Venice: June 1638

Pages 418-429

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 24, 1636-1639. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1923.

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June 1638

June 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
449. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the installation of the prince in the Order of the Garter their Majesties have returned to London, and will go on to Greenwich on Monday. The prince, under the charge of the Earl of Newcastle, his tutor, will go with his brother to Richmond as usual.
A courier from Scotland reached the Court at Windsor with news that on hearing of the nomination of persons to arrange a composition between the king and that people, the members of the union intimated that they could not rely upon the royal promise for the abolition of the liturgy book unless it was suppressed by decree of parliament, and the maintenance of their privileges was confirmed and it was arranged that parliament should meet at least once every three years to put right the affairs of the state, and if the king did not summon it, the nobility should. They say that the union will meet at Edinburgh on the 16th inst. to hear the terms for an accommodation, reply to the articles and do what the service of the country requires. These points, which get further away from their first protests, founded upon the laws, which covered them from the stain of rebellion, render their aims more odious now. Yet they maintain an exemplary concord, everyone living virtuously and soberly, without scandal or anything to prejudice their resolutions. The French ambassador cannot bring himself to believe that the Catholic does not encourage this movement, and the Spanish ministers openly say that the Most Christian and the Dutch have a hand in it, and possibly both are right as it is commonly believed at Court that all these powers contribute what they can to turn the disunion of these realms to their own advantage. The king realises though late, the mistake he made in letting that sedition go so far. He tries every means to appease it and meets with more difficulties than he expected. To leave those people no vestige for believing that he is nearly a Roman Catholic, which is the point on which they lay stress, he has intimated to the papal minister that to facilitate that accommodation it is necessary for him to leave England. Accordingly he is ill humouredly getting ready to cross the sea, and they do not think that any one will be received in his place. This step has displeased the queen, but the king told her that it was required by the present state of affairs, to avoid greater scandal among his subjects. It is expected that the one resident at Rome for the queen will also be recalled.
Today begins St. John's term, when the remaining four judges are to give their opinion, (fn. 1) after which sentence will be pronounced according to the majority, as to whether the king can impose taxes legally for the fleet without the approval of parliament. Meanwhile every difficulty is experienced in raising the money. The sheriffs write that they find no one who offers to buy goods distrained on those who refuse, all being agreed on this subject.
The Admiral Northumberland is recovering painfully from his most serious illness. He proposes to put to sea with the fleet at the end of the present month, practically everything being in readiness. Meanwhile the Dutch fleet has appeared off Dunkirk. The French is expected to join it, and people believe that they propose to attack the place. As it would not suit this kingdom for it to fall into the hands of either power, they say openly that the king will prevent it with his fleet, and that the Vice Admiral Pennington has already received orders to take his ships to the coast of Flanders to observe those fleets. If this prove true it may lead to disputes about the dominion of the sea, claimed by this crown and not admitted by France.
The Countess of Levestein, a lady of the Princess Palatine, (fn. 2) has arrived from Holland on her private affairs. She kissed the king's hand and gave him letters from her mistress, representing the determination of her son, even after the loss of Meppen, to enter Germany, and his hopes of getting another place d'armes or recovering that one. The Countess asserted the same, and begged his Majesty to increase his assistance, holding out hopes of better fortune when the prince is in Germany, sword in hand. She received fair words and they think she will see deeds also, as the king inclines to show liberality according to the high spirit of his Highness. Meanwhile the 20,000l. sterling now on ship for transport to Rotterdam, are detained in the river by contrary winds.
The Count of Ognati, after receiving a present of 2000 ounces of silver gilt in the king's name, and four most noble hackneys, has departed for Spain on a royal ship. (fn. 3) I paid him the proper compliments and wished him a pleasant journey. I went to see Cardines, who professed his devotion to your Serenity and a desire to continue good relations. He received me with every courtesy and said he had instructions to encourage the best relations with the ministers of the republic. In memory of the courtesies he had received at Venice he would give proof of this to the Ambassador Giustinian when he arrived.
My confidant has just brought me word that he has heard that the king confirmed Lord Fildin as ambassador to your Serenity at Windsor. The post leaves in a few hours and gives me no time to verify this. I find it difficult to believe from the poor opinion they have of him at Court and his recall from Turin. By next despatch I may know more.
