Venice: January 1620, 11-15

Pages 111-135

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16, 1619-1621. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1910.

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January 1620

Jan. 11.
187. To the Ambassador in Spain.
Spain approves of Ossuna's plan to keep up a fleet, but Naples fears the taxes. They are trying various expedients to obtain money. Ossuna is sending to congratulate the king on his recovery and to obtain his confirmation in power, but some of his intrigues have been exposed.
We send this for information.
The like to:
France, England, Savoy, Constantinople, the Captain General at Sea, Milan, Germany, Florence.
Ayes, 159. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.
Jan. 11.
188. To the SECRETARY SURIAN at the Hague.
If you think it necessary or opportune you will add still more in our name to the offices which we directed you to perform with the English ambassador, who is showing such zeal in our interests, as you write again. We leave this to your prudence and a due consideration of what you have already done in the matter.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 7. Neutral, 22.
Jan. 12.
189. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Saturday morning I thought it best to do nothing as it was the first day of the Christmas festivities, but after dinner I thought I would try to have secret audience of his Majesty as soon as possible in order to execute the instructions of your Excellencies. As Sir [Lewis] Lewkenor, the master of the ceremonies, seemed to me to be cold and very slow, I decided to make a short cut and send my secretary to ask an audience of the Lord High Chamberlain. He at once appointed Monday with remarkable and very unusual despatch. Accordingly I was introduced to his Majesty on that day, when what follows took place. I said: Sacred Majesty, the most serene republic trusting in your goodness and most friendly disposition towards her interests, and by the perfect understanding which she has always enjoyed with you, informed your Majesty of the very serious crime committed by Antonio Donato, in embezzling a large sum of money while acting as Ambassador with the Duke of Savoy. This was a serious crime owing to the amount of the money and because it was committed against his own prince and country, while he disgracefully bespattered the name of his country, his order and his family. He wounded the republic at the heart at a time when it was obliged to incur great expenses.
But he afterwards committed a greater crime, for with unheard of audacity he tried to deceive the Senate and cover up his crime. When he found concealment no longer possible, he took to flight. He returned to England and shamelessly entered the house of the republic, for so we called all the houses inhabited by our ambassadors at all the Courts. There he laid hands on the goods, which could no longer be considered his but the republic's owing to the sentence issued against him, sent by express courier to the Secretary Marioni in London. It arrived before Donato, ordering the secretary to inform his Majesty. But Donato, with the same audacity, actually ventured to lay hands on public papers a crime which amounted to high treason. The matter is of such importance that the republic would have sent a special mission to your Majesty on the subject if I had not been about to start, though I myself have been delayed somewhat by indisposition. I recognise my weakness but I hope and trust that your Majesty will make it good by satisfying the republic, which has always been ready to seize every opportunity of giving satisfaction to your Majesty. I feel sure that you will readily remove anything which might give rise to the opinion that your friendship was on the wane. Your Majesty will recognise how unseemly it is that an ambassador of the republic should be confronted here with one who has recently held the same charge and who has been convicted of such serious crimes, but who still continues to take his place in the Court.
The king listened to me throughout with great attention. He said it was always his wish to gratify the most serene republic to the extent of his power. At the beginning no one had shown him any reason for not doing as he had done. When Antonio Donato came to the kingdom, begging to be allowed to remain there with the few poor things that he possessed, it was his duty by the law of the land, to protect him, seeing that he had been stripped at Venice of honour, country, property and nobility itself. The law enjoins that everyone who has recourse to his Majesty's protection shall be received. He was not punished as a rebel, for assassinating his prince or such things, but simply for stealing a little money. If he wished to punish those who robbed him—good God (che se egli voleva castigare chi gli robba: a Dio). Apart from those small possessions, he added, Donato had nothing to live on, or to pay his debts and his household. When he thought that the republic might have some special possessions among those goods he caused seals to be affixed and an inventory taken, from his desire to satisfy her. But seeing that there was nothing, and how few things the inventory contained, and considering the laws of the realm, he could not do other than give orders for the seals to be removed, especially as no cogent arguments were advanced by your Serenity. Donato knew how to move compassion and so he gave him permission to dispose of his goods. The king said: He really excited my pity, as he is able, high spirited and of good birth, and he always conducted himself well in his embassy to our satisfaction, and we took to him from the first as a representative of the republic. The king repeated these things two or three times without regular order and spoke with much feeling. He remarked that the papers were of little importance and Donato had burned them, following the example of others who had burned them by order of your Serenity. He had no reason to cherish any special affection for Donato because he knew that he had spoken and written ill of his person, his ministers and his affairs. Letters had been shown to him which Donato had written and other things only a few weeks ago, in which he had used expressions too biting and much too free. But by the laws of the realm it was impossible not to allow him to live here. The French ambassador had requested him a short time ago in the name of the Most Christian king, to hand over a criminal who had murdered one of that king's squires, but he could not grant it owing to the laws of the realm. In conclusion he said: Mr. Ambassador, I will send the Secretary Naunton to you. Tell him what you want and I will do all that I can. I hope you will explain to him all that the republic requires, and what she particularly desires and I also beg you to put your arguments and demands in writing so that I may show them to the Council. I assure you that I will do all that I honourably can and what the laws of the realm permit, like a just and Christian prince.
In fulfilment of my instructions of the 8th November, and because I did not think that his Majesty fully appreciated the gravity of the case, I thought fit to add the following remarks. I had previously been warned of two things on very good authority, namely, that the king believed firmly that Donato had only taken some 17,000 ducats in the course of his embassy in Savoy, profiting by the exchange, which his Majesty did not consider such a great crime; and, secondly, that it was firmly impressed upon his mind, that a good number of senators, of malicious temper and enemies of the uncle, (fn. 1) had occasioned the ruin of Antonio Donato by persecution rather than for any other cause. Accordingly I said: Sire, your Majesty will allow me to add a few particulars. What I have said hitherto is by commission of the most serene republic, I now wish to say something on my own responsibility. Firstly, the money stolen was not 17,000 ducats, as I understand has been stated here, but more than 100,000, as in addition to taking advantage of the exchange, which is not permitted by the republic, Donato contrived by various tricks to embezzle other large sums. At this point the king interrupted me saying, What, those of Mayenne (Umena) and Lesdiguières (Dighieres). I answered, Yes, Sire, and more besides, as for example when he paid 25,000 sequins on behalf of the republic, he added something in the letters of exchange which he sent to Venice, which he pocketed himself. Here the king interrupted again, saying What! if he paid 8,000 ducats he said he had paid 9,000 and so on? adding with an expression of great surprise, This is indeed a manifest robbery. I added that the republic by her laws and upon every other consideration, as money was the chief foundation of kingdoms, held the crime of embezzling public money to be a most serious one, to be classed with that of rebellion. I begged his Majesty to accept the truth of my statement when I told him that it was the custom at Venice, in observance of most ancient laws never pretermitted, at the first Great Council at Lent, to publish for perpetual infamy, by the mouth of one of the most important magistrates of the republic called the Avogadore di Comun, those guilty of two crimes only, namely embezzlement of public money and rebellion. Moreover, when the republic remitted sentence of exile with the obligation to serve her in war, she excepted from the benefit those who had taken public moneys and no others. I proceeded to relate that Donato had also committed other crimes such as violating the house of the republic, and laying hands on the goods there, carrying away the greater part by night. He had publicly sold the silver in the city for a good sum. He also laid his hands on the public papers which he says he has burned, but God knows what he has done with them. This undoubtedly was high treason, and the orders given to others to burn papers offered no excuse, because he had no such orders, as he was no longer ambassador at the time, but a criminal, deprived even of his nobility. Even if he had been ambassador he could not burn them except with new orders. Public documents were sacred things and the republic was most particular in such matters, considering public documents and the archives as much as her treasures and the mint.
