Venice: July 1644

Pages 112-123

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 27, 1643-1647. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.

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July 1644

July 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
123. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In his retreat to Worcester the king encountered the forces of the Earl of Dembi, which he engaged, winning the advantage, and they would have been completely routed if the bulk of Waller's army had not been following close behind. After spending a few days at Shrewsbury and Worcester and augmenting the garrisons of both, with orders to repair the forts, his Majesty took 4,000 horse, with a few infantry on the crupper and returned to Oxford by a forced march, thus deceiving Waller, and to the detriment of his reputation, as he has not carried out his orders better than Essex. This incident may possibly save Essex from the persecution of the partisans of the other. These have obtained orders from the Council to recall him, there being a strong disposition to put him on his trial, notwithstanding that he has tried by submissive letters to justify his actions. Meanwhile he is trying to render himself both useful and necessary, as by sending forward a part of his army into Dorset, he has relieved Lyme and taken Weymouth on terms, with suspicion of an understanding with the governor. He is now continuing his march towards Exeter, to besiege the queen, who has been delivered of her fourth son, (fn. 1) so Admiral Warwick writes, who is on the river with some ships.
The king did not make a long stay at Oxford, but after burning Abingdon which is in the best position of the circuit, so that the new troops which they talk of sending from here to straiten the place, may not have the advantage of it, he has gone out again with a few guns, and it is thought that reinforced by the troops of Prince Maurice from Lyme and by Obton, who is coming from Bristol with more, he proposes to give battle to Essex.
Sergeant Major Brun is urged to set out from this city towards Oxford, but he does not find his regiments so eager as he could wish ; however he hopes to march next week.
The Marquis of Newcastle scores off the besiegers by various military ruses, feigning weakness, and he cut up about 4,000 after pretending to parley. He caused false letters to fall into their hands, which he sent to Prince Rupert, urging him to come, describing the perilous state of the city, so the others weakened their forces to send some troops to block the prince's passage. The Prince is 20,000 men strong and there is nothing left for him to take in Lancashire but the town of Manchester, which he is not expected to undertake before settling the issue at York, which will afford no little light for a forecast on affairs here.
Ven, who went to the Scottish army as reported, found them even less disposed than the commissioners to depose the king. He has gone on to Scotland with the greatest secrecy, but though he claims to have great credit there he will not find it easy to gain their consent to what is directly contrary to the interests of that nation on every political consideration. The importance of the matter draws attention to what the English will decide to do without that consent. After having gone so far it will be difficult to keep up confidential relations with that nation whose force is already growing weaker, as Ales, Fairfax and Manchester have united with their forces, and the English predominate in the counsel chamber (nella consulta).
The Dutch ambassadors are urging the commissioners appointed to give them an answer to their request for an audience, but so far they have not been able to get it, for fear that their proposals made in public may arouse a sentiment in favour of such a plausible offer of peace among the more moderate. They forestall this by casting suspicion on the ambassadors, announcing that although they had commissions from the States at the very outset to recognise parliament, they have not done so. For this cause their letters have been detained for ten days and they have talked of opening them. It has been decided however to let the ambassadors have the letters intact, and yesterday they saw the two presidents of parliament.
London, 1st July, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian. Archives.
124. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king having come out of Oxford and finding this part exposed without any army, one being in Worcestershire and the other gone to the West, he has entered Buckinghamshire making, himself felt within 15 miles of this city, his troops sacking and destroying the most rebellious places. He has brought arms to distribute to loyal subjects, so that they may hasten to join him, as some have done, and if he becomes strong enough he may enter Essex and Kent, which is the sole and safe means of destroying this poisonous plant at the root. At this news, brought by triplicated couriers on Saturday night, there was no slight confusion in London, where the guards have been strengthened and they stand to arms. They have only sent out Sergeant Major Brun with 3 regiments of auxiliaries who were all ready to go to Oxford, and who have been sent towards Buckingham instead, but the fear of an approaching and dangerous conflict causing many soldiers to hide themselves has so weakened him that he will not be able to stand unless he receives reinforcements from the trained bands of the other counties or unites with Waller.
