Venice: August 1613

Pages 17-36

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13, 1613-1615. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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August 1613

Aug. 5. Collegio, Lettere. Venetian Archives. 33. Letters patent concerning a request to the friends and an order to the subjects of the republic to permit to pass free of toll the property which Gregorio Barbarigo, the ambassador destined to the king of Great Britain, is sending by sea in the ship S. Martin.
Ayes 21.
Noes 0.
Neutral 0.
Aug. 5. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 34. To the Ambassador in England.
The republic having paid the usual yearly pension to the Grisons, they have expressed their readiness to continue good relations. Wherefore the senate proposes to procure the re-establishment of the alliance, especially as His Majesty has approved their zeal, not only for the safety of themselves but of their friends and other princes, while present circumstances certainly advise the same course. The ambassador of His Most Christian Majesty has been informed of all and asked to help in the common cause, and it is hoped he will do so. The Senate wishes His Majesty to be informed of this, as a sign of their confidence, and that he be asked to join in this affair with the principal Swiss cantons, with France and others. The republic will esteem it a particular favour, the more because His Majesty's friendly disposition to them will be thereby rendered more public to the world, as well as their perfect understanding with him.
Ayes 81.
Noes 48.
Neutral 30.
Aug. 6. 35. At a second scrutiny.
Ayes 78. 85.
Noes 7. and 0.
Neutral 15. 6.
The following desire a postponement.
Ayes 70.
Noes 79.
Aug. 7. Senato, Secreta, Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 36. The above letters were newly laid before the Senate.
Ayes 85. 83.
Noes 8. 7.
On the question of postponement.
Noes 94.
Postponement carried (preso il differir).
Aug. 6. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 37. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
France and England are united together to prevent the design of the Spaniards to nominate Albert as king of the Romans in the next diet.
From Paris, the 6 August, 1613.
Aug. 6. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 38. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday there arrived here in great haste from England the secretary of the English Ambassador who was sent by the Duke of Lennox on the affair of the marriage. He brings news that the king is very gratified by the favourable reception given to the duke's proposals, and that he directs the duke to give assurances that they will find him ready to carry the matter to a successful issue. The same secretary brings a commission to the ambassador to enter more fully into negotiations with the ministers. In conformity with these instructions he had a long interview with Villeroi yesterday, and things have gone so smoothly that no insuperable difficulty has presented itself, because the king will permit the bride to practise the Catholic religion.
There will be no difficulty in settling the amount of the dower, and even if difficulties arise they hope to overcome them. Tomorrow the duke goes on to Monceaux (Monseo) to perform the said office with the queen, and thence he will go direct to England, as commanded by the king, who thinks his presence necessary for further progress in the matter.
In the council of England, although the partisans of Spain do not venture to offer a direct opposition, yet they hope to divert it under divers pretexts. The king's greatest objection is to the tender age of the princess, because he thinks that as his hopes for the continuation of the crown in his line rest upon the prince alone, he ought to give him an older wife, so that the succession may be assured as soon as possible, which cannot be the case with this princess, who is no more than seven years old and five years younger than the prince. This line of argument favours the infanta of Savoy, and approaches have been made from that court to His Majesty.
That is why Lennox has hastened to England to divert the king's mind from this idea and to remove every objection urged by the other side. He hopes to return here shortly in the character of ambassador to settle the necessary conditions for this contract.
He has applied for the command of the company of Scottish men at arms and there is no objection to grant it, but the queen excuses herself for the time on account of the great scarcity of money. But this matter will be easily arranged when the question of the marriage is settled.
On the 27 Don Innico returned here from Spain. (fn. 1) The English ambassador writes that he has come expressly to prevent this marriage by underhand means, and his creatures already spread reports that the union would be very displeasing to him, wishing it to be inferred that it may prevent the completion of the one with Spain.
In his audience with the king, he was colder than was expected in asking that the due compliment may be given with the transmission of the bride and bridegroom, and he did not bring affectionate greetings from those princes nor from the Most Christian King, all in order to divert the queen from the alliance with England, which is greatly desired by all those who cannot bear to see the authority possessed in this realm by the Catholic king, and who hope that when France is united to England by this bond that authority will be diminished.
From Paris, the 6 August, 1613.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives. 39. Andrea Surian, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
The English corsair (fn. 2) at Moncalieri in Piedmont has been mortally wounded by one of his companions. They say that he has declared himself a Catholic, but not a word about the restitution of the property plundered from others.
From Milan, the 27 August, 1613.
Aug. 8. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 40. The English Ambassador came to the Cabinet and spoke as follows in substance:
That I may not hinder your Excellencies in your more serious occupations I have allowed a short time to elapse before coming to pay my respects. I now come to tender thanks for two things, one for the letters written to the king of Denmark, as I advised, which cannot fail to confirm your good will towards that king and his good disposition towards you, and when your ambassadors go and return from those parts it will perhaps be advisable to pass to some other demonstration and service to increase the good intelligence, which will be the more pleasing to the king, my master, in that he is joined to the one by kin, and to the other by sincere regard, knowing that the best results may be expected from this, which is what is desired in dealing with so friendly a power as the republic. To lay these things before a prince of such prudence as your Serenity is a sign of small wit and perhaps of presumption, though it would also be a token of small devotion to neglect them, but your Serenity will understand that I commit myself entirely to your wisdom.
