish them a happy Easter and to carry out some instructions contained in a letter from his Majesty, which he begs may be read. He handed in the letter of this tenour:—”James, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc., to the most Serene Prince and Lord Marc' Antonio Memmo, Doge of Venice, etc., our dearest friend, greeting.”
Announces the marriage of the Princess to the Palatine. The Venetian Ambassador who was present throughout the ceremonies will have reported details. Has instructed his Ambassador in Venice to return thanks for the honour shown by the Republic to the King, and for proofs of affection, especially for the promptness with which the Republic arrested that scoundrel who, aware of a plot against the King's life, voluntarily revealed it to the Ambassador. The Ambassador is to return thanks and to explain what ought to be done.
Westminster, 22nd February, 1613.
“Your friend James, King.”
The Ambassador then went on to say that his Majesty considered it his duty, in view of their friendly relations, to communicate the marriage of his daughter. The King is so satisfied with the fine qualities of the Elector Palatine that he seems to have recovered a son in place of the one he has lost. The Venetian Ambassador was present in great state, to his Majesty's pleasure, who paid him the honour due to the representative of a great Prince. Although his Majesty is sure that the Venetian Ambassador will have reported fully, yet, as a sign of greater esteem, he has ordered his own Ambassador to make this statement.
The Ambassador is further instructed to return thanks for the promptness with which that young man Giovanni Vicenzo Gaetano was arrested; this is a pleasing proof of the attention paid to his Majesty's wishes. Seeing that Gaetano was a voluntary agent in such important actions, the Ambassador is especially instructed to relieve the Republic of all charges which have been or may be made on account of the prisoner, and to beg that he may still be retained in custody until certain investigations necessary for full light on the matter have been carried out, and until his accomplices have been discovered, as will certainly happen, seeing that the necessary orders have been issued.
The Ambassador then announced the peace between Sweden and Denmark. The King acted as mediator. Both parties are about to send Embassies. He excuses his delay on the ground that one of his Secretaries who brought the despatches was stayed by bad weather.
Ser Lunardo Mocenigo, senior Councillor in the absence of the Doge, replied that they had heard the Ambassador's remarks with great pleasure. As to Gaetano, the Cabinet will consult on the Ambassador's request.
The Ambassador said that just as he had sought but now the arrest of one man, so he now begged for the liberation of another, Cumanelli, a gentleman of Verona, on whose behalf he had petitioned on other occasions. He pleads the ruin of the man's wife, family, estate, which, he is sure, was not intended. What the man has suffered will serve as a punishment for his errors. The Ambassador had received a favourable reply on other occasions. Ser Lunardo Mocenigo replied that sometimes the severity of the law prevented them from gratifying the Ambassador as they desired. His request would be forwarded to the right quarter.
April 11. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 811. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The French, who sowed suspicion among the German Protestants when the Emperor was intending to attack the Turk, still say that it would be a serious mischief if the Austrians were to throw a large number of troops into Germany on that pretext; for it would be easy for them to attack others. France is urging the Germans not to take part in the war, but to leave the whole burden to the House of Austria. They urge that if the troops of Austria are sufficient to defend themselves that will do, but if the Turk gets the upper hand, then they can come to the assistance of Austria. I know that such advice has fallen from the lips of Villeroy when talking to the Envoys of Sovreigns. He added that assistance should be given to them, but not in money, and that the commanders should be appointed by the Princes; thus the Emperor would be strong against the Turk, but weak and divided should he attempt anything else. The Palatine had letters from de Plessen on this subject.
The King has despatches from his Ambassador in France telling him of the Queen's answer to the Emperor on the subject of aid. She said she would gladly let troops pass, but he need not hope for money.
The Dutch Ambassador visited me on the day I sent my last despatch. He spoke of the rumour that the States had made a confederation with the Turk; he assured me on oath that he had seen the whole negotiations at the Porte and there was nothing of the sort. The United Provinces could not enter into a confederation without the assent of all the cities under their jurisdiction, and so such a treaty must become public; neither Barneveldt nor the other leaders would dare to conclude such a treaty. The rumour was set about by their enemies. He discoursed to me on the way in which the Dutch had come to be known to the Turk in the time of Queen Elizabeth; when the Queen handed over to the States a number of Dutch slaves who had been liberated by her Ambassador. He said that possibly the Ambassador might have said something by word of mouth, but that in writing there was nothing mentioned but trade and good will.
