Venice: March 1637, 16-31

Pages 164-175

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 24, 1636-1639. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1923.

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March 1637, 16-31

March 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
176. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Oger, the English Resident arrived back recently from England with the answer to the proposals sent from here. I do not yet hear that that monarch means to do anything or give greater help to the Prince Palatine beyond permitting his subjects to make contributions. He promises, if they will agree here, that the treaty shall be signed and concluded provided it contains a condition that if the Spaniards do not give him satisfaction within a certain time, they will declare against the House of Austria. Here this proposal does not seem to please them altogether. The Cardinal told me that nothing was settled with the English, and they will not do much with them. The Ambassador Leicester complains about it, saying he does not know why they will not embrace the proposal, because when M. de Senneterre went as ambassador to that Court he proposed that if England would remain neutral the Most Christian should undertake never to make peace without the restoration of the Palatine to his dominions, but not to his dignity. If this proposal had been embraced then they would find themselves pledged now and he did not know what had caused this change. He holds out hopes that within three or four months more will be done, and he is expecting to meet the commissioners to see if they can conclude something feeling confident that he can satisfy them. M. di Bullion has intimated that it will be advisable to accept what they can, as the war goes on in any case, without the English.
Paris, the 17th March, 1637.
March 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
177. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Only two hours after I had performed the offices I reported with his Majesty and the ministers, an express arrived from the Ambassador Fielding, sent on the 25th ult., with two despatches, one for the Secretary Cuch, and the other for the Marquis of Hamilton, his brother in law. He tells them in an incredibly angry manner that an insupportable affront has been done to his Majesty's house, as the sbirri violently entered his house without giving him any information, driving out and arresting some who were there under his protection, beating and outraging his servants, who were easily recognisible by his livery, in short enlarging in the most furious fashion. He goes on to narrate the particulars as follows : that one Andrea dalla Nave, having escaped from the sbirri for some very slight matter, took refuge at the nuncio's house and asked for his protection also, which he gave, being assured that his only fault was giving money to a Jew who promised to help him with the judges in a very important cause. He had lodged him in a small house opposite his own, of which he pays the rent and which he uses for his own servants. The Sbirri in the night secured the entrance, set guards at the ambassador's own door broke into the little house and arrested two men, who were neither proclaimed nor otherwise known to be guilty. He gives a very garbled account of his office in the Collegio, but reports your Serenity's reply practically unaltered. He represents other dissatisfaction he has experienced in the matter of merchants and gives a confused account of similar affairs with Spanish ministers, in which he says they had satisfaction.
That same evening the Marquis of Hamilton went to the king and speaking in a loud voice that the bystanders could easily hear, made much of the incident saying it must be resented, that I had misrepresented the facts and so forth, creating the most unfavourable impression both on his Majesty and on all those standing by. He has thus caused this question to become the subject of the talk and caustic comment of the whole Court, which has eagerly seized this opportunity of beguiling its idleness, so that with the further revelations of Basfort, who brought the despatches, it would seem that this has become the sole topic of conversation. On the following morning the Secretary Cuch brought to his Majesty's apartments all the letters and papers sent by Fildin. He found the king perturbed and prejudiced to such an extent that when Cuch told him why he had come he said he already knew only too well what had happened at Venice, and considered himself seriously affronted. Cuch asked him to suspend judgment until he had seen the papers. This quieted him somewhat and he asked that such or the papers as were in Italian should be translated into French. On Monday morning his Majesty and Cuch both left this city and have not returned, and nothing more has been done in the matter.
In the mean time this same Marquis, the Earl of Denbigh, the ambassador's father, his mother and the rest of his relations and friends, who are very numerous and powerful from their credit and influence, go about representing the case in the most advantageous manner for themselves. They insist above all upon the violation of the house and that the crime was only bribing the judges through a Jew, one to which they are not accustomed to attach much importance, the corruption of the highest judges and magistrates have made it familiar, so much so that one may any day see the judges in the public tribunals, in the very act of pronouncing sentence, oppose the arguments of the lawyers, openly interesting themselves for one of the parties. Although this is a very great scandal, yet it is tolerated, and connivance at it has become a custom so that the practice passes without exciting comment. But this is no argument for well governed states, based upon the purity of the judges and the equal administration of uncorrupted justice, following the same pernicious example. By this argument I have tried to rebut their notions, maintaining that there are no grounds for disputing about the nature of the crime, upon which they want a declaration, as the Inquisitors of State never take cognisance of any matters which do not touch the interests of the state to the quick, and it is enough to make them clearly know what I have represented.