The other thing for which I render thanks is the favour of informing me some days ago by your secretaries of the accommodation which has taken place between Mantua and Savoy, of which I have informed His Majesty in conformity with your desire. Now that the troubles are quieting down, and the little that remains is daily improving without the danger of a relapse, I come to congratulate your Serenity upon it, whose share in the matter every one knows, who with generous resolve to sustain the weaker party with justice on its side, has declared that he need not depend on any one but yourself, who suffice single-handed to maintain the dignity of yourself and your friends; and as His Majesty will rejoice to hear this news, which he will learn from many gentlemen and from your ambassador, I need not now repeat his friendliness or how willingly he would have come with his forces and with his dependents in every danger to show his regard for the republic, His Majesty desiring rather to demonstrate his goodwill and to see the wishes of vassals united in reciprocal content, which is no less useful in peace than in war, but in peace in two ways in particular, to wit, commerce and the administration of justice.
But for some time past it appears that the subjects of His Majesty have not enjoyed too good fortune and some have complained to His Majesty at having suffered much inconvenience and ill treatment as your Serenity will see from the letters of His Majesty himself, which I should have presented many days ago if I had not delayed to do so on account of the public impediments which seemed to come in the way. I say then that in 1607, a vessel with all its merchandise was taken away from some of our people on the coast of the Morea, subject to the Turk, and was taken to Canea with the entire cargo. By decree of the Senate in September, 1608, it was decided that everything should be fully restored. A certain portion of the goods was then delivered up in good condition, but the ship with its tackle and many goods were ruined. Those interested made various representations, but they could obtain no further satisfaction. They had recourse to His Majesty, who asks your Serenity to render justice to them and so act that commerce may continue and increase between the subjects of both parties.
After the king's letter (fn. 3) had been read Minotto, the senior councillor, answered:
Your Excellency may come when he pleases and he will always be welcome, owing to the esteem which we have for his person, condition and quality and for His Majesty the King. With regard to the letter and service done with the king of Denmark, we concurred readily because we know his greatness and desire his friendship, and we thank your Excellency for what you have said in this matter. The information was given as a sign of confidence and an expression of our great regard for you. With regard to the vessel the Signory will meet and give a reply in the ordinary way.
The ambassador added, your Serenity observes that the date of His Majesty's letter is January last, and that I should have presented it in April following, but seeing, as I hinted above, that the affairs of the world were disturbed and that your Serenity had other things to attend to, I waited longer, in order not to disturb you in more important matters. I hope that your Serenity will make good my delay by a speedy and satisfactory reply.
The councillor Minotto replied that his request would be attended to, the Signory had taken the matter in hand, and a reply would be given as soon as possible. With this the ambassador took his departure.
Jan. 30./Feb. 9. Collegio, Lettere Re. Venetian Archives. 41. Jacobus Dei Gratia, etc. Serenissimo Principi Marc Antonio, Memmo Venetiarum Duci etc. Salutem.
Nec satis exploratum habemus quid in his litteris scribendum sit, et causam tamen habemus justissiman cur a nobis conscribi debeant. Non enim aliud earum est argumentum nisi ut idipsum de quo antehac per litteras et per Legatum nostrum cum Serenissimo Leonardo Donato nuper defuncto egimus iterum a vobis rogamus, nimirum ut subditis et mercatoribus illis nostris satisfiat, qui navem suam (Anglice nuncupatam The Costley) una cum magni pretii mercibus in eam navem congestis ante biennium a triremibus vestris captam et in Insulam Candiæ abductam, ibique detentam conquirebantur. Qua de re si æquitatem vestræ responsionis, eamque benevolentiam quam erga nos profitemini consideramus, nihil videtur magis proclive esse ant voluntati vestræ consentaneum quam ut illis satisfiat; nec quicquam minus necesse quam ut vos ea de causa rursus compellemus, sed si illorum querimoniæ fides est habenda, tantum certe abest ut illis satis sit factum, ut neque navem ipsam recuperaverint et magna pars mercium adhuc detineatur. Nam quod dicitur decreto et mandato vestro navis recuperandæ atque abducendae potestatem iis esse factum; primum ne id quidem illis licuisse aiunt nisi longo post tempore quam mandatum a Serenissimo Duce nuper defuncto Legatus noster obtinuisset; deinde navam ipsam oblatam procuratori illorum facentur sed ruinosam, spoliatam omnibus armamentis, deinque ita labefactatem ut opere pretium non fuerit jam abducere. Quod vero ad merces attinet magnam earum partem (ut antea dictum est) se nondum recepisse, et eas quas receperunt longa temporis dilatione ac mora adeo corruptas fuisse et vitium contraxisse, ut in illis grave damnum perpessi sint. Haæ præter voluntatem vestram accidisse non dubitamus; satisque ex Senatus decreto constat eam fuisse mentem Serenissimi Ducis, ut navis integra atque omnibus armamentis instructa mercesque omnes sine mercatorum damno aut impensis ullis restituerentur. Sed utcunque haæ contra acciderunt quoniam quidem Mercatores ipsi omni culpa vacant; nec ulla justa causa fuit cur navis illorum in eum modum caperetur et detineretur æquissimum certe est ut illorum damna resarciantur, nec si istius modi offensiones inter subditos nonnunquam solent accidere contra eorum voluntatem quorum imperio subjecti sunt, illos qui injuriam acceperunt remedio carere oportet: sed de vestra justitia et aequitate minime ambigimus. Ideoque (ut in principio istarum litterarum diximus) vix nobis erat compertum quidnam ad vos scribendum esset, de quorum propensissima voluntate satis nobis antea constabat. Veruntamen subditis nostris injuriae damnique remedium quærentibus ulla ratione (quam ibi pro futuram putant) deesse non possumus eorumque postulationi (quatenus justitiae conveniat et aequitati) ut quam primum satisfiat magnopere cupimus. Datum in Palatio nostro Westmonasterie, ultimo die Januarii, A° Di 1612.