London, 11th April, 1613.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 11. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 812. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch Consul in Tunis writes on the 28th January that the orders of the Porte for the liberation of slaves do not fully obtain their effect. At first only thirteen old men were set free; but on his vigorous and repeated demands, fifteen rather better men were liberated; but thirty still remain of the strongest and best. It is to be feared that as those pirates are debarred from making slaves for the future, they will act cruelly towards the men. The French Agent sent to liberate the French slaves only succeeded in securing eighty-four. He reports that in Tunis there are at present only three great ships and one tartana; so they will make every effort to fit out some more. There are despatches from the Ambassador in Constantinople; as soon as they are translated I shall have a copy to send. They discuss the remedies for these difficulties.
There are four Agents of the Dutch come here to discuss the union of forces in the East Indies against Spain. They have sent six more ships, so the Dutch total is eighty. There are infantry aboard and they have sent a Governor to reside there in their name. Count Henry tells me that among these ships are some of one thousand two hundred tons, which is the largest tonnage known. He said the outlay had been great and the returns small as yet, but the Spanish will soon be expelled and then the profits will grow.
When the Spanish Ambassador sent his Secretary to complain of the publications offensive to his Master, he also said that the King desired to come to a good understanding with England, and begged the King not to take alarm at the Armada which was being prepared, but to trust as true what was now told him. The English Ambassador in Spain writes that the Duke of Lerma said the same to him, and to prove his goodwill he had given certain orders that did not please the Jesuits in Spain. All the same the muster continues throughout England.
Late yesterday Count Henry set out for Holland, where preparations are to be made to receive the Princess and the Elector, who are to leave in a few days. The four bertons are fitted out, and everything is ready. On Wednesday in Holy Week they held a joust. The French Ambassador and I knew that we were to be invited, and we thought we could hardly be present on such a day without scandal. We therefore let our scruples be known, and so avoided the necessity of a direct refusal. The Spanish Ambassador was then invited, and excused himself, as he did also on the following day when the Palatine desired to visit him. I acted in the same way to Count Henry.
Your Serenity's letters of congratulation to the Duke of York, now Prince Charles and heir to all these kingdoms, will come very opportunely. I have had audience of the Queen, to whom I did not offer condolences for the death of the Prince; I was advised to act thus, and so have other Ambassadors, because she cannot bear to hear it mentioned; nor does she ever recall it without abundant tears and sighs.
London, 11th April, 1613.
April 12. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi, Venetian Archives. 813. The Ambassador of England was invited to the Cabinet, and the resolution of the Senate, passed yesterday, was read to him; he said that as this was despatch day, he would not be long in conveying to his Majesty their gracious reply; his Majesty will certainly be pleased to see that the marriage of the Princess is so gratifying to the Republic.
The King is always anxious to show his regard for the Venetian Ambassador at that Court. He will report the remarks as to the prisoner Gaetano, which he is sure will please his Majesty.
April 13. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives. 814. Domenico Domenici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Eight English ships have lately put into Leghorn; they are pirates, rich in money and merchandize; as is usual, all have been freely received.
Florence, 13th April, 1613.
April 15. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 815. Piero Priuli, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
I have seen de Rodenburg, Agent of the Dutch, and spoke to him about the rumoured League with the Turk. He went so far as to say that he did believe that the question had been raised, but that nothing had been concluded as was alleged here. He thought the question might quite well be opened when they sent a new Ambassador. No one should be surprised if his Masters did embark on such schemes, as they were obliged to look to their own safety. I replied that no doubt every Prince was bound to seek his own advantage, but not in such a way as to run risks thereby, as was the case with a Turkish league. Knowing his Masters, I told him I thought it more likely that they sought to cause it to be believed here than to conclude the League in fact.