London, the 4th June, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 5.
Senato, Terra. Venetian Archives.
450. That by the authority of this Council the agents of the ambassador Fielding, who recently left this city, be permitted to lade 24 chests containing marble heads, in an English ship, without impediment ; such being the will of the state.
Ayes, 80. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
June 5.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
451. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
After receiving a rich and honourable present, the English ambassador has at length set out for Corunna. The ministers here express themselves as very satisfied with his behaviour, and it seems that he was considered worthy of confidence. They hope the same of the ambassador who is coming as he acted as Resident here for a long time.
Madrid, the 5th June, 1638.
[Italian.] Copy.
June 11.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
452. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
When the Most Christian sent the Ambassador Bellievre here he gave him orders to obtain for his wife a place to sit in the queen's presence, such as is allowed to the English ambassador's wife in France. When he reached London and had seen all the ladies standing and knew the misadventures which had befallen the Ambassador Fontane for the same cause, he wisely decided to let it alone. But when Madame de Chevreuse arrived and seated herself before their Majesties, he thought fit to communicate the commissions in question to the queen, and the reasons why he left them unfulfilled for so long, but now when he saw others seated in her presence he could not allow France to suffer this prejudice any longer without blame, and French ambassadors ought to have the same privilege here as the English enjoy in France.
The queen took this in good part and told him she regretted she could not satisfy him and his wife, although she and the king liked them better than any other ambassador who had ever been here. The concession would create envy and revolt among the ladies of the Court. What was impracticable here could be done in France, where all the princessses and duchesses sit, especially as her only daughter does not enjoy the privilege. They allowed Chevreuse to sit as a foreign princess and of kin to the king. The ambassador said he acted by order of his king and not from ambition, and suggested arranging some compromise. The queen could not think of any, unless Madame de Chevreuse, who was very courteous, agreed not to sit when his wife was at Court, but that must depend on her discretion and she could not promise it. If your Majesty does not promise it, he replied, I cannot risk allowing my wife at Court. I will send word to France and do what I am ordered, but I fear they will take away the privilege from the English ambassadress. This happened, as your Serenity will have heard. When the news arrived the king resented it deeply and told the ambassador that they ought not to have taken such a step without first warning him. Bellievre replied that he had openly intimated it to the queen ; he deeply regretted it and begged the king to believe that it was not by his advice. Nothing further has been done, but they say that the English ambassador will be recalled, having finished his charge.
The news of Fildin's confirmation was a mistake of my informant, as he was ordered to stay not at Venice but at Turin until further order. It is thought that influence will ultimately get him the French embassy, which he desires so much, although incompetent. There seems no other reason for the suspension of the other orders, if it be not to make him succeed Schidemore if he is recalled because of the above incident, because of his wife, which will not affect Fildin, as being unmarried. It is a fact that the one who took his letters of recall also had letters for the duchess, in which the king disapproved of all that Fildin had negotiated with her, except his offices of condolence.
Cardines obtained the export last week of many thousands of powder and lead for Flanders, of which they write thence that they have not sufficient provision for the present campaign. But they have to buy it of the king for 60,000 crowns, double the price ordinarily current. It is laded on merchantmen, to be escorted by the king's ships to Dunkirk. The French and Dutch ambassadors remonstrated, but in vain. (fn. 4) They know that the interest and share of the Spaniards in the government here obscure reason and prevent the reflection that these weapons are against the nephew whom they profess they wish to help.
M. d'Avo writes from Hamburg that 10,000 soldiers were to be embarked in Sweden for Germany at the end of last month, with munitions of war, and that Banier was to take the field on the 10th inst. Gallasso was still in the neighbourhood with diminishing force and reputation, having no design on Bremen, as was supposed. Salvio had offered to the Prince Palatine the leadership of the troops the Swedes have under General Ching in Westphalia, and the fortresses they hold for his army, on condition he does not use them for his particular interest, but only for the public cause. The English Agents write to the same effect, and Countess Levestein, in the name of the Princess Palatine, insists on fresh demonstrations of the royal protection, to invite the French to second them. But they are in no such hurry here to double their liberality, especially as there are very few who approve of England breaking with the house of Austria for the Palatine's cause or provoking it by helping against it, pointing out that if the Spaniards attacked this kingdom, stripped of all means of defence, they would inflict great harm on this crown.