Amicus Vester,
Aug. 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 42. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
A ship has arrived here from Virginia which has caused universal rejoicing by the news of success. It appears that the soldiers of the colony have inflicted a great defeat upon the king of Poitan, and have taken prisoner one of his daughters, (fn. 4) by reason of which he has offered friendship, peace and the knowledge of some rich gold mines. This he has already done, and vessels are being prepared to strengthen the colonists with new blood.
I hear that the fleet of the States in the East Indies has engaged that of Spain, which has been worsted, and it is past question that the Dutch have a superior force in those parts, and they will be in a still better position in the future when the vessels which set out a short while ago have arrived. The ship which arrived in this port on the third has had a prosperous voyage.
The queen of France still wishes to marry her second daughter to this prince and the negotiation is in the hands of the king's ambassador in France, of the French ambassador here and of the duke of Lennox. The secretary of the ambassador of the king has been here and has departed with two letters, one of instructions for the ambassador and the other of credit for the queen. The secretary of the ambassador of the Most Christian King was here eight days ago, and on Thursday the ambassador derived little satisfaction from the king at Theobalds, finding him much disturbed by the other.
Lennox, who is the king's cousin, is using all his influence with His Majesty for the conclusion of the marriage, moved by his natural inclination towards France and by his own interests. He solicits the command of the company of Scotch men at arms, whom he now rules as lieutenant of the Duke of York, who, being made prince of Great Britain, refused it as his deceased brother did. Your Excellencies shall have full particulars, and as for the marriage and the arrival of the duke I know it on the best authority.
Last week the ambassador of Spain called on me and in speaking of the affairs of Italy he said that his king desired to have the daughter with the mother, and he repeated with the utmost conviction the things which he said the last time, and which I reported.
The new Catholic ambassador (fn. 5) arrived here yesterday. I have already called upon him, to which he has made a courteous reply. He has asked for an audience, for which he will have to go to Salisbury (Sciasberi) or another place many miles from here.
The king's ambassador to the Emperor (fn. 6) writes that he is not well treated and that his journeys made to several places in Germany have roused against him the suspicions of the Emperor, whom the ambassador of Spain seeks to prejudice against him.
Dated at London on 9 August, 1613.
Aug. 9. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 43. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have received your letters of the 12th inst. directing me to thank the king for his gracious reply to your representations upon the affairs of Savoy, and to inform him of the outcome and the state of the affair, I will ask for an audience. I should have done so before, but the king is in progress and moves daily from place to place. Next week their Majesties will be at Salisbury, to stay there some days, and I will execute the command of your Serenity.
I have letters from Flanders with respect to the count of Nassau, confirming what I wrote and adding more upon the fortune of his house. The count his father is the one who really possesses the countship of Nassau. He is a man of some standing in Germany with a revenue of 120,000 talents. The count John Ernest, his son, is married to a daughter of the duke of Brunswick, and count John Ernest, his cousin, has married a daughter of the duke of Wirtemburg.
I have letters from the Hague, one of the 25th, stating that on the 15th the reply of the king of Denmark to their instances was read in the Assembly of the States, and one of the 25th August, written from Copenhagen, stating that he promises to remove on the 10th of this month the customs of the Sound imposed for the war with Sweden, to foster a good understanding with his neighbours.
That king has not entirely pleased the men of Lubeck, but he will certainly do so by the interposition of his Majesty, and soon.
The United Provinces are greatly annoyed because their subjects, who are slaves among the Turks, have not been set free. It is not easy to find a way to supply money to the ambassador in Constantinople, because the public is opposed, and as the merchants have suffered considerable losses of late years they are little disposed to contribute. They do not unite, so that ambassador cannot continue long, and unless things change and with the increase of that of the Indies and northern parts it seems likely that that traffic will decline, as it is feebly established.
London, the 9 August.