The parliamentarians were amazed and annoyed at being left with no certain information of Waller's whereabouts, when letters arrived from him on Tuesday reporting that as the king had had the bridges cut, he was obliged to take a much longer way to return ; but he had arrived near Gloucester, where he had tried to obtain 2,000 men as a reinforcement, but without success, so he demanded both men and money. He promises to go and take up his quarters between his Majesty and Oxford.
Notwithstanding all these events and the successes gained by Essex in the West by the relief of Lyme and the capture of Weymouth, valued highly for the arms, munitions and ships found there, the feeling against him had risen so high that articles of accusation were presented. He has written very resentfully about this protesting that he will prove his fidelity if they will send him money and if he is confirmed in the West. Afraid of forcing him to take some disagreeable step, parliament has acceded to his requests, sending him men and a little money as well, reserving for a more opportune moment the use of severity against him, his letter having increased the ill feeling, while the partisans of the competent (fn. 2) Waller are more envious than ever of the greater advantages that he enjoys in his office. The general is at present near Portland, which he wishes to take before passing to Exeter. Prince Maurice is at Uniton, with Obton not far off, who will join him to stop the progress of Essex, and who is endeavouring to associate some counties in this district in the king's interest, and collect men there. In Wales the Earl of Carberi has moved in favour of his Majesty and collected 2,000 horse and foot, with which he has gone to Pembroke to unite with the Irish, who should soon be crossing the sea in numbers.
The besiegers at York fired a mine which injured themselves, blowing up about 300 of Manchester's men. However they made a breach in the wall and attempted an assault, in which they were repulsed, and this incident has not increased their hopes of taking the place soon. It is reported that Prince Rupert, joined by other forces is advancing in that direction by crooked and lengthy routes, so as to avoid those sent to oppose him, but there is no certainty of his arrival yet, though it will soon be necessary.
The Scots assembled in their parliament have offered to send 10,000 more soldiers to England under Arghil and Calender to besiege Newcastle. The English parliament has accepted the offer, though there were some who would have liked to reduce the number. However the consideration that those who have already come are in some dependence on the English commanders who are with them, has banished their fears, and they have also sent some troops with the younger Fairfax to join the others. These fresh troops may not be ready very soon, as Scotland is very short of men, although the few there are ready to change their country owing to the sterility of their own.
The commissioners about the audience of the Dutch ambassadors have had long discussions these last days, but have decided nothing except to ask them to make their demand in writing, merely to gain time and to obtain this legal testimony that they have commissions to recognise the parliament. Something was said about the manner of receiving them, and there was opposition to this being done by the two Houses united, as the Commons object to standing uncovered, as is the custom. So if they are heard, which will be avoided if possible, it will be in each House separately.
Some secret correspondents of parliament in Paris have reported the arrival there of the Secretary Talbot, who says he is going to his king with offers of large contributions from your Serenity upon certain articles which he brings. I have endeavoured to convince some members of parliament who have spoken to me about it, of the baselessness of this, in consideration of all the circumstances, I hope with success.
London, the 8th July, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 15.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
125. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king has boldly engaged Waller's army, who avoiding a battle has suffered considerable losses in more than one skirmish, abandoning six drakes (drachi). (fn. 3) Although he has been reinforced and joined by Sergeant Major Brun and other troops from the county of Essex, yet his Majesty does not abandon his traces, as if he succeeds in dissipating this army there would remain no obstacle to the realisation of his plan to arm the neighbouring counties with the enemy's weapons, for his own service, and make himself a way into Kent.
General Essex has not moved since he took Weymouth, being watched by equal forces under Prince Maurice, united with Obton, and the constant subject of suspicion, which has even resulted in rendering disobedient some of the captains most favoured by him. He does his utmost to defend himself and has sent here an intercepted letter of the Secretary Nicolas to the governor of Portland in which he refers to the great advantage the king has from this mistrust between parliament and its supreme general. But no reason or consideration can affect the obstinate determination to abase the authority of the great, which is the sole crime against Essex. To the same end of abasing the Upper House they have made a law that the lords who took the king's side and afterwards came to parliament, cannot be reinstated in it except with the consent of the two Houses, and so many who are here are shut out, and thus grievances are increased. These are rife also among the members of parliament themselves, who realise that they made a mistake in setting up the Council of the two Nations, a body which does everything without so much as participating the state of affairs in full parliament, where some have made complaint. On this ground they have reduced the sessions to every third day in the week so that with the multiplication of ordinary business there may be no time for such motions.