Madrid, 15th April, 1613.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 18. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 816. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Sir Henry Wotton, late Ambassador to your Excellencies, told me that if the Turk attacked Candia, as is feared, the King would send an Ambassador to your Excellencies on purpose to offer help on behalf of himself and his friends. He told me that on such an occasion the King would very likely abandon his friendly relations with the Turk; your Excellencies have galleys, and should look to ships; he had already, on his Majesty's orders, broached the subject in the Cabinet; he added that if the occasion should arise he himself intended to be the Ambassador, and would gladly assume the duty in order to be of service to your Excellencies. I replied briefly that I should report all to your Serenity, so that you might feel due gratitude to his Majesty and himself. I will take pains to find out if such be really his Majesty's resolve (Farò diligenza per sapere se veramente sia stata nel Rè tal resolutione), as I am not quite certain, although his Majesty said to me several times that your Excellencies might avail yourselves of him. What you can be sure of as depending entirely on your own will is this, in time of alarm an abundant supply of men and ships, stout and brave, to your clear advantage, and in time of open war a number of adventurers who, induced by hope of glory and of gain, would take service under your banner, and would inflict damage on the foe. The King of Denmark availed himself of such troops and received good service from them. In any case their number would be great, but greatest in a Turkish war, which God keep far from us. Here they hold it certain that the Sultan will go back to Constantinople; his forces are much reduced by the plague. The resolution of the Protestants to refuse to help the Emperor is confirmed. There are those who say that the Emperor is exaggerating the Turkish armament in order to extort contributions from Germany, but the Protestants are well aware of all that is going on.
The Dutch Envoys two days after their arrival had audience. Their mission is a two-fold one; first to arrange for common trading in the Indies, then to lay plans for the complete expulsion of the Spaniards from those parts. On the first point they have explained to his Majesty that two years ago they spent large sums on acquiring those islands and have drawn but little profit from them. It is therefore unfair that English and other subjects of his Majesty should trade there without paying some contribution, and so be joint partners in the expenses and in the gains. The King listened readily, and approved of the arugments advanced by the Dutch and seemed to agree. (Quanto alla prima han fatto vedere a sua Maestà con quanta spesa si siano impadroniti li due anni passati particolar-mente di quell' Isole et quanto poco habbian profitato nel comertio; che hora non è ragionerole che negotiino gli Inglesi et altri sudditi della Maestà sua senza pagare qualche contributione et cosi esser ugualmente partecipi nella spesa et nel guadagno. Ha il Rè ascoltato prontamente et applaudendo alle ragioni dette da gli olandesi mostrò d'assentire.) Both points will soon be settled. The Dutch have brought such quantities of merchandize from Cyprus and Syria that prices have fallen so much that they stand to lose eighteen and twenty per cent. of their capital, and that is quite certain; even here the cotton which fetched twenty-four pence three or four years ago now only fetches ninepence. (Hanno olandesi condotto tanta quantità di merce di Cipro et Soria che son cadute in maniera di prezzo che converran perdervi 18 et 20 per cento del capitale; et cio è certissimo. Anco qui il gottone, che valeva 24 denari, tre e quatr' anni sono, si ha per 9.)
London, 18 April, 1613.
April 18. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 817. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
To-morrow the Princess and the Elector will leave for Greenwich with the King and Queen. They will stay there three days and will then be accompanied by their Majesties at least as far as Rochester. The crowd that attends them is incredible. In Kent (Cancia), through which they will pass and which is one of the most flourishing counties of this kingdom, they will be met and accompanied by the infantry to the number of eight thousand and horse to the number of two thousand. The King has given orders that all the horse are to be in uniform and he has chosen the cloth, the lace and the plumes. The cost will exceed one hundred and twenty thousand crowns. The King has never been there before. The Duke of Lennox, the Earl of Arundel, Viscount Lisle, and Lord Harrington, who will proceed with their Highnesses, are to receive the counterdower, which is to be secured on the duty on Rhenish wines. They will all embark on board a galleon of one thousand four hundred tons, which the late Prince caused to be built and which preserves his name. It is thought to be the most beautiful ship England ever had. There are six hundred harquebusiers on board and four hundred mariners. There is no powder on board nor will any lights be used except in lanterns. She will be accompanied by two pinnaces which will carry the ammunition. Thus in order to secure their Highnesses' lives, there will be an escort of six royal galleons and others to the number of sixteen. At sea half way across they will be met by the Dutch fleet. When they have landed, the Elector will push on to the borders of his State, there to receive, with great magnificence, the Princess, who up to that moment will have been at the King's charges as also the Palatine on the journey. The Duke of Lennox will be made Earl (Duke) of Richmond (fn. 1) so as to have a seat in Parliament. Henry VII. was Earl of Richmond; it is a title usually given to the King's sons, or to those of the blood Royal. The King desires to have the Duke in Parliament. The Earl of Arundel has begged the King to allow him to go once more to Padua. Lord Harrington has obtained a royal warrant for coining farthings; but after it had been granted and confirmed by the Council it was suspended on account of the immense profit. His share was limited to twenty thousand crowns; the Duke of Lennox is to draw a similar sum. This step is very convenient, because hitherto there has been no small coin and so even the poorest person on the smallest of purchases was obliged to spend upwards of a gazetta; but to make such gifts without any heed seems peculiar to the King of Great Britain.