Aug. 10. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 44. Francesco Morosini, Ventian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The marquis Villa has arrived from the embassy of England, where he was very well received by the king and queen. He says that king has decided to maintain an agent perpetually at Turin, recalling the secretary who is now there.
From Genoa, 10 August, 1613.
Aug. 11. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 45. To the Ambassador in England.
The mission of the ambassador of the States General on behalf of Barneveldt has been very gratifying to the Senate in assuring them not only of the falsity of the reports spread as to the friendship established between them in the Levant, but of their goodwill. The ambassador must thank him for this courtesy, although they have always held the same opinion of the operations of the States.
Ayes 165.
Noes 2.
Neutral 3.
Aug. 13. Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Costantinop. Venetian Archives. 46. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
No orders have been issued for making new galleys either here or elsewhere. Every resolution upon this subject has been postponed until the return of the Captain, and as the Arsenal requires ready money, of which there is a great scarcity, the matter will have either to be abandoned altogether or put off for a long time.
Dalle Vigna di Pera, 13 August, 1613.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 47. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The ship from Virginia touched at the island of Bermuda and has brought a quantity of ambergris. It brought divers particulars from those parts. Money and tools have come from that community to Ireland to forward the building of a city in Ulster to be called London. (fn. 7) Many cross from Scotland to those parts to dwell there, and places are assigned to them.
The Protestant princes assemble in the city of Nuremburg, where they will stay during the Imperial Diet, and the Landgrave Maurice of Hesse will wait on the emperor and other princes on their behalf.
The League of the Catholics is collecting money in divers parts and is taking into its pay the greater part of the soldiers disbanded by the archduke in Brabant and Flanders.
In letters from the Hague of the 6th inst. I hear that the Assembly of the States resolved in the same week that each of the provinces must furnish the entire sum of all the payments, which they call the union of impositions (ragunanta delle impositioni), it amounts to a very large sum; it will suffice for the payment of 36,000 infantry with 4,000 horse.
The same day the States received letters from the king of Denmark to say that he had removed the new impositions of the Sound, in order to please them, and the ambassador of Lubeck has asked for their assistance and intercession. The Dutch immediately informed him that they had thanked the king on behalf of the United Provinces for what he had obtained for them and asked him to do the like for Lubeck, their ally. The king shows every disposition to do all that was asked, so that the ambassador departed full of hope.
From London, the 16 August, 1613.
Aug. 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 48. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have special information of what was concluded in the Confederacy between the United Princes of Germany and the States. I can give it in a few words. There are twelve heads.
1. The league is defensive.
2. It will have due respect for the Holy Empire and relations with the kings of France and of Great Britain.
3. If any one of the confederates is attacked, he shall be assisted by the forces provided in another document.
4. The prompt assistance of the princes to the States will be increased in future, as their numbers are increased by the accession of other princes.
5. The succour shall be ready two months after notice has been given, both in cavalry and infantry, well armed and exercised, led to the frontier, paid three months in advance and maintained for all the time that it is required, so long as the league remains in force.
6. This force shall be provided with provisions and forage at a reasonable price which the soldiers will pay out of their wages. Materials of war shall be at the cost of the one assisted.
7. The colonels and captains shall be paid by him who sends the help, but they must obey those appointed by the one receiving the help.
8. The assistance in money on both sides must be paid every three months, in advance, and deposited in a city nearest to the one assisted, to be named secretly in a deed.
9. As the princes and States have defensive confederations in France, Great Britain and with other kings and princes; in case they are first requisitioned by these, they shall only be bound for half the assistance accorded.
10. In the event of two being attacked, one of them shall not be bound to help the other.
11. During the alliance the princes and States may not enter into any other to its prejudice.
12. The alliance is to last for fifteen years, and before the expiration of that time the parties shall have full power to prolong it and to decide what is expedient; and the treaty must be ratified within a year with the approbation of the Elector, Princes and States.
It was ratified by the Elector Palatine on behalf of the princes and by the deputies on behalf of the United Provinces.
The other document declares that the succour of the elector and princes must be 43,000 florins of Brabant a month; of the States 4,000 infantry, half pikes and half musketeers, or instead of 1,000 infantry, as many horse as will be equivalent for their payment. When the state of affairs does not permit them to send men away, that quantity of money shall be considered the equivalent.
The sum of 43,000 florins is about what the States pay to 4,000 infantry. The elector and princes desired that it should be put in a separate document, one in money and the other in men, as it did not seem consonant with their dignity to publish that all of them together were hardly on a par with the forces of the United Provinces.
From London on 16 August, 1613.
Aug. 16. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 49. That the following be read to the ambassador of England.
After the places of Montferrat had been restored to the Cardinal Duke of Mantua, the governor of Milan entered upon divers negotiations concerning the pretensions of the princes interested, so that while two of the questions were considered as settled, namely the indemnification of damage and the punishment of rebels, these other matters have raised new controversies, and nothing is yet known of what has passed except that the duke of Mantua has shown himself perfectly willing to submit these and all other pretentions to the emperor and the Catholic king. But the governor will not hear of indemnification nor of the rebels, so that the duke declares he will write to Spain and elsewhere, whereby the matter remains in great suspense.
