Venice: January 1633

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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'Venice: January 1633', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636, ed. Allen B Hinds( London, 1921), British History Online [accessed 13 July 2024].

'Venice: January 1633', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Edited by Allen B Hinds( London, 1921), British History Online, accessed July 13, 2024,

"Venice: January 1633". Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23, 1632-1636. Ed. Allen B Hinds(London, 1921), , British History Online. Web. 13 July 2024.

January 1633

Jan. 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
84. Pier Antonio Marioni, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Weston received his reply from Genoa the day after Christmas. They said he would be welcome but would have to pass at least thirty days in quarantine, they expressed the esteem of the republic for the King of Great Britain. Accordingly the ambassador decided to go by Leghorn. He left on Tuesday after dinner together with the Grand Duke, who wishes to accompany him to the embarcation. He will go straight to Marseilles. He declared himself most delighted with his reception. He had as presents seven pieces of gold brocade, the furniture of a room and a pavilion to match (trabacca compagna) worth 4000 piastres. He left 1300 crowns in coin to be distributed among the servants at Court and 400 doubles laid out in gold chains distributed among the more important personages who had assisted him in the palace. Before he left a courier reached him from Venice with letters from his king urging his return to London. The Secretary told me this. He left for Venice yesterday and did not even follow the ambassador to Pisa. He may have wished to avoid the necessity for quarantine.
Florence, the 1st January, 1632 [M.V.]
Jan. 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
85. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Queen Mother at present at Antwerp where two gentlemen from England have arrived to pay their respects in the king's name, (fn. 1) expressing satisfaction at seeing her there and in good health ; a hint, under ceremonious forms, that they do not want her to go further, and that she shall give up the idea of proceeding to England.
The Hague, the 6th January, 1632 [M.V.]
86. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
Ersolt has not left yet for England, owing to the contrary wind. The Princess Palatine has sent the enclosed letter to this house, informing your Serenity of her husband's death. The Ambassador Anstruther is expected shortly. There is no more about the Palatinate this week.
The Hague, the 6th January, 1632 [M.V.]
Jan. 7.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
87. To the Ambassador in England.
Your despatch of the 3rd ult. reached us on the first. The Ambassador Weston had word that they would be pleased to see him at Genoa, but only after he had spent 30 days in quarantine near Trenta. The republic assured him of their good will and esteem for his king. Accordingly he decided to go to Leghorn. The Grand Duke shewed him great attention.
Ayes, 99. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
Jan. 7.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
88. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I learn on good authority that if there is occasion to negotiate in Holland, on the arrival there of the two ambassadors extraordinary, who left here together two days ago, on any matter touching the affairs of Germany, it will certainly pass through the hands of only one of them, namely Anstruther, as it is he who has to go straight on to Germany. I have sent word of this to Contarini. The Earl of Arundel, who has gone as ambassador extraordinary, and who has precedence over Anstruther, owing to his personal rank, will not take part in anything which does not concern bringing back the Princess Palatine to this kingdom. It is known that her interests languish more and more, and will do so unless they supply serious support from this quarter.
The king has directed the earl to perform an office of pure compliment in the Assembly of Holland. It is supposed that the Princess Palatine will embrace the opportunity offered to her eagerly, at the spontaneous invitation of her own brother, to return to live in her native country. But if she seem to prefer to stay in Holland for a space longer, either by causing too long a delay or in some other way, some of those who are in a position to know say that the earl has instructions to return home. If the king as yet has no information about the intentions of his sister, yet he cannot persuade himself that the invitation will not prove very acceptable to her for the stateliness of the mission also. For this they have sent with the royal ships the first subject at the Court with twenty four gentlemen of his table, accompanied by the Earl of Douuer and other lords of high rank as well as a very numerous train, all dressed in mourning.
No advice has come yet as to whether the Palatine's brother (fn. 2) will take up the direction and guardianship of the state, in conformity with the Germanic institutions, until the eldest prince attains the age of eighteen ; and they claim here that he is not included in the imperial ban. Some report has spread, though I have not yet obtained full confirmation, that they propose to send to the emperor Cottington, who negotiated the peace with Spain. After the Treasurer he has the chief place and influence, not only in the Council, but in the royal favour as well. This would be a great matter and noteworthy for several reasons, but by no means in conformity with the despatch of Anstruther to the princes of Germany, as those who support the right side say here.
