Venice: November 1652

Pages 302-313

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 28, 1647-1652. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1927.

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November 1652

Nov. 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
683. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
The three commissioners appointed to inspect the fleet returned lately and made a satisfactory report to the Council of State, different from the first accounts of the battle. Though they admit that the damage has been considerable, the mischief done by the Dutch guns can easily be repaired, while the killed and wounded are not nearly so numerous as at first reported. So the fleet is in a state to meet the enemy and give battle if necessary, although Blach will not fight unless compelled or honour forbids him to decline an engagement. According to the newspapers the Dutch have express orders to seize every opportunity of going into action, possibly from the ease with which they can immediately make good all losses owing to the abundance of their shipping.
The commissioners were also charged to make special enquiry about the captains of the fleet, to find out who distinguished themselves in this last engagement, and who failed in their duty. Many having been found guilty on the evidence of General Blach, two were executed in sight of the fleet, and ten others have been sent prisoners here to London. The circumstance causes much anxiety to the government, since the engagement shows that as matters now stand it is impossible in prudence to trust all those who profess to be well affected, as in the greatest straits they are liable to change sides. Many here wish well to the royal cause in their hearts although prudence makes them dissemble. The event has shown this clearly and it demands the greatest assiduity to prevent very great disorders.
The decision of the king of Denmark has been fully confirmed. The government unanimously condemns such conduct when least expected, at a time when the ambassador here was offering his master's mediation for peace with Holland. Ten English ships laden with material for ship building have been seized in the harbour of Elsinore, and the king has given orders that any others which reach the Sound shall be treated similarly. On hearing this news 16 men of war detached from the fleet, which had been sent as convoy, returned and possibly the lack of these stores may induce some daring attack in that quarter, if it is impossible to supply the need otherwise. It is true that owing to the community of interest between the Danes and Dutch, the latter being acknowledged masters of the Sound for a set period, for a payment to the king, they only feigned here to believe Denmark's offers, and trusted the minister's protestations of friendship even less, so there was a question whether the ambassador should be allowed to depart, though it is thought he will eventually receive leave. Meanwhile, by decree of parliament, all Danish ships here have had their sails taken from them and are detained in the Thames until further order.
The Portuguese ambassador has frequent audience of the Council of State about an alliance with this Commonwealth. He is treated with all possible honour and they show a disposition to meet his wishes, but they will act with caution about any positive arrangement as the present state of affairs does not allow of offending the Spaniards openly, although the sentiment towards them is not the best in the world. So this affair is replete with consequences, as the friendly relations with Portugal increase the distrust between England and Spain. The rancour between the rival ambassadors is already at its height. Portugal, under a feigned name, has printed a pamphlet attacking the character of the Catholic minister and abusing Spain, showing how little trust this Commonwealth should place in that crown, remembering the betrayal of the parliament's minister at Madrid, and stating boldly that if Holland is justly condemned for a similar detestable crime, it is not possible to absolve Spain. If the two ambassadors do not become more moderate, it is thought that one of them must give way to the other, to avoid greater scandal.
Seven members have been chosen from the Council of State to form what is called the "Privy Chamber," which alone will conduct all the most important state affairs, especially those connected with foreign powers. Last evening the Council made over to this body the affair of my letter and I shall hope to get a reply at last and something positive about the ships. I repeated my demands in the enclosed memorial to the Council of State as punctilio prevents them from receiving me as a minister, and as my commission does not entitle me to claim this privilege, I let it go. I will not vex your Excellency with more on this subject, but I am glad to have anticipated your instructions of the 22nd ult. about repeating this suit.
Thanks for the provision of 500 francs on its way to him. Exercises every economy, as in the 8 months of his service, less a few days, his expenses do not amount to 1,000 livres Tournois.
London, the 1st November, 1652.
Enclosure. 684. Memorial of Lorenzo Paulucci to the Council of State asking that the English ships serving the Republic against the Turks may be allowed to remain. Such an action will render manifest to the whole world the Christian zeal of the Commonwealth and gain the gratitude of Venice and a perfect reciprocity in whatever may concern the interests of England.