Anstruther is back from Denmark. He brings details of the peace. He reports that he met an Agent from the King of Spain going from Germany to Denmark. That does not please them here. I have visited the Prince, who remains here alone. He is growing fair as a flower, and in the few months since the death of Prince Henry he has developed greatly in body, far more than in many preceding months. His health is becoming sound; he advances in his studies, and he has a suavity of manner that renders him very popular. He said he desired always to share in your Excellencies' interests, and he particularly enquired after your Serenity and how you are, wishing you all prosperity in the most genial terms imaginable. He further asked me what I thought would be the outcome of the differences between the Pope and the Duke of Savoy. He is quite aware of his rise in importance, as he is now the only son; but all this only makes him more humane. I assured his Highness that your Excellencies were well content to hear of his advance. Your letters will arrive very opportunely.
London, 18th April, 1613.
April 21. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy. Venetian Archives. 818. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The son of the Marchese Villa, who was to have followed his father to England, has changed his mind and gone to Vercelli to take up his post as captain of the horse-guards.
Turin, 21st April, 1613.
April 22. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Zante. Venetian Archives. 819. Francesco Donado, Venetian Governor in Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
A Dutch ship put in here a few days ago and left again immediately for Constantinople. I was told that on board was an Envoy from the Dutch with letters for the Grand Turk. A frigate from Strivali, which arrived the day before yesterday, reports five Maltese galleys there. The same reported by two English ships, which put in on their way from Naples and Leghorn. The southwest gale has driven ashore at the Saltpans a Dutch ship, which brought a cargo of grain from Volo.
Zante, 22nd April, 1613.
April 23. Minutes of the Senate. Mar. Venetian Archives. 820. The Governors of the Arsenal have bargained with Martin Haureau and Alvise de Bois for soft English lead. Twenty tons from each at thirty-eight ducats, eighteen soldi the ton, besides being free of duty.
Ayes 133.
Noes 2.
Neutrals 3.
April 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 821. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the 20th the Princess and the Elector left for Greenwich, accompanied by the King, the Queen, the Prince and all the Court. The day following I went to take my leave of their Highnesses and to wish them, in your Excellencies' name, a pleasant journey. I also waited on their Majesties and the Prince, but after I had seen their Highnesses, and this on the advice of Lord Hay, who understands; I was received by the Elector, who gave me the right hand and made me enter his chamber first, and during our talk he desired that I should face the door while he stood with his back to it. He then accompanied me to the Princess's room, which is separated by a wall and connected by a door. I insisted on his Highness entering first. Compliments were then exchanged. The Princess then in familiar fashion and smiling talked of her going to a fair country as she understood, but she did not know if it was as fair as this. She said the King would want to see her again after a little. And so after some further talk I took my leave. I accepted the right hand and the pas during my interview with the Elector, for so your Excellencies' dignity requires, and because it may serve as a precedent that one of your servants should have taken that position in one of the King's palaces, which is a public and neutral place, and I yielded the pas on entering the Princess's room as a recognition of the courtesy I had received. Thus on the one hand I have asserted your Excellencies' pre-eminence over the first Elector and the King's son-in-law, while on the other I have pleased the King.