The courier Antonio Ponchini arrived on Sunday evening. He gave me letters consigned to him on the 13th ult. by Iseppo Bassi. He said he received them from him in the Bolognese, as Bassi was unable to continue the journey. Ponchini was delayed four days at Turin and after that by sickness.
London, the 18th March, 1637.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
178. Francesco Michiel, Ventian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The Princess Palatine is very hopeful over the resolutions of England and the prospects of the alliance with France. But here they remain sceptical and the Palatine family themselves are afraid that the French are growing tired. Many say that the English are only trying for this new alliance for their own ends, so that they may be able to make peace with the Austrians with advantage.
The Hague, the 19th March, 1637.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 20.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
179. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your despatches of the 20th ult. with the account of what is being done for the Palatine and of his Majesty's apparent decision to uphold the rights of his nephew at all hazards. These are matters of the highest importance and we feel sure that you will keep the Senate fully advised. The Palatine's firm declarations about religion are worthy of great attention and we shall await still further particulars on the subject.
You have acted exactly as the Senate wished with regard to the Ambassador Ognat. We observe that this minister is holding back only because he has no orders on the subject of titles. With respect to this we may inform you that the Spanish ambassador at Venice, the Count della Rocca, was the first to visit Sig. Zuane Grimani on his appointment as ambassador in ordinary to the emperor, when he gave him the title of "Excellency" and paid him every honour rendered to ministers of crowned heads. For the rest you will allow the Ambassador Ognat to adjust his action to his own ideas unaided, provided that this comports with the dignity of the state.
Advices of Italy.
Ayes, 80. Noes, 12. Neutral, 42.
March 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
180. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On account of the death of the emperor they have postponed the despatch of an ambassador to Cologne, which was on the eve of being announced. It is believed that if other and more serious changes do not intervene the time of the meeting of the congress must at least be postponed for a very long time, owing to the formalities necessary in renewing instructions and orders. For the same reason the manifesto which the Palatine intended to publish, although all complete is being held back from the printers entirely for the sake of seeing what the course of future events will be. There is no chance of negotiation with the new emperor, as the Palatine's protest pronounces his election null and they expect France will also refuse to acknowledge him.
Meanwhile they are carefully making the necessary provision for the equipment of a numerous fleet, devising and hastening by the most appropriate and least noisy ways the collection of a considerable sum of money, one adequate for the expenses and demands which may occur. For this they have recently augmented the price of beer, coal, peat and soap, with an advantage to the royal purse of more than 135,000l. sterling above what they used to bring. As they cannot impose any tax on the natural produce or manufactures of the realm when they are used there, the king adopts a middle course, giving a monopoly to one alone to sell them, who has to pay a sum agreed upon, while private persons pay the cost by giving a higher price for what they buy.
The decision of the judges about the king's right to impose taxes without, recourse to parliament does not pass everywhere without difficulty. Although few are bold enough to speak and object, yet a dull murmur is heard, which ought to make them reflect. Thus an incident occurred recently in Suffolk for which an officer of justice (capo di giustitia) is imprisoned. When asked his opinion about the speedy collection of the imposts without scandal, he said that the true method of laying hands on the substance of the people was the legitimate one through parliament, to which they never made objection. It is feared that this will cause considerable trouble, because it hardly seems likely that the people there will easily abandon an official of their county of noble birth, respected and beloved, being buried in prison for having freely expressed his opinion when asked.