London, the 20th October, 1652.
Nov. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
685. Michiel Morosini, Venetian Ambassador to the Congress at Lubeck, to the Doge and Senate.
I will do my best to prevent the Dutch from withdrawing their ships now in the service of the republic. This much is certain that the war with England keeps them in the utmost apprehension. Many of the most opulent are abandoning the country and withdrawing to Germany ; others are going to Lorraine and some even to the dominions of the Catholic. Since the last battle, which resulted in a slight disadvantage to these parts, the fleet has not supplied material for any further remarks. General Tromp is now here at the Hague, but it is confidently stated that he is going away to-morrow. The queen of Bohemia and the Princess of Orange are here however, but their credit and influence is vastly inferior to what they enjoyed in times past.
The Hague, the 2nd November, 1652.
Nov. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
686. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Vangalen went away one day towards the East, but he returned at once to his station off Porto Longone. The merchant who is a friend of mine did not think it advisable to speak to him about the ships in your Serenity's service, as he never mentioned them, but he said it was arranged at Amsterdam to send another fleet to Italy in the current month, with the merchandise brought back by the India Company, which will be convoyed by 10 ships of war. These last will remain on afterwards under his command. Further that in a short time two more are to reach him with 400 sailors as a reinforcement for his squadron which will then consist of more than 40 most powerful vessels, and with these he calculates that he will be absolute master in the Mediterranean.
I must add that the English consul at Leghorn, (fn. 2) a man of the greatest sagacity, has remarked recently that if parliament decides to send a naval force to these waters to counter-balance Vangalen he feels sure that the 7 vessels of his nation in the service of your Serenity will be recalled, because England does not possess the same abundance of ships as Holland and she is obliged to consider her own requirements. But perhaps this remark of the consul may be discounted as the consequence of an attack of the spleen. All the same I will not fail to keep my eyes open about this also.
Florence, the 2nd November, 1652.
Nov. 8.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
687. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 3)
The decision of Denmark in favour of the Dutch and the seizure of the English merchantmen by order of that king causes great anxiety to the government as the repairs of the fleet and its reinforcement will be much impeded in consequence. So before allowing the Danish ambassadors to depart they decided to send an express to Denmark to learn the real intentions of the king, although facts have already proved them thoroughly hostile, and to remonstrate against the unjust seizure of the English ships at a moment when his envoys were giving assurance of the most cordial friendship. So far as I can gather the object of this mission is to try to soothe and if possible gain Denmark and then obtain the release of the ships. But as the general belief is that this extraordinary mission will be fruitless the Danish ambassadors are pressing for leave to depart, while the government delays permission until the next news from those parts, which is expected hourly. If it is unfavourable the rulers here will probably take some violent step, the result less of judgment than of necessity, which occasionally adds strength to strength and renders the adventurous yet more daring.
The only tidings of the fleet are that it is off the coast of England with all its injuries made good, and awaiting an opportunity to injure the enemy by the capture of prizes, especially as they hear that a fleet of Dutch merchantmen bound for Italy and elsewhere, is now on the point of sailing. It will probably be convoyed by a squadron of men of war, so if the English fall in with them an action is inevitable, unless Blach declines one, especially as it is known that the intention and orders of the Dutch are invariably to give battle and seek it. Here, on the other hand, they aim at harassing the enemy by making prizes, as has been done hitherto, though accidents may frustrate this policy, which down to the present day has yielded a profit of 10,090l. sterling through merchandise already realised by the Admiralty Court, without including much other property yet unsold. The whole of this sum is applied to the exigencies of the present war, for the vigorous support of which arrangements are now being made to lay a tax of 400,000l. sterling on England, calculated to raise an outcry among the people, who have hitherto remained quiet and contented.
The reports are renewed about sending General Arcus or some other naval officer of experience into the Mediterranean with a squadron of 25 or 30 men of war, as the national honour and the important interests of the Levant trade render this step necessary, especially as the Dutch are increasing their forces there daily. But as they also have a considerable squadron at the entry of the Strait, it may be difficult to carry this project into effect or to force the passage. At any rate a brisk action may be expected in that quarter, though it is also possible that the necessity for keeping the main body of the fleet here in strength will delay the realisation of this project for the present.