The French seem very suspicious about the negotiations which are going on in Holland about the truces. To prevent them they would like to have assistance from here also. To this end Fontane has informed some of the ministers here of what his king has done in the matter, and of the representations made by Bosi in the full Assembly in his Majesty's name, pointing out what was most to the advantage of the Dutch and of the public cause. He told me he saw quite well that this crown will not do anything, adding that one might fear that the Spaniards will conduct that matter to suit their plans, as in spite of the discovery of that masked transaction in the name of their provinces, the Dutch, who know already that nothing is done by the deputies of Brussels without commissions from the Infanta, incline to treat and listen to the proposals, although a short while ago they declared themselves opposed. The return of the Duke of Arescot increases this jealousy, as he was recently expected at Brussels for the purpose of putting the affair in better train. The English Agent writes from that Court in conformity with this and adds that the movements of the Spaniards in that affair will be regulated according to what happens in Germany. Although news from that quarter reaches this Court late and is uncertain, they hear of the continued success of Duke Bernard of Veymar over the Imperialists. It would seem that the wheel of victory in that quarter still moves with the impetus given it by the late King of Sweden.
At this very moment, when the courier is starting for Antwerp, three packets of letters reach me from the Senate, of the 27th November and the 9th December. These will serve me for information about the incident to the galley Trevisana in the port of Ancona, to give the exact facts, if occasion arises to speak about it, and also about the affair of the English at the mart of Ormus.
London, the 7th January, 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
89. Francesco Corner, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English resident has stated definitely that his king has excused himself for not being ready (apparacchiato) to receive the Queen Mother, and he made this reply to the instances made to him to receive her.
Madrid, the 8th January, 1632 [M.V.]
Jan. 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
90. Antonio Antelmi, Venetian Secretary in Germany to the Doge and Senate.
The Capuchin reported to have passed through Milan from Rome is called Francesco or Antonio Rota. He came from Spain and first from England. His name in religion is Fra Alessandro d'Ales. He arrived at this Court the day before yesterday. He saw the emperor at once and finding the aspect of his principal business about the the Palatinate changed by Anstruther's departure, by the surrender of Frankenthal and the death of Sweden and the Palatine he devoted himself rather to showing the opportunity for a union between the House of Austria and the King of England, without entering into particulars.
Vienna, the 8th January, 1633.
[Italian ; copy.]
Jan. 10.
Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia. Risposte, 149. Venetian Archives.
91. With respect to the petition of the English ambassador for the restitution of 5 chests of silk and one of gold buttons, and the release of Giovanni Marchetti, Costantin Lazari, and Nicole his son, seeing that the silk was taken from a saetia coming from Messina, to Henry Hider, an English merchant living at Zante by his agents in the Morea, so that he might dispose thereof without unlading the saetia, we know the prejudice to the trade of this city because the merchants of that island, under pretence of lading goods from the Morea for the West, send them to other marts of Italy, and afterwards take silk and other goods from Messina to the Morea, to the grave prejudice of our state, because the Morea ought to be provided with silk and woollen cloth manufactured in this city ; we are not clear whether the chests in question were removed from the ship or if they were already put on shore, as if they had been, the sentence of the government based on the laws, could not be revoked ; so the matter ought to be referred back for more definite information from the Government of Zante. With respect to the ambassador's arguments, we do not hear whether the remainder of the cargo of the saetia was made up at Zante or if it had traded there before in bringing such goods from Messina, so more information is required about this also. The release of prisoners is a matter for your Serenity's favour.
Marc Antonio Correr Savii.
Antonio Dolfin
Battista Erizo
Jan. 11.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
92. The Resident of the King of Great Britain came into the Collegio and spoke substantially as follows :
I could not do less than come and pay my respects on my return from Florence. We found that city entirely free from the plague (male), and left it so. The Cardinals of Bologna and Ferrara gave me free passage. I thank your Serenity for having done the same, both on my own behalf and that of the ambassador, in whose name I kiss your hands.
I shall continue to act here until better weather permits some one else to come and do so with more dignity and capacity, though I shall always be a most devoted servant of the republic.
In the absence of the doge the senior councillor Francesco Zorzi said they were glad to see him back and should be pleased to do anything for him. The Cavalier Contarini, Savio of the Council for the week, told him that he would always be welcome. The Resident thanked them respectfully, took leave and departed.
Jan. 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
93. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The son of Prince Razivel made his entry as ambassador of Poland the day before yesterday, and the Earl of Arundel and Anstruther have also arrived from England. With respect to what the consul at Aleppo writes I am informed that they have no further news at Amsterdam except that the English and Dutch have been mulcted in the sum reported, but they have heard nothing of an agreement between the Persians and the Portuguese. If it were so and the Persians wanted the money down, they admit that they could not go to Ormuz any more and the East India Company would have to devise some other expedient.