It is further understood that the duke of Savoy is increasing his forces and approaching Montferrat, all which things lead to a great feeling of insecurity among the princes, who cannot see the end of the affair. We have therefore thought good to communicate the circumstances to your Excellency that you may inform His Majesty of them.
With regard to the ship Corsaletta, our regulations in the Levant for the friendly treatment in the Levant of his ships and subjects are so good that the English have more reason to deal with us than any other nation, so much are they favoured, loved and respected. But those of this ship have especial cause to recognise our friendliness, because notwithstanding many reasons why they should be treated otherwise, we have condoned everything upon His Majesty's word alone. If by their negligence, by misfortune during a long voyage, by their claims against the insurers of London or otherwise there has been delay in the delivery of the property, they must attribute the fault to themselves and not to our ministers. That you may be informed of the entire progress of the affair, we have instructed our Secretary to read to you the document which was read to your predecessor, and which satisfied him as we believe.
Aug. 16. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 50. To the King of Great Britain.
If the matter of those interested in the ship Corsaletta had been exactly as has been represented by them, we should have at once given the satisfaction requested by your Majesty on 8 January last, in letters received on the 8th of this month. But the circumstances are very different, as we wrote in September, 1610. We have pardoned the masters and mariners of the ship the errors committed by them, upon the word of your Majesty and their testimony that the vessel was a merchant ship. If there has been any delay, it has been caused by the private pretensions of those interested and not by our ministers. We have informed your Majesty's ambassador of everything, and we trust that you will recognise our friendly disposition and not admit such unreasonable requests to be made by the interested parties, who have received the greatest favours from us.
Ayes 14.
Noes 3.
Neutral 12.
Aug. 16. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 51. To the Ambassador in England.
The ambassador of England has laid before the Cabinet the three matters contained in the enclosed copy. To the first, relating to Denmark, we made no reply, thinking what has been done is sufficient, and that it is not expedient at the present moment to proceed further. We enclose our replies to the two others with the letter which we wrote to the king with respect to the ship Corsaletta. We instruct you, after communicating to His Majesty the events of Montferrat, to speak to him of the affair of this ship, giving him all particulars, so that it may be known that we have done all that is possible, and how noxious are the impertinent demands of those interested, so acting that they will consider the matter as settled and that no other resolution will be taken upon it.
Ayes 148.
Noes 3.
Neutral 12.
Aug. 20. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 52. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke of Lennox went post towards England from his interview with the queen at Monceaux (Monseo). At Calais he met a courier who gave him letters from his king, which he sent straight to the ambassador here, and awaits Villeroi for further negotiations.
From Paris, the 20 August, 1613.
Aug. 20. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives. 53. Andrea Surian, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marquis Villa, ambassador of the duke of Savoy in England, has returned to Turin with a present of some thousands from the king and a magnificent diamond from the queen.
From Milan, the 20 August, 1613.
Aug. 20. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives. 54. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Some months ago, when a book was published in England entitled “A petition to the emperor to convoke a general council against the present pope,” the nuncio made every effort to prevent its circulation in this realm. But the Huguenots, who never miss an opportunity, have had it re-printed. The nuncio is proceeding against them vigorously for having infringed an ordinance of the king, and asks for capital punishment, and as the first sentence did not satisfy him he has appealed to the parliament, which has reduced the first sentence as being too rigorous, cancelled the book and let off the accused with a small fine.
The nuncio has written to Rome asking that a reply may be written at all costs to disprove the arguments of the book. The cardinal du Perron has written to the king of England. He declares that he treats the points in dispute so clearly that he does not despair of making some impression, the more because he is modest in his demeanour towards the king, whom he treats with respect, in quite a different style from that previously adopted by the Cardinal Bellarmine and others, (fn. 8)
From Paris, the 20 August, 1613.
Aug. 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 55. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday I sent an express to Salisbury with letters to Lord Hay to congratulate the king on his fortunate day (nel buon giorno). (fn. 9) I also made my compliments to the queen by the lord of Drumon. (fn. 10) The king said that my congratulations were very welcome, and asked why I had not come as in other years, adding that he should meet me at Beaulieu, where he appointed an audience for Sunday the 25th.
The queen particularly enquired why I had not come, and was very gracious.
On the evening of the 4th the ambassadors of Spain were at Salisbury and had an audience of the king on the following day. The one was presented and the other took leave, both in a few words, and they dined with His Majesty. Finally they kissed the queen's hand in a longer audience, but with the same kind of office. They were well and honourably received, but not at the royal cost or with lodging, although one was prepared for the servant of your Serenity.
On their return I called on the ambassadors, who responded courteously. In the course of a long discussion upon the affairs of Italy they said that the hopes and negotiations for the marriage of the Grand Duke with Mantua were childish (cose da fanciulli), that he will marry a kinswoman and so every dispute with Savoy will be settled. That the king has done his utmost to reconcile Saxony with the two princes in the pretentions of Cleves, but the Emperor who is concerned wishes to do it himself.