The negotiations of the Portuguese ambassador continue to give promise of a sincere friendship between parliament and his king, although a trifling difficulty arose lately because he claimed to receive the diplomatic notes from the Council of State at his own residence, as is customary with the Spanish ambassador, whereas the Council insisted on his going in person to receive them. The pretext of indisposition may possibly settle this question and his negotiations may easily produce a firm friendship between the Commonwealth and Portugal. The government here inclines to this the more because so far the Spaniards have acted with great reserve, although the present war invites them to unbosom themselves in some way. So the distant behaviour of the Catholic ambassador may lend vigour to the Portuguese negotiations, the result of which must soon appear.
The commissioners from Scotland have nearly all arrived and the conference between them and a committee of members of this parliament has already begun. They meet three days in every week, so it will soon be known what to expect about the union of that country with the parliament here, the object of the Scots and English being alike to form a good mutual alliance under the present government, as their interests are identical.
Great attention is paid here to French affairs and the government is more in favour of a good understanding than of an open rupture, as they are well aware that matters here may be very sensibly affected by events in that quarter, though so long as civil disturbance reigns there they will not dread the mischief to its full extent, but present a bold front to the enemy, even if the danger appears greater than it has done so far.
I have just received your Excellency's letters of the 2nd inst. and the 500 francs to be paid through John Chavort.
London, the 8th November, 1652.
Nov. 15.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
688. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France.
To prevent further delay about the reply I took the enclosed note to the Speaker to present to parliament. As the cause of the delay I learn that the parliamentarians consider that as the republic is convinced of their good will she ought to have sent second credentials to clear the way for an intimate alliance, and they would give the fullest marks of esteem to any minister sent. They knew that the republic had been misinformed and had acted accordingly. In spite of this I should have a reply though not what was desired here in confirmation of the good will felt towards the republic. I thanked my informant and said that this long delay indicated anything but anxiety for a friendly intercourse, and the ducal letter deserved better treatment. He rejoined that the grandeur of this Commonwealth deserved an open and sincere acknowledgment. I retorted that the treatment given me was scant encouragement. At parting he remarked that the caution of the Senate if it involved further delay would prejudice the interests of both sides. I told him I must follow your Excellency's instructions.
The Danish ambassadors having repeated their demand for audience of leave, parliament at length granted it with every mark of honour and esteem, so that they may go away with the best possible impression. On Monday afternoon the parliament coaches conveyed them to the water side and they embarked on a ship destined for their conveyance. Parliament has taken this opportunity to send a gentleman (fn. 4) with them to acquaint their king with the regret felt at this rupture for which they profess to have given no previous cause. He is directed to find out the real intentions of Denmark, both with regard to war and the seizure of the English vessels, the report of the first messenger being still awaited with impatience. The departure of these ambassadors is a source of regret both to the government and to the public, since this decision of Denmark must strengthen the Dutch and swell the tide now running against the present government, who must now redouble their vigilance and efforts for the prosecution of the war, in consequence of this special emergency.
Much apprehension is also felt here about the policy of Sweden, especially since this demonstration of Denmark, though they trust that the queen will prefer them to Holland, and as she has little fondness for that king his declaration in favour of the Dutch may induce her to form closer relations with the English, more particularly because the interests of trade require her to do so promptly. Hopes are still entertained that she will send a minister extraordinary here.
The latest news from the fleet is that General Blach has captured eight ships, large and small, laden with wine and fruit and with 600,000 pieces of eight, destined it is said, for Holland. (fn. 5) The entire force remains in the ports of England, intent on making prizes, allowing no favourable opportunity to escape of putting to sea and seizing all that it meets. It may be supposed that the Dutch do the like so far as they can, although here nothing is said of their exploits. No great naval actions are anticipated at this season, as the stormy weather will prevent both the fleets from exposing themselves to it, except in case of great necessity.