The king smiled and said, I am a just man; be sure I have nothing to say against all this.
I know it well, Sire, I replied, and the goodness and rectitude of your Majesty are resplendent throughout the world, wherefore your Majesty must believe that Donato is unworthy of your protection. Then why, said he, send him to me as ambassador. Because he was not well known, I said. The moment he was discovered he was degraded and punished. The king replied that he had information of his evil nature, but the laws of the realm do not allow that he shall be forbidden the use of his goods, his livelihood and the air he breathes.
I went on to say, I cannot refrain Sire, from informing your Majesty that the other day, when you honoured me with my first public audience, this Donato had the audacity to show himself at the Court, where he remained for more than two hours before me, during all the time that I was there and for more than half an hour afterwards. I myself saw him and was very angry to see such impudence and so little respect for the most sereno republic.
At this the king grew angry and said, Is this possible? It is only too true Sire, I replied. He expressed great amazement and disgust. He could hardly remain still and exclaimed, Yet I let him know that he ought to remain in retirement seeing that the republic complained that he went about too freely. I thought it best to press the point here and said, Your Majesty perceives how badly the republic is treated to my face and how necessary it is for you to decide to satisfy her speedily, as I feel sure that you will do in a case of this kind. He swore that he would do his utmost to satisfy her, that I must lay my arguments before Naunton with the demands of your Serenity and put everything in writing. I replied that even to Naunton and in writing I could say no more than what I had laid before his Majesty, and the republic only asked that his Majesty should consider the whole question and form his own judgment. In conclusion I said, I must tell your Majesty that I know a rumour is current here that Donato was only condemned through passion and out of persecution or by enemies. But in the first place I can assure you that every one in the Senate wept at his condemnation, owing to the merits of his ancestors; and secondly he was condemned by a unanimous vote of the Senate including his own relations. Here the king asked me, Are not you a relation of his? I replied that my brother was very closely connected, but just men could not grieve at seeing rogues punished, and I had the commands of my country to fulfil. I then begged his Majesty to terminate this affair as soon as possible to satisfy your Excellencies and so that I might not be compelled to trouble him again. He replied that he would do everything possible and finally swore that he had the greatest desire to satisfy the most serene republic.
I afterwards went on to speak of the league of your Serenity with the States which provided the king with a sweet and pleasant conclusion to this audience. Although it had lasted a long time I wished to perform this office because if I did not seize the opportunity I might be too late in executing the commands of your Excellencies, as his Majesty will return in a few days to the country to his usual pleasures of the chase. I thanked him warmly for his good offices, in conformity with the commands of your Serenity of the 14th December, repeating what I said at the public audience and showing how much the republic valued the means he had taken to express publicly his friendship, announcing it by his ministers with kings and princes everywhere. I told him that although your Excellencies had more than once passed friendly offices with his ambassador with the States General for what he had done in the interests of the republic, more particularly in the negotiations for a closer alliance with them, they wished through me to thank him in person and assure him that you will always gratefully remember his favour in this affair, which has proceeded so smoothly and seems likely to result satisfactorily, thanks largely to the assistance of his operations through his ambassador Carleton. I added that your Excellencies desired a closer union with the States General solely for defence and the preservation of your dominions, and from the general desire for peace and liberty which the republic always had in view.
This office pleased the king greatly, he rejoiced exceedingly while his face expressed his satisfaction especially that his ministers had been well employed, as he had commanded them. He said that for the future as in the past he would always be most interested in the affairs of the republic. He added that he was especially pleased that I was ambassador here and he would always show me his sincere friendship. He praised me in a way I know I do not deserve and so I held my peace. After embracing me affectionately, he dismissed me.
London, the 12th January, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 12.
190. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Immediately after my audience of his Majesty I tried to see the Marquis of Buckingham to speak to him in conformity and persuade him to favour the interests of the republic with all his might; he being the one who manages the king and also the one through whose favour Donato has obtained whatever he has got. He told me he had taken medicine that day and I could not see him. Accordingly I decided to go and speak to the Secretary Naunton without delay, since the whole affair had to be transacted through him. The same day I also visited the Lord Chamberlain, thanking him for the speedy audience which he had obtained for me. I repeated to him and to Naunton what I had said to the king, adding, as if on my own responsibility, the readiness shown by the republic to gratify any desire of his Majesty. They showed much friendship towards the republic and seemed impressed by the arguments. Naunton seemed particularly disgusted by the fact of Donato appearing at Court on the day of my public audience, saying he would not listen to any warning, as he had himself advised him to keep in retirement and even away from the city, seeing that they complained at Venice that he went about the city too freely and in particular that he went to the house of the Spanish agent, Donato replied that he did not know how he could go anywhere else. Naunton added that he had not seen him since, and thought he had left London. I said that would be a very slight matter. He added that if he left London he felt sure that he would leave the realm, as he could not be safe in the country. He said, Shall we send him to Scotland? I expressed a hope that his Majesty would not let him remain in any part of his dominions and would show how much he esteemed the satisfaction of the republic. He promised to do his part but the final decision rested with the king.