The Dutch ambassador appeared before his Majesty the day before yesterday and earnestly besought him to consider the state of affairs in Germany, especially the propensity of the Swedes to make terms with Cæsar apart, the town of Stettin being already appointed the meeting place for the commissioners, and to contribute effective assistance to them. A considerable sum had been offered them if they would withdraw their troops from Germany, and they were also promised Pomerania in fee. As the Swedes are exhausted it is feared that they may accept the offer, which Beveren deprecates as injurious to the common cause and to the Palatine in particular. He added that in consideration of these matters the Dutch meant to give money to Sweden, but in consequence of their own need it would be small and quite useless unless the king did the like. The Chancellor Oxestern had complained of being abandoned by all the confederates and protested that if not assisted they must adopt another course. The king said his intentions could not be better than they are for giving support in a quarter from which they have such considerable hopes that he has sent three persons to reassure the chancellor and meanwhile he would consider the proposal of the States, whom he thanked for the communication. But there is small appearance that their actions will conform with these replies, particularly so far as the spending of money is concerned, as all their severity does not suffice to collect enough to supply the requirements of the crown itself.
Gordon writes from Poland that although the clergy urge that monarch most strongly to marry the daughter of the deceased emperor, he seems by no means inclined to do so, but still seems most eager to espouse the Palatine princess ; but here they attach but the slightest consideration to these hopes as their last experience has almost entirely destroyed them.
The imperial minister left last week in the deepest displeasure because he could not obtain letters in reply to those he presented at the beginning of his charge, or passports different from those granted to the most ordinary persons. Yet they sent him a chain worth 400 crowns to Dover, by which it is thought his displeasure will be in great measure dissipated. The king is expected this evening and the Secretary Cuch will certainly arrive tomorrow. On Sunday I am assured that the king will see the papers about Andrea della Nave.
The state despatches of the 27th ult. have just reached me. London, the 20th March, 1637.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
181. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Friday evening the king returned to this city and on the same day the Secretary Cuch arrived from another part. On the following day the cabinet council was assembled, in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Treasurer, the Earls of Arundel and Holland and the two Secretaries of State alone took part. His Majesty wished them to hear all the papers about the della Nave affair from Fielding, and also had read a copy I had made and given to Coke of the Signory's reply to the ambassador and the rejoinders on both sides. They discussed these for four solid hours. Both secretaries of state came here on the following day. Coke spoke to the effect that the king considered that he could not allow such an affront to pass, as it offended his royal dignity in the most sensitive manner. All his councillors agreed about this and thought he could not honourably maintain an ambassador in a place where his privileges were contemned and his person slighted, and so the secretaries had come to try and arrange the matter.
Among other things one of them said that the house certainly belonged to the ambassador, as he paid the rent to Michiel di Cecca and used it to lodge his servants, so there could be no doubt about its public character, and in addition to this he took it to use to pass through the garden from Ca Dandolo, because he had no other place for such recreation at hand. I replied that the garden had nothing to do with the little house, but belonged to the great house of Ca Dandolo, which is occupied by great persons, and by the rigour of the laws they cannot admit ambassadors or any foreign representatives without incurring the severest penalties, so they certainly could not be very well informed. They both said that his Majesty was so informed, they could not believe otherwise, and they would not send an ambassador extraordinary to Venice to learn the particulars of the case.
Windebank said they knew quite well what the crime was. It was not against the state, but the man only wished to support his cause in an important suit, not against the state but against a private person like himself. I replied in order. I said that the confidence his Majesty gave his ministers ought not to deprive my offices of credit. I had spoken with perfect sincerity and I asserted that the circumstances had been greatly misrepresented here. I did not know the man's crimes, neither did the Senate, as the Inquisitors of State never communicated them to any one soever ; much less could those who had no access find out ; general report was usually various and fallacious. The crime of corrupting justice was not so light as they made out here, indeed in a well ordered republic, jealous of preserving its liberties, of which it considered the uprightness of its judges the foundation, there could be none greater ; but it did not concern me, or them either to dispute about the crime, as we were equally in the dark. All countries had their particular laws. There were cases for which they hanged here, for which the lightest penalties were inflicted at Venice, so it is not astonishing if matters which are not considered here are considered serious crimes at Venice ; it was therefore absolutely necessary not to take offence at each country following its own laws.