Owing to the great number of Irish who have submitted to parliament and been dismissed, Spain obtained a levy of 6,000 men, a great part of whom have been already landed at San Sebastian. Another levy of 3,000 is now being arranged and will be readily conceded by parliament, as the departure of these men from Ireland does much to purge that country of its peccant humours.
Encloses account of expenses for the fourth month, and a receipt for the 500 livres Tournois.
London, the 15th November, 1652.
Enclosure. 689. Memorial presented to the Speaker on the 13th November, for presentation to the Parliament.
Asks for reply to the letter presented from the most serene republic, such as courtesy requires, and also to the request that the English ships serving Venice against the Turks may be allowed to remain, as six or seven ships cannot affect the might of England, whereas a single sail withdrawn from the Venetian fleet would weaken it greatly, encouraging the Turk against it and against the cause of God.
Nov. 16.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
690. To the Ambassador in France.
Approval of Pauluzzi's proceedings. He would confer a great advantage on the state if he could secure that the ships in the republic's pay shall not be recalled. Waiting to hear more about the despatch of a minister to Constantinople. It is hoped that the reply of parliament to the communication of the Senate will soon be given and the result is awaited with interest. The Senate considers the expenses incurred by Pauluzzi of 100 doubles a month most excessive. The ambassador will direct him to send a note of all the money paid out by him since he took up his stay in London, with an account of his expenses.
Ayes, 141. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
Nov. 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
691. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I asked the Dutch ambassador if he had received any reply about the retaining of the Dutch ships in the service of your Serenity. He said no answer had reached him yet. His masters had already recalled all the ships that might be of service to them, and if the Dutch vessels in the service of the most serene republic had not left by now it was unlikely that they would leave in the future, seeing that the need for them had passed owing to the abundance of ships they had. His son had written to him that what with merchantmen and ships of war over 500 vessels weighed anchor from their ports.
Paris, the 19th November, 1652.
Nov. 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
692. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
There is nothing to add about the reply, though they profess they do not mean any lack of respect to the republic. I shall not repeat my demands as it would not be seemly. Opinions are divided in the Council of State as some would have liked the reply to be given long ago, while others oppose it obstinately for the reasons given. The direction of the most important affairs here takes so confused and clandestine a course that sometimes the foreign ministers do not know to whom to apply, and all is irresolution and cajolery, unless the business happens to affect the personal interests of these parliamentarians. It will be astonishing if they persist in these methods and continue to prosper. As a fact the number of malcontents increases daily and those who are satisfied with the present government, which is not yet well organised throughout, correspondingly diminishes. The Tuscan Resident similarly, after waiting several weeks for an answer to a letter of the Grand Duke, which parliament had made over to the Council of State, took advantage yesterday of the opportunity afforded by an audience, to remontrate strongly. But though his demand is fair and just he will have to wait upon the dilatory, tardy and confused behests of those at the helm. So one has to practice patience here and to adapt oneself to circumstances.
It is reported that the king of Denmark is more intent than ever upon following up his hostilities against this country and linking himself closely with the Dutch. To this end he is enlisting men and making many preparations to strengthen himself at sea and to stop the passage of the Sound. Hope is vanishing of the surrender of the English ships seized, and if it comes to an open rupture, as appearances indicate, the dearth of material for the repairs of the fleet will give additional cause for anxiety and effort. But as the season favours its real object, which is to make prizes, the enemy not being able easily to give battle in this rough weather, the English continue to be favoured by fortune. This was the case with their last eight prizes and with some others taken off the coast of Scotland, which from stress of weather were compelled to approach some of the harbours of this kingdom, instead of avoiding them.
Among the eight ships was one from Hamburg or Lubeck, carrying the dollars I mentioned. (fn. 7) At the instance of a number of merchants here interested in them, the Spanish ambassador has demanded their release of the Council of State, though so far apparently with scant success. The rulers here seem inclined to avail themselves of it in their present need, paying interest to the king of Spain until the capital is restored, considering the money to be his ; a crafty device, by no means to the taste of the merchants. The Spanish ambassador also disapproves emphatically and on this account and some other matters which concern his private affairs he is not too well satisfied. If they persist in this course the detention of the money might cause an open rupture with Spain, as happened in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King Philip II, for a similar provocation.