The Court left for Greenwich on Monday, and the Lords of the Council who remained here will mostly go there the day after tomorrow, and then proceed to their country houses until the king returns to town.
The state despatches received this week are of the 20th ult. I will use the enclosed sheet of advices for your service.
London, the 11th June, 1638.
Postcript : I have just heard that the Master of the Ceremonies intimated yesterday by the king's order to the Ambassador Bellievre, that as they have taken away the seat from the English ambassador's wife at Paris, he and his wife must abstain in the future from entering the queen's coaches.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 12.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
453. Gieronimo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The ship from England so impatiently awaited by the Count Palatine has at length arrived these last days. He is greatly comforted by receiving with it the sum of about 300,000 florins in ready money as well as munitions of war, to wit, ten pieces of field artillery, 10,000 pounds of powder, several officers all well furnished and the equipment of the guns aforesaid. The Palatine has gone to confer with the Prince.
The Hague, the 12th June, 1638.
June 15.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
454. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Difficulties of Chatillon at siege of St. Omer. The Cardinal Infant unable to resist attacks from so many quarters without reinforcements Chatillon sent to the Cardinal a Scottish Jesuit taken by M. di Hallier in a fort he had entered to take a letter to the Spaniards, thinking they were there. (fn. 5) The letter contained hopes of speedy relief for the defenders. He is an intelligent man, well informed of the interests of the enemy and they hope to get important information out of him.
Paris, the 15th June, 1638.
June 16.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
455. The Agent of Great Britain came into the Collegio and said :
Last week I had your Serenity's permission to lade twenty cases on an English ship for the ambassador who left here, I could not profit by this favour because the ship left unexpectedly. There is now another ready to sail, and I ask for a like order to the master, named Gio. Roetston, with the addition of 16 more chests of pictures, with the ambassador's arms on them. He will be greatly indebted to your Excellencies for this fresh mark of your readiness to oblige him.
June 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
456. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
News about Scotland becomes ever more unpleasant. The Marquis of Hamilton writes that he received letters from the Assembly on the road advising him not to go any further unless he brought powers to convoke their parliament as without this any other proposals would be in vain. He says he gathers that they have decided to inform him when he enters the kingdom that he must make his proposals in public only, to which he will have a speedy reply, and everyone will be forbidden to treat with him privately. In spite of this he had gone on to fulfil the king's orders. He prays God to grant him good fortune corresponding to his goodwill, to serve his Majesty with success. But actually he undertook this task very unwillingly, knowing the tenacity of that people in their resolutions, the slight hope of success in saving the royal dignity, and perhaps with suspicion of his own complicity, as being of the same country, religion and possibly opinions. They await news of his negotiations with impatience. Everyone believes they will be useless as he does not take the king's consent to summon parliament.
Last week a courier extraordinary reached the Resident of Savoy from his mistress with news that the Governor of Milan had laid siege to Vercelli, and letters for his Majesty conveying the same information. The letter expresses apprehension of the hostile forces and determination to resist, assisted by the Most Christian, whom, she says, the Spaniards have compelled to sign the treaty by their hostile acts, when he inclined to remain indifferent, if he had been left in peace. She prays his Majesty to permit Fildin to continue in residence there for some time, apologising for his errors. The king answered kindly, sympathising with her troubles and willingly satisfying her about Fildin. (fn. 6)
I hear that Fildin's mother and the Marquis of Hamilton have petitioned for his confirmation at Turin, and some weeks ago induced the queen to ask the duchess to agree to it, and that is why she asked his Majesty. The mother wishes to detain her son until she provides him with some office of profit at Court, since his fortune is small and he could not keep up his position here. Meanwhile I gather from my talk with the ministers that while an ambassador is there they will not appoint another to your Serenity.