They asked what I thought of the deputies and of the affairs of Ireland, showing that they attached great weight to it, and had given it great attention. Finally they went on to speak of the Ambassador of Denmark in Spain. He will touch here on his return and will perhaps be able to say something to the king of the affair with His Catholic Majesty. He has again showed a desire to have a good understanding with me, and I have been very ready to respond.
To-morrow morning I hope to go to Court to fulfil the command of your Serenity of the 12th, and I will forward particulars.
From London, on 22 August, 1613.
Aug. 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 56. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of the States called upon me the day before yesterday and spoke of his audience. The king gave him the letter for the king of Denmark concerning Lubeck, which I have sent to your Excellencies.
The king has so worked with Saxony that, some days ago, he invited the elector of Brandenburg to the baptism of his son. The elector was much gratified because as he was not able to attend on that day, on which he married a kinswoman, the solemnization, if not the baptism, was postponed to another day, which looks like the beginning of a good understanding.
The deputies of Ireland are treating of constitutional matters at a place eight miles from here, until the king's return, who will hear them again with his usual graciousness.
Powder and shot have been sent to Dublin and the considerable body of soldiers on the coast to guard Ireland have received orders to be on the alert, showing that while the king displays his munificence and favour, he also has an eye on force (si conosca et veda anco la forza).
The earl of Northampton is dealing with the regulation of the king's expenses in maintaining his ships and vessels of war, which came to half as much again as those of the late queen.
The duke of Lennox has gone to the court of France. I will find out the meaning of his visit there.
From London, the 22 August 1613.
Aug. 23. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives. 57. Andrea Surian, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
The magistrates of health here have decided to ban and suspend the places mentioned in the enclosed bill, just issued, by reason of the plague.
From Milan, the 23 August, 1613.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch. 58. 1613, the 23 August.
The board of health of the city of Milan having heard that the plague has broken out in divers places has ordained, in addition to the orders published on the 14 and 20 of June last, that the following places shall be banned and suspended from the state of Milan as well as all property, goods, animals or other things coming therefrom, upon pain of death and confiscation.
Banned. Suspended.
Vienna of Austria. The island of England.
The city of Posen. The city of Frankfort
The city of Prague. The province of Misnia.
The country of Fossigni of Savoy. The city of Leipzig in that province.
San Maurizio dal Vallese. The province of Bavaria.
Ragaz etc.
Feffres or Favera in the district of Serganz, jurisdiction of the Seven Cantons.
Panigarola Praeses.
Aug. 24. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 59. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English pirate captain (fn. 11) has left Turin for Nice in Provence, where he will stay for some time. Some believe that he will again arm his vessels and go raiding.
From Genoa, 24 August, 1613.
Aug. 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives. 60. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I set out early for the court, as I wrote to your Serenity. I reached Kingston the same evening, Winchester on the following day, and came on Sunday to Beaulieu, where the king was. At Kingston I found that the prince had been hunting and given his bag to the men of the city, who showed their appreciation of the favour by expressions of delight. Thus His Highness binds the hearts of his subjects to him. The nephew of Wotton (fn. 12) was at Winchester on his way back from the court, in order to complete his arrangements for going to Savoy. I told the king that I was specially instructed to thank him for his orders to prevent the duke of Savoy from raising men or ships. The king replied that he had made his promise and was always ready to act in the interests of the republic. He added that the worst of the quarrels of Italy had been settled, but the armies remained on foot, and it was the usual practice of the Spaniards to appear more armed after than during the fact.
He also said that he knew that the Spaniards had a hand in some of the Irish affairs. They foment, but are not able to do much either there or elsewhere. He smiled as he spoke, showing that he attached no importance to it. He said that it was in his power to punish because they have only intrigued in Dublin, which is on the sea, and in a very few hours he can send over as many men as he pleases. That the king of Spain makes use of the advice of the earl of Tyrone, and he said jestingly that he would have a captain of eighty years or little less, repeating that Spain was not in a position to do much.
He afterwards asked me whether I thought the country beautiful, and on my reply that it was most lovely, as indeed it is, he added, You have seen a part, but I should like you to see more, and now, if possible, so that you may be able to inform the republic how great is my power, and that they may rely upon it, and that I have the means to assist them with a fleet equal to any great emergency. In going and returning you will see England. In Scotland you will be very well received, as I will give instructions. Only a few months remain to complete the embassy, and at present there are no great affairs here. I beg you to go and see the kingdom where I was born.
I hesitated at these words, but knowing the king's disposition and believing that in obeying his Majesty I should fall in with the wishes of your Serenity, I thanked the king for his customary readiness to assist the republic, and as for the journey, I was ready to do what he seemed to desire so strongly.
I have sent the secretary to London for enough money to last out my journey of 700 miles and more. He has been and returned by the post with his customary diligence, arriving here at Southampton a little while ago. To-morrow, with the permission of your Serenity, I shall set out for the baths to take leave of the queen, and then I shall continue the journey.
I will say no more of the favours received from the king, because they are usual to those who serve your Serenity, nor need I speak of the inconvenience of taking this journey, while the Illustrious Barbarigo is on the road, because it is my duty to serve your Serenity in all things.