The negotiations of the Portuguese ambassador seem to be thwarted by the demands of this government for a very considerable sum of money, claimed for losses inflicted on the ships of parliament by Prince Rupert who obtained shelter and reinforcements in Portuguese harbours. It was proposed to resume the negotiations begun about this by a former ambassador, but the Council of State insists on starting afresh, as an indication of Portugal's desire for a good understanding with this country.
The need for reinforcing the English squadron in the Mediterranean and the representations made by the commander there have caused the government to redouble its efforts. 18 ships have been selected for that service and are said to be well on their way. It is hoped they may get out soon, unless the enemy, by disputing the passage of the Strait, mar the intention of the rulers here to be strong in the Mediterranean as well as in its own seas.
The population of London has been much cheered by the arrival in the Thames from Scotland of a quantity of ships laden with coal. The Dutch were probably prevented by the boisterous weather from intercepting the necessary supply of coal for this city, which had already begun to suffer severely from a scarcity of fuel, the poor murmuring at the price, which was double that of ordinary times. For the general relief a reduction was made at once, and owing to the immense consumption of this city the matter is one of no little importance.
From Ireland there is a report of a very important advantage gained over the rebels there by Gen. Charles Cirt. If true it will soon be confirmed and I will send the particulars.
Acknowledges letters of the 16th inst. Asks for consideration, as without credit or acquaintances in England and little or none in Venice. Assisted by his father, but neither of them has received his salary from the state for years.
London, the 22nd November, 1652.
Nov. 26.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
693. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
500 Dutch ships have proceeded to Bordeaux for the wine harvest. 350 of them are sent by the merchants and the rest will follow as an escort and defence against the English fleet, which might wish to attack them on the voyage.
No letters have come from England this week, but I have sent word to Pauluzzi not to leave there without express orders from your Serenity.
Paris, the 26th November, 1652.
Nov. 26.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
694. Michiel Morosini, Venetian Ambassador to the Congress of Lubeck, to the Doge and Senate.
The king of Denmark, after affording a friendly asylum to 22 English ships laden with merchandise, has since caused them to be seized in the port. A squadron of ships of war was instantly despatched from London to escort them back home. Permission to leave the port being again refused, parliament directed its resident here (fn. 8) to proceed to Copenhagen and make known the determination of parliament to have its own, without losing any more time. The resident has not started yet, but he has sent an express in advance to make the most urgent representations and to communicate the orders which he is to execute personally, in order to create a more vivid impression of the urgency of the matter.
Hamburg, the 26th November, 1652.
Nov. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
695. Giacomo Querini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Orders have been repeated to the Ambassador Cardenas not to leave England but to contrive adroitly to fan the flames of those two nascent republics. Their intent also is that if any attack on Portugal is made from this side the English may be in no condition to succour and assist Braganza, as the Spaniards have some very close intrigues in the fortresses on that frontier.
Madrid, the 27th November, 1652.
Nov. 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
696. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 9)
I have no more news about my affair, but in a few days 20 members of the Council of State retire by rotation, to be replaced by a like number from parliament, and before then all current affairs of state must be disposed of. With this expectation I make no further suit.
The blandishments lavished on Denmark to avert the mischief anticipated from her understanding with Holland, proving quite fruitless, they propose to send an embassy extraordinary, though as the king seems altogether antagonistic to their interests here, the project will probably be abandoned.
Another extraordinary mission has been discussed, for Holland. Both plans proceed from the military commanders, who have never assented to the rupture with the United Provinces and now insist, by virtue of their predominance in the present government, on being acquainted with the true intentions of both the Dutch and the Danes, as of all powers who wish to be the good friends of this state. So a number of extraordinary missions are projected, including one to Venice. Thus it daily becomes more manifest that the military are of a different opinion from the parliament, and that they will be paramount, so possibly discord and confusion will increase. These have been the chief things under discussion lately, and it is not yet known what the result will be, as the continuation of the war becomes more and more burdensome, while the national honour requires it to be waged vigorously.