Authentic news has come that Prince Rupert with 23,000 combatants is at Ripon, not more than 20 miles from York, so the besieged have come out of their trenches and advanced towards him. But as at the same time Lord Crever, a very rich English nobleman and devoted servant of the Palatine House, arrived at Scarboro from France with money, arms and officers, the prince approached the sea to enjoy the benefit of this assistance, so that the others missed him on their march. They cannot fail to meet however, and the news of a sanguinary battle is momentarily expected, which will prove of great advantage to the side that is victorious.
Ven, who is back here, did not care to stop for the engagement, but travelled post, arriving three days ago. He holds out no good hopes of affairs there, indeed he told some one in confidence that he feared he would very soon hear bad news from there. He found in the leaders of the Scottish army and in Scotland itself an equal opposition to the proposal to depose the king, the Scots being quite determined to keep at least a shadow of monarchy in the person of this king or his heirs.
It is announced here that 10,000 more Scots, in accordance with the permission of parliament here, have already entered England and are marching towards Sunderland, either for the siege of Newcastle or to free coal for transport to this city. Without this commodity there will be riots there this winter, and the announcement of this unconfirmed report is to keep up the hopes of the people.
The ceremonial of the audience being still under discussion, the Dutch ambassadors have not yet had it. Annoyed by these dishonest delays they are not exempt from a certain amount of ill will and encourage the demands of some commissioners who have come from Rotterdam to complain of a decree of parliament forbidding the transport of goods of any kind, not only articles for war, to the ports of the king. Commissioners have been deputed for them, but they have not so far obtained the withdrawal of the order or even the information they asked about the reason for it.
A publication has appeared in English giving the reasons why it is not good for England to allow Gravelines to fall into the hands of the French. (fn. 4) It is believed that the Spanish ambassador has had it published to draw some advantage therefrom, but it will be difficult to persuade this government to preserve something which it has not yet acquired.
The French Resident Sabran, after a long turn about the country, has seen the king and the queen and is now on his way back. He wrote asking General Essex to secure his passage to this city, and to protect the queen in her stay at Bath, but was told that the air of London would be even more healthy for her Majesty, and no other passport was sent.
The Portuguese Resident here lighted bonfires before his house last Tuesday to create the impression of a famous victory over the Spaniards who had announced the opposite in the previous week.
London, the 15th July, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
126. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After I had closed my despatch this evening a post arrived in great haste from the North with the news that the parliamentary army engaged Prince Rupert 8 miles from York. The English being repulsed at the first attack ; the Scots had charged with so much determination that after a long and bloody battle the prince was utterly overthrown, with the loss of his guns and baggage, and had been forced to retire into York, with a few followers. I do not venture on this first report to assert that the facts are precisely as related, although I myself have seen the letters of General Fairfax ; but as it is a matter of great importance and of the worst consequences to the king, I did not wish to hold back the news.
London, the 15th July, 1644.
July 22.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
127. To the Secretary in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 1st inst. You will pass the office of congratulation with the king on the birth of the fourth prince in the way and by the means which seem best to you. (fn. 5) News of peace with the pope and of the Turkish fleet.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 1. Neutral, 4.
July 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Munster. Venetian Archives.
128. Advices from the Hague of the 22nd July, 1644, forwarded by Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador to the Congress at Munster.
Admiral Tromp, who commands the fleet of these Provinces off Gravelines, has sent an intimation to their High Mightinesses of a suspicion founded upon reports and incidents that the parliamentary ships of England are contemplating joint action with the Spaniards to procure the relief of Gravelines. He asks for instructions and for reinforcements if he is required to fight. It seems that he is required in any case to offer resistance and to fight, the more so because by order of the parliament some ships have been stopped which were proceeding from here to England under the pretext that they were going for the service of the king. In this way parliament wished to indemnify themselves for the treatment of their ships going and coming from Dunkirk, a traffic which was similarly contested by the Dutch.