The Hague, the 13th January, 1632 [M.V.]
94. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
Many believe that the unexpected arrival of the Earl of Arundel as ambassador extraordinary to take the Princess Palatine to England is connected with some device of the Spaniards, who under this pretext have had this person hastily selected in order to interest himself in favour of the truces. They argue that the earl may have commissions to guide his conduct according to the progress of the negotiations, especially as the States have practically promised that the interests of the princess shall be comprised in any agreement. So far the Princess does not incline to leave these parts and adheres to her original decision, having great confidence in the advice of the Prince of Orange. The Earl wished to see her at once, before making his public entry with Anstruther, which took place to-day. The States intimate that money and troops are required, besides embassies, but if England will offer definite assistance they make no difficulty about joining in to help the Princess ; but they mean England to declare herself and to take action before they move.
The Hague, the 13th January, 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; deciphered.]
Jan. 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Ceffalonia. Venetian Archives.
95. Gasparo Querini, Venetian Proveditor of Cephalonia, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ship Scipio arrived here recently with goods, those sold here being laded on the S. Anna for Venice. (fn. 3) They asked for the benefit of 5 ducats the thousand on the duty on currants. I pointed out that the ship had only brought 5 thousand of salt, 48 sacks of wool, 240 pieces of lead, 1150 salted hides, 10 packets of wax, 7 barrels of sugar, 2 bales of baize, a chest of ostrich feathers and a bale of skins, quite insignificant for the capacity of so large a ship, and I would not allow the state to be defrauded, especially as I believed that the salt and lead served more for ballast than as merchandise and that other goods had been discharged in places not subject to your Serenity, so I would not concede the privilege.
Cephalonia, the 3rd January, 1633, old style.
Jan. 14.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
96. To the Ambassador in England.
You made a prudent reply to the Treasurer about the orders to be sent to the Ambassador Anstruther. You will adroitly and with due circumspection suggest to those ministers such reasons as you know will assist the common cause, in order to obtain resolutions which will enable us to expect the best results and help for the cause. We enclose the advices to use as you consider advisable. We also enclose a copy of the exposition of his Majesty's resident after his return from Florence. You will see that he hinted at his sovereign's intention to send an ordinary ambassador here, You will take opportunities to point out that that will be the best course to keep up mutual relations.
Ayes, 82. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
Jan. 14.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
97. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The latest news which reaches this Court from Germany from every quarter all agrees with what they desire here, and with what they hope for more and more about the union and success of the princes of the party in Germany. From the diet to be assembled in Saxony, besides the new levy of that Elector, they are expecting more vigorous resolutions to uphold the armies in the field. Anstruther has instructions to go straight to this same diet with all speed, with a special despatch sent after him by his Majesty, since the arrival of the last letters from Germany, so as not to lose the very excellent opportunity afforded by the assembling of those princes to perform the offices with which he is charged from this quarter, and also to put forward the interests of the Palatine's son, in the way that present circumstances demand. Accordingly they say that he will not have much time to stay for any negotiations in Holland, whither he has already gone with the Lord Marshal.
Meanwhile the ministers here are watching the movements of the Most Christian with attention and interest. It is announced here by the French that they will continue their assistance to Germany, and one who has a seat in the royal Council has intimated that he has information on good authority that the designs of France may be devoted to getting possession of the places in the neighbourhood of the Rhine.
The negotiations of the deputies of Brabant in Holland attract attention here, although they adhere to their original resolution not to intervene either for the conclusion or the prevention of the truces. France, on the other hand, regards them with great jealousy, and by missions and offers of assistance she is working harder than ever to dissipate all the negotiations. But among the Lords here the opinion obtains that the Dutch, tired of the uncertainty of French promises, will either secure themselves by some stronger declarations, or remain free to accept some advantageous proposal from Spain. Meanwhile it is known that the Archbishop of Malines is to make a report to the Infanta upon the very high terms placed on the carpet by the Dutch. These extend to twenty two articles. In opposition to these, from what the English Agent Bosuel writes, the Spanish deputies were disposed to draw up different articles, but in the end they decided to take advantage of the benefit of time, and they have contented themselves with making their report at Brussels, in order that they may receive more definite orders as to the line they must follow in their reply to the articles in question.
The Earl of Leicester, who returned recently from his embassy extraordinary to Denmark, went to pay his respects to his Majesty and give him a long account of his negotiations. In these, so far as this king is concerned, or his sister, the Princess Palatine, about their inheritance in ready money from their grandmother, the lately deceased Queen of Denmark, which was reported to be very considerable, he has brought back little or nothing satisfactory. (fn. 4) So much was this the case that he had to leave with some show of offence, after refusing the present which the King of Denmark wished to give him. He also represented that the relations between that king and the city of Hamburg are worse than ever ; accordingly, from what they say, they are much inclined here to take the side of the Hamburgers. The deputy of that town now here (fn. 5) does not fail to take advantage of the ill feeling that seems to exist at present between these two crowns.