All the ministers whom I have seen have remarked upon Donato's appearance at Court on the day of the audience and some of them told me that his Majesty was very angry about it. Many of them, especially Sir [Thomas] Edmondes (il Cavalier Edmont) have assured me that Donato's property was very small and it was dishonourable for the republic to press this point, swearing that it was shameful. When I began to reply he laughed at my arguments, and remarked, You say so, but we know otherwise. I am a candid person and say what I think. When I said that the house belonged to your Serenity, he mocked, and also when I spoke of burning the papers, saying that here they attach no importance to such things. By the laws of the realm they admit all those who take refuge here. He said the papers must have been scanty and valueless, and possibly Donato's own private papers. He also offered excuses for Donato's appearance at Court on the day of my audience, saying that it could only serve for his greater mortification, and a double punishment. He said I must not bring pressure upon the king to do violence to his own honour. I told him all I knew but obstinacy admits of no medicine. Upon the last point I said that the republic only came to reasonable decisions not hurting his Majesty's honour, and I felt sure that his Majesty also desired the honour of the republic. He would show his sincere friendship in this affair also. So far from wishing to do anything violently I had simply made a modest representation of Donato's crimes and of the very important reasons of your Excellencies, feeling sure that his Majesty would take a speedy resolution worthy of himself. At length he said: Why send such a man as Donato as ambassador? I replied, Because we did not believe him such. As soon as he became known he was punished. He replied, I knew well what he was and even when he was in Savoy I knew of his proceedings. And so, laughing all the time, he spoke to me with great freedom and would never admit a word of your Serenity's view of the case.
The Secretary Calvert also seemed to hold the same opinions, but he showed himself very cautious, prudent and restrained in his remarks. Speaking in a tongue half Italian half Spanish he said that he considered the sentence of your Serenity most just and he approved of it in every point, but by the law of the land his Majesty was bound to grant breathing space to whomsoever demanded it. It was a small matter to allow a poor unhappy man to draw his breath in this country, deprived of his property, honour and nobility. The reasons I adduced were very powerful and more than sufficient when concerned with the laws of your Serenity but not for those of this country, where men had always enjoyed the right of asylum freely, especially in the time of Queen Elizabeth. So also in France and elsewhere they would not hand over to his Majesty rebels and Jesuits, although the laws here consider all Jesuits as rebels. I tried to impress upon him that laws apply to ordinary not to extraordinary cases, to private affairs not public, such as ambassadors and the interests of friendly princes. That in Donato's case, if for no other reason, he had been guilty when ambassador to Savoy and a public person, they could not reasonably take into consideration any other laws than those of his own country, as throughout the world ambassadors are not subject to the prince with whom they serve, but remain under the laws of their own sovereign, who punish them if they commit crimes in their embassies. Calvert said, Donato committed his crime while he was ambassador in Savoy, not here. I said he committed the crime of theft while he was ambassador in Savoy, but here he committed other crimes of high treason. He said, At that time he was no longer ambassador. I told him that the crime was the greater because he was not ambassador. By the law of nations the houses did not belong to the ambassadors but to their princes. Donato had violated the house of the republic by entering it and laying hands upon the goods which were no longer his owing to the confiscation. He was also guilty of burning public papers, amounting to the crime of high treason. He said, It is high treason by the laws of the republic but not in this kingdom. When Donato did this he was no longer ambassador. Admit that the house belonged to the republic, yet Donato, not the republic, paid the rent, so it would not be the republic's except so long as her ambassador lived there. The moment Donato was degraded he ceased to be ambassador and consequently the house could no longer be called the republic's as it was not maintained by any ambassador from Venice. I replied that when Donato entered the house the secretary, a public minister, was there, who remains by public decree, to carry on negotiations during Donato's absence, and before Donato's return he had received the sentence against him with orders to communicate it to his Majesty. This was quite sufficient to show that the house with all that it contained belonged to the republic. He said that a secretary alone could not sustain the dignity of the republic nor the authority, privileges and honour which are proper to the houses of ambassadors. Moreover Marioni afterwards left the house and went to live in another place. The same points were also advanced, though more gently, by the Earl of Arundel. I insisted that Donato's crimes of violating the house of the republic, laying hands on the goods and burning public papers had been committed before Marioni went to his Majesty and took another lodging in London. He hardly let me finish before saying, I will certainly serve the republic in this particular, if it becomes the honour of my king, and ended the conversation with a handsome compliment.
The other ministers have all spoken with more reserve, seeming disposed to serve your Excellencies, telling me that his Majesty will do everything in his power to satisfy you, and has simply been moved by pity and compassion. All insist upon the point of the laws of the realm and most on the point that the small property left to Donato was to enable him to live. I said that the possessions of guilty persons are confiscated so that they may not live, being unworthy to do so, because if they fell into the arms of the law they would be put to death, so if they escape, their goods are forfeit, to deprive them as far as possible of life. They said that if the republic had anything among the property of Donato, it should be promptly put aside and preserved. Calvert in particular told me that Sig. Marioni answered this proposition by saying that the republic had nothing which she considered as her property, but that she considered that all the goods belonged to her by confiscation. That, said Calvert, could only be in the republic's own dominions. I replied that Marioni said he knew nothing of such particulars and possibly the republic had some property of her own there, but she claimed everything as Donato could not have anything after the sentence pronounced against him. When the goods were in the house of the republic it was the same as if they were in its dominions, and I should have thought that from respect alone they would have kept the seals upon it until the reply arrived from Venice, especially as the greater part of the goods had probably been bought with the republic's money seeing that Donato had stolen so much: I said to some of the leading ministers that if they had a servant in their house who had committed a crime or robbed some money, and if he took refuge in the house of another gentleman, I had no doubt they would consider it a very singular and very serious matter.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, who seemed to lean greatly to the side of your Serenity, asked me if Donato was still in London. Many individual cavaliers have put the same question to my gentlemen and I have heard from more than one quarter recently that Donato is about to go away, but they do not say whether out of the kingdom or where. Sir [Henry] Wotton said to my secretary: Donato will go away to avoid a blow. But Wotton is a man who naturally speaks in very different ways. I do not know whether it may be a device or whither he will betake himself. I am quite sure that he is staying on in the city in his old rooms. Last Monday when I was to go to his Majesty after dinner, he was at Court, as I wrote before. It is true that one day recently he had a long colloquy with one of the goldsmiths here, I think to sell gold, silver or jewels, but I have not yet been able to gather the particulars. He left the city alone on more than two occasions, walking a long while in a retired place in a thoughtful attitude and speaking to no one.
The Duke of Lennox told me that he hoped the most serene republic would rest satisfied with what could be done with due regard to the laws of the realm.
The Earl of Arundel advanced many of the arguments which Calvert used. He seemed to believe that Naunton would come soon to me with the conclusion of the affair which everyone believes will be settled speedily. He told me that the Secretary Marioni had comported himself with all diligence, to which he could bear witness. He thanked me once more for the honour shown by the republic to his sons, for which he was most grateful. He remembered the courtesy shown to himself when he was there. I understand that he proposes to return soon but for a short time. In this connection I thought fit to mention the honours I had received from the king and prince at my audiences.