July 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
129. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I reported the arrival of the courier with the news of the sanguinary battle at York between the two armies, each exceeding 20,000 combatants. Other letters have arrived since, but all directed to individuals, which confirm the great advantage gained over Prince Rupert, with the capture of all his guns and baggage. (fn. 6) But M. di Sabran the French resident, who returned from Court on Saturday evening, reports that the king had received letters from the prince, of which he brought a copy, assuring him that the victory was on his side, having left 7,000 enemy on the field and captured guns and baggage, so that the engagement was celebrated with bonfires. This announcement kept up the uncertainty until two days ago, when an officer of the army arrived with letters signed by the three parliamentary generals, not only claiming the victory for their side, but adding that they have made insistent demands upon the city of York to surrender and hope that if it does not fall by treaty it will at least be taken by assault.
With these directly contradictory reports, the truth is hard to see and only time will show. Meanwhile I will relate what I have gathered from the talk of both sides, received with a reserve which is very necessary. I hear that prince Rupert attacked the rear guard, led by Manchester and composed of inexperienced troops, completely routing them. Pushing on he encountered a firm resistance from the Scots, so that after a long fight his troops becoming disordered, the prince was defeated, with the loss of guns, baggage and many arms. However he collected a considerable number of cavalry and I hear he has gone towards Scarborough to avail himself of the commodities brought there by Lord Crever. He proposes after collecting a few infantry to unite with the forces of Mantros, possibly to oppose the entry of the 10,000 Scots which are reported all ready to advance, or else to engage a new battle with the first, if he is equal to it. In the council held at York before the battle the Marquis of Newcastle and other military leaders were of opinion that as the siege of the city was raised the prince should go against the four associated counties, but the prince alone caused his own will to fight to prevail, believing that the enemy were frightened and would flee, so it is said that he and the Marquis have quarrelled.
The Council of the two Nations is much incensed with the French resident for publishing news contrary to its own, and they discussed sending a deputation of four commissioners to complain about it. This is postponed, but they show their resentment against the nation by imprisoning all the French Catholics who are in this city, with the intention of forcing them either to change their religion or to go, and so far there is no sign of their receiving any relief from his interposition.
They have not yet begun to carry out the decision of parliament, in their enthusiasm, to raise 10,000 infantry in London to send against Oxford. The garrison there makes itself felt, having gone out and raised the siege of Grindland House, a short distance away. (fn. 7) The delay arises from the shortness of money and also from the hope that Sergeant Major Brun who is selected for that work, may be able to get away from Waller and go there, as the king is scouring the country with cavalry only, without attempting anything considerable, so they think Waller sufficiently strong to follow him up, although his last losses were heavy. Essex also remains idle, having before him the army of Prince Maurice, which is at least equal if not stronger than his own, who prevents him from approaching Exeter, although Essex is invited thither by the disputes between the citizens and the garrison.
The queen, leaving her offspring there, has gone away without waiting for the time usually prescribed, and passed to the castle of Pendennis a very strong place on the sea, from which it will be easy to cross to France, as she proposes to do, to the disgust, one gathers, of Cardinal Mazarini, although invited by her sister in law.
The Dutch ambassadors have at length obtained an audience with a demand in writing stating that they have matters of great importance to set forth. They are to have it to-day from both Houses, but separately. I will report what happens in my next. I know that up to the last some tried to upset everything by making them first show their credentials.
A gentleman of the Duke of Orleans has arrived here sent from the army under Gravelines. There are two motives for his coming, one to instruct M. di Sabran to try and prevent the English from sending any help to that place, since it was reported here that on the strength of the arguments adduced by the Spanish ambassador there was some inclination to give it, though that is far from the intention of the rulers here, who are busy with other matters. The other is to provide horses from this country which has been permitted.
London, the 22nd July, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
130. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Mr. John Brumal, an English merchant, who has lived for many years in the islands of Zante and Cephalonia for the currant trade, became creditor to the Levant Company in a considerable sum for the purchase of the fruit, and is in consequence indebted in large sums to the people of those islands, who gave him credit for the same. When the importation of currants into this kingdom was prohibited, he came to receive from the Company the payment which he had already begun to collect upon the same by virtue of sentences of the late Proveditore Zorzi and of the Rectors at that date. (fn. 8) He could not get it in spite of all his efforts, owing to present circumstances. Now that trade is resumed he has started to return thither, but he will first present himself at the feet of your Serenity, to whom he brings a letter from the king, of which I enclose a copy, with one of a letter of the Secretary Nicolas. His Majesty is induced to support his requests, not so much for himself and for your Serenity's subjects, but in order that the most rigorous justice may be exercised towards the Company in question, which does not treat his Majesty with perfect good faith. I have accordingly assured Brumal that the royal recommendation will have the greatest influence in stimulating the friendly disposition of your Excellencies to the whole of this nation. But in order not to prejudice the resumed trade, which is so profitable to both countries, I have adroitly suggested to him that some declaration from the Company of consent to this payment might possibly help his business. I know that he has not neglected any effort to obtain this, but without success. I report this to assist the deliberations of your Excellencies on the subject.