Your Serenity's last, with advices, are of the 16th ult. The delay in my letters, which I send without fail every week, may be due either to bad weather or to the difficulties of the road through Germany. What your Excellencies send me with the letters written to Zante and Cephalonia will serve me to confirm the excellent intentions of the state towards the merchants of this nation. With respect to the arrival of the Capuchin at Padua, the object for which he represents that he stayed at this Court was set forth by me in my letter of the 27th of February last. (fn. 6) I am obtaining the necessary information about the English at the marts of Ormus and Bandel.
London, the 14th January, 1632 [M.V.]
Jan 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
98. Giovanni Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I have heard no more about the proposed embassy to the emperor. For the rest they adhere to the plan of the king approaching that frontier, for the negotiations with the leaders of the Swedish army, and the Cardinal hopes to have the places on this side the Rhine in deposit, which Colonels Horn and Bodisen have already offered to him, while he has an excellent understanding with Oxenstierna. The English are very suspicious about this understanding, and their Agent has instructions to speak about it expressly, because they do not wish the French to set foot in places which belong to the Prince Palatine ; and although the places this side the Rhine are not of great consequence, yet they wish the Palatine's brother to have the free disposal of them.
Paris, the 18th January, 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
99. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The Earl of Arundel and Anstruther, ambassadors extraordinary of England, have had their first audience in the Assembly after their entry. They expressed the king's grief at the Palatine's death and his decision to send the earl to console his sister and take her to England, as well as to inform the States that he will lend his forces for the restitution of her children to their dominions. They asked for facilities for treating, and seven deputies have been chosen, one for each province, These have met the ambassadors and so far as I can discover they only discussed ways and means of attaining these ends in a general way. The Princess is not disposed to go to England, although the Earl and Anstruther also have made frequent representations to her. The latter told me privately that it would be advisable for her to consent, to please the king, who desires it greatly, and come back here after a little while. She says her wound is too recent, but I am told on good authority that she is very undecided, because her familiars represent that to offend the king and the earl, who has come in such a conspicuous manner, might prejudice her interests and allow her enemies to attribute her behaviour to disdain, so that her more domestic affairs might suffer. Her presence would be very helpful and might lead to calling parliament for her sake, no good being possible without it. On the other hand her present sentiments are confirmed by seeing that England has done nothing as yet, with the fear that she may not be allowed to come back here and in her absence lose the affections and assistance of these States. Above all she is afraid of some plot of the Spaniards against her person, as she knows they do not love her, as in fact she is their bitterest enemy.
Anstruther says he will leave for Germany in a few days, to attend the diet of the Protestant Princes and try to maintain them in a good union. The earl also says he will only remain a short time. They have sent an express to England, and this time they announce that something effective will certainly be done.
The Hague, the 20th January 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
100. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Fontane, by express command from his master, has informed the ministers here at some meeting with them, of the resolution of his king to continue his assistance to Germany. He added that his Majesty proposes to return and proceed in person to that part. In the mean time he is on the point of sending thither M. di San Sciomon, who is well known and liked at this Court because of his embassy extraordinary a few months ago. Fontane told me in confidence that he sees no sign and does not think it possible by the most vigorous offices and representations, to make any impression that will induce greater warmth in this quarter for the public cause ; but here they consider they have done a great deal up to now by the last despatch of Anstruther, and by the offices and negotiations which he is to conduct with the leaders of the party.
His Majesty himself has announced with great satisfaction the news that after the recapture of the citadel of Leipsig the whole of Saxony has been freed from the imperial armies although from another quarter we hear that Volestain is hurriedly getting together a great force in Bohemia, with which he proposes to re-enter the Elector's dominions. Meanwhile they are eager to learn here what is to be decided in the diet of Dresden, and they hope that Anstruther will be in time to take part in that as well as in any other congress of the princes for the more speedy and effective fulfilment of his commissions.
People write from various parts to the same effect relating the successful operations carried out under Baudesin. He has captured the whole of the duchy of Bergh, except Dusseldorf, from which place the Duke of Neuburg has departed in order to find more safety in Juliers ; and similar things under Colonel Dubald in Silesia, and under the Rheingrave in Alsace, although they add that Marshal Horn has gone to succour Banier, who is hard pressed by Bavaria.