I must not omit to add that this Arundel, whom I tried to see the first day after my endeavour to see Buckingham, and who talked to me with Naunton, put me off for three days before allowing me to see him, with the excuse that he was always with the king, whom he could not leave without great difficulty. But when I met him he gave me the fullest satisfaction both in speech and in the show of friendship. The Marquis of Buckingham answered my first request for an interview by saying that he had taken medicine. Hearing that he was up and fairly well, on the following day, I sent my secretary to him, to ask him to spare me a little time to speak upon a matter that deeply concerned the republic, of which I had informed his Majesty. He seemed ready, but said it was not possible that day or the next, as he was attending on his Majesty, but as soon as he had a little time he would let me know. I afterwards sent the secretary to Viscount Purbeck, Buckingham's brother, to get him to ask this favour for me. He consented readily but only sent the same reply which the secretary had brought. On Thursday he went with Arundel and other magnates to dine at the house of the French ambassador. After dinner, without sending me any warning and while I was away visiting the Lord Chancellor, the marquis with many other gentlemen came to this house, but did not find me. On Friday I sent my secretary to thank him and express my sorrow at having been out, as he had never warned me that he intended to honour me in that fashion, which I took as a testimony of his affection for the republic. I asked him to give me a short time and finally he appointed to-day. I went to him and spoke in the same way as to the other ministers, and begged that he would take charge of the matter with the king, persuading his Majesty to accord prompt and complete satisfaction to the republic, saying that I should acknowledge everything to be obtained by his efforts and favour. He made a show of great friendship. He told me that the king had received and protected Donato, merely out of compassion and in conformity with the laws of the realm. His Majesty was not satisfied with him because he had spoken and written ill to Venice about his person, and about his ministers, but he did not want to punish him for that. He himself had no interest whatever in Donato and no affection for him except as the ambassador of your Serenity. He asked me more than once what the republic required and desired. I replied that I had humbly laid everything before his Majesty, who recognised the gravity of Donato's crimes and the weighty arguments of the republic and who seemed certain to take some praiseworthy resolution; his own great prudence would suggest the way. What would the republic like, he said, for the king to write a letter to the Senate or for Donato to be expelled from the Court? I should like to have some idea of the republic's wishes to help me in the representation which I propose to make to the king this evening. In reply I thought I could not say more than in my exposition, and especially the bad appearance of one who was recently here as ambassador confronting me in the eyes of all the world, frequenting the Court and elsewhere to the displeasure of the republic, a power so punctilious towards this crown and towards his Majesty in particular. I said, I thought this matter more disagreeable than all the rest and very discreditable to the republic and I said this to him not as ambassador but as an individual.
He promised with great emphasis to do everything in his power, and made me very large offers for all other occasions. Indirectly I have contrived to get things brought to the ears of this minister and of some others, which are calculated to bring about what your Excellencies desire, without my making an express request, as you prescribed, and I know for certain that more has reached the king's ears. The end will show. This affair has made a great impression upon the Court here, where first impressions prevail over all reason, so that I do not know what to expect. They now think that the king's honour is concerned as he has pledged his word and promised Donato his life and property. They think they ought not to alter the observance of the national laws, but show compassion to Donato and give him something to live upon. Some think him the victim of persecution by his enemies and especially by many who hated his Most Serene uncle, not being able to understand that the crimes of theft, of taking public money and public documents are so very tremendous. Many, as I have said before, cannot bear the idea that ministers should be punished for taking the money of princes. The Marquis of Buckingham and some others, having promised to help Donato, may think their honour is concerned. They also say it is a kind of cruelty to persecute a man, even if guilty of the gravest crimes, after having stripped him of his property, his honour and nobility, and to try and prevent him from living anywhere in the world. The majority cannot bear the blood money against him in his sentence, a thing that is not customary here and apparently they can conceive of no other fashion than the ordinary style of this kingdom. By the observations and investigations which I have made, I find that Donato has ingratiated himself with the servants of the ministers, a means more useful than any other. All these circumstances conspire to render the question a difficult one. I have done my utmost and shall persevere. I believe that the king is very cordial and sincere towards the republic, and upon this we must rely for any success.
London, the 12th January, 1619. [M.V.]
Jan. 12.
191. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Very early on Tuesday morning, when I was on the way to visit some of the ministers and gentlemen, I found I was followed by Sir [Henry] Wotton. He said he had been to my house to see me and speak to me by order of his Majesty. Accordingly I turned back and gave up all idea of visiting for the time being. In my house he took out a letter of the Secretary Naunton and said: First of all it is a settled thing that his Majesty desires to satisfy the Most Serene Republic so far as he can without offending his own honour and with due regard to the laws of the realm. He then told me the contents of the letter, namely that his Majesty wished the matter to be settled with all speed; he asked me to put in writing what I had said the day before, which was practically identical with what I had said to the Secretary Naunton. Secondly that his Majesty desired to know if the things done and granted by the republic in satisfaction of his ambassadors were precedents for the case of Donato and to be weig ed against it. I first returned thanks for his Majesty's desire to satisfy your Serenity and expressed the hope that your Serenity would receive it speedily as the matter weighed very heavily with the Senate. Then, as I had no orders from the Senate to put anything into writing, and considering that some particulars had better not appear upon paper, I said that his Majesty and the Secretary Naunton must remember everything. He pressed me to do it, however, and not only so, but began to swear and protest that the matter could not be settled in any other way, adding that I had better do it then and he would wait in the house until it was ready, because it was too important. His Majesty might be expecting it at that very moment in order to read it to the Council, which should be assembled and if I gave it, he promised that the matter would soon be settled.
Although I had no instructions I decided to comply, seeing that the Secretary Marioni had expressed his case on paper without being reproved by your Serenity, to satisfy his Majesty and remove every pretext for further delay. Accordingly I immediately wrote out the paper and handed it to Wotton, who waited for it, and at once took it to Naunton. I enclose a copy; I have expressed myself in practically the same terms as I used with his Majesty, only showing reserve in certain things, particularly in the amount of money stolen by Donato. I pray God this may meet with the approval of your Serenity.