I then waited on the King; I found all the rooms empty; his Majesty came out in his jacket, just as he was in his private chamber, and said he received me as his particular and dear friend, words which had been conveyed to me already by Lord Hay. I bowed profoundly and kissed his hand; he then began walking and asked me if I had seen his children; I said “Yes.” He seemed to feel their departure keenly, and said he hoped to see them soon again and with off-spring; they were both born in the same year and in the month of August and had not yet finished their seventeenth year. All this he said with great tenderness. I said his Majesty was quite right to feel the separation, but great Sovreigns had this disadvantage that they were obliged to marry their children in foreign countries. Meantime there remained the Prince, who was daily growing stronger, and he would soon see the Princess back and with children, for which I prayed God. The King was mightily pleased and said I was right. He then went on to say that the Turk had returned to Constantinople; the French Ambassador had assured him of it, and also told him of the Queen's answer to the Emperor, and her intention of giving very little help and only if she saw the Turk prevailing seriously over the Austrians. He thought both Turkish and Cæsarean two Emperors worth little and well matched; that the King of Spain and the other Princes of the House of Austria are all alike—and other phrases showing little or rather no esteem. They marry only among themselves, and contrary to the law of God they take nieces and sisters-in-law to wife. When the King of Poland took the second sister to wife the Pope dispensed them, but said they would not prosper.
The Queen's rooms I found crowded by Ladies and Gentlemen; she kept me an hour in conversation mostly on light topics, her visit to the baths, of her journey next day to Rochester, and about the Prince. She spoke of the Duchess of Mantua. She then told me as a great secret, begging me to keep it to myself, that her brother the King of Denmark was treating of a marriage with a daughter of the Duke of Savoy; if it were concluded she promised to let me know. She was surprised that the King should marry, as he had three children, the eldest of whom would in five years' time be marriageable. She said the Prince wished to accompany his sister and brother-in-law down to the sea.
The following morning the Elector sent the Count of Solms first to the French Ambassador and then to me, and lastly to the Flemish Ambassador, to present his excuses for not calling in person, as that day he had to accompany his Majesty on the chase and to receive the Ambassador of Spain. Thus as far as the Flemish Ambassador is concerned all has gone in due order, and the visit has been made first to this house, though in order to do so they had to pass the house of the Archduke's Envoy. I have seen the Count of Schomberg, and what I was able to extract from him I report in the following despatch.
London, 26th April, 1613.
April 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 822. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Schomberg told me that the King of Spain was aspiring to get himself elected King of the Romans. At present he is in close and secret negotiations with the Emperor, who, as he has no offspring, will, it seems, consent; it was therefore necessary to study the way to oppose him in the Diet. The King is aspiring to Austria, Moravia, Bohemia, and Hungary. He may easily succeed to the three provinces because Maximilian cannot live long, so too the Emperor and Albert, they are all ill and old and childless; of the Innsbruck branch no one remains save a single son of Ferdinand, the Marquis of Burgau, who does not bear the title of Archduke and is held for a bastard. There remains only Ferdinand of Graz, and the King of Spain has a better claim to the said provinces than he has. It is necessary to thwart the King's designs. As to the Turk it is said that he has gone back to Constantinople. If he aspires to Transylavania alone, that would be no affair of the Federated Princes, and they would take good care not to contribute, which would merely be placing arms in the hands of Spain. I asked him if it were true that the Dutch had made an alliance with the Turk with obligation to furnish a considerable number of vessels. He replied that they had only made a commercial treaty which gave them free entry into Turkish ports; if the Dutch fall in with Turkish ships being attacked by Spain or other powers, they are to render assistance and vice-versa. The Turk has made offers in favour of the Dutch, and maybe the Dutch Ambassador has said verbally something about Spain should she attack Holland, but not otherwise. Schomberg said he had a copy of the whole negotiations, which, as the Austrians were making an outcry, the Dutch had sent round to the various Courts. I have heard from the King's lips certain remarks which confirm this, and for sure the Dutch have no obligation to help the Turk with ships, as the Austrians go putting about. Grotius, the Dutch Deputy, has been to see me, and told me about his negotiations with the King, who has named commissioners to treat with him, which they have begun to do by two papers of proposal and reply. The Dutch are now masters of all the Moluccas with the exception of . . . . To achieve this they fought two battles with the Spanish fleet of thirty-six galleons and other ships of war. They have built ten forts. The islands originally belonged to Portugal, and at first the Portuguese wished to defend them by themselves, but were constrained to apply for help to the Castilians in the Filippines, but in vain. The Viceroy or General whom the Dutch will send out is to make his residence in Greater Java in the country of one of their Tributary Kings. Grotius and the other Dutch Agents offer to join the Dutch and English merchants, but as the Dutch Company wants to lay down a capital of four millions of gold, it is impossible for the English to produce such a sum, as they have as yet only twelve ships out there, while the Dutch have 43 besides the six that are going. The Dutch offer help if the English want to make themselves masters of the Filippines, which are garrisoned by Castilians. The Dutch have attacked Mozambique, which is beyond the Cape of Good Hope, and off the African coast opposite San Lorenzo, but the Spanish fleet compelled them to raise the siege. I gather from the remarks of Grotius that if they found any inclination here they might turn their attention to the West Indies as well. They argue that they would be entitled to do so, as, although it is contrary to the truce, the Spaniards were the first to break it in the East Indies.