From the house of the Spanish Resident Nicolaldi come reports of great provision of money, to the amount of five millions, according to his own account, which the Cardinal Infant is taking with him on leaving Spain, for the requirements of Germany, Flanders and Italy.
Gerbier, the English Resident at Brussels, writes that Monsieur seems to be wandering about that state. He went recently to Antwerp, where he remains in idleness, without having done anything so far for his own interests, beyond sending a gentleman of his recently to the emperor, from whom it appears he hopes for assistance in stirring up fresh trouble, to which he is constantly urged by his favourite Piloran, according to what the ministers here state, and the Ambassador Fontane tells me the same. From the French who are here one hears very doubtful and varied opinions about the Marshal Torras, who has recently been recalled to France from Casale. The ministry here do not neglect to note and comment upon the steps that he may be about to take.
The Ambassador Joachimi has taken leave of his Majesty. They say he is going to Holland on his private affairs, and until his return Brasser will take charge of affairs in the capacity of a simple deputy. The king is going soon to Theobalds for his customary pleasures of the chase, although he will return to this city in a few days. Before starting he wished to celebrate the marriage between the daughter of the Treasurer, his present favourite, and a nephew of the late Duke of Buckingham, his former favourite, (fn. 7) whose memory his Majesty continues to cherish to such a point that not only his posterity, but the connections of his house as well are constantly experiencing the favour of the royal support and protection of their interests.
They have begun the festivities and comedies at the palace, where the queen likes the king to see her perform in public with the other ladies, each one in her part.
Preparations are going forward at Court for the journey to Scotland, about which there seems to be no doubt whatever. No courier from Italy has appeared in this kingdom during the present week.
London, the 21st January, 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
101. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In execution of the Senate's instructions I have obtained the fullest information possible about the trade of the English at the marts Orneus and Bandol. I must say that the trade of this kingdom with Persia is very flourishing and continues so, as is clearly shown by the quantity of silk, which is found here in great abundance and the quantities they send to many parts of Europe. It is true that the competition of the Dutch, who frequent the same marts for the same trade, diminishes their profits, as the interested parties confess, not without bitterness. So, for this and other reasons, but all connected with sea trade, considerable dissension exists between the merchant companies of England and Holland, to such an extent that the ministers of both powers have no little trouble to maintain good relations between the two states, which nothing breaks more easily than such commercial interests.
This Persian trade in particular was arranged a few years ago between the English and Dutch by a joint expedition of a fleet of ships to work together for the exclusion of the Portuguese. The latter, at the time, received some hurt, chiefly from the English fleet. They fought the Portuguese and made the less booty, so those interested state, because the Dutch failed them, whose admiral, under the pretence of having to go to the Red Sea, separated, in spite of the protests of the English, who wanted to keep together, in order to be stronger in case of a fight. This took place soon after in those waters, as they had foreseen, against the Portuguese. (fn. 8)
The interests of the Portuguese profited considerably from the increasing ill feeling between the companies of the two nations, which has gone so far that they have won over the King of Persia, obtaining the peace which the consul at Aleppo reports. Although this news has arrived here by letters from the English consul at Aleppo of the 11th October, yet he reports it not as having reached him from the English merchants in Persia, from whence letters had not then arrived which usually come by land, but as news circulating among the Venetian merchants of Aleppo, based upon a letter from a Venetian merchant their correspondent in Persia, a copy of which the English consul has sent here. Thus one of the governors of the India Company, in discussing the matter with me, said they were waiting for further information, in letters which would soon arrive from the English merchants in Persia. He added it was true that the English nation was placed at a great disadvantage by the last agreement made with the present King of Persia as compared with what had been arranged with his ancestor a few years before. That monarch recognised the merits of the English, as he had used their ships for transporting his troops to take Ormuz, and he granted to the English on their own goods and those of any other nation the half of the duties which reached the royal coffers by those marts. For the satisfaction of that payment he assured me there was much reasonable ill-feeling touching their claim against the Dutch, who, so he asserted, without advancing any reasonable cause, have never agreed to pay a single penny to the companies here upon that account. (fn. 9) He also told me that the late king had bound himself for many years to receive cloth from the companies of this kingdom, and give them silk in exchange, the price of both articles being very advantageous for the merchants here. But the present king, although he also agreed to receive cloth and deliver silk, raised the price of the latter and lowered that of the former, while he also reduced the time to four years only for the renewal of the concession. Thus the advantage to this nation, which was much greater before, is reduced in every way. This merchant also told me that the king had caused to be paid, not 150,000 ori, but a much smaller sum, not for rights or duties on the goods, but for some vain imagination that the cloth consigned to him in exchange for the silk had suffered too much from the humidity of the sea on the long voyage. (fn. 10) He said it was perfectly true that they had made the Dutch pay a great sum for similar duties or rights.