From Southampton, the 27 August, 1613.
Aug. 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra, Venetian Archives. 61. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides what I wrote in the preceding, the king spoke to me of the affairs of Germany, almost the same things that I advised you of a week ago, in speaking of the States, who by his means have received entire satisfaction from Denmark. His Majesty's thoughts are always disposed to bring together more and more (stringer di benc in meglio) those whom he finds disposed and suitable, with the sole object of impeding the progress and growth of the House of Austria.
Since the death of the king of France he has daily increased his influence with the princes of Germany, augmented by the marriage of the princess. He entered ostentatiously (alla piazza) into the confederation of Hall and endeavoured to give the Most Christian king the impression that it was under his auspices. He has since caused the States to bind themselves more strongly into it, peace being made between the king of Denmark and Sweden, in order to bring them together in the way I spoke of him as doing.
His Majesty told me that he had new promises from Denmark. That his ambassador in returning from Spain would pass by here and will give him an account of the affair. He also gave me to understand that it will be easy for him to arrange for the union of Denmark with the others; and meanwhile Sweden does not cease to treat.
The understanding which is hoped for between Saxony and Brandenburg is also highly valued by the king, because it will lessen the reputation of the House of Austria in favour of himself, as he will have the glory of having brought about that reconciliation by his authority, which rightfully belongs to Cæsar.
Such being the ideas of His Majesty, it is probable that his prudent conduct will carry them to the end to which they tend.
The count of Schomberg (Sciumbergh) is expected in a few weeks. He comes on behalf of the Elector Palatine, and it is believed by those well acquainted with affairs, that the troubles of Germany cannot be settled entirely in a peaceful manner.
The king decides upon most matters by himself. In the execution of them he makes considerable use (si vale assai) of the Viscount Rochester and another. Since the death of the earl of Salisbury affairs have been conducted with more secrecy. His duties have not been given to any one, and the king always sees the letters of his ambassadors, punctually dictates the replies, and completely controls all the affairs of State.
From Southampton, the 27 August, 1613.
Aug. 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costantinop. Venetian Archives. 62. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
These last days fire galleys have arrived here for Alexandria, bringing a quantity of timber to build galleys for the Red Sea, to secure their shipping from the attacks of the English and Flemish bertons. There is nothing new at the Arsenal and the Captain of the Sea has sailed with the fleet to Cyprus.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 28 August, 1613.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 30. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives. 63. The English Ambassador came to the Cabinet and spoke as follows in substance:
Among the numerous obligations of His Majesty to your Serenity is your readiness to arrest that Giovanni Vicenzo Gaetano, who offered to disclose some attempt against the life of His Majesty. I was not at first able to communicate any decision, but at length His Majesty, having received further information which led him to think it would be better to have the man in his own realms, asks you to send him, as you will understand from his letter here following.
Letter of King James to Marc' Antonio Memmo, doge of Venice, requesting that the person who had been approached to plot against the king's life may be sent either to him or to the king's ambassador to the republic, as he sees fit.
Dated in his palace on 21 July, 1613. (fn. 13)
Nicolo Donado, the senior councillor, replied that they were ever ready to give His Majesty all possible satisfaction, and when they had decided to send the man they would inform his Excellency.
The ambassador replied that he bowed to the opinion of his Serenity, but he would point out that the present was an excellent time to send the man because there was a vessel in the canal which was leaving for England on the following Monday, upon which certain responsible merchants were embarking who would take good care of the prisoner if he was committed to them.
Donado replied that the ambassador had done well to mention this because it would be taken into consideration, and they would let him know their decision.
The ambassador then added, a very distinguished nobleman of our nation is coming here with his wife, this is the earl of Arundel, the first earl of England, heir to the first dukedom, a knight of the order of the Garter, a privy councillor and of kin to His Majesty. His wife is also the daughter of the duke of Zamer, (fn. 14) heir of the dukedom and privy councillor of His Majesty, so that together they unite two of the noblest and oldest families of England. I remained longer than I intended in Padua in order to meet them and to offer them the service which His Majesty has commanded. This evening they will arrive in this city, and the earl wishes to come and kiss the hand of your Serenity when it is convenient.
Donado replied that so illustrious a nobleman and such a favourite of His Majesty would be very welcome, and he would direct his secretary to inform the Savio of the week, who would inform him of the opportunity.
The ambassador replied that he could come to-morrow if possible, but he was told that in the absence of His Serenity nothing could be decided, but that he should be informed by the secretary of what was resolved. He replied that it was well, and was about to leave when he was detained and the deliberation of the Senate of the 16th instant was read to him upon the events of Montferrat and of the ship Corsaletta.
The ambassador replied that His Majesty would be much grieved at the public matter, as he desired peace as much as he believed the republic did. With regard to the second point he felt sure they will allow him to take some notes, because those interested may reply and he will represent the whole, since His Majesty only desires what is just and honourable.