Madame de Chevreuse continues her operations at Court for a marriage between the Prince of Spain and the Princess Maria. The idea pleases them greatly here and to make herself necessary she does not fail to keep it up, even making them believe that she has powers to arrange it. The general opinion is that so long as the princess does not profess the Roman faith it will never come to anything, even though it is sketched. They say openly that the example of the king, when he went to Spain to marry the present empress after long and tedious negotiations is enough to show that the House of Austria does not desire to contract a marriage with the English, although only two brothers stand between the princess and the inheritance of her father's realms.
Three terrifying criminal sentences have been pronounced this week in the Star Chamber against three persons who dared to invent calumnies against the king, the Lord Keeper and one of the judges who pronounced for the people in the ship money case. The first, a Catholic, for retorting to a Protestant, who called him a Papist, that so was the queen and the king also at heart, was condemned to pay 10,000l. sterling, for the king's use, to have his ears cut and his tongue pierced. Another for having accused the Lord Keeper of many extorsions was fined 12,000l. sterling and to have his nose slit, and the third, who is a chaplain of the Lord Treasurer, for having furiously called one of the judges a traitor to the king, when he was sitting on the Bench with the others, was sentenced to pay 5000l. sterling and to go with a label on his head describing his fault before the magistrates, to recall what he said, and to ask pardon of the judge. (fn. 7)
The Spanish minister being pressed by the Cardinal Infant to despatch the munitions of war bought of the king, has had them laded on some of the small ships here and they left the day before yesterday. When they came out of the river the Vice Admiral Pennington met them with four royal ships, to escort them to Dunkirk, as arranged with the king, to avoid danger from the Dutch. (fn. 8)
Some reports state that the French fleet has sailed from La Rochelle for Flanders, intending to join the Dutch. They add that to avoid any dispute with England about the dominion of the sea the French are flying the flag of Holland, and so as Dutch ships will render those signs of respect to the English which they would not as French.
Tomorrow the only two judges left to declare their opinion (fn. 9) will pronounce upon the levy of money for the fleet, and the sentence will then be delivered. It is believed they will pronounce for the people. The king connives at it now he sees so large a part of them have argued against him ; but the issue is awaited with great interest.
London, the 18th June, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 19.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
457. To the Proveditore of Zante.
To use all diligence to discover and deal with the persons guilty of wounding the English consul and in redressing the other grievances complained of by the English nation. The Senate will wait to hear from him what action he takes.
Ayes, 146. Noes, 3. Neutral. 9.
June 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
458. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors have not yet made any complaint about taking away the prerogative of the ambassadress of being seated in the queen's presence, although we hear they have made a great fuss about it in England. They are actively treating here for the return of Madame de Chevreuse to France, promising her many safeguards, but her relations do not consider them sufficient.
Paris, the 22nd June, 1638.
June 22.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
459. The Secretary of England, came into the Collegio and said :
About two months ago I came to inform your Serenity of the resolution of the Duchess of Savoy to remain neutral in the present fluctuations. Now, seeing that the Spaniards are attacking her without cause, and besieging her towns, the Ambassador Feldin directs me to inform you that her Highness has signed the league with France for the defence of her state, and to preserve the position left to her by the late duke. She had the more cause to take this step because she declares that the Spaniards broke their word to her and betrayed and deceived her. I state this on the ambassador's behalf and as a proof that his Majesty is using every means to forward a true and honourable peace in this province.
The doge said they welcomed the communication as a fresh testimony of the ambassador's affection. They would always respond and he could thank the ambassador in their name. The secretary mentioned the matter of sending certain pictures to England, bowed and went out.
June 25.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
460. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The judges have finished their task about the question of taxes for the fleet with the pronouncement of the last two. They have decided for the king openly, saying that when the judges advised his Majesty three years ago that he could do it legally, the matter was discussed among the chief men of the royal Council, forming the executive, naming specifically the keepers of the great and privy seals. These two opinions with the other five carry it against the four for the people and the one neutral, so sentence is given for his Majesty irrevocable until the next parliament meets, as the malcontents freely say. Henceforward the money will be exacted with severity against the disobedient. We hear that they have risen in one county and maltreated an official when he was distraining on those who refused to pay.