I find that here they are most afraid of the conclusion of peace between Persia and the Turkish Empire, as they fear it may lead to a competition in silk at Aleppo, where they do not want any quantity to arrive, as that would not only restrict their purchases, but also the disposal of the cloth and tin of this kingdom. For the rest they feel sure that the king will never shut them out of those marts for any agreement with the Portuguese ; but they suspect that the king may either cut short the present agreement or not renew it when it terminates some years hence. However that may be, they say that at the worst, if they may not trade with the king, the trade with individuals will never be hindered, and they demonstrate that both for the disposal of their goods and for the employment of their capital they are bound to keep those markets open at all costs. This is all that I am able to report on the subject, but I shall watch for the news which comes by the letters they are expecting from Persia.
London, the 21st January, 1632 [M.V.]
Jan. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
102. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The States have written to France and England intimating to all the colonels and captains that they must be back at their posts at the 1st March, upon pain of losing them, and they must have their companies filled up by that date.
The Hague, the 27th January, 1632 [M.V.]
103. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
I had an opportunity of seeing Anstruther while the Earl of Arundel was away seeing Amsterdam and Utrecht. He said he was glad I had seized this opportunity of seeing him apart from the earl, for reasons I might imagine, a hint at the earl's well known Spanish sympathies, and for the same reasons he had hesitated to come to me. To save time he would tell me everything in confidence. When he was at Vienna he always wrote to the king that the Austrians were deceiving him and abused his patience, and although they gave fair words they did not want any negotiations. He pressed his Majesty so hard to let him tell him orally that at length the king consented to hear him. He assured me that he had frankly stated his views to the king in the presence of the Council, and made even those who were of the opposite party, for gain or something else, recognise that the Austrians had bandaged their eyes. Accordingly his Majesty had remarked that he would to God he was served thus by all his ministers.
He suggested that as a basis for a good resolution for the relief of Germany it was necessary to treat first with the States here. All the Ministers did not agree, some desiring a breach because of the quarrels of last year ; but it was impossible to do anything without them, because the Princes of Germany would ask what resolution he brought from the States, and it would be beside the mark to go without any conclusion. Accordingly he had commissions to make representations, and the earl also, who had the title of ambassador even though he had come to fetch the Princess Palatine. They told the deputies that they had come, as to old friends of the crown, to ask their opinion about what could be done for the common cause in Germany, especially for the states of the Prince Palatine, as his Majesty was resolved to supply money and men as the cause required. He considered this the best means of securing unity and peace between the States and England, in an unusual way, without people knowing how. The deputies were ready to give a reply to him alone, but he sent them word that it would be better to wait for the earl. He remarked, the earl would like to stay away, but I mean to commit him, so that he may report everything on his return to England while I do so in Germany. He said he had commissions to offer up to 40,000 thalers a month.
He went on to say that German affairs were in a good state. The Duke of Saxony made good resolves, having decided to pay 12 regiments. When I hinted at divisions between the Swedes and Germans he replied that when the Duke of Saxony was armed the Swedes would have to depend upon him, and they could not treat separately if they wished, as in such case all the troops would be taken for the service of the Princes of the Union They would have to think of the war of Poland and other disturbances.
He told me in passing that England had contributed 1,200,000 ducats secretly to the king of Sweden. While the Austrians were so powerful in Germany he had never advised the king to take any steps against them nor would he, and it was reasonable then to move cautiously ; but now the House of Austria is in difficulties, it was necessary to help the common cause. This was not a direct but an indirect and auxiliary war against the Austrians. He said he had commissions to negotiate a league with the crown of Sweden, the King of Denmark and the Princes of the Empire. The Swedes must give up the Palatinate, otherwise the King of England may easily make war against Sweden.
He went on to say that the only means of establishing the affairs of Germany and bringing peace to the empire was to have the Duke of Bavaria elected King of the Romans. Nothing could be done without this. He recognised the necessity of the emperor being a Catholic prince. He did not think the King of France aspired to it because he had no sons, and he had to reside in France. This way would satisfy every one, as Prince Charles would remain in possession of the Electorate and his dominions, the Duke of Bavaria would have that honour in exchange, while all the princes would be pleased to see the Empire made elective for once. The duke was certainly at bottom an enemy of the Austrians, as he had made a league with France and agreed to be King of the Romans, and though he joined them afterwards it was from necessity from fear of Valestain's troops, who demanded quarters in Bavaria. He was an old man without posterity. In this connection said Anstruther, I will tell you a joke. At the assembly at Ratisbon the Duke of Bavaria was asked to vote for the King of Hungary as King of the Romans. The duke remained pensive awhile and remarked he had heard it said that Our Lord had 12 Apostles, and if he had had a thirteenth that one would have disputed with him. There had been twelve emperors of the House of Austria, and he feared, if they made a thirteenth that he and the others would be ruined.