The citizens here have added their demands to those of the military for the convocation of a new parliament. The old one keeps putting this off on various pretexts ; but for the satisfaction of the city and the army the measure is now announced for the new year. In the course of which important events must take place here, unless they are averted by the sagacity and influence of Gen. Cromwell, when it may simultaneously render the present parliament stronger and more feared. That body has been in the saddle so long that its rule becomes increasingly noteworthy to some, and more and more suspect to others ; though no change of any kind is likely to occur that does not increase the power of the military in parliament, and consequently the most important affairs of state depend upon them.
Although anxious for an adjustment the Council of State has been occupied lately with establishing a secure fund for the vigorous prosecution of the war. It seems that for this purpose alone the usual taxes have been doubled, the people bearing the burden patiently from its acknowledged reasonableness.
Since the Spanish victories in Flanders, at Casale and in Catalonia, the negotiations of the Portuguese ambassador seem to have declined and more reserve is shown here. In case of their being brought to a conclusion the government here is anxious not to offend the Spaniards openly. They are already railing about the seizure of their specie on the Hamburg ship. (fn. 10) No positive decision had been reached about releasing this on the ground that it belongs to Flemish subjects, because that would only benefit its Dutch owners, who, on the declaration of war, transferred their business from Amsterdam to Flanders. On the other hand, to detain it in the fashion already mentioned might lead to an open rupture with Spain, whom they do not wish to provoke under existing circumstances.
The Portuguese ambassador has made earnest application to the Council of State for permission to arrange for a levy of 6,000 Scots, as he does not want Irish on account of their partiality for Spain. Since the news of the Spanish victories he has repeated his request, as such successes tend to increase the fears and suspicions of Portugal. It is expected that the rulers here will grant the request, the more readily if safe references are given for the earnest money, since domestic quiet may be still further secured by getting rid of such individuals, as well as obedience and devotion to the Commonwealth.
No news of importance has come this week from the fleet, save that it has returned to the Downs after a cruise of some days for the sole purpose of making prizes and intercepting a squadron of Dutch merchantmen which, according to intelligence received, were awaiting a favourable wind for putting to sea under convoy of some ships of war. For this object alone the English will again set sail, as the many rich prizes taken so far afford important pecuniary succour to the state and add to the repute of the General, whose ability is more trusted than ever. They neglect no opportunity of adding to his force to enable him to withstand any attack.
London, the 29th November, 1652.
Nov. 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.
697. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Tromp's son, one of the captains in Vangalen's squadron, and now in command of the English ship captured in the fight near Porto Longone, with that vessel alone has captured another great English ship in these waters, well charged with lead and laden with salt fish. (fn. 11) He also gave chase to another which, it is thought, will have fallen into his hands by this time.
Florence, the last day of November, 1652.


  • 1. Forwarded by Sagredo on the 12th November.
  • 2. Morgan Read was consul, but it is not unlikely that this refers to Charles Longland, recently appointed navy agent at Leghorn for the Commonwealth.
  • 3. Forwarded by Sagredo on the 19th November, with the next despatch.
  • 4. Richard Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, was chosen to go to the king of Denmark as resident, on the 22nd October, O.S. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1651-2, page 452.
  • 5. The richest taken by the Nonsuch, Capt. Thomas Penrose, and reported on the 2/12 November. The prizes included the Samson of Lubeck and the San Salvador of Hamburg. Whitelock : Memorials, Vol. III, page 467. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1651-2, pages, 472, 489-92, 537.
  • 6. Forwarded by Sagredo on the 3rd December.
  • 7. The Samson of Lubeck and the San Salvador of Hamburg.
  • 8. Richard Bradshaw.
  • 9. Forwarded by Sagredo on the 10th December.
  • 10. The San Salvador.
  • 11. The captured Phoenix was used as a lure and with it Cornelis van TrompThe captured Phoenix was used as a lure and with it Cornelis van Tromp captured the English merchantman Samuel Bonadventure. Spalding : Life of Badiley, page 136. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1651-2, page 500.