London, the 22nd July, 1644.
Enclosure. 131. Charles, D. G., King of Great Britain, etc. to Francisco Erizzo, Doge of Venice.
In behalf of John Bromhal, who bought currants at Zante and Cephalonia on behalf of the Levant Company of London, and pledged himself for payment for the same, so that he was condemned to pay the entire debt in the Courts of those islands. The Company has repudiated this debt and he has been unable with all his efforts to obtain any satisfaction from them. He has accordingly asked for the royal assistance against the Company.
Dated at Oxford, the last day of April, 1644.
[Latin, 4 pages.]
132. The Secretary Nicolas to Gerolamo Agostini.
Forwards copy of his Majesty's letter on behalf of Mr. John Bromhal. His Majesty will be much gratified if this can have the advantage of your assistance, so far as your office permits. The letter has been sent chiefly in the interest of the republic's subjects.
Dated the 1st May, 1644.
[Italian, from the English ; 2 pages.]
July 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Munster. Venetian Archives.
133. Advices from the Hague, of the 29th July, 1644, forwarded by Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador to the Congress at Munster.
The idea of reprisals for the ships detained by the English parliament which was mentioned, is all put on one side owing to two important items of news, the first of the complete defeat of the army of the king and Prince Rupert in Yorkshire, and the other the good intentions expressed by parliament not to interfere for the relief of Gravelines or in favour of the Spaniards.
July 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
134. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although the defeat of Prince Rupert's forces is confirmed and was celebrated yesterday, there is no certain news yet of the surrender of York. Couriers arrived from there on Sunday, which obliged the Council of State to meet even before church, but no decision is announced except to accelerate the enlistment of 10,000 foot and 2,000 horse in the neighbouring counties. I gather that the prince has not entirely lost courage and has gathered some of his men, with whom he is facing his pursuers, proving by the death of some of them that his sword has not quite lost its edge. The most serious loss of all for the king, if it proves true, would be what is announced here, that the Marquis of Newcastle, disgusted with the prince, has left the realm and crossed the sea, as he supported the king's cause in the North with so much energy and success, while no one could take his place, because of his influence and following among the people there.
The queen left Exeter for Pendennis Castle with the intention of crossing to France, but news comes that she has returned to her first abode. The reasons given are that the people of Cornwall would not allow her French regiment to follow her, from fear of outrages ; and she saw her plan thwarted because parliament, warned of her intention, had sent several ships to prevent her crossing the sea. But the chief reason, confirmed by the accounts of the physician Mayerne, is the deplorable state of her health, and he cannot promise that she will be out of danger for weeks. There is no fear of General Essex, who is much weakened, undertaking the siege of Exeter, which has a garrison of 3,000 foot, while Prince Maurice is close at hand with forces not inferior to his own. The king also has moved towards Bristol with his cavalry, Waller being in no condition to attempt anything considerable. The trained bands who were with him being worn out by their hardships have returned to London, so he has sent a leading officer to ask for reinforcements of every kind, which will be promptly supplied.
The Dutch ambassadors had their audience of the two Houses separately last Friday. 25 coaches were sent to fetch them, most with six horses, but the master of the Ceremonies was not accompanied by any of the lords or members of the government, as they would have liked, and as is the custom in Holland. They sat in the Upper House on three special seats on the left of the royal canopy. The audience was private as the lords did not wear their robes or allow anyone to be present. They presented their credentials and after a few dignified words had the enclosed paper read, which by those who wish for peace are considered suitable and effective. The president paid a brief compliment and then they went on to the Lower House. At their entry no one rose, as the lords had done. They handed in the same credentials and before these were opened and returned they performed the same office and presented the paper, to which, to their astonishment, neither the president nor anyone else said a word. Just before they entered parliament ordered an exhibition for their benefit of all the flags and banners captured in the victory over Prince Rupert, to the number of 44, desiring in this way to display their strength and advantage and so oblige the ambassadors to treat with reserve and respect.