This is true they replied, but we know that the republic did not think so much of the crime in this case as of using it to obtain satisfaction, because it pretends not to be satisfied with the treatment which its ministers receive here. If you will allow us to speak freely, his Majesty, the Council and the Court are all very well informed that not content with what was done for you when the affair of your servants happened, (fn. 1) have kept on making complaints to Venice, and trying every means of performing bad offices, from which undoubtedly all the present trouble arises. I could not help growing heated at such a false accusation utterly contrary of my disposition and said that whoever made such a report was no friend of the truth, but was of the kind that tried to make trouble by poisonous notions and to stir up strife between nations which had always been friendly I could frankly declare that for the two years and a half that I had served here I had never done the slightest thing to cause dissatisfaction. I had written so moderately about the matter of my servants that his Majesty's own ministers could not have been more modest, and I had returned the warmest thanks for this to his Majesty by order of the Signory, and expressed your good will. An occasion for showing this followed, when, at the instance of Lord Fielding, favours were granted to English merchants and others recommended by him. No one could question this, least of all Coke, who well knew that the ambassador had asked that a letter of thanks should be sent from the king. As he could not deny this he said that he was very glad to have heard these particulars from my lips, and he would inform his Majesty who would certainly be very pleased. Your Excellencies, who know all the facts, may see with what art they proceed to bring this matter to a crisis since, without invention on their side, the justice and reason of the case are so strong that they cannot in any way be upset or challenged. Passing from this point Coke said that this was what he would suggest by way of settling the matter. I replied that this was a case of high treason and his Majesty had admitted that a person guilty of that offence could not claim asylum. So there was no way out, especially as your Excellencies knew the house to belong to Michiel di Cecca and not to the English ambassador. Notwithstanding this the secretaries again urged me to consent to this arrangement. I said that I could do no more than report the matter but I did not think that your Excellencies could agree to it as it would prejudice the sovereignty of the state. Lord Fielding might receive a further assurance that the house was not considered as state property. Coke, however, was not satisfied, on the ground that as the offence was public the reparation ought equally to be so.
I have very little hope of adjusting the matter because the king is possessed by the idea that his dignity is concerned, and he is importuned by the countless friends and relations of the ambassador, who are very powerful, to penetrate ruthlessly to the bottom of the affair, and it will be most difficult to persuade him otherwise. I have asked for audience again to day and will make every effort to discover his Majesty's real opinions, and to persuade him of the truth and leave him satisfied.
London, the 23rd March, 1637.
March 25.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
182. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday I had another audience of his Majesty to try and shake the very bad impression received by him in the della Nave affair. But in spite of all my efforts I had scant success because he is convinced that the house was really the ambassador's and that the man's crime was insignificant. He said he knew that the little house belonged to his ambassador because he paid rent to Michiel di Cecca. The privileges of ambassadors should attach to it, especially seeing it was so close to the embassy. He had been told that the man's crime was slight, but would not credit it. Yet there are degrees even in high treason. In any case the ambassador should have been warned.
I told him it was known that Nave had been expelled from the nuncio's residence, and Lord Fielding should not complain that he had not been warned, because only the Inquisitors of State knew and the Council of Ten through them. Fielding knew the methods of those tribunals and that should have satisfied him. All countries have their own laws and that of secrecy is considered necessary above everything else at Venice in such grave cases.
Nothing would satisfy the king and he repeated his arguments with more emphasis. At length he said that he would inform me of his wishes through his secretaries. To my protests of the affection and esteem of the republic he replied very graciously. He said he appreciated my sincerity and would expect me to see that satisfaction was obtained for him in a matter which concerned his honour, without prejudicing the justice of the republic.
After I had gone his Majesty withdrew immediately with the Lords of his Council, who all approved of what had been done, although some of them more to please the king than through the promptings of their consciences. The two secretaries then came back to me to impart their decision. They told me that whereas they had come before to try and arrange an adjustment, they now came to tell me in his Majesty's name that they had decided to instruct the ambassador to demand reparation for his honour, the release of both prisoners and a declaration that the house was not recognised as his, otherwise violence would not have been used and he should have received previous notification. If this was done the ambassador would hand over the two prisoners to justice. If, however, they had already been executed, his Majesty required that the officials who carried out the arrest should ask pardon of the ambassador.