He dilated subsequently in praise of the king of England, his goodness and moderation, and that he had no other object in this embassy than the honour of God and the common benefit He was most glad he had made the king recognise his sincerity. He added more which need not be reported. He promised finally that I should know all about his negotiations. I made a suitable response.
The Hague, the 27th January, 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
104. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
The deputies of the States are to meet the English ambassadors a second time before giving a formal reply, in order to know the exact amount of money and men that the king will provide. Meanwhile they show their good will to do everything for the cause. In spite of the sound views expressed by Anstruther. I am told on good authority, though possibly from prejudice, that he is a subtle minister who works on the same principles as the earl and all England. He had a most laudatory letter from the emperor to the king, and it was utterly false that England had ever given money to the King of Sweden and even the poor Palatine could not obtain a penny from that quarter. I report this because as a matter of fact all do not believe that the English have changed their opinions so quickly, and without parliament one cannot see how they can fulfil their promises. I will observe the negotiations carefully and report.
In spite of all representations the Princess Palatine seems determined not to leave at present. She says she is assured by the King of France and the Cardinal, through the Agent of England that they will have regard for the establishment of herself and her children, all words and promises, and so far she has received nothing else.
The Hague, 27th January, 1632 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 28
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
105. To the Ambassador in England.
Your letters of the 17th and 24th ult. reached us this morning. You will take a suitable opportunity to express to his Majesty our grief at the death of the Prince Palatine. Your letters contain many noteworthy particulars and we are satisfied with your diligence. We enclose advices, including what took place at Constantinople between the French ambassador and our Bailo. (fn. 11) The news may reach England, in any case you will find it advisable to testify to the perfect relations between our Bailo and the English ambassador, expressing our appreciation of the latter's offer. We enclose what we have written to Zante about restoring six cases of goods, so that you may show that we are always ready to satisfy that nation, you will tell the Lord Treasurer that it has been done in particular to gratify his son.
Ayes, 84. Noes, 1. Neutral, 3.
Jan 28.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
106. To the Proveditore of Zante.
The Ambassador extraordinary of the King of Great Britain has recently represented to us the wrong that Henry Hider, an Englishman, claims to have suffered with respect to six cases, five of silk cloth and one of gold buttons, sent to him from Messina, being taken from the French saetia Sta Margarita Buon Ventura, the Proveditore having dispatched the first five as contraband, keeping the other in suspense. We direct you to have those six cases restored to Hider or his agents, if that is in accordance with what is right and expedient, and to give him anything taken by reason of the cask of buttons, as a favour to the ambassador. We also direct you to release Giovanni Maria Marchetti, and Costantin and Nicolo Lazari, condemned for that matter, if they are still under arrest.
Ayes, 84. Noes, 1. Neutral, 3.
Jan. 28.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
107. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch ministers came to this house yesterday, by way of keeping up our friendship. They told me that shortly before they had been to a special audience of his Majesty and discharged their commissions. They said that with the usual confidence they wished to communicate to me what they had done to urge them on to some resolution here in the present critical state of affairs in Germany, and the more speedy and vigorous their action the more appropriate it would be. They went on to tell me that in their office, in the name of the States, they had strongly recommended to his Majesty the interests of the Palatinate, which were now left without any direction or support, since the recent unfortunate death of the true and legitimate prince, so closely united to this crown, apart from the adequate and powerful assistance that England might supply. They added that they had further intimated to his Majesty that the Assembly of their masters had decided to co-operate, so far as the forces of the Provinces permitted, at all times towards the good of the common cause. To this effect, no matter what offers the Spaniards might make, they would never in any way forget their intention to assist the Palatinate. In the course of our interview I fancy I gathered two points from this last and very important addition, one that the negotiations of the Spaniards are making great headway, the other that the Dutch aim at soothing the royal mind by the intimation that they will not abandon the Palatinate in any case. They proceeded to tell me that this office gave them an opportunity to see that the king's intentions towards German affairs were good ; but from more than one interview with more than one of the Lords of the Council here they found out very clearly that no further resolutions will be taken here before they hear about the negotiations of Anstruther with the princes of the party. These Dutch ministers interpret this as a device to gain time, and by never coming to the point of a conclusion, to keep up appearances while always expressing the wish to do a great deal.