Yesterday they began to discuss the reply, but it was immediately adjourned to another day, to gain time. An inconclusive answer is expected, and these ministers lament the fact. Although their credentials were dated in December, from which the intention of the States to recognise parliament is inferred, they have not acted upon them until now, and it is said they would not still but for this great victory. The ambassadors are also concerned about the interests of their masters, as many rich ships have been sequestrated without the least reason, so that besides what is said in the paper, they have spoken very high, and they seem more likely to be promoting war than introducing peace.
The French resident Sabran rages at his inability to squeeze himself into the business in some way. I hear that he also is drawing up a paper, but he does not know to whom or how to present it, as he has no authority to recognise parliament, and no one would listen to him, since he has become very suspect owing to the news he published and for what I will relate.
Possibly by previous intelligence a certain Englishman has been arrested on entering the Tower, where he was accustomed to go to serve the prisoners. On him they found a letter, which though without date, address or signature he confessed had been given to him by a Frenchman to hand to Montegu. (fn. 9) This states that the lady who loved him, meaning the queen, had three infirmities, namely vapours, paralysis and depression of spirits. She was working for peace, but the Dutch ambassadors would not obtain it, yet he took consolation that he was loved not only by that lady but by her sister in law as well. That very soon Gravelines would belong to France so that the 30,000 men engaged in that siege will soon be able to go anywhere. Parliament is enquiring into the affair and puts the whole thing down to this resident, though he has denied it. But as he is very talkative they have obtained definite indications from persons sent to him covertly by the parliament. So he is in disgrace and danger among this people, which never at any time and least of all now, has recognised the respect due to the ministers of princes.
The Spanish ambassador has made a request to the Council of the two Nations in writing for some assistance for Gravelines. He was told that they are not in a position to supply any, and even if they were they do not desire a rupture with France.
London, the 29th July, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 135. Paper presented in Parliament by the Ambassadors of Holland on the 22nd July, 1644. (fn. 10)
Reasons of the republic for desiring to see peace in England. Offer of mediation, which has been accepted by the king. Arguments why parliament should take this into consideration. Promise to act sincerely as ambassadors sent by their best friends. Mischief caused to the Dutch by these dissensions, whose trade is injured and goods seized without just cause as shown by the attached memorial, with which restitution is asked.
W. Borel Ambassadors.
Jo. de Recde
Alb. Joachimi
[Italian, from the French ; 10 pages.]


  • 1. The child was not a son, but a daughter, Henrietta Maria, born on the 16th June. Warwick makes this mistake in a letter from Lyme of the 15th June, O.S. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1644, page 240.
  • 2. Competente, possibly ironic ; or it may be employed here with the meaning of "rival."
  • 3. The action at Cropredy Bridge, on the 29th June, O.S., Waller admitted the loss of 8 guns. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1644, page 293.
  • 4. Probably the pamphlet entitled "A discourse concerning a true Englishman, concerning the interest England hath in the siege of Graveling," of which the Dutch ambassadors complained to parliament. Rushworth ; Hist. Collections, Part III., Vol. II., page 765,
  • 5. The child was a girl, the Princess Henrietta Maria.
  • 6. The battle of Marston Moor, on the 2-12 July.
  • 7. Greenlands near Henley. It was taken by Browne on the same day, the 12-22 July.
  • 8. Bromhall's claim was discussed at courts of the Company held on the 21st May and 10th July, and a committee was appointed on the 24th July to go into the matter. This reported on the 8th August, on the strength of which a letter was written to Bromhall on the 22 August denying liability for the currants but making an offer if he can produce evidence. In letters of the 7th and 14th October Bromhall, writing from Venice, tells the Company that though the king has written on his behalf he was taking no action until he heard from them. Levant Co. : Letter Book and Court Book. S.P. For. Archives, Vols. III, 150.
  • 9. Sabran writing to Brienne on the 28th July, refers to the letter which some impostor said he wrote to Montagu. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
  • 10. The text in English is printed in Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VI., pages 631-3, under date 13 July, O.S. Rushworth : Hist. Collections, Pt. III., Vol. II., pages 765-8 on 22-12 July.