I expressed great astonishment at these demands, but they rose and said they could not discuss the matter any further, and went out without listening to any more. Thus after twelve days of hard work this affair has turned out differently from what everyone expected. I have certainly left nothing undone to make the truth plain, which they have tried to trample upon with such art. But where flattery and prayers prevail the force of reason generally proves vain. So in this case, weeping women, pleading relations and friends full of fervor and passion, as if it was a question of destroying the ambassador not to maintain what is just and equitable, have succeeded in reducing the affair to the difficult position which I have reported. They have also obtained, although it may be delayed, that the ambassador shall be recalled. I am assured that the king absolutely promised his mother and sister that this should be, and it is announced all over the Court with great freedom that he will be. The majority of the courtiers, although they fully appreciate the reasons of your Excellencies, do not dare to express their feelings because they know that the sentiments of him who commands are different. One of them has been to suggest to me that if your Excellencies should choose to write a letter to the king, expressing the friendly sentiments that you have towards him and your point of view in this affair, it might prove an appropriate means of adjusting the affair quietly. These people are some of the leading gentlemen of the realm, but they have no share in the secret transactions ; however, so as to leave nothing out I have reported their views.
I see nothing further that I can do except to wait for the instruction to the ambassador, of which I will try and send previous information.
London, the 25th March, 1637.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 27.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
183. To the Ambassador in England.
We hear that orders have been issued from Spain to all their ministers and especially to the young Count of Ognat about the treatment of the republic's ambassadors. You will observe what is done. We have nothing to add about the Palatine because we perceive that you have penetrated the reason why we have not for the present given any reply to the letter which he wrote us. We have complied with the request of the French ambassador to write and urge the Queen of Sweden, to send plenipotentiaries to Cologne, chiefly in order to show this state's unchanging sentiments in favour of peace. We send this in case the subject is raised or questions are asked. We have received your despatches of the 27th ult.
Ayes, 108. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
March 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
184. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In my audience of his Majesty on Tuesday he asked me if your Serenity's ambassador for Cologne had set out yet, or if he was held back by the emperor's death. I said I had not heard of his leaving Venice, and if the emperor's death did not interfere with the meeting of the congress I felt sure he would start at the appointed time, since the emperor, the Most Christian and the Catholic all seemed disposed to accept the interposition of the republic, especially about the Protestant Princes, with whose ministers the legate would not treat. I said this on account of what Sig. Contarini communicated to me, so that if his Majesty decided to send an ambassador your Excellencies would respond with every confidence. The king said he was certain of the friendly feeling of the republic to all that concerned him and he would be pleased if you interposed in this affair. He wished to send an ambassador to Cologne, but not having been invited by any one he did not see how he could do so, especially as the emperor's death and the uncertainty whether all the princes approve of the election of the new king of the Romans make it difficult to see how he can enter into such an important affair. He had heard something about the Most Christian raising difficulties about recognising this king of the Romans so he also had cause to hesitate, and certainly he could not yet say what he would decide. He added later that if your Serenity, whom he believed now to have the privilege, choose to invite him to send his ambassador to Cologne, he would consider the matter, and he would attach very great importance to such an incitement. I replied that your Excellencies would consider yourselves fortunate in having an opportunity of doing something that would give him pleasure, but as I had no instructions and no further knowledge of the affair, I let the matter drop.
From these remarks it seems quite clear to me that his Majesty is strongly inclined to have a representative of his present at the peace negotiations, and it would afford him great satisfaction if the affairs of the Palatine passed through the hands of a minister of your Excellencies. I have very opportunely received further confirmation of this from the Earl of Arundel, who told me clearly that the affair of the peace could not be conducted properly unless some disinterested power, besides the pope, should intervene, and that under existing circumstances there was no one better fitted for this office than the most serene republic. I should be glad of instructions on this subject as I am unable to say a word more about it without express orders.