Donado replied that his Excellency would understand that all that was possible had been done, and that he might make such notes as he desired. With that he departed and in the ante secreto took notes of the principal heads of the affair of the ship Corsaletta and some also of the advices of Montferrat.
Aug. 31. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives. 64. Tomaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
The Cardinal Borghese told me that he had heard that the Duke of Mantua was sick of a fever and had made his will, as he was in fear of death, more especially as it was predicted in Rome at Christmas that he would fall sick and die.
From Rome, the 31 August, 1613.
Aug. 31. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives. 65. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
In the port of Villafranca they say that the English corsair already has four vessels prepared and is expecting two others. They are manned for the most part by Frenchmen.
From Genoa, the last of August, 1613.
Aug. 31. Cinque Savii Alla Mercanzia. Risposte. Venetian Archives. 66. In conformity with the petition of the Flemish merchants presented to the doge on the 22 August, it is decided to prolong for four years the exemption of those merchants granted for wool brought by them from the west. This was originally granted for the benefit of the art of wool of this city, which used to be obliged to bring very bad wool from Florence and Venice at a high price. The art has been greatly benefited by this exemption, which has been extended more than once, from 1598 onwards, owing to the quantity of foreign wool brought from the west to this city.
Dated on the 31 August, 1613.
Aug. 31. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 67. To the King of Great Britain.
With the same readiness with which we ordered last month the detention of Giovanni Vicenzo Gaetano, who offered to divulge a plot against your Majesty, we have delivered him to your ambassador to be taken to England. In answer to your Majesty's letter of the 21 July, to which we reply with deeds, we can only add that your Majesty is perfectly justified in relying upon us, especially in such matters as these.
Ayes 162.
Noes 2.
Neutral 6.
Aug. 31. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 68. To the Ambassador in England.
There is little alteration in the affairs of Montferrat since ours of of the 17th, the remaining difficulties being the two points of indemnification and the rebels, which the governor desires to suppress while Mantua persists in submitting them to the emperor and to Spain. But the important point is that arms are not being laid down anywhere. The prince of Ascoli is endeavouring to quarter one portion of the royal army in the plain of Casale; this has hitherto been prevented by the Mantuan ministers. The Spaniards seem to be expecting new instructions from their king which would give Mantua reasonable terms.
The like to the ambassadors in Spain, Germany and France.
Ayes 161.
Noes 4.
Neutral 2.
Aug. 31. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives. 69. To the Ambassador in England.
On 25 January last we informed His Majesty's ambassador that we had detained Gio. Vicenzo Gaetano, who offered to publish a plot against the king's person, and we have offered to hand him over to the king.
His Majesty now writes, asking us to send the man or to deliver him to his ambassador, and the Senate has decided to hand him over to the ambassador, who says that he has the means of sending him safely. We ask you, nevertheless, to present our letter and speak in conformity with it, assuring His Majesty of our warm friendship, especially in matters touching his immediate safety. We took the opportunity of informing the king's ambassador of the deliberation of the 17th inst. upon the affairs of Montferrat and the ship Corsaletta, and he has replied as you see. He could not do so before because he has been detained in Padua.
Ayes 162.
Noes 2.
Neutral 6.


  • 1. Don Inico de Cardenas, the Spanish Ambassador.
  • 2. Peter Eston.
  • 3. See No. 41.
  • 4. Pocahuntas, daughter of the chief Powatan, was seized as a hostage by the colonists. She afterwards became a Christian, married, and came to England in 1616.—Dic. Nat. Biog.
  • 5. Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, afterwards created Count of Gondomar.
  • 6. Sir Stephen Lesieur.
  • 7. The ruined city of Derry, colonised by Londoners and thenceforward called Londonderry. See S.P. Ireland 1611–4. page 224.
  • 8. This book is generally referred to under the title of Novus homo. The reputed author was Roger Widdrington, a Benedictine monk, whose real name was Thomas Preston. The controversy between James I and the Cardinal du Perron was waged on behalf of the king by Isaac Casubon. It began by a statement of du Perron that James needed only one thing to be a liberal prince, namely to be a Catholic. In return James claimed that he was a good Catholic already. Replying on 15 July, 1611, du Perron enumerated five points of difference. James answered this in the spring of 1612. Not long after a scurrilous libel upon James appeared in France. The authorship was attributed to du Perron, but this he indignantly denied. His actual rejoinder was not published until 1620, when it took the form of an elaborate treatise. See Feret. le Cardinal du Perron, pp. 264–288.
  • 9. This is probably the anniversary of the Gowrie conspiracy of Aug. 5, 1600, which James had ordered to be kept as a day of national thanksgiving. See the despatch of Foscarini of Aug. 19, 1612, on page 409 of the preceding volume of this Calendar.
  • 10. Probably John Drummond, second earl of Perth.
  • 11. Peter Eston.
  • 12. Albert Morton.
  • 13. See No. 30 above.
  • 14. The Secretary has misunderstood the ambassador's words. The earl of Arundel was married in 1600 to Alethea, third daughter of Gilbert Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury. She eventually became sole heiress of her father, but not until 1651. G.E.C. Complete Peerage.