In thanking them for the confidence they had shown me, I commended the offices performed by their masters at this Court. I said that the States would benefit themselves, the Palatinate and the cause much better with arms in their hands than in any other way soever, since those who were well aware of their present disadvantage, in order to render themselves stronger at some later time, aimed at arresting the course of the Dutch victories and their career of glory by the charms of negotiations.
M. della Murrey has returned, who was sent to Flanders to the queen mother for the purpose reported. He reports that she is satisfied with the reasons advanced from this quarter in opposition to the desire which she has expressed several times, to betake herself to this kingdom.
To the astonishment of the Court nothing has been heard of the two ambassadors extraordinary since their departure, either of their negotiations or of their arrival in Holland. It is supposed that the Princess Palatine will certainly be coming with one of them, and preparations and provisions issue from the palace day by day for her passage and reception.
The Resident of Tuscany here went to inform the Lord Treasurer of the arrival at Florence of the Ambassador Weston, his son. He told him that the Grand Duke had sent to the limits of his dominions to welcome him and had defrayed him. That the Prince Don Lorenzo had gone to the city gates with a very numerous following of coaches, and that the Grand Duke himself with all the Court had gone to the doors of his palace to meet him.
The deputy of Hamburg, after the withdrawal of the letters of marque, which was granted to him, has also obtained a royal command to the Scots for the restitution of the ship and goods sequestrated. (fn. 12) He is preparing to cross to Holland, in order, so he tells me, to put the finishing touches to the accomodation between his masters and the King of Denmark. He further told me that through the interposition of the States some articles had been brought to the point of adjustment, and with these Gunther, the secretary of that monarch, had already set out for Denmark to receive the assent of the King, his master, to them.
The last state despatches in my hands are of the 23rd ult. as the courier has not yet appeared who ought this week to bring the later ones.
London, the 28th January, 1632 M.V.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]


  • 1. Mr. William Murray was the sole envoy from England, but he was accompanied from Brussels by Balthasar Gerbier, the English resident in the Spanish Netherlands. See Gerbier's despatch of 27 Dec., 1632. S.P. For. Flanders. Vol. 22.
  • 2. Louis Philip. Duke of Simmern. Charles Lewis, the Palatine's eldest surviving son, was just short of 15 at his father's death.
  • 3. The Scipio of London, 350 tons and Anne, 60 tons, owned by Humphrey Slaney, Nicholas Crispe and William Clobery, and commanded by Capt. Sherwaine and William Tompson, are mentioned as having received letters of Marque in 1629. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1629—31, page 156.
  • 4. Leicester landed in England on 10 Dec. For particulars of his embassy See the preceding Vol. of this Calendar, page 616. The King of Denmark met the claim for this legacy by a counter claim for 400,000 dollars lent by him to James I. and accrued interest at 8 per cent. per annum. He also claimed arrears of a subsidy of 30,000 I. sterling a month promised to him by a treaty made by the Duke of Buckingham and his ambassadors at the Hague, to be paid so long as he should remain at war with the Emperor. He offered to surrender the bond for the 400,000 dollars if the Queen of Bohemia would waive her claim to this legacy. S.P. For. Denmark, Vol. 12. Memorandum at end of volume. For the English case, See Coke's despatch of 25 Sept., 1633. Id. Vol. 13.
  • 5. Barthold Muller.
  • 6. See the preceding vol, of this Calendar, page 592.
  • 7. The marriage of Basil, Viscount Fielding to Anne Weston, took place on Monday, 17 Jan. N.S. at the Lord Treasurer's house. Salvetti's letter of 21 Jan. Brit, Mus, Add. MSS. 27962 F.
  • 8. This would appear to refer to the action fought with the Portuguese off Damaun in 1625 by the Palsgrave, Dolphin and Lion. The Dutch admiral in that case was Herman von Speult, Governor of Amboyna. Cal. S.P. Col. (East Indies) 1625-9 pages 114, 208.
  • 9. That is, the Dutch refused to pay the half customs on their goods, claimed by the English Company by virtue of the grants. See Cal. S.P. Col. (East Indies) 1622-4 page 287.
  • 10. It was far from being a vain imagination. The bad quality of the cloth sent out was the subject of repeated complaint by the Company's own agent at Gombroon. Cal. S.P. Col. (East Indies) 1630-4, pages 254, 258.
  • 11. See No. 72 at page 44 above.
  • 12. See order to Council of Scotland of 23 Dec., 1632 O.S. Cal. S.P. Dom 1631—3, page 466.