On the other point I told Wotton that he and Carleton, who had been ambassadors with the republic, could render abundant testimony to the readiness with which your Serenity had met all their requests, even when they arose from suspicion alone. I did not wish to balance things so nicely, and would only say that on numerous occasions the republic had shown its affectionate observance towards this crown, while his Majesty, on important occasions had shown his friendship by notable declarations. I and Venice also hoped for the same disposition in this affair for many reasons. He said, Your Excellency argues well and you speak as you should. Certainly his Serenity showed himself ready to grant our every request. In this very letter which I hold in my hand I pledge myself to insert a paper to inform his Majesty of what happened at Venice in similar occasions during the time of my embassy. Of what happened under Carleton, I cannot speak with so much certainty, but I will say something and his registers will speak for him. I said that he was doubtless well informed of what happened in his own time and that of others. I urged him to make this attestation which the republic deserved, and he promised me faithfully. I showed him that I knew by referring to various things which had happened in the time of Carleton and himself, which I had read in the archives, by the desire of your Serenity before I left Venice, my indisposition having given me the time to do so, but it would have been a great advantage if the Senate had given me fuller instructions before and if I had been assured of being able to speak according to its satisfaction. I therefore beg your Excellencies to signify your wishes to me about putting things in writing when I am asked to do so by his Majesty, as I clearly see that he will ask for it in all negotiations of any importance and they are accustomed to ask for it here above everything else.
I enclose the information drawn up by Sir [Henry] Wotton and presented to the king upon the present requests, which he sent to me himself with his own signature.
London, the 12th January, 1619. [M.V.]
in the preceding
192. Paper consigned by the Ambassador Lando to Sir [Henry] Wotton, who asked for it in the name of the King of Great Britain, the 7th January, 1619.
The republic relies on his Majesty to satisfy its wishes with respect to Antonio Donato for the crimes committed by him when ambassador in Savoy. In England he practised still further deceit, but when he could no longer conceal his crimes he took to flight. He returned to England, entered the republic's house, laid hands on the goods there and burned public papers. The presence of Donato at Court is an affront to the legitimate representative of the republic.
Enclosed in
the preceding
193. During the time of my embassy at Venice the republic was always ready to afford the king every satisfaction, especially in questions about his Majesty's subjects. Three cases occur to me. The Earl of Tyrone who asked leave to enter Venetian territory, but had to go to Milan. The knight Thomas Strudder, who made a secret contract to serve the republic as colonel. He arrived at Venice with a very swaggering manner, but when I informed the republic of his nature and his practices at the Court of Brussels he was soon afterwards dismissed. (fn. 2) The third touching the person of Mr. Arthur Poole, who came to Venice with good letters of recommendation, which he brought with him. The Signory inclined to receive him, because he really was a gentleman of good appearance. I interposed against the public inclination letting it be known that his Majesty would have most just cause of offence if he were received in those parts, though for reasons of suspicion rather than importance. This quashed his proposals. Accordingly he returned to Rome, a place fatal to himself and to his brother, who had been assassinated there some years before, he also suffered the same fate not long after, over some love affair. (fn. 3)
With regard to the person whom Sir Dudley Carleton obtained from the Signory, as he was not a subject of his Majesty, it was a more notable affair than anything that happened in my time. It will appear better in the despatches of that ambassador.
Henry Wotton.
Jan 13.
Signori Stati.
194. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A person has arrived here from the King of Bohemia, but not the one sent directly by that prince. (fn. 4) The ambassador of the Princes of the Union is reported to have passed through France and they hope he will arrive speedily in England, as they receive no news from that quarter except of the continued irresolution of the king. They fear that notwithstanding this embassy and the promise of Viscount Doncaster to represent how much Germany needs his assistance, his Majesty will raise difficulties about declaring himself. Nevertheless they keep up hope as much as they can of the fruits of this embassy and will await the results with interest.
They are still determined here to send as much help as possible to the Bohemians, though they fear they will be alone. The princes and the new King of Bohemia show great spirit, but the King of England dashes all their joy because he does nothing of any use, and little can be accomplished without him.
The Hague, the 13th January, 1620.
Jan. 13.
195. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke seems inclined to treat reasonably with the people of the marquisate of Saluzzo on the question of religion. He will depute some one to hear what they have to say. The agent of England may be able to protect them, but on the matter of the two murders the Englishman has no excuse to offer, and much detests the fanaticism of those people.
This minister is always offering excuses for his king for not helping his son-in-law and his own flesh and blood. He says that the end will justify his action. The delay in coming to a decision is simply prudence in order the better to help the religion. He told me to expect some declaration from his Majesty, which will consist in ordaining prayers for the Palatine as King of Bohemia. This will be followed by preparations, assistance and the greatest activity to succour the cause of liberty in Germany.
Turin, the 13th January, 1619. [M.V.]
Jan. 14.
196. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have not yet received the king's reply about Donato, but I hear that it will certainly be dealt with in the Council to-day, his Majesty proposing to attend in person. This day it has been discussed more than once. Some ministers have eagerly supported Donato's cause, saying that his Majesty in honour is bound to grant him breathing space here; and to let him live in his dominions. Perhaps I shall be able to send the courier Bosis to-morrow with the conclusion of the whole matter. In many ways I have tried to win over the Marquis of Buckingham.
I add the present to my other lengthy letters, so protracted because I wished to supply the Senate with all particulars; thinking that your Serenity may be glad to know what is happening upon various points. The case of the demand for extradition which his Majesty mentioned to me was made to him for one who had killed a squire of the king of France, called the Seigneur de Laborde. His brother, M. de Latumba made the demand by letters from the French king to the Marquis of Tresnel as ambassador extraordinary, to make an urgent request to his Majesty that the guilty party might be handed over to him to be sent to France. Chance willed that Latumba embarked at Colchester to come post to this city at the very time that the Marquis of Tresnel who had taken leave of the king, happened to be in that place waiting to cross to France. He handed me the letter, but the marquis said that he could not turn back, but if he liked he would ask the Ambassador of Savoy to perform this office, as he had accompanied the marquis to Colchester and was still there. Latumba agreed and so the Ambassador of Savoy returned to London, where Latumba judged it best to perform a private office with his Majesty for what the ambassador was to do afterwards, and told him the circumstances. This was that, Gottier, the name of the guilty party, had taken refuge in this kingdom after assassinating his brother, who was on horseback and unarmed, merely at the instigation of a woman. He begged his Majesty to hand over the man, as his Most Christian Majesty desired him in a letter to be presented by the Ambassador of Savoy. The king replied that although the laws of the realm did not suffer this to be done, yet if his Most Christian Majesty would do the like, he would think it over and perhaps decide to comply. After this office the Ambassador of Savoy went and also made urgent request, but without the smallest success, because his Majesty changed his mind, saying he had promised to do so if the Most Christian king would do the like and surrender criminals to him, but he did not speak of this case because he wished the man to live safely in his dominions. This change was chiefly due to the instances of the Marquis of Buckingham to whom the man had been recommended by Joinville of France. Accordingly when the present French ambassador arrived in this kingdom, he made a fresh request, but received almost exactly the same reply.