The French Ambassador told me that the Turkish army had returned to Constantinople; it had mutinied twice, and the second time Nassuf had had great difficulty in quieting it. The Ambassador has received despatches from Villeroy which had reached him in four days. He is instructed to inform them here that there will be no trouble from the Turkish quarter. The Ambassador observed that if they had failed to effect anything by land they would still less be able to achieve any success by sea.
London, 26th April, 1613.
April 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 823. Christoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
A Cha'ush has arrived from Cairo, sent expressly by the Pasha to report the great damage inflicted by English and Dutch bertons in the Red Sea. Their constant plundering of rich Turkish ships is threatening the great city of Cairo with ruin to its trade. Moreover, the Bey of Damietta has also arrived with a number of petitions, setting forth that the Portuguese, possibly in understanding with the Persians, intend to build a fort at Porto Muca.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 26th April, 1613.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 26. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy. Venetian Archives. 824. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
Among your Serenity's subjects in the Duke's camp is Antonio Dotto, (fn. 2) who was banished many years ago. He was lieutenant in the cuirassiers of Luigi Donato at the time of the quarrel with the Pope.
The Englishman (Eston) has covered himself with glory here; among other achievements he is so skilful in training guns that a few shots fired by him produce more effect than most could produce by many. A stroke of luck for his Highness to have lighted on this man at such a juncture, for he not only brought him a big sum of money, but is of great assistance in himself.
Turin, 26th April, 1613.
April 28. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy. Venetian Archives. 825. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
Among all the envoys of foreign sovreigns resident at this court, the English agent is the only one whom the Duke has summoned to camp. This is done to foster the idea of some secret intelligence with the King of England.
Turin, 28th April, 1613.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 30. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 826. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marchese Villa, Savoyard Ambassador to England, arrived here some days ago. He will continue his journey as soon as he has had audience of the Queen. The English Ambassador here, on orders from home, is seeking through M. de Jacob to prevent this mission. The King of England is no longer in the same mind about this match as he was in the life of the late Prince. This mission does not rouse French suspicion and discussion as did the last one sent by the Duke while the Prince of Wales was alive. There is news from England that the Princess was to embark on the 23rd, and the Princess of Orange has sent to Flushing to meet her. She is to land there. News from Holland that Count Maurice also has gone and that the States are making great preparations. The Dutch fleet for the East Indies is both more numerous and more powerful than usual, and has sailed with the full intent to do as much damage to Spain as possible, in revenge for injuries received. The Princes of the Union are labouring to adjust the differences between Brandenburg and Neuburg over their joint “possession,” in order that they may all be united on the points to be dealt with in the Diet, for the preservation of the union; and as neither France nor the Dutch choose to enter it they cling closer together. Here on the other hand they counsel the Princes to show themselves more yielding to the Emperor for fear lest their stiffness may induce him to name Albert, King of the Romans, as the Spaniards so eagerly desire, which would be highly dangerous to the Federate Princes. Here for the last few days there has been complaint of the Spanish on a rumour that the courts in Aragon had executed a gentleman attached to Antonio Perez, and who had sought asylum in France; his Catholic Majesty, to favour the French match and at the instance of the Queen, had granted a pardon to all such, and this gentleman on the strength of this had returned to his native land. Adding this to the delays the Spanish are making about sending the brides, there is much talk on the matter.
Paris, 30th April, 1613.


  • 1. See Cal. S.P. Dom. Ap. 29, 1613. “Many Peers refuse to concur in a request for the Dukedom of Richmond to be granted to the Duke of Lennox.'
  • 2. See Cal. S.P. Ven., 1603, Dec. 11. et passim. James wrote a letter on his behalf.