A courier extraordinary has arrived from the Marquis of Hamilton from Scotland with letters for the king. He read them without communicating them to any one soever, and shortly after he was closeted alone with the Archbishop of Canterbury in a room at Greenwich. He wrote the answer with his own hand and sent it back with all speed. It is impossible to discover the contents of the letter, but his Majesty was observed to change countenance and the archbishop equally, and as they came out looking very grave men conclude that the news was not pleasing. (fn. 10)
From private letters we hear that the people would not allow the marquis to enter Edinburgh, but made him lodge at a place called Dalchif, four leagues away. On examining his credentials there they found some defects, and so he had to send to the king to have this remedied, the hearing of his proposals being postponed until the courier returned. Private persons also state that the Assembly has given the title of notables to those whom they have deputed as heads of the government, and understanding that the marquis is bringing powers to grant them satisfaction, they intimate that they wish the king to come in person to Scotland to convoke parliament, which cannot be summoned by commission. Seeing that their demands become ever more impertinent there are few who believe in the adjustment of those affairs, but that now that nation is enjoying its freedom it means to throw off the royal yoke definitely, in the assurance that the king cannot compel them by force, owing to the well known weakness of his realms and possibly to confidence in foreign help.
The Dutch ambassador went recently to audience of the king and told him he had heard that 1200 barrels of gunpowder had been laded on English ships to take to Dunkirk. As the servant of his Majesty he was obliged to tell him that if they fell in with the Dutch ships blockading that port, he feared they would be seized and serious trouble would arise. The king replied that it was true he had sold some powder, but as it was embarked it no longer belonged to him. (fn. 11) But it is known that he undertook to have it escorted to the port in question at his own risk, and the dates bear this out as the ships under Pennington were all ready and he took them safely over. On his return he wrote that he had found off Dunkirk divers Dutch ships and 4 large French ones which all saluted the royal standards, but says nothing about the French flying the Dutch flag.
The ambassador also remonstrated about the recent issue of letters of reprisal in spite of his Majesty's promise to suspend them, when they were granted some time ago against the Dutch for taking an English ship which was taking provisions to the Catholic's dominions. The king replied that his masters had never settled their differences with the merchants interested and as these had frequently appeared with petitions before his Council he could not refuse them justice. (fn. 12)
A French gentlemen has arrived back from Turin. He was sent by the queen with condolences to the duchess on the death of her husband. He reports the virile constancy of that lady in her afflictions, and her declaration that she depends utterly on the wishes of the Most Christian. Count Scisa, her Resident here, publishes the bad state of her affairs. Vercelli will certainly be lost being insufficiently supplied, while the French are not strong enough to succour it. He fears that if the Cardinal of Savoy himself goes to Piedmont he may, under present circumstances do the duchess more harm than the Spanish army, as he is as popular there as the French are hated.
The Count of Egmont, one of the foremost lords of Flanders, has recently arrived here. (fn. 13) He fled thence six years ago, fearing imprisonment by order of the Catholic for complicity with Count Henry di Bergh and others, who absented themselves then. He is related to the king and asks for his Majesty's interposition with the States of Holland for the restitution of much country which he claims to belong to him, as he declares that he has never borne arms against those States.
London, the 25th June, 1638.
[Italian : the part in italics deciphered.]
June 25.
Senato, Terra. Venetian Archives.
461. That at the request of the English gentleman left here by the Ambassador Fielding, the pictures left by the ambassador be freely released without payment of the duty, their value being assessed at 100 crowns, on which the duty would be 7 crowns.
Ayes, 109. Noes, 6. Neutral, 6. It requires 5/6ths.
1638, on the 5th May in the Collegio :
Ayes, 19. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1. It requires 5/6ths.
June 26.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
462. That by the authority of this Council the Agents of the Ambassador Fielding be permitted to lade on an English ship, without hindrance, twenty cases of pictures, countersigned with the ambassador's arms, in addition to the twenty-four cases of marbles, as granted on the 5th inst.
Ayes, 109. Noes, 6. Neutral, 6.
On the same day in the Collegio :
Ayes, 19. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
June 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
463. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador designate to England, to the Doge and Senate.
After a long journey through this troubled kingdom, full of perils, with the march of so many troops towards Spain, I have at least reached this city. After making the necessary arrangements and providing for the safety of the journey, I shall proceed to England at the earliest opportunity.