On the morning of the very day when I went after dinner, to treat of the affair with his Majesty, Donato also went to Court. He came to a dark corner, usually unfrequented, near Buckingham's apartments, and paced up and down a while without speaking to any one. At length he sent his Florentine secretary to Buckingham's room, who spoke for a very short time with one of the marquis's household, but left very soon. He afterwards went to the apartments of the Secretary Naunton, staying there perhaps half an hour, coming out followed by one of Naunton's secretaries, with whom Donato conferred in that dark place, conversing for some while. From that time forward Donato has not been to Court again to speak to the ministers himself although he has received assistance in various ways and secretly. Last Sunday he went to the French preaching accompanied by his two secretaries. I think, however, that he simply went there out of curiosity and to encourage a design which some one might have upon him, and in order to acquire or confirm popularity, not for any other evil object, as nothing to this effect has ever been heard of before. Recently he has not only sold something to a goldsmith, but has also parted with some silk cloth, velvet and similar things for making clothes, which he had with him. Some of those who before now showed themselves hostile to Donato, who went about speaking of his evil nature and who caused the things written in blame of his Majesty, the ministers and the Court to reach the king's hands, have seemed rather inclined to defend him for some days past. I do not know why.
Last week your Serenity's letters of the 14th ult. reached me. In reply I may state that the Secretary Marioni assured me he had never received any instructions upon the question of negotiating an alliance with the States and was sure that he had never acknowledged the receipt of such. I have also received a copy of the letters which passed between the Ambassador Giustinian and Lord Hay or Viscount Doncaster with the information of what the agent of England in Savoy said to the Ambassador Pesaro and the news from Nancy of Sig. Luca Tron.
The Secretary Marioni left for home this morning. His Majesty gave him a fine chain and the letter of which I wrote before. From the copy I have seen, it contains nothing but praises. He asked me for money for his journey. Although I have no orders and know of no details of the subject I absolutely refused to give him any public money, but offered my own freely. In a few days I will send your Excellencies all that I have been able to discover about him.
Lord Hay or Viscount Doncaster returned to London last Saturday from his embassy, amid great applause of the whole Court where he is very popular. He received a magnificent welcome from most of the leading noblemen. He returned with great pomp, such as he has maintained, according to all accounts, throughout the course of the embassy. On Sunday morning he went to the king, but privately, and on that day and the greater part of the succeeding days he has been conversing with his Majesty, the Council and the Ministers, relating his negotiations and experiences. They speak of many things, but nothing certain is ascertained yet. In a future despatch I hope to send a great deal of news to your Excellencies. One thing is certain, that he supports whole heartedly the cause of the Palatine and the Bohemians. He speaks most highly of these and of the Princes of the Union, and is correspondingly disparaging about the emperor and the Austrians. As soon as he reached London I thought fit to send my secretary to welcome him in my name, kiss his hands and beg him to grant me a day when I could go to pay my respects in person. He semed highly pleased, and said he would come to visit me. I know that he proposed to come to-day, as he replied to a gentleman sent by the Ambassador of Savoy that he could not see him to-day because he was coming to see me. The Ambassador of Savoy told me this himself. He has not come, and when I repeated my request to visit him he said he would come to see me, but he has been really prevented by his occupations with his Majesty. He sent a gentleman to me to excuse the delay with very friendly expressions, to which I made a suitable reply, saying that I would call upon him at once as his affairs made me most eager for several reasons to meet him for a little while.
The Secretary Surian at the Hague has sent me particular advices of what he is doing and of his meeting with this nobleman and what he said about the incident at Pontieba. The Ambassador's secretary who is an Italian and a subject of your Serenity has spoken to some of my household very freely saying that the ambassador was highly offended, especially as Ferdinand Locatello, after allowing him to enter the State and accepting as good the pass which he had from Gratz, signed by the emperor, would not afterwards countersign it, but allowed him to pass through, sending on a courier to have him stopped at la Chiusa, alleging that he wished to force a way through and had entered with violence. The keeper at la Chiusa sent to the Lieutenant of Udine, who sent back the pass without any reply except that he had written to Venice. But what offended the ambassador most of all was that he was accused of having forced the country without regard for any one and Locatello had written impertinent letters of defiance reflecting upon the ambassador's person. This relation made me redouble my diligence to see Hay as soon as possible and speak to him in accordance with the information which I possess. I will also try to discover what he said to his Majesty on the subject. He said something to the gentlemen who met him and accompanied him from Gravesend to London, when speaking of his journey, but with reserve and without a sign of displeasure, rather offering excuses for the event. But it seems that the members of his suite go about exaggerating and magnifying the affair, while some do not hesitate to kindle ill feeling. I will speak when I have an opportunity, but so far everyone seems to approve of the rigorous methods of your Serenity in the important question of health; although here they do not trouble greatly about such precautions. It is clear that this event will by no means help the realisation of your Serenity's wishes upon the affair of Donato, and it could not have happened at a worse time. I will not neglect to make the most of every opportunity afforded to me. I am afraid they may dissimulate and pretend to think nothing about it, while secretly they cherish some resentment and that they may intend to make some demonstration at Venice about those letters of mistrust in particular, supposing them to be authentic. But I think they will welcome the slightest explanation. I will send word of what happens and in any event the prudence of your Serenity will weigh the important question of health against these considerations.
Yesterday evening Baron Achatius Dohna, the eldest brother of the family, arrived here as ambassador for the new King of Bohemia. He came incognito with only two servants. Shortly before they knew of his arrival, Sir [Henry] Wotton told me with the utmost secrecy, that he was staying with him. He is expecting the rest of his household and so soon as his house is ready the report of his arrival will be spread, and he will go to his Majesty, if not before. The king will stay in London after the prince's masque which is to take place on Thursday, for two days and possibly longer, in order to receive this ambassador, and after listening to what he has to say, to come to his long and anxiously awaited decision.
The book written by his Majesty in English has been published. It is now translated into French and Latin. It is dedicated to the prince his son and entitled the Christian Prince. It tells him the rules he should observe in governing the kingdom; it praises peace and touches here and there upon the current events of the world. (fn. 5)
The carnival is celebrated here by numerous masques. Yesterday the Marquis of Buckingham and many gentlemen here gave one in the house of the French ambassador, which was attended by a great concourse of ladies. On Thursday night there will be the prince's. I and my gentlemen have been invited to attend this morning in the king's name, and so have the Ambassadors of France and Savoy, but no others.