The recent instances of the Dutch ambassador touching the supply of considerable succour to the forces of Sweden have engaged the earnest consideration of the Council ; but they do not believe that the Swedes will abandon themselves to the agreement with the Imperialists without the consent of the allies, both from the progress of their arms, which, by report, continue to enjoy success, and so make it unnecessary, and because the proposal to give them Pomerania in fee meets with opposition, owing to the Elector of Brandenburg's rights of succession and because they are already in possession, and consequently they are putting off the action to a more favourable time.
The latest news from France is that the stipulations between the crowns themselves are settled, but that there are difficulties concerning the allies. It is thought that these are over the affair of the Dutch fisheries. If this question remains unsettled there can certainly be no assurance of a favourable issue for those objects with which the aim of the alliance is directly concerned.
Here they insist as ever on the rigour of their pretensions and spread a report that the Earl of Northumberland has orders to uphold them with all severity. Some speak with more reserve and one of the ministers told me in confidence that although his Majesty cannot help keeping up these notions to please the people, yet their actions will be different, and the Dutch will do well now to cease their lamentations. His Majesty has designed fifteen large ships for the Palatine, that is five royal galleons and ten of the largest merchantmen. (fn. 2) He has also given him free powers to dispose of them as he thinks best for his own interests, joining the French, the Dutch or with the ships which the volunteers are preparing or any other course that he considers expedient. He has also ordered Northumberland to second him with the fleet and help him whenever he wishes, a point which is much more valuable than the first.
The voluntary ships in question are not yet in any considerable numbers. Apart from Lord Craven few are willing to devote their capital for this, so that he cannot hope to have the following that was rumoured, while few merchants have asked for letters of reprisals against the Dunkirkers, as so far no preparations have been made here on which one can count.
They have desired Colonel Ferens to go to France to ask for the payment of an ancient debt claimed by the Palatine house, but the Ambassador Senneterre says that the government of France is carried on by young men who have no memory of ancient things, so it is waste of labour. The king is very displeased at this.
Last Wednesday the Spanish ambassador asked audience of the king and announced that he was bringing an excellent settlement for the Palatine's affair, as the emperor had placed the Lower Palatinate in the hands of the Catholic and given him authority to restore it, promising for the other an equivalent in cash, and he hoped these proposals would be acceptable ; but on the Tuesday evening he sent word to Court that as the plague had broken out in his house he would not venture to approach the king, an artful stroke which no one believes, in order to leave his important and possibly trumped up transactions in suspense, but if this is so he certainly will not be able to keep it hidden for long.
To-day, after only two hours of labour the queen has brought forth a new princess for the kingdom (fn. 3). She will be the third girl and the fifth child living of their Majesties. The king seems very pleased, the more so because both mother and daughter are in perfect health.
His Majesty remains quite determined about this decision over the affair of Lord Fildin. He communicated to me through the secretaries the despatches to be sent to him. They are not yet drawn up, but from what I gather they will be sent to the ambassador next week by an express. As the secretaries have told me that I shall be advised of his departure, I will consign to him anything I may wish to add, taking the precaution of the cipher.
London, the 27th March, 1637.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 31.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
185. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors have met M. di Bullion. They announce that only one small difficulty remains for the conclusion of the treaty with this crown. It seems, however, that they propound that their king will then do more than he promises and even declare himself against the Austrians if he does not receive satisfaction in a stated time, and an assembly will meet at Hamburg or some other place where in conjunction with the deputies of all the friends interested they will see if it is necessary to do more. Here they insist that the assembly in question shall meet now before the conclusion of the treaty, as the share of England seems too unequal to that of France.
Paris, the 31st March, 1637.


  • 1. On Tuesday the 14th August, 1635. See the preceding Vol. of this Calendar page 437 et seqq.
  • 2. From the list given in the State Papers it would appear that the fleet was to consist of the "Bonaventure" and "Mary Rose," third raters, the First and Tenth Lions Whelps and the "Swan" frigate of the royal navy, and of nine merchantmen : the "Unicorn" of London, the "Industry," the "May Flower," the "William and Elizabeth," the "Golden Eagle," the "Margaret," the "William," the "Prudence," the "Royal Defence," the last four furnished by the city of London. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1636-7, pages 292, 479.
  • 3. The Princess Anne.