Paris, the 29th June, 1638.
June 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
464. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ministers here are indignant at the King of England selling munitions of war to the Spaniards, especially as they are to be used in Flanders against the French, an action which shows how little that king cares for any agreement with them here.
The negotiations for an adjustment with Madame de Chevreuse are progressing. She has received money from her husband. They laugh at Court at Bellievre and his wife being forbidden to enter the royal coaches, and that will not make them give back to the English ambassadress the privilege she had, even after the Chevreuse has gone. The Ambassador Leicester, in his king's name, made overtures yesterday to Madame de Rohan for a marriage between her daughter and the Prince Palatine. The duchess does not object to the match, though she prefers one with Duke Bernard of Weimar. There is little appearance of the king approving of either, and he has intimated that she shall wed the Duke of Nemours, a youth not yet sixteen.
Paris, the 29th June, 1638.


  • 1. Sir John Denham, Sir Hugh Davenport, Sir John Finch and Sir John Brampston.
  • 2. Elizabeth Dudley, widow of Count Ernest Casimir of Levenstein.
  • 3. The Nonsuch. He took leave on Saturday the 22nd May n.s. Salvetti on the 28th May. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962H.
  • 4. The king sold 1200 casks of powder by the intermediation of the merchant Peter Ricaut, it being a condition that the royal fleet should convoy the vessels taking it into Dunkirk. The powder was laded on the ships Providence, Capt. Thomas Stone, and Mayflower, Capt. Anthony Learning. Pennington received orders to protect them with the whole of the royal fleet. The vessels left the Thames on the 28th May, o.s. escorted by eight royal ships. Salvetti on the 4th and 25th June. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962 H. Cal. S.P. Dom, 1637-8, pages 444, 482.
  • 5. Du Hallier captured three Jesuits in taking the abbey at Watten, as recorded in a letter from Chatillon to the king, but the name of this Scot is not given. See Le Vassor : Regne de Louis XIII., Vol. XV., page 573.
  • 6. Their Majesties, upon a message delivered to them by the Resident of Savoy here from the Duchess, a little before the arrival of your Secretary, that she was now in a better understanding with your lordship and desired you should continue there, are very well satisfied with your lordship. Windebank to Fielding the 7th June o.s. Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Report, page 284.
  • 7. The first was William Pickering of Stanton Lacy, co. Salop who retorted as related when accused by Francis Huberley of being a papist. The slanderer of the Lord Keeper, was Sir Richard Wiseman, whose case was heard in the Star Chamber on the 1st June, sentence being passed on the 5th, o.s. The third was Thomas Harrison, parson of Crick in Northants, who on the 4/14th May appeared in the Court of Common Pleas in Westminster Hall and accused Sir Richard Hutton, the judge, of high treason. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1637-8, pages 473, 474, 491 ; Strafford Letters, Vol. ii., pages 170, 177, 180.
  • 8. See No. 452 at page 421 above, and note.
  • 9. Brampston and Finch.
  • 10. Hamilton reached Berwick on the 3rd June o.s. and his first despatch from Dalkeith, is dated the 7th. It is printed in the Hamilton papers and is no doubt the one referred to here. Hamilton Papers ed. S. R. Gardiner (Camden Soc.) pages 3-7.
  • 11. According to Salvetti, writing on the same date, the king told Joachimi that he had as much right to sell his property to friends as the Dutch had to sell provisions of all kinds to their enemies. Brit. Mus. Add MSS., 27962H.
  • 12. Letters of marque were authorised on the 29th April, 1637 o.s. to George Henley and Augustine Phillips to fit out the George to act against the Dutch to obtain satisfaction for the loss of the Pelican, taken with a cargo of sugar from Fayall, and carried into Flushing by a Dutch man of war commanded by Adrian Claeson, in July, 1633. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1634-5, pages 565, 610 ; Id. 1635, page 403 ; Id. 1635-6, page 232 ; Id. 1636-7, page 561 ; Id. 1637, page 32.
  • 13. The Count landed at Dover from Dieppe on the 6/16 June, under the title of a French baron. He left for London the same evening. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1637-8, page 493.