London, the 14th January, 1619. [M.V.]
Jan 14.
197. ALVISE ZORZI, Proveditore of Zara, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Captain General sailed out of this port yesterday evening, having left here in garrison the troops of Colonel Peyton, 350 men, who have been duly mustered (I enclose the roll) without any objection on the Colonel's part, as I told him it was only reasonable to take such a step in introducing troops into an important fortress like this, and to describe the men carefully. At first he seemed inclined to object as previously the men had been mustered by files only. It also pleased his Excellency greatly, as a means of avoiding fraud. I proposed to put 120 of them in the fort and the remainder in the town. The Colonel seemed very anxious to have them together, especially in the fort, that situation pleasing him more than any other place, but I thought it best to avoid the danger of having too many men of one nation together at that important post, and to balance them by the Italian troops, who in my opinion will always be superior, at least given equal numbers. It will not, moreover, be difficult to keep these troops engaged in the ordinary employments, following the example of the other soldiers of the garrison, and so to reduce them to greater obedience and also derive advantages for the public service.
Their wages have been paid to the Colonel up to the 5th February next. He has gone with the General to Venice leaving one of his captains in his place. The latter has already begun to ask me for the pay to come, amounting to a large sum, for which I have no provision and do not know where to find it and so avoid those troubles which want of money occasions, with new troops, who are not looked upon with favour in this town, and who are ready to rise and mutiny under such circumstances. If the musters are not made at the time of their payment they claim to be paid in accordance with the preceding musters, even if the number of soldiers be less, which would be a notable prejudice to the public. Accordingly I decided to send these post by boat to Istria, begging you to make due provision of money.
Zara, the 14th January, 1619. [M.V.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
198. Muster roll of the troops of Sir Henry Peyton, colonel from England, who has served hitherto in the fleet, paid by the Commissioner of the fleet Venier up to the 5th February next, in the presence of the Captain General at Sea Venier and Alvise Zorzi Proveditore Extraordinary of Zara. When the troops numbered 500 they were divided into three companies, to wit, under the Colonel 200, comprising an ensign, three sergeants, two drummers, a piper, a surgeon, a provost and twenty gentlemen and received as wages 1,350 ducats of 6 lire 4 grossi a month of thirty days; the other two companies numbered 150 each at 980 ducats a month.
Company of the Colonel:
Ensign: Baclif.
Lieutenant: Thomas Tibaldo.
Sergeant: John Liever.
do.: Richard Dice
Provost: John Smith.
Drummer: Richard Gion.
do.: Robert Valers.
Edmond Smit. Richard Cors.
William Polardo. George Frederin.
William Lochem. Rogiaco Colmen.
James Ricar. Richard Reimen.
Richard Renals. Thomas Grimes.
Robert Giors. William Videan.
Henry Roper. John Natam, senior.
Gies Brai. William Nan.
John Madoes. John Geilp.
John More. John Rottero.
George Leiten. John Vesce.
Robert Languedo. James Nube.
John de Roco. Walter Ronal.
Christopher Celi. Amplido Goron.
James Da Anni. Giugon Stochmen.
Bernard Giorgi. Christopher Hardel.
Mores Giors. Thomas da Lon.
Amielech Oniffon. Leonard Udrop.
Anthony Aers. William Garet.
Julius da Ronivento. David Escraldia.
Michael Uural. Vuilabi Rogers.
Adam Lengh. Erigo Studuch.
William Enes. John Giors.
Lionicio de Cesare. Richard Deehesen.
James Chrifen. John Olmer.
Richard Chigs. Griffin Roun.
Anthony Gargose. William Pone.
Augustine Raparel. Robert sco in fin.
Gerome Ueech. Aldichles de ni.
Ars Giomar. Francis Pog.
William Rars. Robert Chin.
George da Vide. Richard Brinch.
Anthony da Villa Nova. Margano Matlea.
Peiton Lach. William Smit.
Thomas da Bins. Thomas Bron.
Abraham Dirich. William Trasidion.
Zuanne de Anzolo. Anfrido Chem.
Henry Avedmar. Anter Perset.
Matthew Volm. Richard Michelson.
John Racs. John de Boch.
John Vantagei. Robert Smit.
Ars Emortor. Robert Resan.
Francis Morando. Francis Langfort.
Robert Baldi. Crineho Vinut.
Batista Calato. Ans Schiper.
Lunardo Rex. Richard Sanchi.
Lox ichs Camor. Ricordo Banck.
Nicholas Barandal. John Atoni.
Simon Ogen. George Tolet.
Michael Meser. John Revirs.
Richard Morten. Robert Pruce.
Ars Verten. Edward Boteucher.
Christopher Palaci. Richard Lucier.
Roger Corielle. Marsor Pali.
Henry Frangel. Elios Scrastich.
William Rinder. John Trimon.
Bologna Ponteto. Eric Cheru.
Anthony de Roger. Hugh Doglas.
Michael Ongara. Arst Smit.
John Matthew de Nicoli. Gers Grauid.
Rodolph Centon. Erigo Roal.
John Rolf. James Grant.
Facil Formaredet. John Vauin.
Vantin Vantino. William Schop.
Matthew Planta. James Reip.
Zuanne Edmonds. Robert Spender.
Philip Speni. Hiches Boni.
William Diglert. William Astor.
Liberale Clianti. William Huier.
Nicholas Voles. Christopher Olati.
Walter Ouerd. Tony Albort.
Henry Valten. John John.
Zuanne Pelton.
Anthony B. Veinfelt, sergeant.
John Aisen.
Ars Suelght.
Twelve are at Venice with leave.
Company of Captain Henry Lutio:
Ensign: Fulk Ars.
Lieutenant: Thomas Conte.
Sergeant: Thomas Smit.
do. sick: Roger Bredimer.
Drummer: Anthony Legreir.
do. John Stela.
Primo Lovertin Thomas Chates.
Walter Ralci. Robert Uschach.
Thomas Giars. Robert Tomate.
Richard Clin. Zuanne Streton.
John Bli. Zuanne Chiesle.
Thomas Pacht. George Giud.
John Tragedes. Luke Aerbert.
John Orate. Francis Elent.
John Tlech. Zuanne Poel.
Thomas Verins. Henry Smilt.
Thomas Cherbi. John Peter Richard Aslier.
John Tremen. Alen Madranes.
Stephen Cherchari. John Vuisimor.
Michael Born. James di Inglitera.
John Achens. Edward Ederten.
Roger Doni. Robert Aliuer.
Thomas Vadorten. Richard Piersi.
William Guiltan. Adam Ars.
Richard Tires. John Bromse.
Henry Arager. Christopher Cesar.
Francis Bes. Thomas Standon.
Trichl. James Slincar.
John Gians. William Felcer.
Richard Eirs. William Falicner.
John Macer. Edward Caledi.
William Paris. Samuel Diers.
William Trops. Giai de Bosco.
Edward Clobes. John Smit.
Alexander Borle. Michael Franeda Rerg.
Geoffrey Stacli. Cattarin Dimon.
Thomas Rogers. Thomos Huebe.
Matthew Maison. Henry Enmon.
Robert Stanifort. Alexander Hud.
Armand Fob. Bartholomew da Degan.
Zuanne Rosel. John Rotel.
Henry Prit Anthony Dies.
Edward Durs. John de Rorgogno.
James Pasan. George Gifs.
Richard Guatires.
Richard Bilfor.
George Folpo.
Monsu Germor.
John Camper.
Anthony Regnes.
Angelo Grims.
At Spalato:
Richard Esef.
Pro. Giasion.
Company of Captain Thomas Ladum:
Sergeant: Thomas Micel.
do.: Richard di Moch.
Edward Simers. Nathaniel Gucoles.
John Chili. Robert Bedli.
Richard Fuisen. John In old.
Thomas Rei. John Artle.
Edmond Daniel. Thomas Adrimson.
John Pase. Dominie da Fregnano.
John Caes. Thomas Poers.
Henry Brun. Griffin Ingors.
John Limers. Henry Fa.
Robert Scot. Robert Tones.
Alvise Rasilion. William Vatirs.
Ercole Nadum. Daniel Rouen.
Gien Stivers. Giosin Aers.
Laspe Machelore.
William Rogers.
Arrived in the galley of the Captain of the Gulf and mustered at Zara on the 14th January.
Robert Ivors. Do not pass to the muster.
Thomas Paul.
Erigo Brent.
Lieutenant: Christopher Peyton.
Ensign: Ofrich Peyton.
Drummer: Robert Ogle.
Peter Pouel. Richard Dent.
Zefel Daniel. Thomas Poster.
Giars Lessi. Henry Saltech.
Alfton Giorse. William Patison.
Walter Born. John Powser.
John Laurech. Edward Ale.
Matthew Vils. William Frembro.
Nicholas Soten. Thomas Gualguim.
William Smith. Gierso Perualer.
Thomas Dun. Thomas Leider.
Giers Andron. Martin Maser.
Vuileni Porel. Gion Bradbere.
Edward Vunt. William Chir.
Francis Maur. Jonas Flon.
John Betnan. Roger Reis.
Joseph Curt. Thomas Smieth.
John Filips. David Preir.
Vilen Snosdel. Richard Esmon.
Vilen Sanders. William Carnual.
Thomas Tasa. Inpaul.
Thomas Mous. Humphrey Mag.
Robert Niblet. Rondel Aron.
Lans Rofert.
On the 26th April the Colonel received for bringing the men to the ships, 13,527 lire 7 gr.
Detained on account of arms, lire 3,100.
Item, to buy arms he had 16,907 lire 8 gr.
Item, he had musket balls about 1,000, rope and powder barrels.
Item, muskets:
For rope, 200 lire.
For lead 92 lire, received by Captain Erico from the ship Bosca Longa.
For powder 199 lire.
Jan. 15.
199. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday the Council met after dinner about the affair of Donato, and the king intended to be there in person. I thought I should have some reply to my representations, in his Majesty's name, but nothing has come, and it will be postponed till after Sunday. On very good authority I hear that they discussed the question for more than two hours. The king wished to satisfy the republic in some fashion. The Marquis of Buckingham showed a leaning towards the interests of your Excellencies and there were many other hopeful signs. But I think it better to await the end, as an interval of four days may give birth to many changes and alterations. The Bishop of Lincoln, I am told, defended Donato vigorously, and finally begged his Majesty to adopt the treatment shown habitually to other guilty persons in this kingdom, no matter what their crimes may be, and that before a decision against him is published he may be summoned before the Council to say whatever he wishes. Accordingly the Council concluded by ordering that one of the clerks, who carries what is equivalent to a command with us, should be sent to tell Donato to appear before the Council on Sunday. This was done yesterday evening. This seems to me a long interval between yesterday evening and Sunday, but it is because of the masque to be performed and owing to the recent events, such as the return of Lord Hay and the arrival of Baron Dohna for the new King of Bohemia, so that they have decided not to hold another formal Council except on that day. Thus although I grieve at delaying to send word to your Serenity, because I expected to be able to send the king's reply and the final settlement, I think I ought not to detain the courier Bosis any longer, so I am sending him to-day with these presents and my letters of the 12th and 14th inst., all of great length. I ask pardon, but I have related everything fully. I hope these will reach your Serenity before those which I sent last Friday by the ordinary, even if the courier is not nearly so expeditious as I have enjoined him to be. I have paid him 30l. sterling for his journey. The moment I receive his Majesty's reply I will send word to your Excellencies, who must never marvel at the delays and slowness of this Court, as in all affairs they naturally proceed at a very slow pace, but I will show the greatest application in my service.
London, the 15th January, 1619. [M.V.]
Jan. 15.
200. GIACOMO VENDRAMINO, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Secretary of Spain who negotiates in England writes to his Excellency that the king there is very undecided what he ought to do with respect to helping his son in law, the Palatine, or no. The Council however has declared in the interests of the Palatine and the people are most disposed to help him. The king was anxiously awaiting an ambassador extraordinary from the Catholic king, hoping with his help to patch up some arrangement. His Majesty had told him this much, showing that he inclined more to an accommodation than to anything else.
Milan, the 15th January, 1620.


  • 1. Loonardo Donato, Doge of Venice from 1606 to 1612, who led the republic in her dispute with Pope Paul V.
  • 2. For Tyrone see Preface to Vol. XI. of this Calendar, page xxxiv., and for Stodder see index to the preceding volume.
  • 3. It should be Geoffrey Pole. See the preceding vol. of this Calendar, Nos. 599, 625, 626, 649. Arthur Pole, Geoffrey's brother, was assassinated at Rome in the summer of 1605, as Wotton himself records. Pearsall Smith's Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, i. page 330. They were sons of Geoffrey Pole, nephew of Cardinal Reginald Pole.
  • 4. The person was Francis Rosel, one of the king's council, sent by the Duke of Deuxponts from Heidelberg in place of one Charles Paul, one of the king's council likewise, who, coming immediately from the king, sickened by the way. Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton, page 433.
  • 5. This was a Meditation upon Matt. xxvii, 27–31, the subject of the Crown of Thorns. See Gardiner, Hist. of Eng., iii, page 327.